Although the action of zymase may be regarded as mechanical, the enzyme cannot be produced by any other than living protoplasm.
It has been ascertained that in many cases this decomposition is effected by the secretion of an enzyme, which has been termed zymase.
Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
The following summary of some of the principal characteristics of half-a-dozen species will serve to show how such peculiarities can be utilized for systematic purposes: and others have shown that a ferment (zymase) can be extracted from yeast-cells which causes sugar to break up into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
Such material is far more active than the zymase obtained originally by Buchner from the expressed juice of yeast-cells.
In 1897 Buchner submitted yeast to great pressure, and isolated a nitrogenous substance, enzymic in character, which he termed "zymase."
Rowland, in repeating Buchner's experiments, found that zymase possessed properties differing from all other enzymes, thus: dilution with twice its volume of water practically destroys the fermentative power of the yeast juice.
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