The mythology of the Zulus as reported by H.
The native inhabitants of Natal proper were almost exterminated by the Zulus in the early years of the 19th century.
Biggar and with a following of 700 friendly Zulus crossed the Tugela near its mouth.
After the Zulus retired, less than a dozen Englishmen returned to live at the port; the missionaries, hunters and other traders returned to the Cape.
On the 11 th of April, however, they fell into a trap laid by the Zulus and with difficulty cut their way out.
The Boers had firearms, the Zulus their assegais only, and after a three hours' fight the Zulus were totally defeated, losing thousands killed, while the farmers' casualties were under 1 Captain Allen Francis Gardiner (1 79418 5 1) left Natal in 1838, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in South America, being known as the missionary to Patagonia.
In every case the overlordship of the Zulus was assumed.
In 1843, for instance, no fewer than 50,000 Zulus crossed the Tugela seeking the protection of the white man.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
But the new administration at Pretoria inherited many disputes with the Zulus, disputes which were in large measure the cause of the war of 187 9.
For years the Zulus had lived at amity with the Natalians, from whom they received substantial favours, and in 1872 Cetywayo, on succeeding his father Panda, had given assurances of good behaviour.
As the London Convention had stipulated that there should be no trespassing on the part of the Boers over their specified boundaries, and as Natal had been the basis for those operations against the Zulus on the part of the British in 187 9, which alone made such an annexation of territory possible, a strong feeling was once more aroused in Natal.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
Zulus number 75,601 and form 54% of the population in Wakkerstroom district and 18% in Standerton district.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
It was also in accord with the desire of the Transvaal Boers to obtain a seaport, a desire which had led them as early as 1860 to treat with the Zulus for the possession of St Lucia Bay.
Add to this condition of things the fact that the Zulus were threatening the Transvaal on its southern border, and the picture of utter collapse which existed in the state is complete.
Thus Sir Bartle Frere wrote at the time: " All accounts from Pretoria represent that the great body of the Boer population is still under the belief that the Zulus are more than a match for us, that our difficulties are more than we can surmount, and that the present is the favourable opportunity for demanding their independence."
In June Sir Garnet Wolseley went to South Africa as commander of the forces against the Zulus, and as high commissioner " for a time," in the place of Sir Bartle Frere, of the Transvaal and Natal.
As a " reward " for their services to the Zulus, the Boers then took over from them a tract of country in which they established a " New Republic."
Mann, The Zulus and Boers of South Africa (1879); H.
Of domestic animals the Zulus possess a dwarf breed of smooth-skinned humped cattle.
- The Zulus live in kraals, circular enclosures with, generally, a ring fence inside forming a cattle pen.
Pearson was besieged by the Zulus in 1879, and was laid out in 1883.
Gibson, The Story of the Zulus (Maritzburg, 1908); J.
Farrer, Zululand and the Zulus: their History, Beliefs, Customs, Military System, &c. (4th ed.
Mason, Life with the Zulus of Natal (1852) and Zululand: a Mission Tour (1862); D.
Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas (2nd ed.
Tyler, Forty Years among the Zulus (Boston, 1891); British official Military Report on Zululand (1906); W.
The Zulus attacked with great gallantry but were received with so deadly a fire that they could not come within thirty yards of the rifles.
The British loss was about ioo, that of the Zulus 150o.
Among objects used are a pool of ink in the hand (Egypt), the liver of an animal (tribes of the North-West Indian frontier), a hole filled with water (Polynesia), quartz crystals (the Apaches and the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales), a smooth slab of polished black stone (the Huille-che of South America), water in a vessel (Zulus and Siberians), a crystal (the Incas), a mirror (classical Greece and the middle ages), the finger-nail, a swordblade, a ring-stone, a glass of sherry, in fact almost anything.
On the 22nd of January 1879 a British force encamped at the foot of the hill was attacked by about io,000 Zulus, the flower of Cetewayo's army, and destroyed.
The Zulus are mostly found in that part of the country nearest Zululand.
Between i 8 i 7 and 1831 the country was devastated by the chief Mosilikatze and his Zulus, and large areas were depopulated.
The emigrants soon came into collision with Mosilikatze, raiding parties of Zulus attacking Boer hunters who had crossed the Vaal without seeking permission from that chieftain.
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
It was a blunder to have allowed him to go, and the blunder ended in a tragedy, for while out on a reconnaissance with a few troopers they were surprised by Zulus, and the Prince Imperial was killed (June r, 1879).
To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and other savage tribes; the "house-snake," as it is called, cares for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves.
When the lad, who had already taken part in fights with the Matabele and the Zulus, was fourteen his family settled north of the Vaal and were among the founders of the Transvaal state.
CETYWAYO (?-1884), king of the Zulus, was the eldest son of King Umpande or Panda, and a nephew of the two previous kings, Dingaan and Chaka.
In the following year, at an assembly of the Zulus, it was resolved that Panda should retire from the mangement of the affairs of the nation, which were entrusted to Cetywayo, though the old chief kept the title of king.
Friendly relations were then maintained between the Zulus and Natal for many years.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
The disaster of Isandhlwana and the defence of Rorke's Drift signalized the commencement of the campaign, but on the 4th of July the Zulus were utterly routed at Ulundi.
We have seen how closely the serpent is associated with water generally (§ 5 seq.), and since we meet with the belief that sources will dry up when the serpent-occupant is killed (Bechuanas, Zulus), or that they will resent impurities thrown into their springs by causing storms (tribes of the Hindu-Kush), it is not surprising to find elaborate precautions for the propitiation of such powerful beings.
In South Africa, where the caracal abounds, its hide is made by the Zulus into skin-cloaks, known as karosses.
This is why the Zulus and other primitive races distrust a medicine man who is not an ascetic and lean with fasting.
While revolution prevailed in the city, robbery was rife in the province of Yezd; and from Kazvin the son of Au Mirza otherwise called the zulus-sultan, the prince-governor of Teheran, who disputed the succession of Mahommed Shah, came forth to contest the crown with his cousin, the heir-apparent.
Retief, like his English predecessors at Port Natal (known also since 1835 as Durban), sought a formal grant of territory from the chief of the Zulu nation, the Zulus being the acknowledged overlords of the tribes living in Natal.
In 1843, the year in which the British annexed Natal and with it a part of the country hitherto ruled by the Zulus, the Barabuza, under a chief named Swazi, took advantage of the comparative weakness of the Zulu power, 'achieved independence and founded the present state.
The Boers of the Transvaal were then beginning to occupy the regions adjacent to Swaziland and in 1855 the Swazis in order to get a strip of territory between themselves and the Zulus, whose power they still dreaded, ceded to the Boers the narrow strip of land north of the Pongola river now known as the Piet Retief district.
The Zulus under Cetywayo claimed the ceded district as theirs and the Swazis as their subjects and for over ten years no white farmers were able to settle in the district.
The first was a war with the Zulus, the most powerful and Zulu War warlike of the South Africannatives, who under their ruler, Cetewayo, had organized a formidable army.
In the war which ensued, the British troops who invaded Zulu territory met with a severe reverse; and, though the disaster1was ultimately retrieved by Lord Chelmsford, the war involved heavy expenditure and brought little credit to the British army, while one unfortunate incident, the death of Prince Napoleon, who had obtained leave to serve with the British troops, and was surprised by the Zulus while reconnoitring, created a deep and unfortunate impression.
The young prince was educated at Woolwich from 1872 to 1875, and in 1879 took part in the English expedition against the Zulus in South Africa, in which he was killed.
In the long history of mankind it is impossible to deny that stories may conceivably have spread from a single centre, and been handed on from races like the Indo-European and the Semitic to races as far removed from them in every way as the Zulus, the Australians, the Eskimo, the natives of the South Sea Islands.
The sky (which appears to us even less personal) has been regarded as a personal being by Samoyeds, Red Indians, Zulus,5 and traces of this belief survive in Chinese, Greek and Roman religion.
Zulus, Red Indians, Aztecs,' Andaman Islanders and other races believe that their dead assume the shapes of serpents and of other creatures, often reverting to the form of the animal from which they originally descended.
They make good or bad seasons, and control the vast animals who, among ancient Persians and Aryans of India, as among Zulus and Iroquois, are supposed to grant or withhold the rain, and to thunder with their enormous wings in the region of the clouds.
Pursued by the Zulus, all the surviving inhabitants of Durban were compelled for a time to take refuge on a ship then in harbour.