The mythology of the Zulus as reported by H.
The native inhabitants of Natal proper were almost exterminated by the Zulus in the early years of the 19th century.
On the 11 th of April, however, they fell into a trap laid by the Zulus and with difficulty cut their way out.
In every case the overlordship of the Zulus was assumed.
After the Zulus retired, less than a dozen Englishmen returned to live at the port; the missionaries, hunters and other traders returned to the Cape.
Wallace is of the opinion that the Australians " are really of Caucasian type and are more nearly allied to ourselves than to the civilized Japanese or the brave and intelligent Zulus."
He was, however, murdered in Pondoland by a chief who was at enmity with the Zulus.
Nevertheless in one week after the murder of Retief 600 Boers - men, women and children - had been killed by the Zulus.
Biggar and with a following of 700 friendly Zulus crossed the Tugela near its mouth.
On Sunday the 16th of December, while laagered near the Umslatos river, they were attacked by over io,000 Zulus.
In 1843, for instance, no fewer than 50,000 Zulus crossed the Tugela seeking the protection of the white man.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
But the new administration at Pretoria inherited many disputes with the Zulus, disputes which were in large measure the cause of the war of 187 9.
For years the Zulus had lived at amity with the Natalians, from whom they received substantial favours, and in 1872 Cetywayo, on succeeding his father Panda, had given assurances of good behaviour.
As the London Convention had stipulated that there should be no trespassing on the part of the Boers over their specified boundaries, and as Natal had been the basis for those operations against the Zulus on the part of the British in 187 9, which alone made such an annexation of territory possible, a strong feeling was once more aroused in Natal.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
Zulus number 75,601 and form 54% of the population in Wakkerstroom district and 18% in Standerton district.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
The first permanent white settlement north of the Vaal was made by a party under Potgieter's leadership. That commandant had in March 1838 gone to Natal, and had endeavoured to avenge the massacre of Piet Retief and his comrades by the Zulus.
It was also in accord with the desire of the Transvaal Boers to obtain a seaport, a desire which had led them as early as 1860 to treat with the Zulus for the possession of St Lucia Bay.
Add to this condition of things the fact that the Zulus were threatening the Transvaal on its southern border, and the picture of utter collapse which existed in the state is complete.
Thus Sir Bartle Frere wrote at the time: " All accounts from Pretoria represent that the great body of the Boer population is still under the belief that the Zulus are more than a match for us, that our difficulties are more than we can surmount, and that the present is the favourable opportunity for demanding their independence."
He assured them that they might look forward to complete self-government under the Crown, and at the same time urged them to sink political differences and join hands with the British against their common enemy, the Zulus.
In June Sir Garnet Wolseley went to South Africa as commander of the forces against the Zulus, and as high commissioner " for a time," in the place of Sir Bartle Frere, of the Transvaal and Natal.
As a " reward " for their services to the Zulus, the Boers then took over from them a tract of country in which they established a " New Republic."
Mann, The Zulus and Boers of South Africa (1879); H.
Of domestic animals the Zulus possess a dwarf breed of smooth-skinned humped cattle.
- The Zulus live in kraals, circular enclosures with, generally, a ring fence inside forming a cattle pen.
Pearson was besieged by the Zulus in 1879, and was laid out in 1883.
Panda was a weaker and less able man, but kindly and really grateful, a very rare quality among Zulus.
Gibson, The Story of the Zulus (Maritzburg, 1908); J.
Farrer, Zululand and the Zulus: their History, Beliefs, Customs, Military System, &c. (4th ed.
Mason, Life with the Zulus of Natal (1852) and Zululand: a Mission Tour (1862); D.
Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas (2nd ed.
Tyler, Forty Years among the Zulus (Boston, 1891); British official Military Report on Zululand (1906); W.
The Zulus attacked with great gallantry but were received with so deadly a fire that they could not come within thirty yards of the rifles.
The British loss was about ioo, that of the Zulus 150o.
Among objects used are a pool of ink in the hand (Egypt), the liver of an animal (tribes of the North-West Indian frontier), a hole filled with water (Polynesia), quartz crystals (the Apaches and the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales), a smooth slab of polished black stone (the Huille-che of South America), water in a vessel (Zulus and Siberians), a crystal (the Incas), a mirror (classical Greece and the middle ages), the finger-nail, a swordblade, a ring-stone, a glass of sherry, in fact almost anything.
On the 22nd of January 1879 a British force encamped at the foot of the hill was attacked by about io,000 Zulus, the flower of Cetewayo's army, and destroyed.
The Bantu tribes are in general peaceful agriculturists, though the Bantus of recent immigration retain the warlike instincts of the Zulus.
Since the advent of the whites there has also been a considerable immigration of Zulus.
The Zulus are mostly found in that part of the country nearest Zululand.
Between i 8 i 7 and 1831 the country was devastated by the chief Mosilikatze and his Zulus, and large areas were depopulated.
The emigrants soon came into collision with Mosilikatze, raiding parties of Zulus attacking Boer hunters who had crossed the Vaal without seeking permission from that chieftain.
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
It was a blunder to have allowed him to go, and the blunder ended in a tragedy, for while out on a reconnaissance with a few troopers they were surprised by Zulus, and the Prince Imperial was killed (June r, 1879).
To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and other savage tribes; the "house-snake," as it is called, cares for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves.
When the lad, who had already taken part in fights with the Matabele and the Zulus, was fourteen his family settled north of the Vaal and were among the founders of the Transvaal state.
CETYWAYO (?-1884), king of the Zulus, was the eldest son of King Umpande or Panda, and a nephew of the two previous kings, Dingaan and Chaka.
In the following year, at an assembly of the Zulus, it was resolved that Panda should retire from the mangement of the affairs of the nation, which were entrusted to Cetywayo, though the old chief kept the title of king.
Friendly relations were then maintained between the Zulus and Natal for many years.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
The disaster of Isandhlwana and the defence of Rorke's Drift signalized the commencement of the campaign, but on the 4th of July the Zulus were utterly routed at Ulundi.
We have seen how closely the serpent is associated with water generally (§ 5 seq.), and since we meet with the belief that sources will dry up when the serpent-occupant is killed (Bechuanas, Zulus), or that they will resent impurities thrown into their springs by causing storms (tribes of the Hindu-Kush), it is not surprising to find elaborate precautions for the propitiation of such powerful beings.
In South Africa, where the caracal abounds, its hide is made by the Zulus into skin-cloaks, known as karosses.
This is why the Zulus and other primitive races distrust a medicine man who is not an ascetic and lean with fasting.
Retief, like his English predecessors at Port Natal (known also since 1835 as Durban), sought a formal grant of territory from the chief of the Zulu nation, the Zulus being the acknowledged overlords of the tribes living in Natal.
The Kaffir War of 1878 was followed by war with the Zulus.
There is an extensive system of electric trams. Another favourite means of conveyance is by rickshaw, the runners being Zulus.
In 1843, the year in which the British annexed Natal and with it a part of the country hitherto ruled by the Zulus, the Barabuza, under a chief named Swazi, took advantage of the comparative weakness of the Zulu power, 'achieved independence and founded the present state.
The Boers of the Transvaal were then beginning to occupy the regions adjacent to Swaziland and in 1855 the Swazis in order to get a strip of territory between themselves and the Zulus, whose power they still dreaded, ceded to the Boers the narrow strip of land north of the Pongola river now known as the Piet Retief district.
The Zulus under Cetywayo claimed the ceded district as theirs and the Swazis as their subjects and for over ten years no white farmers were able to settle in the district.
In 1879 they joined the British in the attack on the Bapedi chief Sikukuni, whom they looked upon as an ally of the Zulus.
The first was a war with the Zulus, the most powerful and Zulu War warlike of the South Africannatives, who under their ruler, Cetewayo, had organized a formidable army.
The young prince was educated at Woolwich from 1872 to 1875, and in 1879 took part in the English expedition against the Zulus in South Africa, in which he was killed.
In the long history of mankind it is impossible to deny that stories may conceivably have spread from a single centre, and been handed on from races like the Indo-European and the Semitic to races as far removed from them in every way as the Zulus, the Australians, the Eskimo, the natives of the South Sea Islands.
Zulus, Red Indians, Aztecs,' Andaman Islanders and other races believe that their dead assume the shapes of serpents and of other creatures, often reverting to the form of the animal from which they originally descended.
They make good or bad seasons, and control the vast animals who, among ancient Persians and Aryans of India, as among Zulus and Iroquois, are supposed to grant or withhold the rain, and to thunder with their enormous wings in the region of the clouds.
The Zulus are great worshippers of ancestors (who appear to men in the form of snakes), and they regard a being called Unkulunkulu as their first ancestor, and sometimes as the creator, or at least as the maker of men.
The Zulus, like many distant races, sometimes attribute thunder to the " thunder-bird," which, as in North America, is occasionally seen and even killed by men.
The Zulus are so absorbed in propitiating the shades of their dead (who, though in serpentine bodies, have human dispositions) that they appear to take little pleasure in mythological narratives.
At the same time, the Zulus have many " nursery tales," the plots and incidents of which often bear the closest resemblance to the heroic myths of Greece, and to the marchen of European peoples.'
"The first Indian who ever lived " is a divine being, something of a creator, something of a first father, like Unkulunkulu among the Zulus.
He married a pre-existent bird, the thunderbird Tootah (we have met him among the Zulus), and by the bird he became the father of Indians.
It has already been shown that such creatures, thunder-birds, snakes, dragons, and what not, people the sky in the imagination of Zulus, Red Men, Chinese, Peruvians, and all the races who believe that beasts hunt the sun and moon and cause eclipses.'
The offence in the Welsh form of the story is naming the partner - a thing forbidden among early Greeks arid modern Zulus.
The formulae here summarized, with others, are familiar in the marchen of Samoyeds, Zulus, Bushmen, Hottentots and Red Indians.
But the quiet of the country was destroyed by the inroads of Chaka, the chief of the Zulus (see Zululand).
The Boer farmers were now in a miserable plight, but towards the end of the year they received reinforcements, and in December 460 men set out under Andries Pretorius to avenge themselves on the Zulus.
About 1817 the country was invaded by the chieftain Mosilikatze and his impis, who were fleeing from the vengeance of Chaka, king of the Zulus.
The Boers, however, continued to agitate for complete independence, and, with the honourable exception of Piet Uys, a gallant Boer leader, and a small band of followers, who assisted Colonel Evelyn Wood at Hlobani, the Boers held entirely aloof from the conflict with the Zulus, a campaign which cost Great Britain many lives and £5,000,000 before the Zulu power was finally broken.
Following up the downfall of the Zulu power after the British conquest in 1879, several parties of Boers began intriguing with the petty chiefs, and in May 1884, in the presence of io,000 Zulus, they proclaimed Dinizulu, the son of Cetywayo, to be king of Zululand (see Zululand).
In all some 3500 Zulus were killed and about 3000 taken prisoners, the majority of the prisoners being released in 1907 (see further Natal: History).
Of the ZuluKaffir tribes Zulus propex numbered 35,275, Fingoes 6275, and Ama Xosa 5376 (see Kaffirs; and Zululand: Inhabitants).
The natives are nearly all Ama-Swazi Bantus, commonly called Swazis, and are closely allied to the Zulus.
Of these formulae '(chosen because illustrated by Greek heroic legends) - (I) is a sanction of barbarous nuptial etiquette; (2) is an obvious ordinary incident; (3) is moral, and both (3) and (1) may pair off with all the myths of the origin of death from the infringement of a taboo or sacred command; (4) would naturally occur wherever, as on the West Coast of Africa, human victims have been offered to sharks or other beasts; (5) the story of flight from a horrible crime, occurs in some stellar myths, and is an easy and natural invention; (6) flight from wizard father or husband, is found in Bushman and Namaqua myth, where the husband is an elephant; (7) success of youngest brother, may have been an explanation and sanction of " tungsten-recht " - Maui in New Zealand is an example, and Herodotus found the story among the Scythians; (8) the bride given to successful adventurer, is consonant with heroic manners as late as Homer; (9) is no less consonant with the belief that beasts have human sentiments and supernatural powers; (to) the " strong man," is found among Eskimo and Zulus, and was an obvious invention when strength was the most admired of qualities; (II) the baffled ogre, is found among Basques and Irish, and turns on a form of punning which inspires an " ananzi " story in West Africa; (12) descent into Hades, is the natural result of the savage conception of Hades, and the tale is told of actual living people in the Solomon Islands and in New Caledonia; Eskimo Angekoks can and do descend into Hades - it is the prerogative of the necromantic magician; (13) " the false bride," found among the Zulus, does not permit of such easy explanation - naturally, in Zululand, the false bride is an animal; (14) the bride accused of bearing be 1st-children, has already been disposed of; the belief is inevitable where no distinction worth mentioning is taken between men and animals.
Pursued by the Zulus, all the surviving inhabitants of Durban were compelled for a time to take refuge on a ship then in harbour.
The Boers had firearms, the Zulus their assegais only, and after a three hours' fight the Zulus were totally defeated, losing thousands killed, while the farmers' casualties were under 1 Captain Allen Francis Gardiner (1 79418 5 1) left Natal in 1838, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in South America, being known as the missionary to Patagonia.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.