The Zulu gives little attention to the cultivation of the soil.
C.) Scarcely had the colony recovered from the shock of the Zulu War than it was involved in the revolt of the Transvaal Boers (1880-1881), an event which overshadowed all domestic concerns.
At the close of the 18th century the Zulu were an unimportant tribe numbering a few thousands only.
Distant from the village of Weenen (" Weeping "), so named by the first Boer settlers in memory of a Zulu raid.
They rendered their power in Natal absolute, for the time, in the following month, when they joined with Panda, Dingaan's brother, in another attack on the Zulu king.
Of the tribes who were in Natal before the Zulu invasion about 1812, the two largest are the Abatembu (who are in five main divisions and number about 30,000) and the Amakwabe (seven divisions and about 20.000 people).
The three last tribes are among those which sought refuge in Natal from Zulu persecution, before the establishment of British rule in 1843.
The Zulu power, as has been recorded, was broken in 187 9.
Those who could fled before him, the first of importance so to do being a chief named Swangendaba (Sungandaba), whose tribe, of the same stock as the Zulu, was known as Angoni.
Thus the Zulu says to the ancestral ghost, "Help me or you will feed on nettles"; whilst the still more primitive Australian exclaims to the "dead hand" that he carries about with him as a kind of divining-rod, "Guide me aright, or I throw you to the dogs."
By the wars of the Zulu chiefs Chaka, Matiwana and Mosilikatze, these tribes were largely broken up and their power destroyed.
The Zulu king then commanded his impis to kill all the Boers who had entered Natal.
The Zulu forces crossed the Tugela the same day, and the most advanced parties of the Boers were massacred, many at a spot near where the town of Weenen now stands, its name (meaning wailing or weeping) commemorating the event.
Meantime the Boers, who had repelled the Zulu attacks on their laagers, had been joined by others from the Drakensberg, and about 400 men under Hendrik Potgieter and Piet Uys advanced to attack Dingaan.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
After that event Basuto entered the country from the south, Bechuana from the west and Swazi, Zulu, Shangaan and other tribes from the east and south-east.
The Shangaan are members of a Bantu tribe from the Delagoa Bay region who took refuge in the Transvaal between 1860 and 1862 to escape Zulu raids.
Several other east coast tribes, such as the Bankuna, are of mixed Zulu and Shangaan blood.
The inhabitants were unable to withstand the attacks of the disciplined Zulu warriors - or Matabele, as they were henceforth called - by whom large areas of central and western Transvaal were swept bare.
Moreover, the menace of attack on the Zulu side was a serious one, however able the Boers may have been to meet a foe who fought in the open, and who had been beaten by them in previous wars.
Even before annexation had occurred, Shepstone felt the danger so acutely that he sent a message to Cetywayo, the Zulu chief, warning him that British annexation was about to be proclaimed and that invasion of the Transvaal would not be tolerated.
In the meantime, the Zulu forces which threatened the Transvaal had been turned against the British, and the disaster of Isandhlwana occurred.
After the " settlement " of the Zulu question, Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to Pretoria and immediately organized an expedition against Sikukuni, who throughout the Zulu campaign had been acting under the advice of Cetywayo.
Many forms of clothing, moreover, seem to call attention to those parts of the body of which, under the conditions of Western civilization at the present day, it aims at the concealment; certain articles of dress worn by the New Hebrideans, the Zulu-Xosa tribes, certain tribes of Brazil and others, are cases in point.
After the establishment of the Zulu military ascendancy early in the 19th century various Zulu hordes successively invaded and overran a great part of east-central Africa, as far as and even beyond the Lake Nyasa district.
Hence the impression that the true Zulu are far more numerous north of the Limpopo than has ever been the case.
The circumstances and history of the two chief migrations of Zulu peoples northward are well known; the Matabele were led by Mosilikatze (Umsiligazi), and the Angoni by Sungandaba, both chiefs of Chaka who revolted from him in the early 19th century.
The Zulu possess an elaborate system of laws regulating the inheritance of personal property (which consists chiefly of cattle), the complexity arising from the practice of polygamy and the exchange of cattle made upon marriage.
If she have a brother-in-law named U'Nkomo, she would not use the Zulu for " cow," inkomo, but would invent some other word for it.
(For the Zulu speech, see Bantu Languages.) Towns.
There is a considerable trade with the natives in cotton goods, &c., and numbers of Zulu seek service in Natal.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
The tax has to be paid for each wife a Zulu may possess, whether or not each wife has a separate hut.
At what period the Zulu (one of a number of closely allied septs) first reached the country to which they have given their name is uncertain; they were probably settled in the valley of the White Umfolosi river at the beginning of the 17th century, and they take their name from a chief who flourished about that time.
The earliest record of contact between Europeans and the Zulu race is believed to be the account of the wreck of the " Doddington " in 1756.
Chaka joined in his patron's raids, and in 1812 the Umtetwa and Zulu drove the Amangwana across the Buffalo river.
By the incorpora tion of these tribes Chaka made of the Zulu a power- Chaka.
Chaka had but two ways of dealing with the tribes with whom he came in contact; either they received permission to be incorporated in the Zulu nation or they were practically exterminated.
No tribe against which he waged war was able successfully to oppose the Zulu arms. At first Chaka turned his attention northward.
Mosilikatze was not of the Zulu tribe proper, and he and his followers styled themselves Abaka-Zulu.
His influence, however, extended from the Limpopo to the borders of Cape Colony, and through the ravages of Swangendaba and Mosilikatze the terror of the Zulu arms was carried far and wide into the interior of the continent.
The Zulu force did not come into contact with the British troops guarding the Cape frontier, but much alarm was caused by the invasion.
Coming over the Drakensberg in considerable numbers during 1837, the Boers found the land stretching south from the mountains almost deserted, and Retief went to Arrival Dingaan to obtain a formal cession of the country of the west of the Tugela, which river the Zulu recognized as the boundary of Zululand proper.
On " Dingaan's day " the Boer force received the attack of the Zulu while in laager; the enemy charged in dense masses, being met both by cannon shot and rifle fire, and were presently attacked in the rear by mounted Boers.
Long afterwards the treaty with Panda was successfully invoked to prevent a German occupation of the bay.) No sooner had the British become possessed of Natal than there was a large immigration into it of Zulu fleeing from the misgovernment of Panda.
The Zulu country continued, however, excited and disturbed until the government of Natal in 1861 obtained the formal nomination of a successor to Panda; and Cetywayo was appointed.
The agent chosen to preside at the nomination ceremony was Mr (afterwards Sir) Theophilus Shepstone, who was in charge of native affairs in Natal and had won in a 1 Bishop Schreuder, a Norwegian missionary long resident in Zululand, gave Sir Bartle Frere the following estimate of the three brothers who successively reigned over the Zulu: " Chaka was a really great man, cruel and unscrupulous, but with many great qualities.
In 1873 the Zulu nation appealed to the Natal government to preside over the installation of Cetywayo as king; and this request was acceded to, Shepstone being again chosen as British representative.
Among the Zulu the spirits of the dead are held to be friendly or hostile, just as they were in life; on the Congo a man after death joins the good or bad spirits according as his life has been good or bad.
At the census of 1904 the population of the province, including Zululand, was 1,108,754.2 Of this total 8.8%, or 97,109, were Europeans, 9%, or 100,918, Asiatics and the rest natives of South Africa, mainly of Zulu-Kaffir stock.
In 1838 when the Zulu power was first checked the natives had been reduced to about 10,000.