The Zulu gives little attention to the cultivation of the soil.
At the close of the 18th century the Zulu were an unimportant tribe numbering a few thousands only.
The Zulu power, as has been recorded, was broken in 187 9.
C.) Scarcely had the colony recovered from the shock of the Zulu War than it was involved in the revolt of the Transvaal Boers (1880-1881), an event which overshadowed all domestic concerns.
Of the tribes who were in Natal before the Zulu invasion about 1812, the two largest are the Abatembu (who are in five main divisions and number about 30,000) and the Amakwabe (seven divisions and about 20.000 people).
The three last tribes are among those which sought refuge in Natal from Zulu persecution, before the establishment of British rule in 1843.
They rendered their power in Natal absolute, for the time, in the following month, when they joined with Panda, Dingaan's brother, in another attack on the Zulu king.
distant from the village of Weenen (" Weeping "), so named by the first Boer settlers in memory of a Zulu raid.
Those who could fled before him, the first of importance so to do being a chief named Swangendaba (Sungandaba), whose tribe, of the same stock as the Zulu, was known as Angoni.
The Zulu king then commanded his impis to kill all the Boers who had entered Natal.
Thus the Zulu says to the ancestral ghost, "Help me or you will feed on nettles"; whilst the still more primitive Australian exclaims to the "dead hand" that he carries about with him as a kind of divining-rod, "Guide me aright, or I throw you to the dogs."
By the wars of the Zulu chiefs Chaka, Matiwana and Mosilikatze, these tribes were largely broken up and their power destroyed.
Meantime the Boers, who had repelled the Zulu attacks on their laagers, had been joined by others from the Drakensberg, and about 400 men under Hendrik Potgieter and Piet Uys advanced to attack Dingaan.
The Shangaan are members of a Bantu tribe from the Delagoa Bay region who took refuge in the Transvaal between 1860 and 1862 to escape Zulu raids.
Hence the impression that the true Zulu are far more numerous north of the Limpopo than has ever been the case.
The Zulu forces crossed the Tugela the same day, and the most advanced parties of the Boers were massacred, many at a spot near where the town of Weenen now stands, its name (meaning wailing or weeping) commemorating the event.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
After that event Basuto entered the country from the south, Bechuana from the west and Swazi, Zulu, Shangaan and other tribes from the east and south-east.
Several other east coast tribes, such as the Bankuna, are of mixed Zulu and Shangaan blood.
Moreover, the menace of attack on the Zulu side was a serious one, however able the Boers may have been to meet a foe who fought in the open, and who had been beaten by them in previous wars.
Even before annexation had occurred, Shepstone felt the danger so acutely that he sent a message to Cetywayo, the Zulu chief, warning him that British annexation was about to be proclaimed and that invasion of the Transvaal would not be tolerated.
In the meantime, the Zulu forces which threatened the Transvaal had been turned against the British, and the disaster of Isandhlwana occurred.
After the " settlement " of the Zulu question, Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to Pretoria and immediately organized an expedition against Sikukuni, who throughout the Zulu campaign had been acting under the advice of Cetywayo.
After the establishment of the Zulu military ascendancy early in the 19th century various Zulu hordes successively invaded and overran a great part of east-central Africa, as far as and even beyond the Lake Nyasa district.
The inhabitants were unable to withstand the attacks of the disciplined Zulu warriors - or Matabele, as they were henceforth called - by whom large areas of central and western Transvaal were swept bare.
Mosilikatze was not of the Zulu tribe proper, and he and his followers styled themselves Abaka-Zulu.
The circumstances and history of the two chief migrations of Zulu peoples northward are well known; the Matabele were led by Mosilikatze (Umsiligazi), and the Angoni by Sungandaba, both chiefs of Chaka who revolted from him in the early 19th century.
The Zulu possess an elaborate system of laws regulating the inheritance of personal property (which consists chiefly of cattle), the complexity arising from the practice of polygamy and the exchange of cattle made upon marriage.
(For the Zulu speech, see Bantu Languages.) Towns.
There is a considerable trade with the natives in cotton goods, &c., and numbers of Zulu seek service in Natal.
The Zulu country continued, however, excited and disturbed until the government of Natal in 1861 obtained the formal nomination of a successor to Panda; and Cetywayo was appointed.
The agent chosen to preside at the nomination ceremony was Mr (afterwards Sir) Theophilus Shepstone, who was in charge of native affairs in Natal and had won in a 1 Bishop Schreuder, a Norwegian missionary long resident in Zululand, gave Sir Bartle Frere the following estimate of the three brothers who successively reigned over the Zulu: " Chaka was a really great man, cruel and unscrupulous, but with many great qualities.
remarkable degree the respect and liking of the Zulu.
In 1873 the Zulu nation appealed to the Natal government to preside over the installation of Cetywayo as king; and this request was acceded to, Shepstone being again chosen as British representative.
The frontier disputes between the Zulu and the Transvaal Boers ultimately involved the British government and were one of the causes of the war which broke out in 1879.
In 1860 a Boer commission was appointed to beacon the boundary, and to obtain, if possible, from the Zulu a road to the sea at St Lucia Bay.
The boundary was beaconed in 1864, but when in 1865 Umtonga fled from Zululand to Natal, Cetywayo, seeing that he had lost his part of the bargain (for he feared that Umtonga 1 might be used to supplant him as Panda had been used to supplant Dingaan), caused the beacon to be removed, the Zulu claiming also the land ceded by the Swazis to Lydenburg.
The Zulu asserted that the Swazis were their vassals and denied their right to part with the territory.
Hostilities were avoided, but the Zulu occupied the land north of the Pongolo.
Such was the position when by his father's death Cetywayo (q.v.) became absolute ruler of the Zulu.
In September 1876 the massacre of a large number of girls (who had married men of their own age instead of the men of an older regiment, for whom Cetywayo had designed them) provoked a strong remonstrance from the government of Natal, inclined as that government was to look leniently on the doings of the Zulu.
He afterwards served in the Zulu war with Wood's column.
The commission reported in July, and found almost entirely in favour of the contention of the Zulu.
Cetywayo (who now found no defender in Natal save Bishop Colenso) was in a defiant humour, and permitted outrages by Zulu both on the Transvaal and Natal borders.
These demands were made to Zulu deputies on the 11th of December 1878, a definite reply being required by the 31st of that month.
Durnford, was surprised by a Zulu army nearly ro,000 strong.
After the victory at Isandhlwana several impis of the Zulu army had Rorke's moved to the Drift.
Late in the afternoon they were attacked by about 4000 Zulu.
On six occasions, the Zulu got within the entrenchments, to be driven back each time at the bayonet's point.
At dawn the Zulu withdrew, leaving 350 dead.
The Zulu, however, made no attempt to enter Natal, while Lord Chelmsford awaited reinforcements before resuming his advance.
On the 2nd of April the camp was attacked at Ginginhlovo, the Zulu being repulsed.
The force was, however, compelled to retreat owing to the unexpected appearance of the main Zulu army, which nearly outflanked the British.
At mid-day next day the Zulu army made a desperate attack, lasting over four hours, on Wood's camp at Kambula; the enemy - over 20,000 strong - was driven off, losing fully 1000 men, while the British casualties were 18 killed and 65 wounded.
Within a mile of Ulundi the British force, formed in a hollow square, was attacked by a Zulu army numbering 12,000 to 15,000.
The battle ended in a decisive victory for the British, whose losses were about ioo, while of the Zulu some 150o men were killed (see Ulundi).
After this battle the Zulu army dispersed, most of the leading chiefs tendered their submission, and Cetywayo became a Wolseley's fugitive.
formally announced to the Zulu, and Wolseley drew up a new scheme for the government of the country.
The Chaka dynasty was deposed, and the Zulu country portioned among eleven Zulu chiefs, John Dunn, 2 a white adventurer, and Hlubi, a Basuto chief who had done good service in the war.
2 Dunn was a son of one of the early settlers in Natal and had largely identified himself with the Zulu.
adjoining Natal) was constituted a reserve, in which locations were to be provided for Zulu unwilling to serve the restored king.
Seeing that peace could be maintained between the Zulu chiefs only by the direct exercise of authority, the British government annexed Zululand (minus the New Republic) in 1887, and placed it under a commissioner responsible to the governor of Natal.
Under the wise administration of Sir Melmoth Osborn, the commissioner, whose headquarters were at Eshowe, and the district magistrates, the Zulu became reconciled to British rule, especially as European settlers were excluded from the greater part of the country.
At that time the Transvaal government - which had been the first to reap the benefit of Great Britain's defeat of the Zulu by acquiring the " New Republic " - was endeavouring to obtain the territories of Zambaan and Umtegiza, hoping also to secure a route through Tongaland to Kosi Bay.
Osborn was succeeded as resident commissioner by Sir Marshal Clarke,' who gained the confidence and good will of the Zulu.
Officially one of several chiefs subject to the control of the resident magistrate, he was, in fact, regarded by most of the Zulu as the head of their nation.
During the war of1899-1902there was some fighting between the Zulu and the Boers, provoked by the Boers entering Zulu territory.
A Zulu kraal having been raided, the Zulu retaliated and, surrounding a small Boer commando, succeeded in killing every member of it.
In September 1901 Louis Botha made an attempt to invade Natal by way of Zululand, but the stubborn defence made by the small posts at Itala and Prospect Hill, both within the Zulu border, caused him to give up the project.
Throughout the war the Zulu showed marked partiality for the British side.
In 1905 a poll tax of £1 on all adult males was imposed by the Natal legislature; this tax was the ostensible cause of a revolt in 1906 among the natives of Natal, who were largely of Zulu origin.
Other Zulu chiefs were convicted of various offences and sentenced to imprisonment.
a concise history of the Zulu People from the most Ancient Times (1905); G.
Edinburgh, 1875); Bishop Colenso, Langalibalele and the Amahlubi Tribe (1874); Zulu Boundary Commission (Books i.-iv., 1878, MSS.
the Zulu War of 1879 (1881); A.
Septans, Les Expeditions anglaises en Afrique: Zulu, 1879 (Paris, 1896); Frances E.
Durnford, History of the Zulu War and its Origin (2nd ed.
Parr, A Sketch of the Kafir and Zulu Wars (1880); " Cetywayo's Story of the Zulu Nation," Macmillan's Magazine (1880); H.
Mitford, Through the Zulu Country (1883); J.
They formed an independent community and in 1854 obtained, in exchange for a hundred head of cattle, formal cession of the territory from Panda, the Zulu king.
ULUNDI (Zulu for "high place"), the royal kraal of Cetywayo, situated in the Mahlabatini district of Zululand, about 3 m.
The valley of the White Umfolosi here forms an extensive basin called the Emhlabatini, and from the time of Chaka to the overthrow of Cetywayo in 1883 was the exclusive place of residence of the Zulu kings.
About a mile from the kraal on the 4th of July 1879 a Zulu army some 20,000 strong was totally defeated by Lord Chelmsford.
Not a few noteworthy versions of the Bible, such as those in Arabic, 15 dialects of Chinese, Armenian, and Zulu, and many American Indian, Philippine, and African languages have appeared under the auspices of the American Bible Society.
The Rev. John Campbell, one of the founders of the Bible Society, also travelled in southern Bechuanaland and the adjoining districts in 1812-1814 and 1819-1821, adding considerably to the knowledge of the river systems. About 1817 Mosilikatze, the founder of the Matabele nation, fleeing from the wrath of Chaka, the Zulu king, began his career of conquest, during which he ravaged a great part of Bechuanaland and enrolled large numbers of Bechuana in his armies.
He was buried at Pretoria on the following 16th of December, Dingaan's Day, the anniversary of the day in 1838 when the Boers crushed the Zulu king Dingaan - a fight in which Kruger, then a lad of thirteen, had taken part.
Cetywayo had inherited much of the military talent of his uncle Chaka, the organizer of the Zulu military system, and chafed under his father's peaceful policy towards his British and Boer neighbours.
In December 1878 Frere sent the Zulu king an ultimatum, which, while awarding him the territory he claimed from the Boers, required him to make reparation for the outrages committed within the British borders, to receive a British resident, to disband his regiments, and to allow his young men to marry without the necessity of having first "washed their spears."
The "Place of Slaughter," as the Zulu word Bulawayo is interpreted, was founded about 1838 by Lobengula's father, Mosilikatze, some distance south of the present town, and continued to be the royal residence till its occupation by the British South Africa Company's forces in November 1893, when a new town was founded.
Retief, like his English predecessors at Port Natal (known also since 1835 as Durban), sought a formal grant of territory from the chief of the Zulu nation, the Zulus being the acknowledged overlords of the tribes living in Natal.
Retief and his party were, however, treacherously murdered by Dingaan, the Zulu king (February 1838).
The Basuto and Kaffir tribes were giving trouble, and the 40,000 trained Zulu warriors under Cetywayo threatened the peace both of Natal and the Transvaal.
Frere, believing that the Zulu power was a standing menace to the peace of South Africa, and that delay in dealing with Cetywayo would only increase the danger, sent an ultimatum to the chief in November 1878.
But at the battle of Ulundi in July the Zulu power was crushed, and a little later Cetywayo was taken prisoner (see Zululand: History).
The removal of the Zulu danger did not, however, restore harmony between the British and the Boers in the Transvaal.
St Lucia Bay had been ceded to the British by the Zulu king Panda in 1843, and this cession has always been regarded as valid.
On its recall the little settlement was taken possession of by Dutch emigrants from the Cape, who had defeated the Zulu king Dingaan, and who the year before at the upper end of the bay had formed an encampment, Kangela (look-out), the present Congella.
" hand," means 5; Zulu tatisitupa, i.e.
In the early part of the 19th century they fell under the dominion of the newly constituted Zulu nation.
In 1843, the year in which the British annexed Natal and with it a part of the country hitherto ruled by the Zulus, the Barabuza, under a chief named Swazi, took advantage of the comparative weakness of the Zulu power, 'achieved independence and founded the present state.
The first was a war with the Zulus, the most powerful and Zulu War warlike of the South Africannatives, who under their ruler, Cetewayo, had organized a formidable army.
A dispute had been going on for some time about the possession of a strip of territory which some British arbitrators had awarded to the Zulu king.
Sir Bartle Frere, who had won distinction in India, and was sent out by Lord Beaconsfields government to the Cape, kept back the award; and, though he ultimately communicated it to Cetewayo, thought it desirable to deman.d the disbandment of the Zulu army.
The people of the ' These are collected by Callaway, Zulu Nursery Tales (1868).
Yet again, men came out of trees or plants or rocks: as from the Australian wattle-gum, the Zulu bed of reeds, the great tree of the Ovahereros, the rock of the tribes in Central Africa, the cave of Bushman and North-American and Peruvian myth, " from tree or stone " (Odyssey, xix.
Finally began a movement hitherto unparalleled in the history of African migration; certain peoples of Zulu blood began to press north, spreading destruction in their wake.
The war cry of Zulu filled the sky and the tread of Zulu shook the earth.
By the beginning of July the main column approached the royal kraal of Cetawayo, the Zulu King, at Ulundi.
When engaging with Zulu society, the theme of the nation was in focus, in the shape of a metaphor of national rebirth.
Meet soldiers of the Crimea, Zulu war and Boer war, and find out what life was like for the British redcoat.
Colonel 24th regiment of Foot /2nd Warickshire 1879 Zulu War This uniform is the typical Infantry Officers undress uniform of the period.
Figures include a Canadian trapper, a Zulu warrior, a turbaned Indian an Australian farmer and a New Zealand Maori.
Within the municipal area is the Paardekraal monument erected to commemorate the victory gained by the Boers under Andries Pretorius in 1838 over the Zulu king Dingaan, and on the 16th of December each year, kept as a public holiday, large numbers of Boers assemble at the monument to celebrate the event.
Before the Zulu devastations the natives belonged to the Ama-Xosa branch of the Kaffirs and are said to have been divided into ninety-four different tribes; to-day all the tribes have a large admixture of Zulu blood (see Kaffirs, Zululand and Bantu Languages).
The cattle consist chiefly of the Zulu and Africander breeds, but attention has been given to improving the breed by the introduction of Shorthorn, Devon and Holstein (or Friesland) stock.
In the native schools - almost all maintained by Christian missions - Zulu and English are taught, the subjects taken being usually reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography and history.
Other of the farmers hastily laagered and were able to repulse the Zulu attacks; the assailants suffering serious loss at a fight near the Bushman's river.
During the war (see Zululand) Natal was used as the British base, and the Natal volunteers rendered valuable service in the campaign, which, after opening with disasters to the British forces, ended in the breaking of the Zulu power.
None of these peoples has any claim to be indigenous, and, save the Bavenda, all are immigrants since c. 1817-1820, when the greater part of the then inhabitants were exterminated by the Zulu chief Mosilikatze (see § History).
The Boers, however, continued to agitate for complete independence, and, with the honourable exception of Piet Uys, a gallant Boer leader, and a small band of followers, who assisted Colonel Evelyn Wood at Hlobani, the Boers held entirely aloof from the conflict with the Zulus, a campaign which cost Great Britain many lives and £5,000,000 before the Zulu power was finally broken.
Following up the downfall of the Zulu power after the British conquest in 1879, several parties of Boers began intriguing with the petty chiefs, and in May 1884, in the presence of io,000 Zulus, they proclaimed Dinizulu, the son of Cetywayo, to be king of Zululand (see Zululand).
It includes in the north the country of the Ama Tonga, Zaambanland, and other small territories not part of the former Zulu kingdom and stretches north from the lower Tugela to the southern frontier of Portuguese East Africa.
The vast majority of the natives are Zulu (see Kaffirs), but there is a settlement of some 2000 Basutos in the Nqutu district.
In 1805 he was joined by Chaka, otherwise Tshaka (born c. 1783), the son of the Zulu chief Senzangakona; on the latter's death in 1810 .Chaka, through the influence of Dingiswayo, was chosen as ruler of the Ama-Zulu, though not the rightful heir.
It was about 1820 that Mosilikatze (properly Umsilikazi), a general in the Zulu army, having incurred Chaka's wrath by keeping back part of the booty taken in an expedition, fled with a large following across the Drakensberg and began to lay waste a great part of the country between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers.
Questions were also raised as to the validity of the documents signed by the Zulu concerning the Utrecht strip; in 1869 the services of the lieut.-governor of Natal were accepted by both parties is arbitrator, but the attempt then made to settle the difficulty proved unsuccessful.
xix.), stipulated that, on the land being given to the Zulu, the Boers living on it should be compensated if they left, or protected if they remained.
At this time rumours were current of disaffection among the Zulu, but this was regarded as the effervescence natural after the war.
The basin on the south side of the river is regarded as the cradle of the Zulu race; here all their early chiefs are buried, hence the term Emakosini (i.e.
Colonel 24th Regiment of Foot /2nd Warickshire 1879 Zulu War This uniform is the typical Infantry Officers undress uniform of the period.
Zulu Moon, maker of fine sterling silver jewelry, offers many looks similar to what you'll find in fine jewelry stores, such as a pink crystal heart ring and a simple but elegant October eternity ring.
Zulu Moon: Offers a wide range of silver rings with precious and semi-precious stones in a variety of different designs.
The word Indaba is a Zulu word roughly meaning to gather in a community and communicate in an open forum where individuals can express themselves.
The Zulu tradition of a capella singing spread nationwide from the Natal region of the country in the early 20th century.
Alternatively, the lyrics may praise a particular Zulu family or clan.
Among the Zulu the spirits of the dead are held to be friendly or hostile, just as they were in life; on the Congo a man after death joins the good or bad spirits according as his life has been good or bad.
In 1838 when the Zulu power was first checked the natives had been reduced to about 10,000.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
The tax has to be paid for each wife a Zulu may possess, whether or not each wife has a separate hut.
At what period the Zulu (one of a number of closely allied septs) first reached the country to which they have given their name is uncertain; they were probably settled in the valley of the White Umfolosi river at the beginning of the 17th century, and they take their name from a chief who flourished about that time.
The earliest record of contact between Europeans and the Zulu race is believed to be the account of the wreck of the " Doddington " in 1756.
Chaka joined in his patron's raids, and in 1812 the Umtetwa and Zulu drove the Amangwana across the Buffalo river.
By the incorpora tion of these tribes Chaka made of the Zulu a power- Chaka.
Chaka had but two ways of dealing with the tribes with whom he came in contact; either they received permission to be incorporated in the Zulu nation or they were practically exterminated.
No tribe against which he waged war was able successfully to oppose the Zulu arms. At first Chaka turned his attention northward.
His influence, however, extended from the Limpopo to the borders of Cape Colony, and through the ravages of Swangendaba and Mosilikatze the terror of the Zulu arms was carried far and wide into the interior of the continent.
The Zulu force did not come into contact with the British troops guarding the Cape frontier, but much alarm was caused by the invasion.
Chaka was a victim to a conspiracy by his half brothers Dingaan and Umthlangana, while a short time afterwards Dingaan murdered Umthlangana, overcame the opposition of a third brother, and made himself king of the Zulu.
Coming over the Drakensberg in considerable numbers during 1837, the Boers found the land stretching south from the mountains almost deserted, and Retief went to Arrival Dingaan to obtain a formal cession of the country of the west of the Tugela, which river the Zulu recognized as the boundary of Zululand proper.
On " Dingaan's day " the Boer force received the attack of the Zulu while in laager; the enemy charged in dense masses, being met both by cannon shot and rifle fire, and were presently attacked in the rear by mounted Boers.
Long afterwards the treaty with Panda was successfully invoked to prevent a German occupation of the bay.) No sooner had the British become possessed of Natal than there was a large immigration into it of Zulu fleeing from the misgovernment of Panda.
He had wars with the Swazis, who in 1855 ceded to the Boers of Lydenburg a tract of land on the north side cf the Pongolo in order to place Europeans between themselves and the Zulu.
if she have a brother-in-law named U'Nkomo, she would not use the Zulu for " cow," inkomo, but would invent some other word for it.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.