So soon as the point of view is clear - that in the Gathas we have firm historical ground on which Zoroaster and his surroundings may rest, that here we have the beginnings of the Zoroastrian religion - then it becomes impossible to answer otherwise than affirmatively every general question as to the historical character of Zoroaster.
Charles thinks that in this passage the idea of resurrection is of purely Jewish and not of Mazdaan (or Zoroastrian) origin, but it is otherwise with Dan.
It is very odd that modern authors have considered this proclamation as inconsistent with the Zoroastrian creed.
They succumbed to the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids, who ruled successfully for about four centuries, established the Zoroastrian faith as their state religion, and maintained a creditable conflict with the East Roman empire.
Modern authors have often supposed that Cyrus and his ancestors were in reality Elamites; but this is contrary to all tradition, and there can be no doubt that Cyrus was a genuine Persian and a true believer in the Zoroastrian religion.
Ancient Persia) is justified in maintaining that the Zoroastrian religion must even then have been predominant in Media.
Thus ahura-daeva, deva-asura in Zoroastrian and in later Brahman theology are in their meanings diametrically opposed.
This hypostasization and all-egotization is especially characteristic of the Zoroastrian religion.
Of the Zoroastrian Church under the Achaemenides and Aeracides little is known.
They belong to an earlier period than the Zoroastrian, nor was this fire cultus restricted to the temples.
The doctrine of Zoroaster and the Zoroastrian Church may be summarized somewhat as follows: At the beginning of things there existed the two spirits who represented good and evil (Yasna, 30, 3).
Of a real remission of sins the old doctrine of Zoroaster knows nothing, whilst the later Zoroastrian Church admits repentance, expiation and remission.
Worship in the Zoroastrian Church was devoid of pomp; it was independent of temples.
In the above Vahman is Vohu Maria, the good thought or inspiration of the Zoroastrian religion.
Winckler.2 Of more assured importance was the Zoroastrian faith - " pure moral dualism if not theism " (L.
The coins demonstrate that Hellenism had become quite extinct in Persis, while the old historical and mythical traditions and the Zoroastrian religion were supreme.
The national restoration of the Sasanides brought new life to the Zoroastrian religion and long-lasting sway to the Church.
For 1876 to prove a Zoroastrian influence on chaps.
The idea is not in itself inadmissible, at least for post-exilic portions, for Zoroastrian ideas were in the intellectual atmosphere of Jewish writers in the Persian age.
He preserves a strange and significant silence with regard to Ahura-mazda, the supreme God of Zoroastrianism, and in fact can hardly have been a Zoroastrian believer at all.
From a literary point of view, indeed, it cannot compare with the dignified Hebrew narrative, but considering the misfortunes which have befallen the collection of Zoroastrian traditions now represented by the Bundahish (the Parsee Genesis) we cannot reasonably be surprised.
29, 30, which has a Zoroastrian parallel 2 and is evidently based on a myth of the Golden Age, independent of the Babylonian cosmogony.
The name first appears in the list of primitive Zoroastrian settlements contained in the Vendidad Sade, where, however, like most of the names in the same list, - such as Sughudu (Sogdiana), Mouru (Mer y or Margus), Haraquiti (Arachotus or Arghand-ab), Haetumant (Etymander or Helmund), and Ragha (or Argha-stan),--it seems to apply to the river or river-basin, which was the special centre of population.
The general shape and style are Roman: the inscriptions are in Greek or in a Persian language written in Greek letters, or in Kharoshthi: the reverse often bears the figure of a deity, either Greek (Herakles, Helios, Selene) or Zoroastrian (Mithra, Vata, Verethraghna) or Indian (generally Siva or a war god).
They regard Christ as an angel in human form and recognize 1 In 1879 the Zoroastrian community of Yezd numbered 6483, 1242 residing in the city, 5241 in the villages; in 1892 the community numbered 6908, and as many have emigrated, it is computed that it now numbers not more than 7000.
Just as the Gathas (the ancient Zoroastrian hymns) omit Gaokerena, and the Hebrew prophets on the whole avoid mythological phrases, so this old Hebrew thinker prunes the primitive exuberance of the traditional myth.
15 becomes an anticipation of the final victory of good over evil - a view which probably arose in Jewish circles directly or indirectly affected by the Zoroastrian eschatology.
- Early Zoroastrian writings, though impregnated with star-worship, show no traces of an attempt to organize the heavenly array.
Among the Zoroastrian Iranians, as among the Indian Aryans, the aid of a priest to recite the sacrificial liturgy was necessary at every offering (Herod.
Amid all the ceremonialism of its priesthood there were also high ideals set forth in Zoroastrian religion of what a priest should be.
Gnosticism has combined the two, the Greek opposition between spirit and matter, and the sharp Zoroastrian dualism, which, where the Greek mind conceived of a higher and a lower world, saw instead two hostile worlds, standing in contrast to each other like light and darkness.
The Syrian Christians, however, found that they had only exchanged the domination of a Zoroastrian monarch for an unsympathetic ecclesiastical despotism.
Scarcely more is to be said in favour of the suggestion made by Von Hammer; but better known in connexion with the name of Lagarde, who connects the name Purim with the old Zoroastrian festival of the dead, entitled Farwardigan.
The missionary zeal of the Zoroastrian priests soon caused discontent among the Christian inhabitants of Colchis, and Gobazes, perceiving that Chosroes intended to Persianize the district, appealed to Rome, with the result that in 549 one Dagisthaeus was sent out with 7000 Romans and loco auxiliaries of the Tzani (Zani, Sanni).
Stein, "Zoroastrian Deities on Indo-Scythian Coins," Babylonian and Oriental Record, i.
They are sunk in a paganism which seems to embrace some faint reflexion of Greek mythology, Zoroastrian principles and the tenets of Buddhism, originally gathered, no doubt, from the varied elements of their mixed extraction.
Sahl, a Zoroastrian of great influence, who in 806 had adopted Islam, reanimated his courage, and pointed out to him that certain death awaited him at Bagdad.
Sahl, called by them the Majuzi ("the Zoroastrian"), who had chosen Madain for his residence, and put at their head Mansur, a son of Mandi, who refused to assume the title of caliph, but consented to be Mamun's vicegerent instead of Hasan b.
The religious element is, of course, inseparable from the national, and Ardashir, like all the dynasts of Persis, was an ardent devotee of the Zoroastrian doctrine, and closely connected with the priesthood.
Thus this Parseeism always bears a syncretic character; and the supreme god of Zoroastrian theory, Ahuramazda (i.e.
Shapur endeavoured to occupy Armenia and introduce the Zoroastrian orthodoxy.
The Moslems officially tolerated the Zoroastrian creed, though occasional persecutions were not lacking.
King Darius is called on an inscription a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan race; and the followers of the Zoroastrian religion in their earliest records never give themselves any other title but Airyavo don ghavo, that is to say, Aryan races.
Full of enthusiasm for the glorious past of the old Iranian kingdom, he charged his court poet DalIil~i (Daqiqi), IMkIkI who openly professed in his ghazals the Zoroastrian creed, to turn the Khodinama, or Book of Kings, into Persian verse.
It consists, as we shall afterwards see, of the last remains of the extensive sacred literature in which the Zoroastrian faith was formerly set forth.
Still the whole of Zoroastrian legislation is subordinate to one great point of view: the war - preached without intermission - against Satan and his noxious creatures, from which the whole book derives its name; for " Vendidad " is a modern corruption for vi-daevo-datem - " the antidemonic Law."
Side by side with full, vividly coloured descriptions of the Zoroastrian deities, they frequently interweave, as episodes, stories from the old heroic fables.
The language of the Avesta travelled with the Zoroastrian religion and with the main body of the priesthood, in all probability, that is to say, from east to west; within the limits of Iran it became international.
Nor can we deny to the Yashts, in their depiction of the Zoroastrian angels and their presentment of the old sagas, a certain poetic feeling, at times, and a pleasant diction.
But as a religious book - the most important document of the Zoroastrian faith, and the sole literary monument of ancient Iran - the Avesta occupies a prominent position in the literature of the world.
Furthermore, it is now very generally admitted that the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which is advanced for the first time in the Old Testament in Daniel, also originated among the Persians, 8 and could only have been engrafted on the Jewish mind after a long period of intercourse with the Zoroastrian religion, which came into contact with the Jewish thinkers considerably after the time of Nebuchadrezzar.
The investigations of Haug, Spiegel and Windischmann show that this was a real Zoroastrian doctrine.
For a long time the city and country was the central seat of the Zoroastrian religion, the founder of which is said to have died within the walls.
Ardashir, who was a zealous worshipper of Ahuramazda and in intimate connexion with the magian priests, established the orthodox Zoroastrian creed as the official religion of his new kingdom, persecuted the infidels, and tried to restore the old Persian empire, which under the Achaemenids had extended over the whole of Asia from the Aegean Sea to the Indus.