Lydekker in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1904.
See a paper by Madison Grant, entitled "The Rocky Mountain Goat," published in the ninth annual report of the New York Zoological Society (1905).
- Practically, every botanical and zoological publication of recent date has its bearing on evolution.
PTEROBRANCHIA, a zoological group established by Ray Lankester in 1877.
Further references of great value will be found in the works of Bateson and Pearson referred to above, and in the annual volumes of the Zoological Record, particularly under the head " General Subject."
Of still wider interest are the accounts of Cook's three famous voyages, though unhappily much of the information gained by the naturalists who accompanied him on one or more of them seems to be irretrievably lost: the original observations of the elder Forster were not printed till 1844, and the valuable collection of zoological drawings made by the younger Forster still remains unpublished in the British Museum.
A specimen in the Zoological Gardens of London had the back and tail dark grey, the tail tipped with black, and a rufous wash on the cheeks, shoulders, flanks and outer surface of the limbs, with the under surface white.
THYSANOPTERA (Oiaavos, a fringe, and 7rTepbv, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for a small order of the class Hexapoda.
Except the opossums, no single living marsupial is known outside the Australian zoological region.
The zoological boundary passing through the Bali Strait is called " Wallace's line," after the eminent naturalist who was its discoverer.
At a scientific meeting of the Zoological Society of London, on the 17th of December 1901, Mr Oldfield Thomas read a letter from Mr G.
The buildings, mostly of wood, include the town-hall and a museum, which contains a good zoological collection.
It is not easy to say when any example of the bird first came under the eyes of British ornithologists; but in the Zoological Proceedings for Seriema.
S., 1907, by permission of the Zoological Society of London.) Photo, W.
The royal university of Parma, founded in 1601 by Ranuccio I., and reconstituted by Philip of Bourbon in 1768, has faculties in law, medicine and natural science, and possesses an observatory, and natural science collections, among which is the Eritrean Zoological Museum.
Wade), in which are a zoological garden and a lake.
Denver has an art museum and a zoological museum.
Heilprin, The Geographical and Zoological Distribution of Animals (New York, 1887); W.
The propriety of comprehending this enormous tract in one zoological " region " was first shown by Dr P. L.
The public buildings include the palace of the governor-general, situated in a spacious botanical and zoological garden, the large military hospital, the cathedral of St Joseph, the Paul Bert college, and the theatre.
COLEOPTERA, a term used in zoological classification for the true beetles which form one of the best-marked and most natural of the orders into which the class Hexapoda (or Insecta) has been divided.
of Svyatoi Nos on the Kola peninsula belong to a separate zoological region, connected with, and hardly separable from, that part of the Arctic Ocean which washes the Siberian coast as far as the mouth of the Lena.
When zoological records failed, Egypto-Hellenic ingenuity was never at a loss for a fanciful invention distilled from the text itself, but which to succeeding copyists appeared as part of the teaching of the original Physiologus.
Some even rearranged the contents according to the alphabet or to zoological affinity.
xaiTrl, hair, g obs, foot), a zoological class, including the majority of the Annelida, and indeed, save for the Echiuroidea, co-extensive with that group as usually accepted.
Connected with it are a library of 150,000 volumes and Boo MSS., a chemical laboratory, a zoological museum, a gynaecological institute, an ophthalmological school, a botanical garden and at Eldena (a seaside resort on the Baltic) an agricultural school.
Such excessive multiplication of the larger taxonomic divisions shows an imperfect sense of proportion, for if the term " class " be allowed its usual zoological value, no student can fail to recognize that the Hexapoda form a single welldefined class, from which few entomologists would wish to exclude even the Apterygogenea.
collections formed by a certain nobleman who had travelled in Eastern Europe, Western Asia and Egypt - possible Breidenbach, an account of whose travels in the Levant was printed at Mentz in 1486 - it is really a medical treatise, and its zoological portion is mainly an abbreviation of the writings of Albertus Magnus, with a few interpolations from Isidorus of Seville (who flourished in the beginning of the 7th century, and was the author of many works highly esteemed in the middle ages) and a work known as Physiologus.
In 1814 a sequel, The Zoological Miscellany, was begun by Leach, Nodder continuing to do the plates.
Moreover, both in drawing and in colouring there is frequently much that is untrue to nature, so that it has not uncommonly happened for them to fail in the chief object of all zoological plates, that of affording sure means of recognizing specimens on comparison.
The chief object of the author, who had been naturalist to the Niger Expedition, and curator to the Museum of the Zoological Society of London, was to figure the animals contained in its gardens or described in its Proceedings, which until the year 1848 were not illustrated.
The publication of the Zoological Sketches of Joseph Wolf, from animals in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, was Wolf.
Swainson's Zoological Illustrations in three volumes, containing one hundred .
In the following year Vigors returned to the subject in some papers published in the recently established Zoological Journal, and found an energetic condisciple and coadjutor in Swainson, who, for more than a dozen years - to the end, in fact, of his career as an ornithological writer was instant in season and out of season in pressing on all his readers the views he had, through Vigors, adopted from Macleay, though not without some modification of detail if not of principle.
Macleay indeed never pretended to a high position in this branch of science, his tastes lying in the direction of Entomology; but few of their countrymen knew more of birds than did Swainson and Vigors; and, while the latter, as editor for many years of the Zoological Journal, and the first secretary of the Zoological Society, has especial claims to the regard of all zoologists, so the former's indefatigable pursuit of Natural History, and conscientious labour in its behalf-among other ways by means of his graceful pencil-deserve to be remembered as a set-off against the injury he unwittingly caused.
Bartlett, the superin tendent of the London Zoological Society's Gardens, and that, without his assistance, Blyth'sopportunities,slenderasthey were compared with those which others have enjoyed, must have been still smaller.
It is obvious that both these investigators had the genius for recognizing and interpreting the value of characters; but their labours do not seem to have met with much encouragement; and a general arrangement of the class laid by Blyth before the Zoological Society at this time 1 does not appear in its publications.
In so large and so homogeneous a group as that of the true Passerines, a constant 1 An abstract is contained in the Minute-book of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society, 26th June and 10th July 1838.
Parker broke, as most will allow, entirely fresh ground by communicating to the Zoological Society a memoir " On the Osteology of Balaeniceps," subsequently published in that Society's Transactions (iv.
Generally, while there is a relative poverty of zoological groups, there is a great wealth of species within the group. Of gammarids, there are as many as 300 species, and those living at great depths (33 o to 380 fathoms) tend to assume abyssal characters similar to those displayed by the deep-sea fauna of the ocean.
There must also be mentioned the fine public zoological gardens, Hagenbeck's private zoological gardens in the vicinity, the schools of music and navigation, and the school of commerce.
It is true indeed that in zoological nomenclature some of these are distinguished as "voles," but this is not in accord with popular usage, where such creatures - come under the designation either of water-rats or field-mice.
ARACHNIDA, the zoological name given in 1815 by Lamarck (Gr.
AMPHIBIA, a zoological term originally employed by Linnaeus to denote a class of the Animal Kingdom comprising crocodiles, lizards and salamanders, snakes and Caeciliae, tortoises and turtles and frogs; to which, in the later editions of the Systema N aturae he added some groups of fishes.
The ordinary pelican, the Onocrotalus of the ancients, to whom it was well known, and the Pelecanus onocrotalus of ornithologists, is a very abundant bird in some districts of south-eastern Europe, south-western Asia and north-eastern Africa, occasionally straying, it is believed, into the northern parts of Germany and France; but the possibility of such wanderers having escaped from confinement is always to be regarded,' since few zoological gardens are without examples.
The early collectors of natural curiosities were the founders of zoological science, and to this day the naturalisttraveller and his correlative, the museum curator and systematist, play a most important part in the progress of zoology.
Indeed, the historical and present importance of this aspect or branch of zoological science is so great that the name " zoology " has until recently been associated entirely with it, to the exclusion of the study of minute anatomical structure and function which have been distinguished as anatomy and physiology.
The delay in the establishment of the doctrine of organic evolution was due, not to the ignorant and unobservant, but to the leaders of zoological and botanical science.
lishing the doctrine of organic evolution by the introduction into the web of the zoological and botanical sciences of a new science.
A more instructive subdivision must be one which corresponds to the separate currents of thought and mental preoccupation which have been historically manifested in western Europe in the gradual evolution of what is to-day the great river of zoological doctrine to which they have all been rendered contributory.
It must recognize the following five branches of zoological study: i.
Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.
In many respects Wotton was simply an exponent of Aristotle, whose teaching, with various fanciful additions, constituted the real basis of zoological knowledge throughout the middle ages.
The commencement of anatomical investigations deserves notice here as influencing the general accuracy and minuteness with which zoological work was prosecuted, but it was not until a late date that their full influence was brought to bear upon systematic zoology by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).
He was, in fact, the Adam of zoological science.
The classification adopted by Owen in his lectures (1855) does not adequately illustrate the progress of zoological classifi- knowledge between Cuvier's death and that date, but, such as it is, it is worth citing here.
It is impossible to enumerate or to give due consideration to all the names in the army of anatomical and embryological students of the middle third of the 19th century whose labours bore fruit in the modification of zoological theories and in the building up of a true classification of animals.
All such single-fact systems have proved to be departures from the true line of o€ growth of the zoological system which was shaping itself year by year - unknown to those who so shaped it - as a genealogical tree.
From time to time efforts were made by those who believed that the Creator must have followed a symmetrical system in his production of animals to force one or other artificial, neatly balanced scheme of classification upon the zoological world.
It is to be noted that, whilst the zoological system took the form of a genealogical tree, with main stem and numerous diverging branches, the actual form of that tree, its limitation to a certain number of branches corresponding to a limited number of divergences in structure, came to be regarded as the necessary consequence of the operation of the physico-chemical laws of the universe, and it was recognized that the ultimate explanation of that limitation is to be found only in the constitution of matter itself.
Another important factor in the present condition of zoological knowledge as represented by classification is the doctrine of degeneration propounded by Anton Dohrn.
A statement may now be given of the classes and orders in each group, as recognized by the writers of the various special zoological articles in the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
It contains the Zoological Gardens, one of the most noteworthy institutions of its kind, attracting numerous visitors to its splendid collections of living animals.
Distribution is treated of under ZOOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION, PLANKTON, PALAEONTOLOGY and PLANTS: Distribution.
In the north of the town is the National Museum and adjacent are the Zoological Gardens.
The Zoological Society maintains a magnificent collection of living specimens in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, a popular resort.
The natural history branch was removed to a building at South Kensington (the Natural History Museum) in 1881, where the zoological, botanical and mineralogical exhibits are kept.
The celebrated ape "Mafuka," which lived in the Dresden zoological gardens during 1875, and came from Loango, was apparently a member of this species, although it was at one time regarded as a hybrid between a chimpanzee and a gorilla.
There are also a theatre, an institute of music, a library, a museum, a zoological garden, and numerous scientific societies.
BAT,' a name for any member of the zoological order Chirop tera.
Of particular zoological interest in this connexion is a Ceylonese genus Dyscritina, in which the cercopods are long, many-jointed and filiform during the early stages of growth, and only assume at the last moult the forcipate structure characteristic of the family.
A young male was purchased by the Zoological Society in October 1887, from Mr Cross, the Liverpool dealer in animals.
Two others were received in the Zoological Society's menagerie in 1904, and another was housed there for a short time in the following year, while a fifth was received in 1906.
"Pussi," the gorilla of the Breslau Zoological Gardens, holds a record for longevity, with over seven years of menagerie life.
Damiri) is not zoological but legendary, and the works on minerals are practical and not scientific. See ARABIAN PHIaOSOPHY and historical sections of such scientific articles as ASTRONOMY, &c. (G.
ARTICULATA, a zoological name now obsolete, applied by Cuvier to animals, such as insects and worms, in which the body displays a jointed structure.
The imperial natural history museum contains a mineralogical, geological and zoological section, as well as a prehistoric and ethnographical collection.
It is very abundant in the Zoological Gardens in London, where it occurs in conjunction with a much smaller imported species Phyllodromia germanica, which may also be seen in some of the cheaper restaurants.
Several have been exhibited in the London Zoological Gardens, and some have grown gentle in captivity.
In addition to the park in the south-western district, Frankfort possesses two delightful pleasure grounds, which attract large numbers of visitors, the Palmengarten in the west and the zoological garden in the east of the city.
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the largest of the Asiatic forms, is the most widely known, from its being exhibited in zoological gardens.
A famous rhinoceros presented to the Zoological Society of London in July 1864 lived till December 1904.
Wolf, from animals in the London Zoological Society's Gardens.
A specimen from Chittagong acquired in 1872 by the Zoological Society of London was named R.
The black rhinoceros is more rarely seen in menageries in Europe than either of the Asiatic species, but one lived in the gardens of the London Zoological Society from 1868-1891.
There are also annual indexes such as those in the Zoological Record and Annales de geographie.
In Uyeno, too, are the Imperial Museum, the Imperial Library and the Zoological Gardens.
Cunnington's expedition in Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1906, &c.; Journal of the Linnean Society, 1907.
b djv, a membrane, and 7rrepov, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for one of the most important orders of the class Hexapoda.
It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (1895), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools.
rtµc-, half and irmpov, a wing), the name applied in zoological classification to that order of the class Hexapoda (q.v.) which includes bugs, cicads, aphids and scaleinsects.
very great zoological U.S. Dept.
It is chiefly distinguished for its mathematical and philosophical studies, and possesses a famous observatory, established in 1811 by Frederick William Bessel, a library of about 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a botanical garden, laboratories and valuable mathematical and other scientific collections.
There are two pretty public parks, one in the Hufen, with a zoological garden attached, another the Luisenwahl which commemorates the sojourn of Queen Louisa of Prussia in the town in the disastrous year 1806.
Arthur Smith Woodward sums up the question in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, closing with this sentence: "If we accept the confirmatory evidence afforded by Mr Spencer Moore, we can hardly refuse to believe that this ground-sloth was kept and fed by an early race of men."
ANTELOPE, a zoological name which, so far as can be determined, appears to trace its origin, through the Latin, to Pantholops, the old Coptic, and Antholops, the late Greek name of the fabled unicorn.
The archipelago, in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its geography - zoological, botanical, and even human.
In its structure and cranial capacity it is entitled to a higher place in the zoological scale than any anthropoid, for it almost certainly walked erect; and, on the other hand, in its intellectual powers it must have been much below the lowest of the human race at present known.
Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological distribution) and Island Life (London, 1880, notably for ornithology).
Quoted in - Zoological Record, iv.
Garrod communicated to the Zoological Society the results of his dissection of examples of 82 species of parrots, which had lived in its gardens, and these results were published in its Proceedings for that year (pp. 586-598, pls.
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, sometimes called Zoological Parks, institutions in which wild animals are kept in captivity.
According to Captain Stanley Flower, director of the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, Egypt, the ancient Egyptians kept various species of wild animals in captivity, but the first Zoological Garden of which there is definite knowledge was founded in China by the first emperor of the Chou dynasty, who reigned about iioo B.C. This was called the "Intelligence Park," and appears to have had a scientific and educational object.
In the New World, according to Prescott, King Nezahualcoyotl had zoological gardens at Tezcuco in Mexico in the middle of the 15th century, whilst in the next century Cortes found aviaries and fishponds at Iztapalapan.
Most of the modern zoological gardens date from comparatively recent years, and there are a larger number stocked with a finer collection of animals, more suitably housed, than at any past time in the history of the world.
The Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, are a government institution administered by the Public Works Department.
The Khartum Zoological Gardens are free to the public and are under the control of the municipality, but the collection of animals is under the Game Preservation Department.
The Transvaal Zoological Gardens at Pretoria are a government institution, and are associated with the Museum.
The Zoological Park at Bronx Borough, New York City, opened in 1899, is one of the largest in the world.
It is controlled by the Zoological Society of New York, with representatives of the municipality of the City of New York, and is financed largely out of municipal funds, and is open free to the public five days a week.
The National Zoological Park at Washington, D.C., was founded by Congress in1889-1890"for the advancement of science and the instruction and recreation of the people."
The Zoological Gardens in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, resemble the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, on which they were modelled.
They are controlled by the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, founded in 1859, and are supported partly by subscriptions of members, partly by gate-money and partly by an allowance from the city of Philadelphia.
The Zoological Gardens at Buenos Aires are supported by the municipality, and contain many interesting animals, well housed in beautiful surroundings.
There are Zoological Gardens at Melbourne (founded in 1857), Adelaide, Sydney and Perth, and small gardens at Wellington, New Zealand, supported partly by private societies and partly by the municipalities.
There are a large number of zoological gardens in Europe, but those of real importance are not numerous.
The garden and large menagerie of the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp were founded in 1843, and have been maintained at a very high level.
The Gardens of the Zoological Society of London in Regent's Park, founded in 1828, extend to only about 35 acres, but the collection, if species and rare animals be considered rather than the number of individuals, has always been the finest in existence.
In addition to the menagerie, there is an infirmary and operating room, an anatomical and pathological laboratory, and the Society holds scientific meetings and publishes stately volumes containing the results of zoological research.
Partly because of its long and successful existence, and partly because of the extensive possessions of Great Britain throughout the world, the Zoological Society of London has been able to exhibit for the first time in captivity a greater number of species of wild animals than probably the total of those shown by all other collections.
The Royal Zoological Society of Ireland, founded in 1830, maintains a fine collection in the Phoenix Park at Dublin, and has been specially successful in the breeding of lions.
The Bath, Clifton and West of England Zoological Society owns small but extremely well-managed Zoological Gardens, well situated on the edge of Clifton Downs.
Messrs Jennison have maintained since 1831 a Zoological Collection in their pleasure Park at Belle Vue, Manchester.
Germany contained in 1910 nineteen Zoological Gardens in active existence whilst several others were in process of formation.
The Zoological Gardens at Breslau, founded in 1863 and owned by a private company, although not large, contain many fine buildings and are a notably well-managed institution.
They possessed a fine gorilla, keeping it alive for a longer period than has been done in any other zoological collection.
The Gardens of the Zoological Society of Hamburg, founded in 1863, always contain a large and fine collection and display many ingenious devices for the housing of the animals.
More recently C. Hagenbeck has constructed a remarkable zoological park at Stellingen, near Hamburg.
The zoological collections of other European countries are of little importance.
Certain general remarks may be made on the efficient management of the zoological gardens.
Many of the zoological gardens are owned by private companies and derive their income entirely from gate-money, menagerie sales, rent of refreshment rooms, concert-halls and other auxiliary public attractions, any profits being distributed amongst the members of the company.
In theory every wild species has its place in a zoological collection, but the actual choice is limited by so many practical considerations that the better-known collections are remarkably alike.
Many animals of great zoological interest, from their nocturnal habits, or natural disposition, display themselves so seldom that their possession is valueless from the point of view of the public, whilst closely allied species are not distinguished except by trained observers.
But if the object be, as in the case of the greater zoological institutions, to get together as many species as possible, and to exhibit animals that have not been hitherto obtained, the possible range is enormous and the cost very great.
Flower, Notes on Zoological Collections visited in Europe in 1907 (Public Works Dept., Cairo); Reference List of the Zoological Gardens of the World (t9 to); C. V.
Peel, The Zoological Gardens of Europe (London, 1903); "Bulletins of the Zoological Society of New York" (with many photographs and plans of buildings and enclosures); Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington; G.
Zoological Nomenclature >>
The zoological gardens occupy 60 acres and contain a notable collection of animals and birds.
This zoological term, as now restricted, includes the Branchiopoda, Ostracoda and Copepoda.
A count which was concluded at the end of February 1903, put the number of captive bisons at 1119, of which 969 were in parks and zoological gardens in the United States, 41 in Canada and 109 in Europe.
The Palazzo Tadini contains a gallery of old pictures, some sculptures by Benzoni and Canova, and a zoological collection.
Around the city lie five great parks - Royal Park, in which are excellent zoological gardens; Yarra Park, which contains the leading cricket grounds; the Botanical Gardens, sloping down to the banks of the river; Albert Park, in which is situated a lake much used for boating; and Studley Park on the Yarra river, a favourite resort which has been left in a natural state.
The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.
V.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Zoological Methods Systematic Zoology.
The sum of the primitive characters approximately restores the primitive form; and the gaps in palaeontological evidence are supplied by analysis of the available zoological, embryological and anatomical evidence.
That in the palace gardens flowers from the tierra caliente were transplanted, and water-fowl bred near fresh and salt pools fit for each kind, that all kinds of birds and beasts were kept in well-appointed zoological gardens, where there were homes even for alligators and snakes - all this testifies to a cultivation of natural history which was really beyond the European level of the time.
Here, besides the viceregal demesne and lodge and the magazine, are a zoological garden, a people's garden, the Wellington monument, two barracks, the Hibernian military school, the "Fifteen Acres," a natural amphitheatre (of much greater extent than its name implies) used as a review ground, and a racecourse.
COLUGO, or COBEGO, either of two species of the zoological genus Galeopithecus.
veupov, a nerve, and 7rmEp6v, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for an order of the class Hexapoda.
In 1866 the Russian embryologist Kowalewsky startled the zoological world with a minute account of the developmental changes of Ascidia, one of the Tunicata, 5 and it became evident that the affinities of that class were with the Vertebrata, whilst their structural agreements with Mollusca were only superficial.
Vaughan Thompson, Zoological Researches (Cork, 1830); memoir iv., " On the Cirripedes or Barnacles, demonstrating their deceptive character."
Vaughan T hompson,Zoological Researches (Cork,1830); memoir v., "Polyzoa, a new animal discovered as an inhabitant of some Zoophytes."
Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.
Hist., and by several American naturalists in transatlantic zoological serials.
Near the château is the zoological garden, formed in 1860, and excellently arranged.
In the Zwinger are the zoological and mineralogical museums and a collection of instruments used in mathematical and physical science.
KIWI, or Kiwi-Kiwi, the Maori name - first apparently introduced to zoological literature by Lesson in 1828 (Man.
into the possession of Lord Stanley, afterwards 13th earl of Derby, and president of the Zoological Society, and it is now with the rest of his collection in the Liverpool Museum.
To put all suspicion at rest, Lord Derby sent his unique specimen for exhibition at a meeting of the Zoological Society, on the 12th of February 1833 (Proc. Zool.
In 1851 the first kiwi known to have reached England alive was presented to the Zoological Society by Eyre, then lieutenant-governor of New Zealand.
146), two had been presented to the Zoological Society by the New Zealand Company, and two more obtained by Lord Derby, one of which he had given to Gould.
606s, straight, and irrepOv, a wing), a term used in zoological classification for a large and important order of the class Hexapoda.
The city park system includes Ottawa Park (280 acres), Bay View Park (202 acres), Riverside Park (118 acres), Central Grove Park (loo acres), Collins Park (90 acres), Walbridge Park (67 acres), with a zoological collection, Navarre Park (53 acres), several smaller parks and triangles, and a boulevard, 18 m.
The Cismegiu or Ci§migiu Park, which has a circumference of about r m., is laid out between the Plevna road and the Calea Victories; and there are botanical and zoological gardens.
3 The ibis has more than once nested in the gardens of the Zoological Society in London, and even reared its young there.
See also zoological section, by K.
On the west of the city a pretty road planted with trees and grass plots leads from the Zoological Gardens (1857), on the north to the small park overlooking the river.
The pigtail ape (Macacus nemestrinus) - as Raffles described it in his " Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra," Trans.
Natural history is covered by various periodical publications of the Royal Zoological Society " Natura Artis Magistra " at Amsterdam, and the Natuurlijke Historie van Nederland (Haarlem, 1856-1863) written by specialists, and including ethnology and flora.
There is also a zoological museum.
The park contains a zoological garden, and is continued south in the pleasant Sondermarken, near which lies the old Glyptotek, which contained the splendid collection of sculptures, &c., made by H.
The fauna of Poland belongs to the middle European zoological group; within the historical period it has lost such species as formerly gave it a subarctic character.
Ray Lankester in the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London (xvi.
Meyer, director of the zoological museum at Dresden, has published an article on the alleged existence of the lion in historical times in Greece, a translation of which appears in the Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1905.
Of the former city gates four have been retained, restored and converted into museums: the Severin gate, on the south, contains the geological section of the natural history museum; the Hahnen gate, on the west, is fitted as the historical and antiquarian museum of the city; and the Eigelstein gate, on the north, accommodates the zoological section of the natural history museum.
SABLE, the name of a small quadruped, closely akin to the martens, and known by the zoological name of Mustela zibellina.
Parker's researches, which were afterwards printed in the Zoological Transactions (v.
Huxley in his often-quoted paper in the Zoological Proceedings (1867, pp. 4 2 5, 426) was enabled to place the whole matter in a clear light, urging that the Tinamous formed a very distinct group of birds which;, though not to be removed from the Carinatae, presented so much resemblance to the Ratitae as to indicate them to be the bond of union between those two great divisions.
Besides editing his friend Willughby's books, Ray wrote several zoological works of his own, including Synopsis methodica Animalium Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis (1693), that is to say, both mammals and reptiles, and Synopsis methodica Avium et Pisciurn (1713); the latter was published posthumously, as was also the more important Historia Insectorum (1710), which embodied a great mass of Willughby's notes.
Soc. London (1898),(1898), and Willey's Zoological Results, pt.
Riverside park extends along its water front for about 3 m., and on the outskirts of the city lies Cadwalader park (ioo acres), containing a zoological garden.
The grounds of this palace have been converted into zoological gardens.
MINK, a name for certain large species of the zoological genus Putorius (Polecat), distinguished by slight structural modifications and semi-aquatic habits.
APPENDICULATA, a zoological name introduced by E.
See Madison Grant, "The Caribou," 7th Annual Report, New York Zoological Society (1902); J.
The poem contains some good descriptive passages, as well as some very curious indications of the state of zoological knowledge in the author's time.
It has an area of 286 acres, and contains the zoological garden.
This zoological group includes Gordian worms which are found swimming in an undulatory manner or coiling round water-weeds in ponds and puddles, or knotted together in an apparently inextricable coil.
The first specimens exhibited in the London Zoological Gardens, in August 1864, were probably part of the original stock received from Mexico by the Societe d'Acclimatation, but do not appear to have bred.
Several species of large fossil tortoises have also been discovered; they are quite different from the living ones of Aldabra, in the same zoological region.
Their zoological relationships are probably with Celebes and with Australia.
The zoological position of Bohol has not been satisfactorily determined, but all existing evidence indicates that it must be grouped with Samar and Leyte.
In a zoological sense the term is extended to embrace all the monkeys of the Asiatic genus Semnopithecus, which includes a large number of species, ranging from Ceylon, India and Kashmir to southern China and the Malay countries as far east as Borneo and Sumatra.
It includes the Zoological Garden, is beautifully laid out and forms one of the most attractive features of Adelaide.
decidere, to fall down), a botanical and zoological term for "falling in season," as of petals after flowering, leaves in autumn, the teeth or horns of animals, or the wings of insects.
On Rock Creek, above Georgetown, is the National Zoological Park (under the control of the Smithsonian Institution), embracing 170 acres in a picturesque site.
Under this zoological title are included several groups of Crustacea, united by characters which attest their common origin, though some, and probably all of them, were already separated in distant geological ages, and some have now attained a peculiar isolation.
APTERA (Greek for "wingless"), a term in zoological classification applied by Linnaeus to various groups of wingless arthropods, including some of the insects, the centipedes, the millipedes, the Arachnida (scorpions, spiders, &c.) and the Crustacea.
The zoological collections of the "Pola" expeditions show that certain well-defined districts are extremely rich in plankton, while others are correspondingly poor; and it appears that the latter occur in districts surrounded by currents of relatively low temperature, while the richer parts are where the movements of water are blocked by irregularities in the coast-line.
Aided by a public stipendium, he spent a year or more studying in the Jardin des Plantes, under the friendly eye of Cuvier, and in making zoological discoveries at Cagliari and other places on the Mediterranean.
In 1860 he gave over the physiological part of his teaching to a new chair, retaining the zoological, with which his career had begun.
His zoological labours may be said to conclude with the atlas Icones zootomicae (Leipzig, 1841).
Overton Park has beautiful playgrounds and a good zoological collection.
In the museums at Trondhjem there are interesting zoological and antiquarian collections, also exhibits illustrative of the fisheries and other industries.
Similarly the recent experience of zoological gardens, particularly in the case of parrots and monkeys, shows that, excluding draughts, exposure to changes of temperature without artificial heat is markedly beneficial as compared with the older method of strict protection from cold.
In the building of the academy of science is the national museum of natural history, including mineralogical, zoological, and ethnographical departments.
At the western end of the esplanade are the zoological gardens, the chief hotel, the Coptic church ° and the Mudiria House (residence of the governor of Khartum).
West of the zoological gardens is the point of junction of the Blue and White Niles and here is a ferry across to Omdurman (q.v.) on the west bank of the White Nile a mile or two below Khartum.
Sclater, "On the Struthious Birds living in the Zoological Society's Menagerie," Transactions, iv.
d irpEov, oyster, so called from its shell, 66TEOV, bone, shell) in zoological nomenclature; there are no genera so similar to Ostrea as to be confounded with it in ordinary language.
Blanford divided Persia into five zoological provinces: (1) the Persian plateau, or from the Kopet Telegraph.5 Dagh southwards to nearly 28 N.
They were important sources of food-supply to the natives, and are hunted by the colonists, both for sport and on account of the damage they do in consuming grass required for cattle and sheep. A few species are found in New Guinea, and the adjacent islands, which belong, in the zoological sense, to the Australian province, beyond the bounds of which none occurs.
The ranges of the Himalaya, from the border of Tibet to the plains, form a zoological region which is one of the richest of the world, particularly in respect to birds, to which the forest-clad mountains offer almost every range of temperature.
Among the other university institutions are the academic hospital, the maternity hospital, the physiological institution, the chemical laboratory, the zoological museum, the botanical garden and the observatory on the Kdnigsstuhl.
The new buildings were erected in 1876, and connected with them are a library of 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a hospital, a botanical garden and a school of forestry.
COELENTERA, a group or grade of the animal kingdom, the zoological importance of which has risen considerably since the time (1887) of the publication of the first article under that heading in the Ency.
The museum has valuable ethnographical and zoological collections.
The docks lie outside Calcutta, at Kidderpur, on the south; and at Alipur are the zoological gardens, the residence of the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, cantonments for a native infantry regiment, the central gaol and a government reformatory.
Parker in the Zoological Proceedings for 1863 (pp. 511-518, and in the same work for 1867 T.
He discovered that the Malay Archipelago was divided into a western group of islands, which in their zoological affinities are Oriental, and an eastern, which are Australian.
In certain parasites, for instance, the adults have lost every trace not only of Crustacean but even of Arthropodous structure, and the only clue to their zoological position is that afforded by the study of their development.
Of these three classes, and of other than purely zoological interest, are mosquitoes, which swarm in summer in the interior in vast numbers; sea fowl, which are remarkably abundant near the Aleutians; moose, and especially caribou, which in the past were very numerous in the interior and of extreme economic importance to the natives.
In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more completely coated with hair.
Linnaeus's primarily zoological classification of man did not, however, suit the philosophical opinion of the time, which responded more readily to the systems represented by Buffon, and later by Cuvier, in which the human mind and soul formed an impassable wall of partition between him and other mammalia, so that the definition of man's position in the animal world was treated as not belonging to zoology, but to metaphysics and theology.
The present drawing, which under the authority of Linnaeus shows an anthropomorphic series from which the normal type of man, the Homo sapiens, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological similarity into view without suggesting kinship to account for it.
Thenceforward it was impossible to exclude a theory of descent of man from ancestral beings whom zoological similarity connects also, though by lines of descent not at all clearly defined, with ancestors of the anthropomorphic apes.
Evidently suggested by the Linnean picture, this is brought up to the modern level of zoology, and continued on to man, forming an introduction to his zoological history hardly to be surpassed.
The external unlikeness of the apes to man depends much on their hairiness, but this and some other characteristics have no great zoological value.
These anatomical distinctions are undoubtedly of great moment, and it is an interesting question whether they suffice to place man in a zoological order by himself.
The anthropological classification of mankind is thus zoological in its nature, like that of the varieties or species of any other animal group, and the characters on which it is based are in great measure physical, though intellectual and traditional peculiarities, such as moral habit and language, furnish important aid.
On the whole, Huxley's division probably approaches more nearly than any other to such a tentative classification as may be accepted in definition of the principal varieties of mankind, regarded from a zoological point of view, though anthropologists may be disposed to erect into separate races several of his widely-differing sub-races.
There is a zoological garden in Highland Park.
In the older part of the town the chief open space is the Zoological Gardens in the north-eastern corner.
Close to the Zoological Gardens are the Botanical Gardens, and a small park, also the property of a private society, in which there is a variety theatre.
It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.
The famous zoological station at Naples, whose aquarium is the principal building in the Villa Communale, is not connected with the university.
It is justly considered the first as well as the oldest of the zoological stations of the world, and the chief universities pay £ioo a year for tables to which they send students.
The pope, indeed, is said to have been delighted with Leonardo's minor experiments and ingenuities in science, and especially by a kind of zoological toys which he had invented by way of pastime, as well as mechanical tricks played upon living animals.
On these four expeditions he made collections of plants and animals of inestimable value, including nearly twenty thousand zoological and sixteen thousand botanical specimens.
" flower-animals"), the zoological name for a class of marine polyps forming "coral".
Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep and Goats (London, 1898), and later papers in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.
Aristotle had included in one class "Entoma" the six-legged arthropods which form the modern zoological class of the Hexapoda or Insecta, besides the Arachnida, the centipedes and the millipedes.
Few zoological terms have been more loosely used both by scientific and popular writers.
vii.), or in any zoological text-book contemporary therewith.
The larger treatises here mentioned contain very full bibliographies, and a complete analytical index to the annual literature of the Echinoderma has for many years been published in the Zoological Record (London).
Close by lies the entrance to the Haagsche Bosch, or the wood, on one side of which is situated the deerpark, and a little beyond on the other the zoological gardens (1862).
Indeed, as it is, we are already partially acquainted with one of these early intermediate creatures (Tritylodon), which forms a kind of zoological shuttlecock, being, so to speak, hit from one group to another, and back again, by the various zoologists by whom its scanty remains have been studied.
- For an account of the "realms" and "regions" into which the surface of the globe has been divided by those who have made a special study of the geographical distribution of animals, see Zoological Distribution.
The origin of the Australasian fauna is a question pertaining to the article Zoological Distribution.
The literature connected with mammals is so extensive that all that can be attempted here is to refer the reader to a few textbooks, with the aid of which, combined with that of the annual volumes of the Zoological Record, he may obtain such information on the subject as he may require: F.
Besides several churches and a synagogue, there are a town hall (1836), a hospital, an orphan asylum, the "palace" of the board of marine, a meteorological observatory, a zoological station and a lighthouse.
There is a good chemical laboratory as well as adequate zoological, ethnographical and mineralogical collections, the most remarkable being Blumenbach's famous collection of skulls in the anatomical institute.
GNATHOPODA, a term in zoological classification, suggested as an alternative name for the group Arthropoda.
OX, strictly speaking, the Saxon name for the males of domesticated cattle (Bos taurus), but in a zoological sense employed so as to include not only the extinct wild ox of Europe but likewise bovine animals of every description, that is to say true oxen, bison and buffaloes.
PHORONIDEA, a zoological order, containing a single genus Phoronis, which is known to be of practically world-wide distribution, while there are many records of its larva, Actinotrocha, from localities, where the adult has not been found.
Thus we have a new zoological factor in the history of the moral sentiments; which, though in no way opposed to the older psychological theory of their formation through coalescence of more primitive feelings, must yet be conceived as controlling and modifying the effects of the law of association by preventing the formation of sentiments other than those tending to the preservation of human life.
This is adorned with statues and frescoes by modern German artists, and has near it the chemical, physical, botanical, geological, seismological and zoological institutes, also the observatory, all designed by Eggert and built between 1877 and 1888.
In England the Report of the Zoological Society for 1833 announced the rhea as having been exhibited for the first time in its gardens during the preceding twelvemonth.
Cunningham's Natural History of the Strait of Magellan and paper in the Zoological Society's Proceedings for 1871 (pp. 105 - IIo), as well as FI.
Forest Park (464 acres), in the southern part of the city, is the largest and most attractive; it contains a good zoological collection, and in its ponds is one of the finest collections in America of lotus plants and Oriental aquatic flora; at its southern entrance is a monument to President McKinley by Philip Martiny.
As a whole, the Madagascar fauna is marked by a strong individuality, which would appear to be the result of long isolation from the other zoological " regions."
South-west of these buildings, on the other side of the Johannisthal Park, are clustered the medical institutes and hospitals of the university - the infirmary, clinical and other hospitals, the physico-chemical institute, pathological institute, physiological institute, ophthalmic hospital, pharmacological institute, the schools of anatomy, the chemical laboratory, the zoological institute, the physicomineralogical institute, the botanical garden and also the veterinary schools, deaf and dumb asylum, agricultural college and astronomical observatory.
Linnaeus applied the Latin term Vermes to the modern zoological divisions Mollusca, Coelentera, Protozoa, Tunicata, Echinoderma (qq.v.), as well as to those forms which more modern zoologists have recognized as worms. As a matter of convenience the term Vermes or Vermidea is still employed, for instance in the International Catalogue of Zoological Literature and the Zoological Record, to cover a number of wormlike animals.
ross), a name properly restricted to the domesticated horse (Equus caballus) and its wild or halfwild representatives, but in a zoological sense used as a general term for all the members of the family Equidae.
Species The distinctive characteristics of the family, and its position in the zoological system, are given in the articles Equidae and Perissodactyla.
The controversy depends upon the consideration of a wealth of detail, which should be studied in Ridgeway's book; but zoological authorities are sceptical as to the suggested species, Equus caballus libycus.
The Anatomy and Development of P. novae britanniae," Zoological Results, pt.
It has also a meteorological observatory, established in 1841, a mining school and a museum with a rich collection of mineral and zoological specimens.
The Baarnsche Bosch, or wood, stretches southward to Soestdyk, where there is a royal country Roman Byzantine Early Christian Work Fr = Latex Work seat, originally acquired by the state in 1795 Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, who was very fond of the spot, formed a zoological collection here which was removed to Amsterdam in 1809.
The Latin form being the only one entitled to recognition in zoological nomenclature, it follows that the last-mentioned names should be adopted for the three orders into which recent batrachians are divided.
A large extent of open ground, to the west of the town, finely planted, and traversed by the river, comprises Hagley Park, recreation grounds, the Government Domain and the grounds of the Acclimatization Society, with fish-ponds and a small zoological garden.
Collections include botanical, zoological, geological and paleontological specimens from all over the world.
zoological restraint and anesthesia " edited by D Heard.
zoological collections, they are part of a global zoo industry running to more than 10,000 venues.
zoological establishment " 14.
zoological park with 170 species of wildlife.
Until 1860 the Seriema was believed to be without any near relative in the living world of birds; 3 but in the Zoological Proceedings for that year (pp. G.
The aquarium of the zoological station at Naples contains the finest collection in the world of marine animals, showing the wonderful variety of the different species of fish, molluscs, crustacea, &c., found in the Mediterranean.(E.
The vast bulk of botanical and zoological work on living and extinct forms published during the last quarter of the 19th.
Bonaparte in 1826, as Trogon paradiseus, according to his statement in the Zoological Society's Proceedings The Mexican deity Quetzal-coatl had his name, generally translated "Feathered Snake," from the quetzal, feather or bird, and coat!, snake, as also certain kings or chiefs, and many places, e.g.
Gould, in the Zoological Proceedings for 18 35 (p. 29), while pointing out Temminck's error, gave the species the name of Trogon resplendens, which it bore for some time.
WALLABY, a native name, used in literature for any member of a section of the zoological genus Macropus, with naked muffle, frequenting forests and dense scrubs.
The northern portion of Asia, as far south as the Himalaya, is not zoologically distinct from Europe, and these two areas, with the strip of Africa north of the Atlas, constitute the Palaearctic region of Dr Sclater, whose zoological primary divisions of the earth have met with the general approval of naturalists.
This did not hinder Swainson, who had succeeded in getting the ornithological portion of the first zoological work ever published at the expense of the British government (namely, the Fauna BorealiAmericana) executed in accordance with his own opinions, from maintaining them more strongly than ever in several of the volumes treating of Natural History which he contributed to the Cabinet Cyclopaedia - among others that from which we have just given some extracts - and in what may be deemed the culmination in England of the Quinary System, the volume of the " Naturalist's Library " on The Natural Arrangement and History of Flycatchers, published in 1838, of which unhappy performance mention has already been made in this present work (vol.
A useful ornithological bibliography of the Austrian-Hungarian dominions was printed in the Verhandlungen of the Zoological and Botanical Society of Vienna for 1878, by Victor Ritter von Tschusi zu Schmidhofen.
to the Zoological Society of London a plan published in its Proceedings for that year (pp. 46-48), and reprinted also in his own journal The Zoologist (pp. 2780-2782), based on exactly the same considerations, dividing birds into two groups, " Hesthogenous "- a word so vicious in formation as to be incapable of amendment, but intended to signify those that were hatched with a clothing of down - and " Gymnogenous," or those that were hatched naked.
Huxley, to the delight of an appreciative audience, delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England a course of lectures on birds, and a few weeks after presented an abstract of his researches to the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings for the same year it will be found printed (pp. 415-472) as a paper " On the Classification of Birds, and on the taxonomic value of the modifications of certain of the cranial bones observable in that Class."
PENTASTOMIDA, or Linguatulina, vermiform entoparasitic animals, of which the exact zoological position is unknown, although they are usually regarded as highly modified degenerate Arachnida of the order Acari.
The distinctive term has no zoological significance, but in England the "mosquito" has commonly been distinguished from the "gnat" as a variety of larger size and more poisonous bite.
It is true indeed that in zoological nomenclature some of these are distinguished as "voles" (see VOLE), but this is not in accord with popular usage, where such creatures - come under the designation either of water-rats or field-mice.
(I) The museum-makers of old days and their modern representatives the curators and describers of zoological collections, (2) early explorers and modern naturalisttravellers and writers on zoo-geography, and (3) collectors of fossils and palaeontologists are the chief varieties of zoological workers coming under this head.
(see Agassiz, Essay on Classification, 1859), which were as numerous as the professors of zoological science, was necessarily succeeded in the true progress of the science by a period of minuter study in which the microscope, the discovery of embryological histories, and the all-important cell-theory came to swell the stream of exact knowledge.
The first naturalist to put into practical form the consequences of the new theory, in so far as it affected zoological classification, was Ernst Haeckel of Jena (b.
Near the chÃ¢teau is the zoological garden, formed in 1860, and excellently arranged.
132-162), Pennant (Arctic Zoology, pp. 291-300) - an admirable summary - and Broderip (Zoological Recreations, pp. I 20 - I 37) - not that all their statements can be wholly accepted.
In modern practice (see Zoological Nomenclature) systematists no longer regard species as more than as an artificial rank in classification, to be applied chiefly for reasons of convenience, so that the word is reverting to its older logical significance.
In the middle ages the Germans of Westphalia made the ass the symbol of St Thomas, the incredulous apostle; the boy who was last to enter school on St Thomas' day was called the "Ass Thomas" (Gubernatis's Zoological Mythology, i.
apis), a large and natural family of the zoological order Hymenoptera, characterized by the plumose form of many of their hairs, by the large size of a the basal segment of the foot, which is always elongate and in the hindmost limb sometimes as broad as the shin, and by the development of a "tongue" for sucking liquid food; this organ has been variously interpreted as the true insectan tongue (hypopharynx) or as a ligula formed by fused portions of the second maxillae (probably the latter).
PRAIRIE - MARMOT, a zoological emendation for the American name "prairie-dog," applied to a small North American rodent allied to the squirrels and marmots, and technically known as Cynomys ludovicianus (see MARMOT).
At the western end of the esplanade are the zoological gardens, the chief hotel, the Coptic church Ã‚° and the Mudiria House (residence of the governor of Khartum).
The new development from Linnaeus's zoological scheme which has thus ensued appears in Huxley's diagram of simian and human skeletons (fig.
The Zoological Station or Aquarium has a very fine biological library.
(1905) of the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Dr P. Chalmers Mitchell has identified the paired caeca, or blind appendages, of the intestine of birds with the usually single caecum of mammals.
We run a loans service which has over 200 boxes of objects, ranging from Ancient Egyptian artifacts to zoological specimens.
The document is taken from " Zoological restraint and anesthesia " edited by D Heard.
Spread among 400 zoological collections, they are part of a global zoo industry running to more than 10,000 venues.
How Credit Cards Work By: Mar How credit cards work Zoos By: Mar All about zoological gardens.
Restriction of definition of " zoological establishment " 14.
Exmoor also has a zoological park with 170 species of wildlife.
The company also sells zoological formulas for carnivorous wild animals such as bears, lions, wolves, crocodiles and eagles.
It can also help homeschool students understand the basic zoological terms "genus" and "species."
With each of the above pictures where people believe the animal is a chupacabra, a number of indicators point to a more natural zoological explanation.
For example, the Sunset Zoological Park offers half-price admission for children ages three to 12.
And American Zoological Association members get 50 percent off admission.
The Fort Worth Zoological Association is in charge of the daily management of the zoo, after taking over duties from the City of Forth Worth in 1991.
The San Antonio Zoo, operated by the San Antonio Zoological Society, is a popular Texas attraction that is open 365 days a year.
There's actually no need to search for Washington DC zoo coupons to save money as you plan your visit to the Smithsonian National Zoological Park.
The Smithsonian National Zoological Park was designed to preserve animals on the brink of extinction.
The Smithsonian National Zoological Park is a part of the Smithsonian Institution, which is the world's largest museum and research complex.
Even though the Smithsonian National Zoological Park does not charge admission, there is a fee for parking.
One of the reasons why the Smithsonian National Zoological Park does not charge admission is that the zoo benefits from the generous support of local residents.
In addition, a reciprocal membership agreement allows you to use your membership to the Smithsonian National Zoological Park to gain free or discounted admission to more than 100 other zoos and aquariums throughout the United States.
The wild escape houses more than 5,000 permanent wildlife residents on 55 acres of lush zoological gardens and special exhibit areas.
Located in Papago Park, the zoo is one of the largest non-profit zoological parks in the nation, and consistently ranks as one of the top five best family-friendly zoos in the United States.
Bat tattoos evoke a number of symbols from the gothic to the zoological.
Soc. xx.; Haacke, Schopfung des Menschen; Mitchell, " Valuation of Zoological Characters," Trans.
Since then many others have been obtained, and one lived for several years in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London.
SPARASSODONTA, a zoological name applied to a group of primitive carnivorous mammals from the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, represented by the genera Borhyaena, Prothylacinus, Amphiproviverra, &c. By their first describer, Dr F.
Lyell, discussing the facts of zoological distribution, admits that the farther we go north.
The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'
We may here quote Newton (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., " Birds," p. 738) on the remarkable differences between this region and the rest of the Old World: - " The prevalent zoological features of any Region are of two kinds - negative and positive.
DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided.
The zoological provinces of Asia correspond very closely with the botanical.
to the Zoological Society in 1866, and published in its Proceedings for that year (pp. 5-20), since it was immediately after reprinted by the Smithsonian Institution, and with that authoriza tion has exercised a great influence on the opinions of American ornithologists.
Almost simultaneously with this he expounded more particularly before the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings (1868, pp. 2 94-3 1 9) his results were soon after published, the groups of which he believed the Alectoromorphae to be composed and the relations to them of some outlying forms usually regarded as Gallinaceous, the Turnicidae and Pteroclidae, as well as the singular hoactzin, for all three of which he had to institute new groups - the last forming the sole representative of his Heteromorphae.
Forbes, two brilliant and short lived young men who occupied successively the post of prosector to the Zoological Society of London, and who made a rich use of the material provided by the collection of that society.
For nearly 2000 years the few writers who dealt with zoological subjects followed Aristotle's leading.
The tax rate for 1920-I was $2.55 per $loo assessed valuation, divided as follows: state purposes, $o.18; public schools, $0.78; municipal government, $1.51; public library, $0.04; art museum, $0.02; zoological park, $0.02.
The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.
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