outside the customs union (Zollverein), the imports being principally coals, bricks and timber, and the exports fish.
In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
Soon the growing desire for liberty made itself felt in Hesse, and in 1820 Louis gave a constitution to the land; various forms were carried through; the system of government was reorganized, and in 1828 Hesse-Darmstadt joined the Prussian Zollverein.
In 1866 Hamburg joined the North German Confederation, and in 1871, while remaining outside the Zollverein, became a constituent state of the German empire.
In 1883-1888 the works for the Free Harbour were completed, and on the 18th of October 1888 Hamburg joined the Customs Union (Zollverein).
The jurisdiction of the Free Port was on the 1st of January 1882 restricted to the city and port by the extension of the Zollverein to the lower Elbe, and in 1888 the whole of the state of Hamburg, with the exception of the so-called "Free Harbour" (which comprises the port proper and some large warehouses, set apart for goods in bond), was taken into the Zollverein.
The advance in its material prosperity has been especially rapid since the incorporation of Saxony in the German Zollverein.
Delbriick in 1851 induced Hanover, Oldenburg and SchaumburgLippe to join the Zollverein; and the southern states, which had agreed to admit Austria to the union, found themselves forced in 1853 to renew the old union, from which Austria was excluded.
In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.
The city joined the German Zollverein in 1836.
In 1832 the adhesion of Baden to the Prussian Zollverein did much for the material prosperity of the country.
At the same time the great powers guaranteed the neutrality of the grand-duchy, and although a member of the German Zollverein, Luxemburg now forms a sovereign and independent state.
census at short intervals used to be taken in all the states of the Zollverein, for the purpose of ascertaining the contribution to the federal revenue, the amount of which was revisable every three years.
The French government at once set to work to enter into similar arrangements with other countries, and treaties were successively concluded in 1860-66 with Belgium, with the Zollverein (Germany), Italy, Switzerland, Sweden and Norway, Holland, Spain, Austria.
The tariff history of Germany, up to the foundation of the German Empire, is the history of the Zollverein or German customs union; and this in turn is closely connected with the tariff history of Prussia.
Finally, by gradual steps between 1831 and 1834, the complete Zollverein was formed, notwithstanding popular opposition.
The tariff of the Zollverein was, in essentials, the Prussian tariff of 1818, and was moderate as compared with most of the separate tariffs previously existing.
Within the Zollverein, after 1834, there was an almost unceasing struggle between the protectionist and Free Trade parties, Prussia supporting in the main a Liberal policy, while the South German states supported a Protectionist policy.
The trend of the tariff policy of the Zollverein for some time after 1834 was towards protection; partly because the specific duties of 1818 became proportionately heavier as manufactured commodities fell in price, partly because some actual changes in rates were made in response to the demands of the Protectionist states.
In 1853 a treaty between the Zollverein and Austria brought about reciprocal reductions of duty between these two parties.
After 1860 a change towards a more liberal policy was brought about by the efforts of Prussia, which concluded independently a commercial treaty with France, forcing on the other members of the Zollverein the alternative of either parting company French with Prussia or of joining her in her relations with treaty France.
The second alternative was accepted, largely and low because Austria did not vigorously support the South tariff, German states, and in 1865 the Zollverein as a whole 186x' concluded a commercial treaty with France, bringing about important reductions of duty.
After the foundation of the German Empire, the duties of the Zollverein became those of Germany, and for a time the liberal regime was maintained and extended, with respect to the tariff as with respect to other matters.
Richelot, Le Zollverein (1859) J.
Refusing to join the Prussian Zollverein, Hanover had become a member of the rival commercial union, the Steuerverein, three years before Ernest's accession; but as this union was not a great success the Zollverein was joined in 1851.
In his chief's most important work, the establishment of the Prussian Zollverein, Ancillon had no share, while the entirely subordinate role played by Prussia in Europe during this period, together with the personal part taken by the sovereign in the various congresses, gave him little scope for the display of any diplomatic talents he may have possessed.
Schrenk soon retired, when the Bavarian government found it necessary, in order to maintain its position in the Prussian Zollverein, to become a party to the Prussian commercial treaty with France, signed in 1862.
Above all it evolved the Customs-Union (Zollverein), which gradually attached the smaller states, by material interests if The not by sympathy, to the Prussian system.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
Baden and Nassau (1836), Frankfort and Luxemburg (1842), joined the Prussian Zollverein, to which certain of the members of the Steuerverein also transferred themselves (Brunswick and Lippe, 1842).
The temporary dissolution of the Zollverein in 1851
In Germany the relations between prussia Austria and Prussia were becoming unpleasantly and the strained in the question of the admission of the Habs Austro- burg monarchy to the Zollverein, in that of the elector Italian of Hesse and his parliament, in that of the relation War, of the Elbe duchies to the crown of Denmark.
Prussia, however, remained firm, and declared that, were the treaty rejected, she would break up the Zollverein.
The first step was the inclusion of Hamburg and Bremen in the Zollverein; this was necessary if German maritime enterprise was to become a national and not merely a local concern, for the two Hansa cities practically controlled the whole foreign trade and owned three-quarters of the shipping; but so long as they were excluded for the Customs Union their interests were more -cosmopolitan than national.
As a follower of the ideas of Friedrich List, he furthered the foundation of the Zollverein in the year 1833 and the making of canals.
On the 27th of June 1867 Lubeck concluded a military convention with Prussia, and on the 11th of August 1868 entered the German Customs Union (Zollverein), though reserving to itself certain privileges in respect of its considerable wine trade and commerce with the Baltic ports.
With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.
Since 1888, when Altona joined the imperial Zollverein, approximately half a million sterling has been spent upon harbour improvement works.
In 1864 Altona was occupied in the name of the German Confederation, passed to Prussia after the war of 1866, and 1888 together with Hamburg joined the Zollverein, while retaining certain free trade rights over the Freihafengebiet which it shares with Hamburg and Wandsbek.
At this conference it is worthy of note that Mr Hofmeyr propounded a sort of " Zollverein " scheme, in which imperial customs were to be levied independently of the duties payable on all goods entering the empire from abroad.
Further progress in this direction was made during the 19th century, especially after 1834 when Saxony joined the German Zollverein.
This, however, soon passed away, while trade was fostered by the inclusion of Wurttemberg in the German Zollverein and by the construction of railways.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Seven Years' War and the troubles consequent upon the French Revolution, the trade of the Leipzig fairs considerably decreased, but it recovered after the accession of Saxony to the German Customs Union (Zollverein) in 1834, and for the next twenty years rapidly and steadily increased.
Another revival, however, set in after the peace of 1815, and this was aided by the accession of Saxony to the German Zollverein in 1834, and by the opening of the first railway a little later.
Joining the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluctantly, the Prussian Zollverein.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.