These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
Among the latest poets we may mention Wyspianski, Kisiliewski, Reymont, Mme Zapolska; the latter is the author of some powerful realistic novels and plays, and she has been called the Polish Zola.
Zola's Lourdes (Paris, 1894), a criticism from the sceptical point of view, in the form of a realistic novel, has called forth many replies from the Catholic side.
He succeeded Clemenceau as editor of the Aurore, in which Zola's letter "J'accuse" had appeared, and was president of the Association of Republican Journalists.
Zola and an opponent of the anti-Semitic and Nationalist campaign.
Other notable trials in which he was concerned were the prosecution of Emile Zola for libel (1898), which arose out of the Dreyfus case; the Humbert affair (1902); and the trial of Madame Caillaux for the murder of M.
des beaux-arts (Paris, 1878); Zola, Mes Haines (Paris, 1879); C. Lemonnier, Les Peintres de la Vie (Paris, 1888).
EMILE EDOUARD CHARLES ANTOINE ZOLA (1840-1902), French novelist, was born in Paris on the 2nd of April 1840, his father being an engineer, part Italian and part Greek, and his mother a Frenchwoman.
Meanwhile, with characteristic energy, Zola was projecting something more important: the creation of a world of his own, like that of Balzac's Comedie Humaine - the history of a family in its various ramifications during the Second Empire.
The history of this family, the Rougon-Macquart, was to be told in a series of novels containing a scientific study of heredity - science was always Zola's ignis fatuus - and a picture of French life and society.
In 1888 Zola departed from his usual vein in the idyllic story of Le Rive.
Zola also wrote a series of three romances on cities, Lourdes, Rome, Paris (1894-98), novels on the "gospels" of population (Fecondite) and work (Travail), a volume of plays, and several volumes of criticism, .and other things.
Zola was the apostle of the "realistic" or "naturalistic" school; but he was in truth not a "naturalist" at all, in so far as "naturalism" is to be regarded as a record of fact.
But for rendering the gloomy horror of the subjects in which he most delights - detail on detail being accumulated till the result is overwhelming - Zola has no superior.
Zola played a very important part in the Dreyfus affair, which convulsed French politics and social life at the end of the 19th century.
Zola's object was a prosecution for libel, and a judicial inquiry into the whole affaire, and at the trial, which took place in Paris in February, a fierce flood of light was thrown on the case.
The chiefs of the army put forth all their power, and Zola was condemned.
A second trial took place at Versailles, on the 18th of July, and without waiting the result Zola, by the advice of his counsel and friends, and for reasons of legal strategy, abruptly left France and took refuge in England.
Whatever may be thought of the affaire itself, there can be no question of Zola's superb courage and disinterestedness.
On the morning of the 29th of September 1902 Zola was found dead in the bedroom of his Paris house, having been accidentally asphyxiated by the fumes from a defective flue.
the time of his death Zola had just completed a novel, Verite, dealing with the incidents of the Dreyfus trial.
After a life of constant struggle and an obloquy which never relaxed, the sensational close of Zola's career was the signal for an extraordinary burst of eulogy.
Zola's literary position would have more than qualified him for the French Academy.
M.), See Emile Zola, Novelist and Reformer (1904), giving a full account of his life and work, by E.
Vizetelly, who translated and edited many of his works in English; also P. Alexis, Emile Zola, Notes d'un ami; F.
Sherard, Emile Zola: a biographical and critical study (1903); A.
Laporte, Emile Zola, l'homme et l'c uvre (1894) with a bibliography.
A complete report of the proceedings against Zola is printed in Le Proces Zola (2 vols.
But the anti-Semitic and antiDreyfusard spirit in certain French circles could not easily be quelled even then; and on the occasion of the translation of the remains of Emile Zola (Dreyfus's determined champion) to the Pantheon on the 4th of June 1908, Major Dreyfus was shot at and wounded by a fanatical journalist named Gregori, who was subsequently acquitted by a Paris jury of the charge of attempted murder, his own plea being that he had merely intended a "demonstration."
He was intensely interested in the Dreyfus case, but his robust constitution was undermined by the anxieties and disappointments occasioned by the Zola trial and the Rennes court-martial, and he died in Paris on the 13th of November 1899.
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