It was disputed in earlier times whether the temple was dedicated to Zeus or Athena.
He was commonly compared to Olympian Zeus, partly because of his serene and dignified bearing, partly by reason of the majestic roll of the thundering eloquence, with its bold poetical imagery, with which he held friend and foe spellbound.
His mother was carried off by Zeus to the island of Oenone, which was afterwards called by her name.
When Zeus had resolved to destroy all mankind by a flood, Deucalion constructed a boat or ark, in which, after drifting nine days and nights, he landed on Mount Parnassus (according to others, Othrys, Aetna or Athos) with his wife.
2.221) states that the Epirots were also called Pelasgians; the Pelasgian Zeus was worshipped at Dodona (Homer, Il.
It is noteworthy that whereas, in Greece proper, Zeus attains a supreme position, the old superiority of the Mother Goddess is still visible in the Cretan traditions of Rhea and Dictynna and the infant Zeus.
He was often identified with Zeus, Apollo and Dionysus.
It is probable that Zalmoxis is Sabazius, the Thracian Dionysus or Zeus; Mnaseas of Patrae identified him with Cronus.
Other accounts of his death are: that he killed himself from grief at the failure of his journey to Hades; that he was struck with lightning by Zeus for having revealed the mysteries of the gods to men; or he was torn to pieces by the Maenads for having abandoned the cult of Dionysus for that of Apollo.
He is said to have visited Ceos, where, by erecting a temple to Zeus Icmaeus (the giver of moisture), he freed the inhabitants from a terrible drought.
Athens, however, was the favourite site of his architectural labours; here he built the temple of Olympian Zeus, the Panhellenion, the Pantheon, the library, a gymnasium and a temple of Hera.
SARPEDON, in Greek legend, son of Zeus and Laodameia, Lycian prince and hero of the Trojan war.
AEACUS, in Greek legend, ancestor of the Aeacidae, was the son of Zeus and Aegina, daughter of the river-god Asopus.
But Zeus descended to her in a shower of gold, and she gave birth to Perseus, whereupon Acrisius placed her and her infant in a wooden box and threw them into the sea.
Cook, Minos and Minotaur are only different forms of the same personage, representing the sun-god Zeus of the Cretans, who represented the sun as a bull.
By command of Zeus she carries in a ewer water from the Styx, with which she puts to sleep all who perjure themselves.
The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'
But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.
The story of the baetylus, or stone swallowed by Saturn under the belief that it was his son, the Cretan Zeus, seems to cover the same idea and has been derived from the same Semitic word.
According to the received tradition, Minos was a king of Cnossus in Crete; he was a son of Zeus, and enjoyed through life the privilege of habitual intercourse with his divine father.
TANTALUS, in Greek legend, son of Zeus (or Tmolus) and Pluto (Wealth), daughter of Himantes, the father of Pelops and Niobe.
In front of the former, as in front of those of Heracles and Zeus, stood a huge altar for burnt offerings, as long as the facade of the temple itself.
(I) In Homeric times all strangers without exception were regarded as being under the protection of Zeus Xenios, the god of strangers and suppliants.
Having promised that Zeus Ammon would visit her in the form of a dragon, he himself assumed the disguise.
According to Philochorus, as quoted by a scholiast on Aristophanes, he fled to Elis, where he made the great statue of Zeus for the Eleans, and was afterwards put to death by them.
Of the Zeus we have unfortunately lost all trace save small copies on coins of Elis, which give us but a general notion of the pose, and the character of the head.
In later tradition, Sarpedon was the son of Zeus and Europa and the brother of Minos.
Therefore Zeus turned Pandareus into a stone,.
It should be noted that their traditional names, with the exception of that of Zeus and that of Asclepius, have no foundation in fact, while the attribution of the temple in antis, into the cella of which the church of S.
The cave sanctuary of the Dictaean Zeus has been explored, and throughout the whole length and breadth of the island a mass of early materials has now been collected.
PROSERPINE (Proserpina), the Latin form of Persephone,' a Greek goddess, daughter of Zeus and the earth-goddess Demeter.
Of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, who is also called Melkart (king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles, but sometimes with the Olympian Zeus, we have many accounts in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards.
He himself erected a temple to Zeus Panhellenios and helped Poseidon and Apollo to build the walls of Troy.
With the same idea he built the temple of the Pythian Apollo and began, though he did not finish, the temple of Zeus (the magnificent columns now standing belong to the age of Hadrian).
Cakes were laid on the altar of Zeus Polieus and oxen driven round; the one which touched the cakes was the victim.
They were not considered to be of the same blood as the Carians, and were, therefore, excluded from the temple of the Carian Zeus at Mylasa, which was common to the Carians, Lydians and Mysians, though their language was the same as that of the Carians proper.
128) he was slain by Zeus with a thunderbolt.
At last Pan, the old god of Arcadia, discovered her hiding-place, and informed Zeus, who sent the Moirae (Fates) to fetch her out.
In the baths were found a number of works of art, now in the Vatican, notably the mosaic pavement of the Sala della Rotonda, and the celebrated head of Zeus and the head of Claudius in the same room.
The Temple of Jerusalem was made over to Zeus Olympius: the temple of Gerizim to Zeus Xenius.
The principal Philistine tribe is indeed known in the biblical records as the Cherethims or Cretans, and the Minoan name and the cult of the Cretan Zeus were preserved at Gaza to the latest classical days.
Among the more interesting relics found were ivory figures of Egyptian or strongly Egyptianizing fabric. On an adjacent hill were the remains of what seems to have been in later times a temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and from the occurrence of rich deposits of Minoan vases and sacrificial remains at a lower level, the religious tradition represented by the later temple seems to go back to prehistoric times.
Milchhdfer (Anfdnge der Kunst) had called attention to certain remarkable examples of archaic Greek bronze-work, and the subsequent discovery of the votive bronzes in the cave of Zeus on Mount Ida, and notably the shields with their fine embossed designs, shows that by the 8th century B.C. Cretan technique in metal not only held its own beside imported Cypro-Phoenician work, but was distinctly ahead of that of the rest of Greece (Halbherr, Bronzi del antro di Zeus Ideo).
The Cretans themselves claimed for their island to be the birthplace of Zeus, as well as the parent of all the other divinities usually worshipped in Greece as the Olympian deities.
1497), while Hofer (in Roscher's Lexikon) suggests that the episodes of the murder of his father and of his marriage are reminiscences of the overthrow of Cronus by Zeus and of the union of Zeus with his own sister.
It was said that Zeus threw it down from heaven when Ilus was founding the city of Ilium, Odysseus and Diomedes carried it off from the temple of Athena, and thus made the capture of Troy possible.
So all that year not a blade of corn grew on the earth, and men would have died of hunger if Zeus had not persuaded Pluto to let Proserpine go.
According to Callimachus (Hymn to Diana, 190), she was a nymph, the daughter of Zeus and Carme, and a favourite companion of Artemis.
In works of art there is considerable resemblance between the representations of Zeus, king of the gods, and Agamemnon, king, of men.
He was the traditional king of Sipylus in Lydia (or of Phrygia), and was the intimate friend of Zeus and the other gods, to whose table he was admitted.
His mother, Eos, removed his body from the field of battle, and it was said that Zeus, moved by her tears, bestowed immortality upon him.
The islanders worshipped him, and occasionally identified him with Zeus, calling him Zeus Aristaeus.
A terrible struggle took place for the possession of his body, until Apollo rescued it from the Greeks, and by the command of Zeus washed and cleansed it, anointed it with ambrosia, and handed it over to Sleep and Death, by whom it was conveyed for burial to Lycia, where a sanctuary (Sarpedoneum) was erected in honour of the fallen hero.
His successful prayer to Zeus for rain at a time of drought (Isocrates, Evagoras, 14) was commemorated by a temple at Aegina (Pausanias ii.
DEMETER, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, goddess of agriculture and civilized life.
At last Zeus appeases her by allowing her daughter to spend two-thirds of the year with her in the upper world.
According to others, Pandareus stole a golden dog which guarded the temple of Zeus in Crete, and gave it to Tantalus to take care of.
He is described as a grisly monster with a hundred dragons' heads, who was conquered and cast into Tartarus by Zeus.
Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
There is perhaps a certain religious enthusiasm in the thought of being passively determined by Fate, the Universe, Zeus.
SABAZIUS, a Phrygian or Thracian deity, frequently identified with Dionysus, sometimes (but less frequently) with Zeus.
HESPERIDES, in Greek mythology, maidens who guarded the golden apples which Earth gave Hera on her marriage to Zeus.
of Candia, was regarded with veneration in antiquity as the burial-place of Zeus.
Numerous large caves exist in the mountains; among the most remarkable are the famous Idaean cave in Psiloriti, the caves of Melidoni, in Mylopotamo, and Sarchu, in llalevisi, which sheltered hundreds of refugees after the insurrection of 1866, and the Dictaean cave in Lassithi, the birth-place of Zeus.
Shrines of the Double Axes have been found in the palace of Cnossus itself, at Hagia Triada, and in a small palace at Gournia, and many specimens of the sacred emblem occurred in the Cave Sanctuary of Dicte, the mythical birthplace of the Cretan Zeus.
- Near the village of Psychro on the Lassithi range, answering to the western Dicte, opens a large cave, identified with the legendary birthplace of the Cretan Zeus.
The Dorian dynasts in Crete seem in some sort to have claimed descent from Minos, and the Dorian legislators sought their sanction in the laws which Minos was said to have received from the hands of the Cretan Zeus.
In the legends of Peloponnesus, Agamemnon was regarded as the highest type of a powerful monarch, and in Sparta he was worshipped under the title of Zeus Agamemnon.
given in NSI., p. 268, translated Sol sanctissimus; he was further identified with Zeus.
Both Baal and Astarte were venerated in Egypt at Thebes and Memphis in the XIXth Dynasty, and the former, through the influence of the Aramaeans who borrowed the Babylonian spelling Bel, ultimately became known as the Greek Belos who was identified with Zeus.
The supporters of the solar theory look upon Memnon as the son of the dawn, who, though he might vanish from sight for a time, could not be destroyed; hence the immortality bestowed upon him by Zeus.
by 212), the upper portion of which is cut out of the rock, while the lower is enclosed by a semicircular wall of massive masonry; the theory of these scholars, however, that the whole precinct was a sanctuary of the Pelasgian Zeus cannot be regarded as proved, nor is it easy to abandon the generally received view that this was the scene of the popular assemblies of later times, notwithstanding the apparent unsuitability of the ground and the insufficiency of room for a large multitude.
high, approached on either side by a flight of steps leading to the top; this block, which Curtius supposes to have been the primitive altar of Zeus "T ' w ros, may be safely identified with the orators' bema, 6 X Wos Ev 7-?7 IIUKvL (Aristoph.
15) in proximity to that building, as well as the temple of Dionysus Ev Aiµvats and other shrines, the temples of Zeus Olympius and of Ge and the Pythium, which he mentions as situated mainly to the south of the Acropolis.
The greatest of their foundations, the temple of Olympian Zeus, will be Academy referred to later.
Among the other noteworthy buildings of the Peiraeus were the arsenal (vKEUoOKrl) of Philo and the temples of Zeus Soter, the patron god of the sailors, of the Cnidian Artemis, built by Cimon, and of Artemis Munychia, situated near the fort on the Munychia height; traces of a temple of Asclepius, of two theatres and of a hippodrome remain.
Beyond the Parthenon, a little to the north-east, was the great altar of Athena, and near it the statue and altar of Zeus Polieus.
At its north-western extremity is a platform of levelled rock which may have supported the altar of Zeus Hypsistus.
The greatest monument, however, of the Hellenistic period is the colossal Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, " unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei " (Livy The 01 m- xli.
12 9, the temple was completed and dedicated by Hadrian, who set up a chryselephantine statue of Zeus in the cella.
ASTRAEA, in Greek legend, the "star maiden," daughter of Zeus and Themis, or of Astraeus the Titan and Eos, in which case she is identified with Dike.
Heraclea was also the name of one of the Sporades, between Naxos and Ios, which is still called Raklia, and bears traces of a Greek township with temples to Tyche and Zeus Lophites.
DARDANUS, in Greek legend, son of Zeus and Electra, the mythical founder of Dardanus on the Hellespont and ancestor of the Dardans of the Troad and, through Aeneas, of the Romans.
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
Muller, it had its origin in the worship of Zeus Laphystius; the fleece is the pledge of reconciliation; Jason is a propitiating god of health, Medea a goddess akin to Hera; Aeetes is connected with the Colchian sun-worship. Forchhammer saw in it an old nature symbolism; Jason, the god of healing and fruitfulness, brought the fleece - the fertilizing rain-cloud - to the western land that was parched by the heat of the sun.
The earlier part of it treated of the mythical adventures of Aeneas in Sicily, Carthage and Italy, and borrowed from the interview of Zeus and Thetis in the first book of the Iliad the idea of the interview of Jupiter and Venus; which Virgil has made one of the cardinal passages in the Aeneid.
After a long and happy life in Lacedaemon, Menelaus, as the son-in-law of Zeus, did not die but was translated to Elysium (Homer, Odyssey, iii.
The heats of formation thus obtained may be either positive or negative, and by using them to supplement the heat of formation of water, Arrhenius calculated the total heats of neutralization of soda by different acids, some of them only slightly dissociated, and found values agreeing well with observation (Zeus.
With Zeus and Apollo, she forms a triad which represents the embodiment of all divine power.
p. 1194) thinks that it probably means "without mother's milk," either in an active or in a passive sense - "not giving suck," or "unsuckled," in her character as the virgin goddess, or as springing from the head of Zeus.
According to the legend, her father Zeus swallowed his wife Metis ("counsel"), when pregnant with Athena, since he had been warned that his children by her might prove stronger than himself and dethrone him.
In Crete she was said to have issued from a cloud burst asunder by Zeus.
7roXcou os, in many Greek states, and is frequently associated with Zeus 7roXtcbs.
Their bodies lay for nine days unburied, for Zeus had changed the people to stone; on the tenth day they were buried by the gods.
He compares her story with that of Lamia, who, after her children had been slain by Zeus, retired to a lonely cave and carried off and killed the children of others.
Genera: Cepola, Echeneis, Coryphaena, Gobius, Cottus, Scorpaena, Zeus, Pleuronectes, Chaetodon, Sparus, Labrus, Sciaena, Perca, Gasterosteus, Scomber, Mullus, Trigla.
It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.
In the beginning were Chronos, the principle of time; Zeus (Zas), the principle of life; and Chthonie, the earth goddess.
Renewed freedom was celebrated by a colossal statue of Zeus Eleutherius and by a yearly feast in his honour.
Marcellus, after an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate, began the siege in regular form (214 B.C.) by both land and sea, establishing a camp on Polichne, where stood the old temple of Olympian Zeus; but he made his chief assault on the northern side and on the defences of Tyche, particularly at the Hexapylum, the entrance facing Megara and Leontini.
Each of the nine cunei bore a name: the inscriptions of five of them, still preserved on the rock, are in honour of Zeus, Heracles, King Hiero II., his wife Philistis, and his daughterin-law Nereis.
According to Lactantius, it prophesied the overthrow of Rome and the advent of Zeus to help the godly and destroy the wicked, but omitted all reference to the sending of the Son of God.
Leto, pregnant by Zeus, seeks for a place of refuge to be delivered.
In the oldest forms of the legend Hera is not mentioned; but afterwards the wanderings of Leto are ascribed to the jealousy of that goddess, enraged at her amour with Zeus.
According to Aristophanes, he was blinded by Zeus because he distributed his gifts without regard to merit.
Traces of this union of immigrants with older inhabitants have been detected in the combination of Zeus Herkeios with Apollo Patrons as the ancient gods of the phratry.
It was said Zeus had started two eagles from the opposite extremities and they met there.
Other tales said the stone was the one given by Rhea to Cronus as a substitute for Zeus.
Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.
On his return to Thebes he married Alcmene, who gave birth to twin sons, Iphicles being the son of Amphitryon, Heracles of Zeus, who had visited her during Amphitryon's absence.
Amphitryon was the title of a lost tragedy of Sophocles; the episode of Zeus and Alcmene forms the subject of comedies by Plautus and Moliere.
ANCAEUS, in Greek legend, son of Zeus or Poseidon, king of the Leleges of Samos.
He is a form of the Lemnian Hephaestus, who alighted on the island when flung out of Olympus by Zeus.
Some assume it to be Erichthonius, son of Athena and Hephaestus, who was translated to the skies by Zeus on account of his invention of chariots or coaches.
His grandfather Aeacus was, according to the legend, the son of Zeus himself.
The Perseid Alcmena, wife of Amphitryon of Tiryns, was Hercules' mother, Zeus his father.
By the craft of Hera, his foe through life, his birth was delayed, and that of Eurystheus, son of Sthenelus of Argos, hastened, Zeus having in effect sworn that the elder of the two should rule the realm of Perseus.
Whereupon he seized the oracular tripod, and so entered upon a contest with Apollo, which Zeus stopped by sending a flash of lightning between the combatants.
The assault on Thebes was disastrous for the Seven; and Amphiaraus, pursued by Periclymenus, would have been slain with his spear, had not Zeus with a thunderbolt opened a chasm into which the seer, with his chariot, horses and charioteer, disappeared.
In Homer he is the origin of all things, even the father of the gods, and the equal in rank of all of them save Zeus.
After Prometheus had stolen fire from heaven and bestowed it upon mortals Zeus determined to counteract this blessing.
She misled even Zeus to take a hasty oath, whereby Heracles became subject to Eurystheus.
Zeus thereupon cast her by the hair out of Olympus, whither she did not return, but remained on earth, working evil and mischief (Iliad, xix.
She is followed by the Litae (Prayers), the old and crippled daughters of Zeus, who are able to repair the evil done by her (Iliad, ix.
with the caprine nurse of the young solar god in Oriental legends, of which that of Zeus and Amalthia is a Capri- variant.'
On the second, Anarrhysis (from &vappuecv, to draw back the victim's head), a sacrifice of oxen was offered at the public cost to Zeus Phratrius and Athena.
ARES, in ancient Greek mythology, the god of war, or rather of battle, son of Zeus and Hera.
His quarrelsomeness was regarded as inherited from his mother, and it may have been only as an illustration of the perpetual strife between Zeus and Hera that Ares was accounted their son.
All the gods, even Zeus, hate him, but his bitterest enemy is Athena, who fells him to the ground with a huge stone.
Thus, he engages in combat with Heracles on two occasions to avenge the death of his son Cycnus; once Zeus separates the combatants by a flash of lightning, but in the second encounter he is severely wounded by his adversary, who has the active support of Athena; maddened by jealousy, he changes himself into the boar which slew Adonis, the favourite of Aphrodite; and stirs up the war between the Lapithae and Centaurs.
His subjects were ordered to worship him under the name of Zeus; he built a bridge of brass, over which he drove at full speed in his chariot to imitate thunder, the effect being heightened by dried skins and caldrons trailing behind, while torches were thrown into the air to represent lightning.
At last Zeus smote him with his thunderbolt, and destroyed the town (Apollodorus i.
According to Frazer (Early History of the Kingship, 1905; see also Golden Bough, i., 1 9 00, p. 82), the early Greek kings, who were expected to produce rain for the benefit of the crops, were in the habit of imitating thunder and lightning in the character of Zeus.
`EMv), in Greek mythology, daughter of Zeus by Leda (wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta), sister of Castor, Pollux and Clytaemnestra, and wife of Menelaus.
Other accounts make her the daughter of Zeus and Nemesis, or of Oceanus and Tethys.
The Greeks identified this constellation with the nymph Callisto, placed in the heavens by Zeus in the form of a bear together with her son Arcas as " bear-warder," or Arcturus; they named it Arctos, the she-bear, Helice, from its turning round the pole-star.
It had temples of Apollo Pythius, Artemis and Zeus.
Near the town was the famous fountain of Sauros, inclosed by fruit-bearing poplars; and not far from this was another spring, overhung by an evergreen plane tree which in popular belief marked the scene of the amours of Zeus and Europa.
Heracles, on his way back from the land of the Amazons, offered to slay the monster and release Hesione, on condition that he should receive the wonderful horses presented by Zeus to Tros, the father of Ganymede, to console him for the loss of his son.
31-33), its chief temples and statues, its springs, its market-place and gymnasium, its place of sacrifice (lepoOuvcov), the tomb of the hero Aristomenes and the temple of Zeus Ithomatas on the summit of the acropolis with a statue by the famous Argive sculptor Ageladas, originally made for the Messenian helots who had settled at Naupactus at the close of the third Messenian War.
MINOS, a semi-legendary king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
He lived at Cnossus for periods of nine years, at the end of which he retired into a sacred cave, where he received instruction from Zeus in the legislation which he gave to the island.
remains were sent back to the Cretans, who placed them in a sarcophagus, on which was inscribed: "The tomb of Minos, the son of Zeus."
==Wolf== Both Zeus and Apollo were associated with the wolf by the Greeks; but it is not clear that this implies a previous cult of the wolf.
Uranus and other Greek gods anterior to Zeus were probably deities worshipped by earlier barbarous inhabitants of the land.
by the Aeginetans to Zeus, by the Samians to Hera, and by the Milesians to Apollo.
Traces of all these temples, except that of Zeus, or at least dedications coming from them, have been found in the excavations, and another has been added to them, the temple of the Dioscuri.
The many hands of Zeus Sabazios turned up in ancient excavations observe a similar gesture.
Arrived in heaven, Pegasus served Zeus, fetching for him his thunder and lightning (Hesiod, Theog.
Their name is derived from a supposed ancestor, son of Zeus and Eurymedusa, who was wooed by the god in the form of an ant (Gr.
By Zeus she was the mother of Dardanus, Iasion (or Eetion), and Harmonia; but in the Italian tradition, which represented Italy as the original home of the Trojans, Dardanus was her son by a king of Italy named Corythus.
After her amour with Zeus, Electra fled to the Palladium as a suppliant, but Athena, enraged that it had been touched by one who was no longer a maiden, flung Electra and the image from heaven to earth, where it was found by Ilus, and taken by him to Ilium; according to another tradition, Electra herself took it to Ilium, and gave it to her son Dardanus (Schol.
After Egypt has been afflicted for nine years with famine, Phrasius, a seer of Cyprus, arrived in Egypt and announced that the cessation of the famine would not take place until a foreigner was yearly sacrificed to Zeus or Jupiter.
It is here that Busiris enters into the circle of the myths and parerga of Heracles, who had arrived in Egypt from Libya, and was seized and bound ready to be killed and offered at the altar of Zeus in Memphis.
Tertullian in fact created Christian Latin literature; one might almost say that that literature sprang from him full-grown, alike in form and substance, as Athena from the head of Zeus.
This is supported by the myth of his fall from heaven, and by the fact that, according to the Homeric tradition, his father was Zeus, the heaven-god.
In Homer the fire-god was the son of Zeus and Hera, and found a place in the Olympian system as the divine smith.
590) he was cast out by Zeus and fell on Lemnos; in the other, Hera threw him down immediately after his birth in disgust at his lameness, and he was received by the sea-goddesses Eurynome and Thetis.
Some mythologists have compared the hammer of Hephaestus with that of Thor, and have explained it as the emblem of a thunder-god; but it is Zeus, not Hephaestus, who causes the thunder, and the emblems of the latter god are merely the signs of his occupation as a smith.
On the other hand, the principal god of Babylon was Zeus Belus (Bel Marduk), and it is difficult to see why he should have been called Sarapis on this occasion.
Diaphorti), a mountain in Arcadia, sacred to Zeus Lycaeus, who was said to have been born and brought up on it, and the home of Pelasgus and his son Lycaon, who is said to have founded the ritual of Zeus practised on its summit.
The altar of Zeus consists of a great mound of ashes with a retaining wall.
According to the most widely spread myth, Briareus and his brothers were called by Zeus to his assistance when the Titans were making war upon Olympus.
Homer mentions him as assisting Zeus when the other Olympian deities were plotting against the king of gods and men (Iliad i.
Of Cassiope, the only other city of ancient importance, the name is still preserved by the village of Cassopo, and there are some rude remains of building on the site; but the temple of Zeus Cassius for which it was celebrated has totally disappeared.
Attis was also known as Papas, and the Bithynians and Phrygians, according to evidence of the time of the late Empire, called him Zeus.
17), Attis was a beautiful youth born of the daughter of the river Sangarius, who was descended from the hermaphroditic Agdistis, a monster sprung from the earth by the seed of Zeus.
Agdistis in repentance prevailed upon Zeus to grant that the body of the youth should never decay or waste.
Zeus grants the petition as in the version of Pausanias, but permits the hair of Attis to grow, and his little finger to move.
5, Court (ai)X17) surrounded by a 14, colonnade on three sides: 15, the altar to Zeus Herceus is 16, by the entrance.
Then came another similar, but smaller propylaeum, and opposite to that was the entrance to the great court (auXi 7), nearly 53 by 70 ft., in which stands an altar or pit of sacrifice, in a position similar to that occupied by the altar of Zeus Herceus in the later Greek house.
The first of Navasard, the Armenian new year's day, was the feast of a god Vanatur or Wanadur (who answered to Zeus EvLos) in the holy pilgrim city of Bagawan.
The first soma is supposed to have been stolen from its guardian demon by an eagle, this soma-bringing eagle of Indra being comparable with the nectar-bringing eagle of Zeus, and with the eagle which, as a metamorphosis of Odin, carried off the mead.
A statue of this god has been found near Gaza; it much resembles the Greek representation of Zeus.
In ancient times the island was sacred to Hephaestus, who as the legend tells fell on Lemnos when his father Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus.
Closer intimacy with the Greek world naturally brought about modifications in the character of the native gods, which became apparent when Ba'al of Sidon or Baal-shamem was identified with Zeus, Tanith with Demeter or Artemis, 'Anath with Athena, &c.; the notion of a supreme Ba'al, which finds expression in the Greek 1 3 Xos and (aaXris or 131 7 XOns (the goddess of Byblus), was no doubt encouraged by foreign influences.
This hill is the famous Cronion, sacred to Cronus, the father of Zeus.
Spartan arms could enforce the sanction which the Olympian Zeus gave to the oaths of the amphictyones, whose federal bond was symbolized by common worship at his shrine.
This phase may be considered as beginning after the establishment of Elean supremacy in 572 B.C. And so to the last Olympia always remained a central expression of the Greek ideas that the body of man has a glory as well as his intellect and spirit, that body and mind should alike be disciplined, and that it is by the harmonious discipline of both that men best honour Zeus.
The chryselephantine statue of the Olympian Zeus, by Pheidias, was carried to Constantinople, and perished in a great fire, A.D.
The Olympian temple of Zeus is said to have been dismantled, either by the Goths or by Christian zeal, in the reign of Theodosius II.
After this the inhabitants converted the temple of Zeus and the region to the south of it into a fortress, by constructing a wall from materials found among the ancient buildings.
The result of these six years' labours was, first, to strip off a thick covering of earth from the Altis, the consecrated precinct of the Olympian Zeus.
In a concise survey of the results obtained, it will be best to begin with the remains external to the precinct of Zeus.
14) whose hereditary privilege it was to keep the statue of Zeus clean.
In the Heraeum at Olympia, it may be remarked, the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 0.297 metre, and in the temple of Zeus an Attic foot of 1.08 English foot was used.
- If the northern limit of the Altis, like the west, south and east, had been traced by a boundary wall, this would have had the effect of excluding from the precinct a spot so sacred as the Cronion, " Hill of Cronus," inseparably associated with the oldest worship of Zeus at Olympia.
There are traces of an altar near the Heraeum which was probably older than the great altar of Zeus; this was probably the original centre of worship. The great altar of Zeus was of elliptic form, the length of the lozenge being directed from south-south-west to north-north-east, in such a manner that the axis would pass through the Cronion.
The Pelopium, to the west of the Altar of Zeus, was a small precinct in which sacrifices were offered to the hero Pelops.
The three temples of the Altis were those of Zeus, Hera and the Mother of the gods.
The Temple of Zeus, south of the Pelopium, stood on a high substructure with three steps.
The west section contained the throne and image of the Olympian Zeus.
It was smaller than the temple of Zeus, and, while resembling it in general plan, differed from it by its singular length relatively to its breadth.
The cella - divided, like that of Zeus, into three partitions by a double row of columns - had four " tongue-walls," or small screens, projecting at right angles from its north wall, and as many from the south wall.
Each of these treasure-houses was erected by a Greek state, either as a thank-offering for Olympian victories gained by its citizens, or as a general' mark of homage to the Olympian Zeus.
A marble bull; in front of the basin, bore an inscription saying that Herodes dedicates the whole to Zeus, in the name of his wife, Annia Regilla.
Raised on three steps, and formed by a single Doric colonnade, open towards the Altis, it afforded a place from which spectators could conveniently view the passage of processions and the sacrifices at the great altar of Zeus.
The Agora was the name given to that part of the Altis which had the Porch of Echo on the east, the Altar of Zeus on the west, the Metroum on the north, and the precinct of the Temple of Zeus on the south-west.
In this part stood the altars of Zeus Agoraios and Artemis Agoraia.
The Zanes were bronze images of Zeus, the cost of making which was defrayed by the fines exacted from competitors who had infringed the rules of the contests at Olympia.
Philolaus supposed that the sphere of the fixed stars, the five planets, the sun, moon and earth, all moved round the central fire, which he called the hearth of the universe, the house of Zeus, and the mother of the gods (see Stob.
AMPHION and Zethus, in ancient Greek mythology, the twin sons of Zeus by Antiope.
Then at the command of Zeus he was sent homewards, but was again wrecked on the island of Phaeacia, _whence he was conveyed to Ithaca in one of the wondrous Phaeacian ships.
In the apocryphal Acts of Barnabas, which profess to be written by him, he speaks of himself as having been formerly a servant of Cyrillus, the high priest of Zeus, and as having been baptized at Iconium.
The Greeks believed it to be either the mountain with which Zeus had crushed the giant Typhon (so Pindar, Pyth.
the protection of parents against children and vice versa, protection of widows, wardship of heiresses and orphans, divorce; in religious matters he superintended the Dionysia, the Thargelia, the processions in honour of Zeus the Saviour and Asclepius.
As a descendant of Zeus and famous for his beauty, he was one of the suitors of Helen; hence, after her abduction by Paris, he took part in the Trojan War, in which he distinguished himself by his bravery.
This magnificent edifice had, however, been evidently overthrown by the earthquake of 63, and is in its present condition a mere ruin, the rebuilding of which had not been begun at the time of the eruption,) so that the cult of the three Capitoline divinities was then carried on in the socalled temple of Zeus Milichius.
Close to this temple was another, of very small size, commonly known as the temple of Aesculapius, but probably dedicated to Zeus Milichius.
It is represented by the small theatre and the amphitheatre, the baths near the forum, the temple of Zeus Milichius, the Comitium and the original temple of Isis, but only a few private houses.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 264) they are the three sons of Uranus and Gaea - Brontes, Steropes and Arges, - storm-gods belonging to the family of the Titans, who furnished Zeus with thunder and lightning out of gratitude for his having released them from Tartarus.
They were slain by Apollo for having forged the thunderbolt with which Zeus slew Asclepius.
The epithet is applied to Zeus and the Erinyes as the deities of revenge and punishment.
After his attempt on the life of Phrixus, which was supposed to have succeeded, the Phthiots were ordered to sacrifice him to Zeus Laphystius, in order to appease the anger of the gods.
The legend of Athamas is probably founded on a very old custom amongst the Minyae - the sacrifice of the first-born of the race of Athamas to Zeus Laphystius.
The leaders of the Achaean invasion were Pelops, who took possession of Elis, and Aeacus, who became master of Aegina and was said to have introduced there the worship of Zeus Panhellenius, whose cult was also set up at Olympia.
(The excavations made in 1887 have shown that Vitruvius was right in describing the great temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens as being octastyle.
Ammon (Zeus) continued to be the great god of Thebes in its decay, and notwithstanding that a nome-capital in the north of the Delta and many lesser temples, from El Hibeh in Middle Egypt to Canopus on the sea, acknowledged Ammon as their supreme divinity, he probably in some degree represented the national aspirations of Upper Egypt as opposed to Middle and Lower Egypt: he also remained the national god of Ethiopia, where his name was pronounced Amane.
As king of the gods Ammon was identified by the Greeks with Zeus and his consort Mut with Hera.
Khnum was likewise identified with Zeus probably through his similarity to Ammon; his proper animal having early become extinct, Ammon horns in course of time were attributed to this god also.
HERA, in Greek mythology, the sister and wife of Zeus and queen of the Olympian gods; she was identified by the Romans with Juno.
In this character she pursues with vindictive hatred the heroines, such as Alcmene, Leto and Semele, who were beloved by Zeus.
The connexion of Zeus and Hera was probably not primitive, since Dione seems to have preceded Hera as the wife of Zeus at Dodona.
The origin of the connexion may possibly be due to the fusion of two "Pelasgic" tribes, worshipping Zeus and Hera respectively; but speculation on the earliest cult of the goddess, before she became the wife of Zeus, must be largely conjectural.
Such intercourse was sanctioned by the Samians, who excused it by the example of Zeus and Hera (schol.
In her general cult Hera was worshipped in two main capacities: (1) as the consort of Zeus and queen of heaven; (2) as the goddess who presided over marriage, and, in a wider sense, over the various phases of a woman's life.
2) calls Zeus and Hera the first wedded pair, and a sacrifice to Zeus TAECos and Hera TEXeia was a regular feature of the Greek wedding.
The cuckoo was also sacred to Hera, who, according to the Argive legend, was wooed by Zeus in the form of the bird.
Various ancient writers testify to the beauty and dignity of the statue, which was considered equal to the Zeus of Pheidias.
The site of Douche, famous for its worship of Baal (Zeus Dolichenus), adopted by the Seleucids and eventually spread all over the Roman empire, lies at Duluk, two hours N.W.; but nothing is to be seen there except a mound.
Such were the sanctuaries of Zeus Lycaeus in Arcadia, of Poseidon in the island of Calauria, and of Apollo at Delos; they were, however, numerous in Asia Minor.
Alexander is said to have camped on the site of Antioch, and dedicated an altar to Zeus Bottiaeus, which lay in the northwest of the future city.
The defeat of Oenomaiis by Pelops, a stranger from Asia Minor, points to the conquest of native Aresworshippers by immigrants who introduced the new religion of Zeus.
A temple of Zeus was excavated on a terrace of the acropolis; the great temple of Apollo crowned the summit of the hill.
SEMELE, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, and mother of Dionysus by Zeus.
It is said that Hera, having assumed the form of Semele's nurse, persuaded her rival to ask Zeus to show himself to her in all his glory.
Zeus and Semele probably represent the fertilizing rain of spring, and the earth, afterwards scorched by the summer heat.
Just as the inhabitants of each town honoured their tutelar deity by solemn processions to his temple, so, at the period of the Olympic games, the temple of Zeus at Olympia formed the goal of multitudes from every Hellenic country.
No less powerful was the attraction exercised by the shrines of the oracular divinities, though the influx of pilgrims was not limited to certain days, but, year in and year out, a stream of private persons, or embassies from the city-states, came flowing to the temple of Zeus in Dodona or the shrine of Apollo at Delphi.
Subsequently Areas, when hunting, chanced to pursue his mother Callisto, who had been transformed into a bear, as far as the temple of Lycaean Zeus; to prevent the crime of matricide Zeus transported them both to the heavens (Ovid, Metam.
POSEIDON, in Greek mythology, god of the sea and of water generally, son of Cronus and Rhea, and brother of Zeus and Pluto.
His attributes are the trident and the dolphin (sometimes the tunny fish.) As represented in art Poseidon resembles Zeus, but possesses less of his majestic calm, his muscles are more emphasized, and his hair is thicker and somewhat dishevelled.
He was the most beautiful of mortals, and was carried off by the gods (in the later story by Zeus himself, or by Zeus in the form of an eagle) to Olympus to serve as cupbearer (Apollodorus iii.
By way of compensation, Zeus presented his father with a team of immortal horses (or a golden vine).
When pederasty became common in Greece, an attempt was made to justify it and invest it with dignity by referring to the rape of the beautiful boy by Zeus; in Crete, where the love of boys was reduced to a system, Minos, the primitive ruler and law-giver, was said to have been the ravisher of Ganymede.
The worship of Zeus Olympius replaced the worship of Yahweh, and swine were offered as in the Eleusinian mysteries.
At the same time the Samaritan temple at Shechem was made over to Zeus Xenius: it is probable that the Samaritans were, like the Jews, divided into two parties.
Zeus was for him the supreme god of the Greek pantheon, and the syncretism, which he suggested for the sake of uniformity in his empire, assuredly involved no indignity to the only God of the Jews.
At Athens Antiochus began to build a vast temple of Zeus Olympius, in place of one begun by Peisistratus; but it was only finished by Hadrian in A.D.
Zeus Olympius was figured on his coins, and he erected a statue of Zeus Olympius in the Temple of Apollo at Daphne.
More, he identified himself - Epiphanes, God Manifest - with Zeus, when he magnified himself above all other gods (Dan.
Of the two chief methods of working bronze, gold and silver, it is probable that the hammer process was first practised, at least for statues, among the Greeks, who themselves attributed the invention of the art of hollow casting to Theodorus and Rhoecus, both Samian sculptors, about the middle of the 6th century B.C. Pausanias specially mentions that one of the oldest statues he had ever seen was a large figure of Zeus in Sparta, made of hammered bronze plates riveted together.
The colossal statues of ivory and gold by Pheidias were the most notable examples of this use of gold, especially his statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and the one of Zeus at Olympia.
It is probable that the face, neck, arms and feet were of ivory, while the rest of the figure was draped in gold, Like the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias, Hera was seated on an elaborately decorated throne, holding in her left hand the sceptre, surmounted in her case by the cuckoo (as that of Zeus had an eagle), and in her right, instead of an elaborate figure of Victory (such as the Athena Parthenos and the Olympian Zeus held), simply a pomegranate.
Heracles, whom Zeus had originally intended to be ruler of Argos, Lacedaemon and Messenian Pylos, had been supplanted by the cunning of Hera, and his intended possessions had fallen into the hands of Eurystheus, king of Mycenae.
As a punishment for supplying the Titans with water in their contest with Zeus, he was turned into a river of Hades, over which departed souls were ferried by Charon.
When Apollo and Poseidon became suitors for her hand, she swore to remain a maiden for ever; whereupon Zeus bestowed upon her the honour of presiding over all sacrifices.
Hestia was closely connected with Zeus, the god of the family both in its external relation of hospitality and its internal unity round its own hearth; in the Odyssey a form of oath is by Zeus, the table and the hearth.
In the gloomy rites of of the Diasia, the Olympian Zeus, as Zeus Meilichios god of wealth, has been imposed upon a chthonic snake-deity who is propitiated by holocausts of pigs and by a ritual of purgation (Harrison, Prol.
For the Kouretes, the fish and serpent-like peoples struck down by Zeus or Apollo, see Harrison, Annual of Brit.
There is an obvious development from the serpent qua reptile to the deity or the devil, and that the original theriomorphic form is not at once forgotten can be seen in Zeus Meilichios, Aesculapius Amynos, in the Cretan snake-goddesses, or in the Buddhist topes illustrated by Fergusson.
On its summit was an altar of Zeus Actaeus, in whose honour an annual festival was held in the dog-days, and worshippers clad themselves in skins.
This temple was dedicated to Zeus, and connected with the temple was an oracle 1 Voyage et aventures de Francois Leguat, &c. (2 vols., London, 1708).
which enjoyed more reputation in Greece than any other save that at Delphi, and which would seem to date from earlier times than the worship of Zeus; for the normal method of gathering the responses of the oracle was by listening to the rustling of an old oak tree, which was supposed to be the seat of the deity.
A Hesiodic fragment gives a complete description of the Dodonaea or Hellopia, which is called a district full of corn-fields, of herds and flocks and of shepherds, where is built on an extremity (ir' Eo arin) Dodona, where Zeus dwells in the stem of an oak (07y6s).
Towards the eastern end of this terrace are the scanty remains of a building which can hardly be anything but the temple of Zeus; it appears to have consisted of pronaos, naos or cella, and opisthodomus, and some of the lower drums of the internal columns of the cella were still resting on their foundations.
In it and around it were found the most interesting products of excavation - statuettes and decorative bronzes, many of them bearing dedications to Zeus Naius and Dione, and inscriptions, including many small tablets of lead which contained the questions put to the oracle.
The disposition of the Greeks to look to the west for the centres of religious feeling appears in the mention of Dodona and the Dodonaean Zeus, put in the mouth of the Thessalian Achilles.
Quarrel of Achilles with Agamemnon and the Greek army - Agamemnon, having been compelled to give up his prize Chryseis, takes Briseis from Achilles - Thereupon Achilles appeals to his mother Thetis, who obtains from Zeus a promise that he will give victory to the Trojans until the Greeks pay due honour to her son - Meanwhile Achilles takes no part in the war.
Agamemnon is persuaded by a dream sent from Zeus to take the field with all his forces.
Zeus ceases to watch the field - Poseidon secretly comes to the aid of the Greeks.
Sleep of Zeus, by the contrivance of Hera.
Zeus awakened - Restores the advantage to the Trojans - Ajax alone defends the ships.
The chief incidents in that part of the poem - the panic rush to the ships, the duels of Paris and Menelaus, and of Hector and Ajax, the Aristeia of Diomede - stand in no relation to the mainspring of the poem, the promise made by Zeus to Thetis.
It is true that in the thirteenth and fourteenth books the purpose of Zeus is thwarted for a time by other, gods; but in books ii.-vii.
Zeus has acquired the character of a supreme moral ruler; and although Athena and Poseidon are adverse influences in the poem, the notion of a direct contest between them is scrupulously avoided.
PHALARIS, tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, c. 570554 B.C. He was entrusted with the building of the temple of Zeus Atabyrius in the citadel, and took advantage of his position to make himself despot (Aristotle, Politics, v.
There is hardly room to doubt that we have here a tradition of human sacrifice in connexion with the worship of the Phoenician Baal (Zeus Atabyrius) such as prevailed at Rhodes; when misfortune threatened Rhodes the brazen bulls in.
AMALTHEIA, in Greek mythology, the foster-mother of Zeus.
This goat having broken off one of its horns, Amaltheia filled it with flowers and fruits and presented it to Zeus, who placed it together with the goat amongst the stars.
According to another story, Zeus himself broke off the horn and gave it to Amaltheia, promising that it would supply whatever she desired in abundance.
Cretan coins represent the infant Zeus being suckled by the goat; other Greek coins exhibit him suspended from its teats or carried in the arms of a nymph (Ovid, Fasti, v.
901), where they are called the children of Zeus and Themis, who superintend the operations of agriculture, indicates by the names assigned to them (Eunomia, Dike, Eirene, i.e.
Halbherr and P. Orsi, Antichita dell' antro di Zeus Ideo in .Creta (Rome, 1888).
Zeus is not self-existent in the sense in which the Indian Brahma is.
(4) The worship of trees, plants and animals is a particular phase of the wider series of nature-cults, only named here because of its frequency and its obvious survivals in some of the higher polytheisms, where, as in Egypt, the Apis bulls were worshipped; or where, as in Mesopotamia, the great gods are partly symbolized by animal forms; or where, as in Israel, Yahweh might be represented as a bull; or where, as in Greece, such epithets as Dendrites and Endendros preserved traces of the association of Dionysus and Zeus with vegetation; while sacred animals like the serpents of Aesculapius were preserved in the temples.6
Other deities, like Zeus, rise to the head of a monarchical polytheism, in which their physical base is almost, ' Gotternamen, Bonn, 1896, p. 279 ff.
She is the daughter of Ouranos and Gaia; and after Metis she becomes the bride of Zeus.6 Pindar describes her as born in a golden car from the primeval Oceanus, source of all things, to the sacred height of Olympus to be the consort of Zeus the saviour; and she bears the same august epithet, as the symbol of social justice and the refuge for the oppressed.'
The union of Zeus and Themis is, then, a later equivalent of the marriage of Zeus and Earth (ibid.
One particular god may be eminent enough, like Zeus, to rise above all others, and supply cultivated thought with a name for the supreme power; and this may be strengthened by the national motive as in the case of Israel.
Apollo proclaims at his birth that he will declare the counsel of Father Zeus to men.'
Zeus gave laws to Minos; Apollo revealed the Spartan constitution to Lycurgus; Zaleucus received the laws for the Locrians from Athena in a dream; Vishnu and Manu condescended to draw up law-books in India.
13), the latter of whom says that the place was sacred to Zeus, i.e.
After his sister had been carried off by Zeus, he was sent out to find her.
He, or his fifty impious sons, entertained Zeus and set before him a dish of human flesh; the god pushed away the dish in disgust and either killed the king and his sons by lightning or turned them into wolves (Apollodorus iii.
The deluge was said to have been sent by Zeus in the time of Deucalion in consequence of the sons' impiety.
2) says that Lycaon sacrificed a child to Zeus on the altar on mount Lycaeus, and immediately after the sacrifice was turned into a wolf.
This gave rise to the story that a man was turned into a wolf at each annual sacrifice to Zeus Lycaeus, but recovered his human form if he abstained from human flesh for ten years.
The oldest city, the oldest cultus (that of Zeus Lycaeus), and the first civilization of Arcadia are attributed to Lycaon.
His cult was driven out by that of the Hellenic Zeus, and Lycaon himself was afterwards represented as an evil spirit, who had insulted the new deity by setting human flesh before him.
Usener and others identify Lycaon with Zeus Lycaeus, the god of light, who slays his son Nyctimus (the dark) or is succeeded by him, in allusion to the perpetual succession of night and day.
Meyer, the belief that Zeus Lycaeus accepted human sacrifice in the form of a wolf was the origin of the myth that Lycaon, the founder of his cult, became a wolf, i.e.
Berard) take Zeus Lycaeus for a Semitic Baal, whose worship was imported into Arcadia by the Phoenicians; Immerwahr identifies him with Zeus Phyxios, the god of the exile who flees on account of his having shed blood.
Another explanation is that the place of the sacred wolf once worshipped in Arcadia was taken in cult by Zeus Lycaeus, and in popular tradition by Lycaon, the ancestor of the Arcadians, who was supposed to have been punished for his insulting treatment of Zeus.
When Dionysus leaped into the sea to escape from the pursuit of Lycurgus, king of the Thracian Edones, and Hephaestus was flung out of heaven by Zeus, both were kindly received by Thetis.
Again, when Hera, Athena and Poseidon threatened to bind Zeus in chains, she sent the giant Aegaeon, who delivered him out of their hands.
As a punishment, Ixion was seized with madness, until Zeus purified him of his crime and admitted him as a guest to Olympus.
Zeus bound him on a fiery wheel, which rolls unceasingly through the air or (according to the later version) in the underworld (Pindar, Pythia, ii.
Ixion himself is probably a by-form of Zeus (Usener in Rhein.
an autocrat, above them and above the law, realizing the theoretical doctrines of Plato and Aristotle, as the true king, who is a god among men, bound no more than Zeus by a law, because himself he is the law.
Zeus or Jupiter), in practice yields place to his attendant deities, who work in the world and are able to lead the believer, who has been initiated and keeps the commandments of purity, to salvation.
In the Iliad the word denotes an underground prison, as far below Hades as earth is below heaven, in which those who rebelled against the will of Zeus were confined.
109, 268), according to which the Cretan labyrinth or palace of Minos was the house of the double axe, the symbol of Zeus.
Rhadamanthys), in Greek mythology, son of Zeus and Europa and brother of Minos, king of Crete.
The religion of Zeus is then reformed under the influence of the cult of Apollo, who slays the dragon brought up by the earth-goddess on Parnassus, the seat of one of her oldest sanctuaries.
Zeus being firmly seated on his throne as the result of the slaying of the dragon by Orestes, the theological significance of the myth is forgotten, and the identifications Zeus-Agamemnon and GaiaClytaemnestra are abandoned.
hymn to Zeus.
Tension itself Cleanthes defined as a fiery stroke (ii yi irvpos); in his hymn to Zeus lightning is the symbol of divine activity.
On the other hand, this corporeal thing is veritably and identically reason, mind, and ruling principle (X6-yos, vas, iiyE,uovtKOv); in virtue of its divine origin Cleanthes can say to Zeus, " We too are thy offspring," and a Seneca can calmly insist that, if man and God are not on perfect equality, the superiority rests rather on our side.
Those who own one law are citizens of one state, the city of Zeus, in which men and gods have their dwelling.
the religious temper: " Most glorious of immortals, 0 Zeus of many names, almighty and everlasting, sovereign of nature, directing all in accordance with law, thee it is fitting that all mortals should address....
And his happiness, since length of time cannot increase it, falls in nothing short of that of Zeus.
It was no doubt as a protection against such dangers that the earliest league of twelve Achaean cities arose, though we are nowhere explicitly informed of its functions other than the common worship of Zeus Amarius at Aegium and an occasional arbitration between Greek belligerents.
In December 168 sacrifice was offered to Zeus upon an idol altar (" the abomination of desolation," Dan.
Auge, mother of THE Great Altar Of Zeus, From The North-West, As Set Up In The Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin« Xxi.
These were recognized as probably parts of the Great Altar of Zeus erected by Eumenes II.
In the interval are the Zeus altar; the great hexastyle Doric temple of Athena flanked by the palace on the east, by the theatre and its long terrace on the west, and by a library on the north; and a large Corinthian temple of Trajan.
Beyond it, on the east, was a sacred wood filling the space up to the wall of the precinct; and at the south end of this was a small open space with the altar of Zeus Polieus.
On the summit of Mount Cynthus, above the primitive cavetemple which has always been visible, there have been found the remains of a small precinct dedicated to Zeus Cynthius and Athena Cynthia.
Of the various traditions that were current among the ancient Greeks regarding the origin of Delos, the most popular describes it as drifting through the Aegean till moored by Zeus as a refuge for the wandering Leto.
ZEUS, the Greek counterpart of the Roman god, Jupiter.
In the recorded periods of Hellenic history, Zeus was accepted as the chief god of the pantheon of the Greeks; and the religious progress of the people from lower to higher ideas can be well illustrated by the study of his ritual and personality.
Nevertheless, it remains probable that Zeus had already been conceived as a personal and pre-eminent god by the ancestors of the leading Hellenic tribes before they entered the peninsula which became their historic home.
In the first place, his pre-eminence is obviously pre-Homeric; for Homer was no preacher or innovator in religion, but gives us some at least of the primary facts of the contemporary religious beliefs prevailing about woo B.C.: and he attests for us the supremacy of Zeus as a belief which was unquestioned by the average Hellene of the time; and appreciating how slow was the process of religious change in the earlier period, we shall believe that the god had won this position long before the Homeric age.
The Cretan legend of his birth and origin, which gave rise to the Cretan cult of Zeus Kpnra-y€V)s,' " Zeus born in Crete," may appear evidence against the theory just set forth.
a male divinity who was believed to be born and to die at certain periods; probably he was an early form of Dionysus, but owing to his prominence in the island the Hellenic settlers may have called him Zeus; and this would explain the markedly Dionysiac character of the later Zeus-religion in Crete.
Homer is our earliest literary witness; and the portrait that he presents of Zeus is too well known to need minute description.
His God is pronouncedly individual and personal, and probably Zeus had reached this stage of character at the dawn of Hellenic history.
Yet traces of a pre-deistic and animistic period survived here and there; for instance, in Arcadia we find the thunder itself called Zeus (ZEUs Kepavvos) in a Mantinean inscription, 2 and the stone near Gythium in Laconia on which Orestes sat and was cured of his madness, evidently a thunder-stone, was named itself Zeus Kainreoras, which must be interpreted as " Zeus that fell from heaven "; 3 we here observe that the personal God does not yet seem to have emerged from the divine thing or divine phenomenon.
Again the Homeric Zeus is fully anthropomorphic; but in many domains of Greek religion we discover the traces of theriomorphism, when the deity was regarded as often incarnate in the form of an animal or the animal might itself be worshipped in its own right.
We seem to find it latent in the Arcadian worship of Zeus AvKaIos and the legend of King Lycaon.
The totemistic theory in its application to Greek religion cannot be here discussed; but we may note that there is no hint in the story that the wolf was offered to Zeus and that the name AvKaios could not originally have designated the " wolf "-God: for from the stem Xveo- we should get the adjective XvKEGOS, not XvKacos; the latter is better derived from a word such as XvKn = " light," and may allude to the God of the clear sky; in fact the wolf, which was a necessary animal in the ritual and legend of Apollo AuKeIOS, may have strayed casually into association with Zeus AvKaios, attracted by a false etymology.
We may indeed with Mr Andrew Lang explain the many myths of the bestial transformations of Zeus on the theory that the God was the tribal ancestor and assumed the shape of the animal-totem in order to engender the tribal patriarch; 7 but on the actual cults of Zeus theriomorphism has left less trace than on those.
The peculiar characteristic of his earliest ritual was the human sacrifice; besides the legend of King Lycaon, we find it in the story of the house of Athamas and in the worship of Zeus Aacuonos of Thessaly, 8 and other examples are recorded.
More personal than Ouranos and Helios - with whom he has only slight associations - he was worshipped and invoked as the deity of the bright day ('Apapcos, 'Aevea70s, AvKa70s), who sends the rain, the wind and dew ("Op(3pcos, Naios, `Tetcos, Oupcos, EMIÃ†pos, 'IK,uaZos), and such a primitive adjective as Sc17rET7)3, applied to things " that fall from heaven," attests the primeval significance of the name of Zeus.
These cult-titles had originally the force of magic invocation, and much of his ritual was weather-magic: the priest of Zeus Avxaios, in time of drought, was wont to ascend Mount Lycaeum and dip an oak-bough in a sacred fountain, and by this sympathetic means produce mist.
4 But probably in his earliest Hellenic period the power of Zeus in the natural world was not limited to the sky.
A Dodonean liturgy has been preserved which, though framed in the form of an invocation and a dogma, has the force of a spell-prayer - " Zeus was and is and will be, oh great Zeus: earth gives forth fruits, therefore call on Mother Earth."
9 Zeus the Sky-God is seen here allied to the Earth-Goddess, of whom his feminine counterpart, Dione, may have been the personal form.
primitive "; 12 and Zeus, we may believe, long remained at Dodona such as he was when the Hellenic tribes first brought him down from the Balkans, a high God supreme in heaven and in earth.
" Reverence Zeus, the Father-God ": " all fathers are sacred to Zeus, the Father-God, and all brothers to Zeus the God of the family ": these phrases of Aristophanes and Epictetus 13 express the ideas that engendered his titles Ilarpci.ios, FapdiXcos, TEXE70, `Opoyvcos.
In the Eumenides of Aeschylus" the Erinyes are reproached in that by aiding Clytemnestra, who slew her husband, " they are dishonouring and bringing to naught the pledges of Zeus and Hera, the marriage-goddess "; and these were the divinities to whom sacrifice was offered before the wedding," and it may be that some kind of mimetic representation of the " Holy Marriage," the IEpos ydpos, of Zeus and Hera formed a part of the Attic nuptial ceremonies.'
Society may have at one time been matrilinear in the communities that become the historic Hellenes; but of this there is no trace in the worship of Zeus and Hera.18 In fact, the whole of the family morality in Hellas centred in Zeus, whose altar in the courtyard was the bond of the kinsmen; and sins against the family, such as unnatural vice and the exposure of children, are sometimes spoken of as offences against the High God.I" He was also the tutelary deity of the larger organization of the phratria; and the altar of Zeus c Pparpcos was the meetingpoint of the phrateres, when they were assembled to consider the legitimacy of the new applicants for admission into their circle.20 His religion also came to assist the development of certain legal ideas, for instance, the rights of private or family property in land; he guarded the allotments as Zein KAdpcos,2' and the Greek commandment " thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark " was maintained by Zeus " Opcos, the god of boundaries, a more personal power than the Latin Jupiter Terminus.22 His highest political functions were summed up in the title IIoXtfin, a cult-name of legendary antiquity in Athens, and frequent in the Hellenic world.23 His consort in his political life was not Hera, but his daughter Athena Polias.
Rev. 1906 (October, November), " Who was the wife of Zeus?"
The political assembly and the law-court were consecrated to ZEUs 'A-yopc os, 2 and being the eternal source of justice he might be invoked as AucacoQvvos " The Just."
3 As the god who brought the people under one government he might be worshipped as Havbnµos; 4 as the deity of the whole of Hellas, `EAXavcos, 5 a title that belonged originally to Aegina and to the prehistoric tribe of the Aeacidae, and had once the narrower application to the " Thessalian Hellenes," but acquired the Pan-Hellenic sense, in fact expanded into the form IIav€XXipnos, perhaps about the time of the Persian wars, when thanksgiving for the victory took the form of dedications and sacrifice to " Zeus the Liberator " - 'EXev8Epcos.
6 Finally, in the formulae adopted for the public oath, where many deities were invoked, the name of Zeus was the masterword.
There is reason for thinking that this political character of Zeus belongs to the earliest period of his religion, and it remained as long as that religion lasted.
Zeus spoke directly to his people at Dodona only, 7 and with authority only in ancient times; for owing to historical circumstances and the disadvantage of its position, Dodona paled before Delphi.
The morality attaching to the oath, so deeply rooted in the conscience of primitive peoples, was expressed in the cult of Zeus "OpKCOS, the God who punished perjury.
8 The whole history of Greek legal and moral conceptions attaching to the guilt of homicide can be studied in relation to the cult-appellatives of Zeus.
The Greek consciousness of the sin of murder, only dimly awakened in the Homeric period, and only sensitive at first when a kinsman or a suppliant was slain, gradually expands till the sanctity of all human life becomes recognized by the higher morality of the people: and the names of ZEUs M€tXL tos, the dread deity of the ghost-world whom the sinner must make " placable," of ZEUs `I ho-tos and IIpoorpora70s, to whom the conscience-striken outcast may turn for mercy and pardon, play a guiding-part in this momentous evolution.9 Even this summary reveals the deep indebtedness of early Greek civilization to this cult, which engendered ideas of importance for the higher religious thought of the race, and which might have developed into a monotheistic religion, had a prophet-philosopher arisen powerful enough to combat the polytheistic proclivities of Hellas.
Yet the figure of Zeus had almost faded from the religious world of Hellas some time before the end of paganism; and Lucian makes him complain that even the Egyptian Anubis is more popular than he, and that men think they have done the outworn God sufficient honour if they sacrifice to him once in five years at Olympia.
Cook's articles in Classical Review, 1903-1904, " Zeus, Jupiter, and the Oak ": for cultmonuments and art-representations, Overbeck, Kunst-Mythologie, vol.
images of Simon-under the form of Zeus, and of Helen under that of Athena.
3 Hippolytus speaks in language similar to that of Irenaeus about the variety of magic arts practised by the Simonians, and also of their having images of Simon and Helen under the forms of Zeus and Athena.
Theocritus speaks of himself as having already gained fame, and says that his lays have been brought by report even unto the throne of Zeus.
It is possible that Zeus refers to Ptolemy: cf.
In the Iliad, Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, a name by which she herself is sometimes called.
This has been supposed to point to a confusion between Aphrodite and Hebe, the daughter of Zeus and Hera, Dione being an Epirot name for the last-named goddess.
According to Plato (Symposium, 180), there are two Aphrodites, " the elder, having no mother, who is called the heavenly Aphrodite - she is the daughter of Uranus; the younger, who is the daughter of Zeus and Dione - her we call common."
9), although the author is doubtful whether there are two goddesses, or whether Urania and Pandemos are two names for the same goddess, just as Zeus, although one and the same, has many titles; but in any case, he says, the ritual of Urania is purer, more serious, than that of Pandemos.
At Delphi he built a treasure-house for Corinthian votive offerings; at Olympia he dedicated a colossal statue of Zeus and the famous "chest of Cypselus," supposed to be identical with the chest of the legend, of which Pausanias (v.
DIONYSUS (probably = " son of Zeus," from Otos and vvvos, a Thracian word for " son "), in Greek mythology, originally a nature god of fruitfulness and vegetation, especially of the vine; hence, distinctively, the god of wine.
According to the usual tradition, he was born at Thebes - originally the local centre of his worship in Greece - and was the son of Zeus, the fertilizing rain god, and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus, a personification of earth.
Lycurgus was blinded by Zeus and soon died, or became frantic and hewed down his own son, mistaking him for a vine.
This phase of his character was developed by the Orphic poets, he having here the name of Zagreus (" torn in pieces "), and being no longer the Theban god, but a son of Zeus and Persephone.
The child was brought up secretly, watched over by Curetes; but the jealous Hera discovered where he was, and sent Titans to the spot, who, finding him at play, tore him to pieces, and cooked and ate his limbs, while Hera gave his heart to Zeus.
the title c.µno-Tns given to Dionysus in certain places, probably pointing to human sacrifice.) To connect this with the myth of the Theban birth of Dionysus, it is said that Zeus gave the child's heart to Semele, or himself swallowed it and gave birth to the new Dionysus (called Iacchus from his worshippers' cry of rejoicing), who was cradled and swung in a winnowing fan (Xikvos; see J.
Aphrodite, charmed by his beauty, hid the infant in a box and handed him over to the care of Persephone, who afterwards refused to give him up. On an appeal being made to Zeus, he decided that Adonis should spend a third of the year with Persephone and a third with Aphrodite, the remaining third being at his own disposal.
In the legend, as set forth in the Homeric hymn to Apollo and the ode of Callimachus to Delos, Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto.
Apollo's oracles, which he did not deliver on his own initiative but as the mouthpiece of Zeus, were infallible, but the human mind was not always able to grasp their meaning; hence he is called Loxias (" crooked," "ambiguous").
RHEA, a goddess of the Greeks known in mythology as the daughter of Uranus and Gaia, the sister and consort of Kronos, and the mother of Zeus.
There, according to legend, she saved the new-born Zeus, her sixth child, from being devoured by Kronos by substituting a stone for him and entrusting the infant god to the care of her attendants the Curetes.
These attendants afterwards became the bodyguard of Zeus and the priests of Rhea, and performed ceremonies in her honour.
7), and of Zeus at Olympia (Paus.
Among the exceptional classes of altars are also to be mentioned those on which fire could not be kindled ((3wï¿½oi iirvpot), and those which were kept free from blood (iwpoi avaiï¿½aKT01), of which in both respects the altar of Zeus Hypatos at Athens was an example.
233-235) apply the epithet "Pelasgic" to a district called Argos about Mt Othrys in south Thessaly, and to Zeus of Dodona.
The copious additional information given by later writers is all by way either of interpretation of local legends in the light of Ephorus's theory, or of explanation of the name "Pelasgoi"; as when Philochorus expands a popular etymology "stork-folk" (w€Xaa'yoi-- it €Xap'yoi) into a theory of their seasonal migrations; or Apollodorus says that Homer calls Zeus Pelasgian "because he is not far from every one of us," 6TL Tiffs ryes 7rEXas EaTCV.
BUPHONIA, in Greek antiquities, a sacrificial ceremony, forming part of the Diipolia, a religious festival held on the 14th of the month Skirophorion (June - July) at Athens, when a labouring ox was sacrificed to Zeus Polieus as protector of the city in accordance with a very ancient custom.
Zeus intervened, and left the choice to Marpessa, who declared in favour of Idas, fearing that the god might desert her when she grew old (Apollodorus i.
His skill in curing disease and restoring the dead to life aroused the anger of Zeus, who, being afraid that he might render all men immortal, slew him with a thunderbolt (Apollodorus iii.
The British Museum possesses a beautiful head of Aesculapius (or possibly Zeus) from Melos, and the Louvre a magnificent statue.
She is the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin-sister and counterpart of Apollo.
According to the legend, Callisto, an Arcadian nymph, became by Zeus the mother of Arcas, the eponymous hero of the Arcadians.
Zeus, to conceal the amour, changed Callisto into a she-bear; Hera, however, discovered it, and persuaded Artemis to slay Callisto, who was placed amongst the stars as iiptcros (" the bear").
PELOPS, in Greek legend, the grandson of Zeus, son of Tantalus and Dione, and brother of Niobe.
The principal is the large portion of the Hymn to Zeus which has been preserved in Stobaeus.
In Greek mythology the term was specially applied to the stone supposed to have been swallowed by Cronus (who feared misfortune from his own children) in mistake for his infant son Zeus, for whom it had been substituted by Uranus and Gaea, his wife's parents (Etymologicum Magnum, s.v.).
In some cases an attempt was made to give a more regular form to the original shapeless stone: thus Apollo Agyieus was represented by a conical pillar with pointed end, Zeus Meilichius in the form of a pyramid.
Other famous baetylic idols were those in the temples of Zeus Casius at Seleucia, and of Zeus Teleios at Tegea.
The exercise of wisdom was now viewed as the pure life of that particle of divine substance which was in very truth the " god within him "; the reason whose supremacy he maintained was the reason of Zeus, and of all gods and reasonable men, no less than his own; its realization in any one individual was thus the common good of all rational beings as such; " the sage could not stretch out a finger rightly without thereby benefiting all other sages," - nay, it might even be said that he was " as useful to Zeus as Zeus to him."
741) as fixed in the centre of the aegis of Zeus.
The Zeus of Laodicea, with the curious epithet Azeus or Azeis, is a frequent symbol on the city coins.
For their presumption in calling themselves Zeus and Hera they were changed into birds - Alcyone into a diver, Ceyx into a kingfisher.
By command of Zeus (or Aeolus) the winds ceased to blow during their brooding-time, for seven days before and after the shortest day, that their eggs might not be carried away by the sea.
Sphinxes were represented on the throne of Apollo at Amyclae and on the metopes at Selinus; in the best period of Greek art a sphinx was sculptured on the helmet of the statue of Athena in the Parthenon at Athens; and sphinxes carrying off children were sculptured on the front feet of the throne of Zeus at Olympia.
Outside the Teutonic area he has close affinities not only with Jupiter or Zeus, but still more with the Lithuanian god Perkunas, whose name (which likewise means "thunder") appears to be connected with that of Thor's mother (FiOrgyn).
Even Zeus is unable to resist his influence, and on two occasions was put to sleep by him at the instance of Hera.
Or, again, there is nothing not explicable and natural in the conception of the Olympian Zeus as represented by the great chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, or in the Homeric conception of Zeus as a god who " turns everywhere his shining eyes " and beholds all things.
But the Zeus whose grave was shown in Crete, or the Zeus who played Demeter an obscene trick by the aid of a ram, or the Zeus who, in the shape of a swan, became the father of Castor and Pollux, or the Zeus who was merely a rough stone, or the Zeus who deceived Hera by means of a feigned marriage with an inanimate object, or the Zeus who was afraid of Attes, is a being whose myth is felt to be unnatural and in great need of explanation.
5 Euripides makes Pentheus (but he was notoriously impious) advance a " rationalistic " theory of the story that Dionysus was stitched up in the thigh of Zeus.
For example, the Cretans showed the tomb of Zeus, and the Phocians (Pausanias x.
We may therefore say that, while it is rather absurd to believe that Zeus and Tsui-Goab were once real men, yet their myths are such as would be developed by people accustomed, among other forms of religion, to the worship of dead men.
In other words, they regarded Zeus, Aphrodite and the rest as real persons, diabolical not divine.
Take, for example, the name of a god, Zeus, or Athene, or any other.
Therefore, though we may ascertain that Zeus means " sky " and Agni " fire," we cannot assert, with Max Muller, that all the myths about Agni and Zeus were originally told of fire and sky.
We cannot convert Max Muller's proposition " there was nothing told of the sky that could not in some form or other be ascribed to Zeus" into " there was nothing ascribed to Zeus that had not at some time or other been told of the sky."
Thus the ghost of the hero or medicine man of a kin or tribe may be raised to divine rank, while again - the doctrine of spirits once developed, and spirits once allotted to the great elemental forces and phenomena of nature, sky, thunder, the sea, the forests - we have the beginnings of departmental deities, such as Agni, god of fire; Poseidon, god of the sea; Zeus, god of the sky - though in recent theories Zeus appears to be regarded as primarily the god of the oak tree, a spirit of vegetation.
The relation is that of Apollo to Zeus in Greek myth.
Many Greek myths, most derogatory to the dignity of Demeter, Dionysus, Zeus or Hera, arose in the same way, as explanations of buffooneries in the Eleusinian or other mysteries.
These two birds in many tribes give names to the two great exogamous and intermarrying divisions; in their case there is a va et vient of divine, human and theriomorphic elements, just as in the Greek myths of Zeus.
He struck snakes with his staff and turned them into men, as Zeus did with the ants in Aegina.
The myths of Qat's adventures, however, are very crude, though not so wild as some of the Scandinavian myths about Odin and Loki, while they are less immoral than the adventures of Indra and Zeus.
Night is a person in Greek mythology, and in the fourteenth book of the Iliad we read that Zeus abstained from punishing Sleep " because he feared to offend swift Night."
The stone is still shown in Vanua Levu, like the stone which was Zeus in Laconia.
So far the peculiar mark of the wilder American tribe legends is the bestial character of the divine beings, which is also illustrated in Australia and Africa, while the bestial clothing, feathers or fur, drops but slowly off Indra, Zeus and the Egyptian Ammon, and the Scandinavian Odin.
5a gods, not to symbolism (Zeus was a cuckoo), but to survivals from that quality of early thought which draws no line between man and god and beast and bird and fish.
Pausanias seems to have found human sacrifices to Zeus still lingering in Arcadia in the 2nd century of our era.
" On this altar on the Lycaean hill they sacrifice to Zeus in a manner that may not be spoken, and little liking had I to pry far into that sacrifice.
4 The Argives had a large stone called Zeus Cappotas.
The name of Zeus (Skr.
The quarrels of Hera with Zeus (which are a humorous anthropomorphic study in Homer) are represented as a way of speaking about winter and rough weather.
The other chief Homeric deities are Apollo and Artemis, children of Zeus by Leto, a mortal mother raised to divinity.
A much more important daughter of Zeus in Homer is Athene, the " greyeyed " or (as some take yXavtc arcs, rather improbably) the " owlheaded " goddess.