Zeus Sentence Examples
It was disputed in earlier times whether the temple was dedicated to Zeus or Athena.
He was commonly compared to Olympian Zeus, partly because of his serene and dignified bearing, partly by reason of the majestic roll of the thundering eloquence, with its bold poetical imagery, with which he held friend and foe spellbound.
His mother was carried off by Zeus to the island of Oenone, which was afterwards called by her name.
It is noteworthy that whereas, in Greece proper, Zeus attains a supreme position, the old superiority of the Mother Goddess is still visible in the Cretan traditions of Rhea and Dictynna and the infant Zeus.
When Zeus had resolved to destroy all mankind by a flood, Deucalion constructed a boat or ark, in which, after drifting nine days and nights, he landed on Mount Parnassus (according to others, Othrys, Aetna or Athos) with his wife.Advertisement
He was often identified with Zeus, Apollo and Dionysus.
The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'
He is said to have visited Ceos, where, by erecting a temple to Zeus Icmaeus (the giver of moisture), he freed the inhabitants from a terrible drought.
According to Lactantius, it prophesied the overthrow of Rome and the advent of Zeus to help the godly and destroy the wicked, but omitted all reference to the sending of the Son of God.
The Perseid Alcmena, wife of Amphitryon of Tiryns, was Hercules' mother, Zeus his father.Advertisement
He aided Zeus in the struggle with the Titans.
Cronus later led the Titans in their losing war against Zeus and the Olympian gods.
Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
There is perhaps a certain religious enthusiasm in the thought of being passively determined by Fate, the Universe, Zeus.
The chryselephantine statue of the Olympian Zeus, by Pheidias, was carried to Constantinople, and perished in a great fire, A.D.Advertisement
Homer is our earliest literary witness; and the portrait that he presents of Zeus is too well known to need minute description.
His God is pronouncedly individual and personal, and probably Zeus had reached this stage of character at the dawn of Hellenic history.
Yet traces of a pre-deistic and animistic period survived here and there; for instance, in Arcadia we find the thunder itself called Zeus (ZEUs Kepavvos) in a Mantinean inscription, 2 and the stone near Gythium in Laconia on which Orestes sat and was cured of his madness, evidently a thunder-stone, was named itself Zeus Kainreoras, which must be interpreted as " Zeus that fell from heaven "; 3 we here observe that the personal God does not yet seem to have emerged from the divine thing or divine phenomenon.
Again the Homeric Zeus is fully anthropomorphic; but in many domains of Greek religion we discover the traces of theriomorphism, when the deity was regarded as often incarnate in the form of an animal or the animal might itself be worshipped in its own right.
We seem to find it latent in the Arcadian worship of Zeus AvKaIos and the legend of King Lycaon.Advertisement
We may indeed with Mr Andrew Lang explain the many myths of the bestial transformations of Zeus on the theory that the God was the tribal ancestor and assumed the shape of the animal-totem in order to engender the tribal patriarch; 7 but on the actual cults of Zeus theriomorphism has left less trace than on those.
The peculiar characteristic of his earliest ritual was the human sacrifice; besides the legend of King Lycaon, we find it in the story of the house of Athamas and in the worship of Zeus Aacuonos of Thessaly, 8 and other examples are recorded.
More personal than Ouranos and Helios - with whom he has only slight associations - he was worshipped and invoked as the deity of the bright day ('Apapcos, 'Aevea70s, AvKa70s), who sends the rain, the wind and dew ("Op(3pcos, Naios, `Tetcos, Oupcos, EMIÃ†pos, 'IK,uaZos), and such a primitive adjective as Sc17rET7)3, applied to things " that fall from heaven," attests the primeval significance of the name of Zeus.
In the Eumenides of Aeschylus" the Erinyes are reproached in that by aiding Clytemnestra, who slew her husband, " they are dishonouring and bringing to naught the pledges of Zeus and Hera, the marriage-goddess "; and these were the divinities to whom sacrifice was offered before the wedding," and it may be that some kind of mimetic representation of the " Holy Marriage," the IEpos ydpos, of Zeus and Hera formed a part of the Attic nuptial ceremonies.'
Rev. 1906 (October, November), " Who was the wife of Zeus?"Advertisement
The political assembly and the law-court were consecrated to ZEUs 'A-yopc os, 2 and being the eternal source of justice he might be invoked as AucacoQvvos " The Just."
There is reason for thinking that this political character of Zeus belongs to the earliest period of his religion, and it remained as long as that religion lasted.
Zeus spoke directly to his people at Dodona only, 7 and with authority only in ancient times; for owing to historical circumstances and the disadvantage of its position, Dodona paled before Delphi.
The morality attaching to the oath, so deeply rooted in the conscience of primitive peoples, was expressed in the cult of Zeus "OpKCOS, the God who punished perjury.
Yet the figure of Zeus had almost faded from the religious world of Hellas some time before the end of paganism; and Lucian makes him complain that even the Egyptian Anubis is more popular than he, and that men think they have done the outworn God sufficient honour if they sacrifice to him once in five years at Olympia.
Theocritus speaks of himself as having already gained fame, and says that his lays have been brought by report even unto the throne of Zeus.
In the Iliad, Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, a name by which she herself is sometimes called.
This has been supposed to point to a confusion between Aphrodite and Hebe, the daughter of Zeus and Hera, Dione being an Epirot name for the last-named goddess.
Among the gods he seems to have produced new and striking types of Zeus (probably of the Otricoli class), of Poseidon (compare the Poseidon of the Lateran, standing with raised foot), of the Sun-god and others; many of these were colossal figures in bronze.
He defends them against Zeus, who, in accordance with a widely diffused mythical theory, desires to destroy the human race and supplant them by a new and better species, or who simply revenges a trick in which men get the better of him.
Zeus was invited to make his choice, chose the fat, and found only bones beneath.
In wrath at this trick, according to Hesiod, or in other versions for the purpose of exterminating the remnants of people who escaped the deluge of Deucalion, Zeus never bestowed, or later withdrew, the gift of fire.
He it was who, when Zeus had changed his wife into a fly, and swallowed her, broke open the god's head and let out his daughter Athena.
The Romans equated Zeus with their own supreme god Jupiter (aka Jove ).
The poet Hesiod tells a fable of Zeus creating a race of bronze men from Ashes.
She was spotted by Zeus, a god with a particular fondness for mortal women, on one of his many visits to earth.
Athena, reputed to be Zeus's favorite child, sprung full-grown from his forehead.
The ruined temple of Zeus where I am sitting, was the site of a wonder of the world.
My men disregarded all warnings and sacrificed his cattle, so back at sea Zeus sent a thunderbolt that smashed the ship.
She was the mother of Heracles by Zeus, who assumed the likeness of her husband during his absence, and of Iphicles by Amphitryon.
According to the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Persephone, while gathering flowers on the Nysian plain (probably here a purely mythical locality), was carried off by Hades (Pluto), the god of the lower world, with the connivance of Zeus (see also Proserpine).
The same cult survived to later times in Caria in the case of Zeus Labrandeus, whose name is derived from labrys, the native name for the double axe, and it had already been L suggested on philological grounds that the Cretan 'a ' labyrinthos " was formed from a kindred form of the same word.
This cavern also shared with that of Ida the claim to have been that in which Minos, Moseslike, received the law from Zeus.
He travelled by way of Athens, where he completed and dedicated the buildings (see Athens) begun during his first visit, chief of which was the Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, on which occasion Hadrian himself assumed the name of Olympius.
There can be little doubt that the Pnyx was the seat of an ancient cult; the meetings of the Ecclesia were of a religious character and were preceded by a sacrifice to Zeus 'Ayopa70s; nor is it conceivable that, but for its sacred associations, a site would have been chosen so unsuitable for the purposes of a popular assembly as to need the addition of a costly artificial auditorium.
He says they chiefly reverence Tahiti (Hestia), next Papaeus and his wife Apia (Zeus and Ge), then Oitosyros (Apollo) and Argimpasa (Aphrodite Urania).
Another myth has it to be Olenus, a son of Hephaestus, and father of Aega and Helice, two nymphs who nursed Zeus.
Zeus gave her a jar (7rLOos), the so-called "Pandora's box" (see below), containing all kinds of misery and evil, and sent her, thus equipped, to Epimetheus, who, forgetting the warning of his brother Prometheus to accept no present from Zeus, made her; his wife.
In literature, from the times of Homer and Hesiod, she played an important part, appearing most frequently as the jealous and resentful wife of Zeus.
As Frazer notes (Golden Bough, 2 227), this festival appears to belong to the large class of mimetic charms designed to quicken the growth of vegetation; the marriage of Zeus and Hera would in this case represent the union of the king and queen of May.
Among others of the name may be mentioned (3) Athenodorus Of Teos, who played the cithara at the wedding of Alexander the Great and Statira at Susa (324 B.C.); (4) a Greek physician of the 1st century A.D., who wrote on epidemic diseases; and two sculptors, of whom (5) one executed the statues of Apollo and Zeus which the Spartans dedicated at Delphi after Aegospotami; and (6) the other was a son of Alexander of Rhodes, whom he helped in the Laocoon group.
According to one of the Greek legends about Arcas, son of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, he was killed by his father and his flesh was served up in a banquet to Zeus, who was indignant at the crime and restored him to life.
From inscriptions and later writers we learn that in historical times there was worshipped, together with Zeus, a consort named Dione (see further Zeus; Oracle; Dione).
Otherwise, the name is only found among the Phrygians, who, according to Hesychius, called the Heaven-god (Zeus) Bagaeus; there, however, it may have been borrowed from the Persians.
To celebrate the great achievement of his reign, the defeat of the barbarian Gauls, he built in the agora a vast altar to Zeus Soter (see below).
Another ritual, fascinating for the glimpse it affords of very old-world thought, is that of the Diipolia, the yearly sacrifice to Zeus Polieus on the Acropolis at Athens.6 In this an ox was slaughtered with ceremonies unique in Greece; the priest who slew him fled and remained in exile for a period, and the axe that was used was tried, condemned and flung into the sea; the hide of the slain ox was stuffed with hay, and this effigy of the ox was yoked to the plough and feigned to be alive.
It appears from Herodotus and Strabo that they were kindred with the Lydians and Carians, a fact attested by their common participation in the sacred rites at the great temple of Zeus at Labranda, as well as by the statement of the historian Xanthus of Lydia that their language was a mixture of Lydian and Phrygian.
Poseidon was n't happy about this and called upon the king of the gods, Zeus, to reek a terrible revenge.
The presence of Zeus at the temple was thought to be signified by the rustling of the tree.
Antiochus 's soldiers brought a statue of Zeus into the Temple in Jerusalem and built an altar in honor of this god.
In this story, Percy must prove to Zeus that he did not steal Zeus's prized lightning bolt.
I am about five months pregnant, and my normally well behaved eight-year-old Rottweiler, Zeus, has begun peeing in the house.
Zeus is probably feeling a little disconcerted about the change he senses, and this could very well be leading him to act out by marking territory inside the house.
Hopefully these suggestions will help get Zeus back on track.
According to ancient mythology, Pandora was a beautiful woman who was made by the god Zeus and sent to earth with a special box.
He also has access to Magic abilities, including the Gaze of Medusa, which can turn enemies to stone, or the Rage of Zeus, which shoots powerful lightning bolts.
You can even expand your abilities by reaching certain other Gods that are willing to support you in your cause, such as Zeus, who will let you hurl lightning at your enemies and Medusa who will let you turn them to stone for a time.
Meanwhile, Aries is busy destroying the city of Athens, and though the other gods had the power to stop him, Zeus -- father of all gods -- forbade them to fight one another directly.
Try to construct a Zeus family tree and you will end up with hundreds of children that are attributed to this mythical god, who was worshiped by the ancient Greeks.
Cronus and Rhea were supposed to be the parents of Demeter, Hera, Hades, Hestia and Poseidon, along with Zeus, the youngest.
Because of prophesies that he would be overthrown by his sons, as he had overthrown his own father, Cronus swallowed all the children but Zeus.
Rhea gave birth to Zeus secretly and hid him.
Zeus was considered the "father of the gods" by the early Greeks, who worshiped him with cult followings.
Most accounts give the children of Zeus and Hera as Ares, Hebe, Hephaetus, Eileithyia, and Eris.
Zeus and the Titaness, Dione, are given as parents of Aphrodite (counterpart of the Roman Venus - goddess of love) in Homer's Illyiad / Iliad.
Of all purported offspring of Zeus, Ares, Aphrodite and Hercules are among the best known today.
He was said to be the son of Zeus and Olympia (a Makedonian / Macedonian queen).
Hercules was the son of Zeus and Alcmene.
Creating a tree for Zeus (father of the gods) will be a time-consuming project, however.
Rhea hid to give birth to Zeus in secret.
Later, Zeus came to Olympus to avenge his siblings and cut them free from Cronus.
He was the opposite of his fellow centaurs; perhaps it was because Diana and Zeus took him under their wings and taught him many things.
One of the earliest werewolf myths known is the Greek story of Lycaon, the Arcadian king who was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for killing and serving one of his own sons for a meal.
Zeus. A tall boot in purple with silver rings on the buckles, the leather and canvas body make it perfect for winter.
In Greek mythology, Gemini referred to the constellation which consists of Castor and Pollux who were the twin sons of Zeus by mortal mother Leda.
Zeus reunited them in the heavens for all eternity.
The constellation and Zodiac both refer to the myth of Castor and Pollux, sons of the god Zeus.
The Greek god of war and the son of Zeus, was one of the Amazon princess' greatest foes.
Once Hercules defeated the lion, Zeus placed Leo, the lion, as a constellation of stars in the sky.
But Zeus descended to her in a shower of gold, and she gave birth to Perseus, whereupon Acrisius placed her and her infant in a wooden box and threw them into the sea.
He is described as a grisly monster with a hundred dragons' heads, who was conquered and cast into Tartarus by Zeus.
But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.
Numerous large caves exist in the mountains; among the most remarkable are the famous Idaean cave in Psiloriti, the caves of Melidoni, in Mylopotamo, and Sarchu, in llalevisi, which sheltered hundreds of refugees after the insurrection of 1866, and the Dictaean cave in Lassithi, the birth-place of Zeus.
The cave sanctuary of the Dictaean Zeus has been explored, and throughout the whole length and breadth of the island a mass of early materials has now been collected.
The story of the baetylus, or stone swallowed by Saturn under the belief that it was his son, the Cretan Zeus, seems to cover the same idea and has been derived from the same Semitic word.
Shrines of the Double Axes have been found in the palace of Cnossus itself, at Hagia Triada, and in a small palace at Gournia, and many specimens of the sacred emblem occurred in the Cave Sanctuary of Dicte, the mythical birthplace of the Cretan Zeus.
The principal Philistine tribe is indeed known in the biblical records as the Cherethims or Cretans, and the Minoan name and the cult of the Cretan Zeus were preserved at Gaza to the latest classical days.
Among the more interesting relics found were ivory figures of Egyptian or strongly Egyptianizing fabric. On an adjacent hill were the remains of what seems to have been in later times a temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and from the occurrence of rich deposits of Minoan vases and sacrificial remains at a lower level, the religious tradition represented by the later temple seems to go back to prehistoric times.
Milchhdfer (Anfdnge der Kunst) had called attention to certain remarkable examples of archaic Greek bronze-work, and the subsequent discovery of the votive bronzes in the cave of Zeus on Mount Ida, and notably the shields with their fine embossed designs, shows that by the 8th century B.C. Cretan technique in metal not only held its own beside imported Cypro-Phoenician work, but was distinctly ahead of that of the rest of Greece (Halbherr, Bronzi del antro di Zeus Ideo).
The Dorian dynasts in Crete seem in some sort to have claimed descent from Minos, and the Dorian legislators sought their sanction in the laws which Minos was said to have received from the hands of the Cretan Zeus.
The Cretans themselves claimed for their island to be the birthplace of Zeus, as well as the parent of all the other divinities usually worshipped in Greece as the Olympian deities.
According to the received tradition, Minos was a king of Cnossus in Crete; he was a son of Zeus, and enjoyed through life the privilege of habitual intercourse with his divine father.
It was said that Zeus threw it down from heaven when Ilus was founding the city of Ilium, Odysseus and Diomedes carried it off from the temple of Athena, and thus made the capture of Troy possible.
So all that year not a blade of corn grew on the earth, and men would have died of hunger if Zeus had not persuaded Pluto to let Proserpine go.
According to Callimachus (Hymn to Diana, 190), she was a nymph, the daughter of Zeus and Carme, and a favourite companion of Artemis.
In the legends of Peloponnesus, Agamemnon was regarded as the highest type of a powerful monarch, and in Sparta he was worshipped under the title of Zeus Agamemnon.
In works of art there is considerable resemblance between the representations of Zeus, king of the gods, and Agamemnon, king, of men.
He was the traditional king of Sipylus in Lydia (or of Phrygia), and was the intimate friend of Zeus and the other gods, to whose table he was admitted.
Both Baal and Astarte were venerated in Egypt at Thebes and Memphis in the XIXth Dynasty, and the former, through the influence of the Aramaeans who borrowed the Babylonian spelling Bel, ultimately became known as the Greek Belos who was identified with Zeus.
Of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, who is also called Melkart (king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles, but sometimes with the Olympian Zeus, we have many accounts in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards.
His mother, Eos, removed his body from the field of battle, and it was said that Zeus, moved by her tears, bestowed immortality upon him.
The supporters of the solar theory look upon Memnon as the son of the dawn, who, though he might vanish from sight for a time, could not be destroyed; hence the immortality bestowed upon him by Zeus.
The greatest of their foundations, the temple of Olympian Zeus, will be Academy referred to later.
Among the other noteworthy buildings of the Peiraeus were the arsenal (vKEUoOKrl) of Philo and the temples of Zeus Soter, the patron god of the sailors, of the Cnidian Artemis, built by Cimon, and of Artemis Munychia, situated near the fort on the Munychia height; traces of a temple of Asclepius, of two theatres and of a hippodrome remain.
Beyond the Parthenon, a little to the north-east, was the great altar of Athena, and near it the statue and altar of Zeus Polieus.
At its north-western extremity is a platform of levelled rock which may have supported the altar of Zeus Hypsistus.
Heraclea was also the name of one of the Sporades, between Naxos and Ios, which is still called Raklia, and bears traces of a Greek township with temples to Tyche and Zeus Lophites.
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
Muller, it had its origin in the worship of Zeus Laphystius; the fleece is the pledge of reconciliation; Jason is a propitiating god of health, Medea a goddess akin to Hera; Aeetes is connected with the Colchian sun-worship. Forchhammer saw in it an old nature symbolism; Jason, the god of healing and fruitfulness, brought the fleece - the fertilizing rain-cloud - to the western land that was parched by the heat of the sun.
The earlier part of it treated of the mythical adventures of Aeneas in Sicily, Carthage and Italy, and borrowed from the interview of Zeus and Thetis in the first book of the Iliad the idea of the interview of Jupiter and Venus; which Virgil has made one of the cardinal passages in the Aeneid.
With Zeus and Apollo, she forms a triad which represents the embodiment of all divine power.
According to the legend, her father Zeus swallowed his wife Metis ("counsel"), when pregnant with Athena, since he had been warned that his children by her might prove stronger than himself and dethrone him.
In Crete she was said to have issued from a cloud burst asunder by Zeus.
Their bodies lay for nine days unburied, for Zeus had changed the people to stone; on the tenth day they were buried by the gods.
He compares her story with that of Lamia, who, after her children had been slain by Zeus, retired to a lonely cave and carried off and killed the children of others.
It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.
In the beginning were Chronos, the principle of time; Zeus (Zas), the principle of life; and Chthonie, the earth goddess.
Renewed freedom was celebrated by a colossal statue of Zeus Eleutherius and by a yearly feast in his honour.
Marcellus, after an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate, began the siege in regular form (214 B.C.) by both land and sea, establishing a camp on Polichne, where stood the old temple of Olympian Zeus; but he made his chief assault on the northern side and on the defences of Tyche, particularly at the Hexapylum, the entrance facing Megara and Leontini.
Leto, pregnant by Zeus, seeks for a place of refuge to be delivered.
In the oldest forms of the legend Hera is not mentioned; but afterwards the wanderings of Leto are ascribed to the jealousy of that goddess, enraged at her amour with Zeus.
According to Aristophanes, he was blinded by Zeus because he distributed his gifts without regard to merit.
Traces of this union of immigrants with older inhabitants have been detected in the combination of Zeus Herkeios with Apollo Patrons as the ancient gods of the phratry.
It was said Zeus had started two eagles from the opposite extremities and they met there.
Other tales said the stone was the one given by Rhea to Cronus as a substitute for Zeus.
On his return to Thebes he married Alcmene, who gave birth to twin sons, Iphicles being the son of Amphitryon, Heracles of Zeus, who had visited her during Amphitryon's absence.
Amphitryon was the title of a lost tragedy of Sophocles; the episode of Zeus and Alcmene forms the subject of comedies by Plautus and Moliere.
He is a form of the Lemnian Hephaestus, who alighted on the island when flung out of Olympus by Zeus.
Some assume it to be Erichthonius, son of Athena and Hephaestus, who was translated to the skies by Zeus on account of his invention of chariots or coaches.
His grandfather Aeacus was, according to the legend, the son of Zeus himself.
By the craft of Hera, his foe through life, his birth was delayed, and that of Eurystheus, son of Sthenelus of Argos, hastened, Zeus having in effect sworn that the elder of the two should rule the realm of Perseus.
Whereupon he seized the oracular tripod, and so entered upon a contest with Apollo, which Zeus stopped by sending a flash of lightning between the combatants.
The assault on Thebes was disastrous for the Seven; and Amphiaraus, pursued by Periclymenus, would have been slain with his spear, had not Zeus with a thunderbolt opened a chasm into which the seer, with his chariot, horses and charioteer, disappeared.
In Homer he is the origin of all things, even the father of the gods, and the equal in rank of all of them save Zeus.
After Prometheus had stolen fire from heaven and bestowed it upon mortals Zeus determined to counteract this blessing.
She misled even Zeus to take a hasty oath, whereby Heracles became subject to Eurystheus.
On the second, Anarrhysis (from &vappuecv, to draw back the victim's head), a sacrifice of oxen was offered at the public cost to Zeus Phratrius and Athena.
His quarrelsomeness was regarded as inherited from his mother, and it may have been only as an illustration of the perpetual strife between Zeus and Hera that Ares was accounted their son.
All the gods, even Zeus, hate him, but his bitterest enemy is Athena, who fells him to the ground with a huge stone.
Thus, he engages in combat with Heracles on two occasions to avenge the death of his son Cycnus; once Zeus separates the combatants by a flash of lightning, but in the second encounter he is severely wounded by his adversary, who has the active support of Athena; maddened by jealousy, he changes himself into the boar which slew Adonis, the favourite of Aphrodite; and stirs up the war between the Lapithae and Centaurs.
His subjects were ordered to worship him under the name of Zeus; he built a bridge of brass, over which he drove at full speed in his chariot to imitate thunder, the effect being heightened by dried skins and caldrons trailing behind, while torches were thrown into the air to represent lightning.
According to Frazer (Early History of the Kingship, 1905; see also Golden Bough, i., 1 9 00, p. 82), the early Greek kings, who were expected to produce rain for the benefit of the crops, were in the habit of imitating thunder and lightning in the character of Zeus.
Other accounts make her the daughter of Zeus and Nemesis, or of Oceanus and Tethys.
The Greeks identified this constellation with the nymph Callisto, placed in the heavens by Zeus in the form of a bear together with her son Arcas as " bear-warder," or Arcturus; they named it Arctos, the she-bear, Helice, from its turning round the pole-star.
It had temples of Apollo Pythius, Artemis and Zeus.
Near the town was the famous fountain of Sauros, inclosed by fruit-bearing poplars; and not far from this was another spring, overhung by an evergreen plane tree which in popular belief marked the scene of the amours of Zeus and Europa.
Heracles, on his way back from the land of the Amazons, offered to slay the monster and release Hesione, on condition that he should receive the wonderful horses presented by Zeus to Tros, the father of Ganymede, to console him for the loss of his son.
He lived at Cnossus for periods of nine years, at the end of which he retired into a sacred cave, where he received instruction from Zeus in the legislation which he gave to the island.
Uranus and other Greek gods anterior to Zeus were probably deities worshipped by earlier barbarous inhabitants of the land.
Traces of all these temples, except that of Zeus, or at least dedications coming from them, have been found in the excavations, and another has been added to them, the temple of the Dioscuri.
The many hands of Zeus Sabazios turned up in ancient excavations observe a similar gesture.
By Zeus she was the mother of Dardanus, Iasion (or Eetion), and Harmonia; but in the Italian tradition, which represented Italy as the original home of the Trojans, Dardanus was her son by a king of Italy named Corythus.
After Egypt has been afflicted for nine years with famine, Phrasius, a seer of Cyprus, arrived in Egypt and announced that the cessation of the famine would not take place until a foreigner was yearly sacrificed to Zeus or Jupiter.
It is here that Busiris enters into the circle of the myths and parerga of Heracles, who had arrived in Egypt from Libya, and was seized and bound ready to be killed and offered at the altar of Zeus in Memphis.
Tertullian in fact created Christian Latin literature; one might almost say that that literature sprang from him full-grown, alike in form and substance, as Athena from the head of Zeus.
This is supported by the myth of his fall from heaven, and by the fact that, according to the Homeric tradition, his father was Zeus, the heaven-god.
In Homer the fire-god was the son of Zeus and Hera, and found a place in the Olympian system as the divine smith.
Some mythologists have compared the hammer of Hephaestus with that of Thor, and have explained it as the emblem of a thunder-god; but it is Zeus, not Hephaestus, who causes the thunder, and the emblems of the latter god are merely the signs of his occupation as a smith.
On the other hand, the principal god of Babylon was Zeus Belus (Bel Marduk), and it is difficult to see why he should have been called Sarapis on this occasion.
The altar of Zeus consists of a great mound of ashes with a retaining wall.
According to the most widely spread myth, Briareus and his brothers were called by Zeus to his assistance when the Titans were making war upon Olympus.
Of Cassiope, the only other city of ancient importance, the name is still preserved by the village of Cassopo, and there are some rude remains of building on the site; but the temple of Zeus Cassius for which it was celebrated has totally disappeared.
Attis was also known as Papas, and the Bithynians and Phrygians, according to evidence of the time of the late Empire, called him Zeus.
Agdistis in repentance prevailed upon Zeus to grant that the body of the youth should never decay or waste.
Zeus grants the petition as in the version of Pausanias, but permits the hair of Attis to grow, and his little finger to move.
Then came another similar, but smaller propylaeum, and opposite to that was the entrance to the great court (auXi 7), nearly 53 by 70 ft., in which stands an altar or pit of sacrifice, in a position similar to that occupied by the altar of Zeus Herceus in the later Greek house.
The first of Navasard, the Armenian new year's day, was the feast of a god Vanatur or Wanadur (who answered to Zeus EvLos) in the holy pilgrim city of Bagawan.
The first soma is supposed to have been stolen from its guardian demon by an eagle, this soma-bringing eagle of Indra being comparable with the nectar-bringing eagle of Zeus, and with the eagle which, as a metamorphosis of Odin, carried off the mead.
A statue of this god has been found near Gaza; it much resembles the Greek representation of Zeus.
In ancient times the island was sacred to Hephaestus, who as the legend tells fell on Lemnos when his father Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus.
This hill is the famous Cronion, sacred to Cronus, the father of Zeus.
Spartan arms could enforce the sanction which the Olympian Zeus gave to the oaths of the amphictyones, whose federal bond was symbolized by common worship at his shrine.
This phase may be considered as beginning after the establishment of Elean supremacy in 572 B.C. And so to the last Olympia always remained a central expression of the Greek ideas that the body of man has a glory as well as his intellect and spirit, that body and mind should alike be disciplined, and that it is by the harmonious discipline of both that men best honour Zeus.
The Olympian temple of Zeus is said to have been dismantled, either by the Goths or by Christian zeal, in the reign of Theodosius II.
After this the inhabitants converted the temple of Zeus and the region to the south of it into a fortress, by constructing a wall from materials found among the ancient buildings.
The result of these six years' labours was, first, to strip off a thick covering of earth from the Altis, the consecrated precinct of the Olympian Zeus.
In a concise survey of the results obtained, it will be best to begin with the remains external to the precinct of Zeus.
In the Heraeum at Olympia, it may be remarked, the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 0.297 metre, and in the temple of Zeus an Attic foot of 1.08 English foot was used.
There are traces of an altar near the Heraeum which was probably older than the great altar of Zeus; this was probably the original centre of worship. The great altar of Zeus was of elliptic form, the length of the lozenge being directed from south-south-west to north-north-east, in such a manner that the axis would pass through the Cronion.
The Pelopium, to the west of the Altar of Zeus, was a small precinct in which sacrifices were offered to the hero Pelops.
The three temples of the Altis were those of Zeus, Hera and the Mother of the gods.
The Temple of Zeus, south of the Pelopium, stood on a high substructure with three steps.
The west section contained the throne and image of the Olympian Zeus.
It was smaller than the temple of Zeus, and, while resembling it in general plan, differed from it by its singular length relatively to its breadth.
The cella - divided, like that of Zeus, into three partitions by a double row of columns - had four " tongue-walls," or small screens, projecting at right angles from its north wall, and as many from the south wall.
Each of these treasure-houses was erected by a Greek state, either as a thank-offering for Olympian victories gained by its citizens, or as a general' mark of homage to the Olympian Zeus.
A marble bull; in front of the basin, bore an inscription saying that Herodes dedicates the whole to Zeus, in the name of his wife, Annia Regilla.
Raised on three steps, and formed by a single Doric colonnade, open towards the Altis, it afforded a place from which spectators could conveniently view the passage of processions and the sacrifices at the great altar of Zeus.
The Agora was the name given to that part of the Altis which had the Porch of Echo on the east, the Altar of Zeus on the west, the Metroum on the north, and the precinct of the Temple of Zeus on the south-west.
In this part stood the altars of Zeus Agoraios and Artemis Agoraia.
The Zanes were bronze images of Zeus, the cost of making which was defrayed by the fines exacted from competitors who had infringed the rules of the contests at Olympia.
Then at the command of Zeus he was sent homewards, but was again wrecked on the island of Phaeacia, _whence he was conveyed to Ithaca in one of the wondrous Phaeacian ships.
In the apocryphal Acts of Barnabas, which profess to be written by him, he speaks of himself as having been formerly a servant of Cyrillus, the high priest of Zeus, and as having been baptized at Iconium.
As a descendant of Zeus and famous for his beauty, he was one of the suitors of Helen; hence, after her abduction by Paris, he took part in the Trojan War, in which he distinguished himself by his bravery.
Close to this temple was another, of very small size, commonly known as the temple of Aesculapius, but probably dedicated to Zeus Milichius.
It is represented by the small theatre and the amphitheatre, the baths near the forum, the temple of Zeus Milichius, the Comitium and the original temple of Isis, but only a few private houses.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 264) they are the three sons of Uranus and Gaea - Brontes, Steropes and Arges, - storm-gods belonging to the family of the Titans, who furnished Zeus with thunder and lightning out of gratitude for his having released them from Tartarus.
They were slain by Apollo for having forged the thunderbolt with which Zeus slew Asclepius.
The epithet is applied to Zeus and the Erinyes as the deities of revenge and punishment.
After his attempt on the life of Phrixus, which was supposed to have succeeded, the Phthiots were ordered to sacrifice him to Zeus Laphystius, in order to appease the anger of the gods.
The legend of Athamas is probably founded on a very old custom amongst the Minyae - the sacrifice of the first-born of the race of Athamas to Zeus Laphystius.
The leaders of the Achaean invasion were Pelops, who took possession of Elis, and Aeacus, who became master of Aegina and was said to have introduced there the worship of Zeus Panhellenius, whose cult was also set up at Olympia.
As king of the gods Ammon was identified by the Greeks with Zeus and his consort Mut with Hera.
Khnum was likewise identified with Zeus probably through his similarity to Ammon; his proper animal having early become extinct, Ammon horns in course of time were attributed to this god also.
In this character she pursues with vindictive hatred the heroines, such as Alcmene, Leto and Semele, who were beloved by Zeus.
The connexion of Zeus and Hera was probably not primitive, since Dione seems to have preceded Hera as the wife of Zeus at Dodona.
The origin of the connexion may possibly be due to the fusion of two "Pelasgic" tribes, worshipping Zeus and Hera respectively; but speculation on the earliest cult of the goddess, before she became the wife of Zeus, must be largely conjectural.
The cuckoo was also sacred to Hera, who, according to the Argive legend, was wooed by Zeus in the form of the bird.
Various ancient writers testify to the beauty and dignity of the statue, which was considered equal to the Zeus of Pheidias.
The site of Douche, famous for its worship of Baal (Zeus Dolichenus), adopted by the Seleucids and eventually spread all over the Roman empire, lies at Duluk, two hours N.W.; but nothing is to be seen there except a mound.
Such were the sanctuaries of Zeus Lycaeus in Arcadia, of Poseidon in the island of Calauria, and of Apollo at Delos; they were, however, numerous in Asia Minor.
Alexander is said to have camped on the site of Antioch, and dedicated an altar to Zeus Bottiaeus, which lay in the northwest of the future city.
The defeat of Oenomaiis by Pelops, a stranger from Asia Minor, points to the conquest of native Aresworshippers by immigrants who introduced the new religion of Zeus.
A temple of Zeus was excavated on a terrace of the acropolis; the great temple of Apollo crowned the summit of the hill.
It is said that Hera, having assumed the form of Semele's nurse, persuaded her rival to ask Zeus to show himself to her in all his glory.
Zeus and Semele probably represent the fertilizing rain of spring, and the earth, afterwards scorched by the summer heat.
Just as the inhabitants of each town honoured their tutelar deity by solemn processions to his temple, so, at the period of the Olympic games, the temple of Zeus at Olympia formed the goal of multitudes from every Hellenic country.
No less powerful was the attraction exercised by the shrines of the oracular divinities, though the influx of pilgrims was not limited to certain days, but, year in and year out, a stream of private persons, or embassies from the city-states, came flowing to the temple of Zeus in Dodona or the shrine of Apollo at Delphi.
His attributes are the trident and the dolphin (sometimes the tunny fish.) As represented in art Poseidon resembles Zeus, but possesses less of his majestic calm, his muscles are more emphasized, and his hair is thicker and somewhat dishevelled.
By way of compensation, Zeus presented his father with a team of immortal horses (or a golden vine).
When pederasty became common in Greece, an attempt was made to justify it and invest it with dignity by referring to the rape of the beautiful boy by Zeus; in Crete, where the love of boys was reduced to a system, Minos, the primitive ruler and law-giver, was said to have been the ravisher of Ganymede.
The worship of Zeus Olympius replaced the worship of Yahweh, and swine were offered as in the Eleusinian mysteries.
Zeus was for him the supreme god of the Greek pantheon, and the syncretism, which he suggested for the sake of uniformity in his empire, assuredly involved no indignity to the only God of the Jews.
At Athens Antiochus began to build a vast temple of Zeus Olympius, in place of one begun by Peisistratus; but it was only finished by Hadrian in A.D.
Zeus Olympius was figured on his coins, and he erected a statue of Zeus Olympius in the Temple of Apollo at Daphne.
Of the two chief methods of working bronze, gold and silver, it is probable that the hammer process was first practised, at least for statues, among the Greeks, who themselves attributed the invention of the art of hollow casting to Theodorus and Rhoecus, both Samian sculptors, about the middle of the 6th century B.C. Pausanias specially mentions that one of the oldest statues he had ever seen was a large figure of Zeus in Sparta, made of hammered bronze plates riveted together.
The colossal statues of ivory and gold by Pheidias were the most notable examples of this use of gold, especially his statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and the one of Zeus at Olympia.
It is probable that the face, neck, arms and feet were of ivory, while the rest of the figure was draped in gold, Like the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias, Hera was seated on an elaborately decorated throne, holding in her left hand the sceptre, surmounted in her case by the cuckoo (as that of Zeus had an eagle), and in her right, instead of an elaborate figure of Victory (such as the Athena Parthenos and the Olympian Zeus held), simply a pomegranate.
Heracles, whom Zeus had originally intended to be ruler of Argos, Lacedaemon and Messenian Pylos, had been supplanted by the cunning of Hera, and his intended possessions had fallen into the hands of Eurystheus, king of Mycenae.
As a punishment for supplying the Titans with water in their contest with Zeus, he was turned into a river of Hades, over which departed souls were ferried by Charon.
When Apollo and Poseidon became suitors for her hand, she swore to remain a maiden for ever; whereupon Zeus bestowed upon her the honour of presiding over all sacrifices.
Hestia was closely connected with Zeus, the god of the family both in its external relation of hospitality and its internal unity round its own hearth; in the Odyssey a form of oath is by Zeus, the table and the hearth.
For the Kouretes, the fish and serpent-like peoples struck down by Zeus or Apollo, see Harrison, Annual of Brit.
There is an obvious development from the serpent qua reptile to the deity or the devil, and that the original theriomorphic form is not at once forgotten can be seen in Zeus Meilichios, Aesculapius Amynos, in the Cretan snake-goddesses, or in the Buddhist topes illustrated by Fergusson.
On its summit was an altar of Zeus Actaeus, in whose honour an annual festival was held in the dog-days, and worshippers clad themselves in skins.
This temple was dedicated to Zeus, and connected with the temple was an oracle 1 Voyage et aventures de Francois Leguat, &c. (2 vols., London, 1708).
A Hesiodic fragment gives a complete description of the Dodonaea or Hellopia, which is called a district full of corn-fields, of herds and flocks and of shepherds, where is built on an extremity (ir' Eo arin) Dodona, where Zeus dwells in the stem of an oak (07y6s).
Towards the eastern end of this terrace are the scanty remains of a building which can hardly be anything but the temple of Zeus; it appears to have consisted of pronaos, naos or cella, and opisthodomus, and some of the lower drums of the internal columns of the cella were still resting on their foundations.
In it and around it were found the most interesting products of excavation - statuettes and decorative bronzes, many of them bearing dedications to Zeus Naius and Dione, and inscriptions, including many small tablets of lead which contained the questions put to the oracle.
The disposition of the Greeks to look to the west for the centres of religious feeling appears in the mention of Dodona and the Dodonaean Zeus, put in the mouth of the Thessalian Achilles.
Quarrel of Achilles with Agamemnon and the Greek army - Agamemnon, having been compelled to give up his prize Chryseis, takes Briseis from Achilles - Thereupon Achilles appeals to his mother Thetis, who obtains from Zeus a promise that he will give victory to the Trojans until the Greeks pay due honour to her son - Meanwhile Achilles takes no part in the war.
Agamemnon is persuaded by a dream sent from Zeus to take the field with all his forces.
Zeus ceases to watch the field - Poseidon secretly comes to the aid of the Greeks.
Zeus awakened - Restores the advantage to the Trojans - Ajax alone defends the ships.
The chief incidents in that part of the poem - the panic rush to the ships, the duels of Paris and Menelaus, and of Hector and Ajax, the Aristeia of Diomede - stand in no relation to the mainspring of the poem, the promise made by Zeus to Thetis.
It is true that in the thirteenth and fourteenth books the purpose of Zeus is thwarted for a time by other, gods; but in books ii.-vii.
Zeus has acquired the character of a supreme moral ruler; and although Athena and Poseidon are adverse influences in the poem, the notion of a direct contest between them is scrupulously avoided.
There is hardly room to doubt that we have here a tradition of human sacrifice in connexion with the worship of the Phoenician Baal (Zeus Atabyrius) such as prevailed at Rhodes; when misfortune threatened Rhodes the brazen bulls in.
This goat having broken off one of its horns, Amaltheia filled it with flowers and fruits and presented it to Zeus, who placed it together with the goat amongst the stars.
According to another story, Zeus himself broke off the horn and gave it to Amaltheia, promising that it would supply whatever she desired in abundance.
Zeus is not self-existent in the sense in which the Indian Brahma is.
Other deities, like Zeus, rise to the head of a monarchical polytheism, in which their physical base is almost, ' Gotternamen, Bonn, 1896, p. 279 ff.
She is the daughter of Ouranos and Gaia; and after Metis she becomes the bride of Zeus.6 Pindar describes her as born in a golden car from the primeval Oceanus, source of all things, to the sacred height of Olympus to be the consort of Zeus the saviour; and she bears the same august epithet, as the symbol of social justice and the refuge for the oppressed.'
One particular god may be eminent enough, like Zeus, to rise above all others, and supply cultivated thought with a name for the supreme power; and this may be strengthened by the national motive as in the case of Israel.
Apollo proclaims at his birth that he will declare the counsel of Father Zeus to men.'
Zeus gave laws to Minos; Apollo revealed the Spartan constitution to Lycurgus; Zaleucus received the laws for the Locrians from Athena in a dream; Vishnu and Manu condescended to draw up law-books in India.
After his sister had been carried off by Zeus, he was sent out to find her.
The deluge was said to have been sent by Zeus in the time of Deucalion in consequence of the sons' impiety.
This gave rise to the story that a man was turned into a wolf at each annual sacrifice to Zeus Lycaeus, but recovered his human form if he abstained from human flesh for ten years.
The oldest city, the oldest cultus (that of Zeus Lycaeus), and the first civilization of Arcadia are attributed to Lycaon.
His cult was driven out by that of the Hellenic Zeus, and Lycaon himself was afterwards represented as an evil spirit, who had insulted the new deity by setting human flesh before him.
Usener and others identify Lycaon with Zeus Lycaeus, the god of light, who slays his son Nyctimus (the dark) or is succeeded by him, in allusion to the perpetual succession of night and day.
Meyer, the belief that Zeus Lycaeus accepted human sacrifice in the form of a wolf was the origin of the myth that Lycaon, the founder of his cult, became a wolf, i.e.
Another explanation is that the place of the sacred wolf once worshipped in Arcadia was taken in cult by Zeus Lycaeus, and in popular tradition by Lycaon, the ancestor of the Arcadians, who was supposed to have been punished for his insulting treatment of Zeus.
When Dionysus leaped into the sea to escape from the pursuit of Lycurgus, king of the Thracian Edones, and Hephaestus was flung out of heaven by Zeus, both were kindly received by Thetis.
Again, when Hera, Athena and Poseidon threatened to bind Zeus in chains, she sent the giant Aegaeon, who delivered him out of their hands.
As a punishment, Ixion was seized with madness, until Zeus purified him of his crime and admitted him as a guest to Olympus.
In the Iliad the word denotes an underground prison, as far below Hades as earth is below heaven, in which those who rebelled against the will of Zeus were confined.
The religion of Zeus is then reformed under the influence of the cult of Apollo, who slays the dragon brought up by the earth-goddess on Parnassus, the seat of one of her oldest sanctuaries.
Zeus being firmly seated on his throne as the result of the slaying of the dragon by Orestes, the theological significance of the myth is forgotten, and the identifications Zeus-Agamemnon and GaiaClytaemnestra are abandoned.
Tension itself Cleanthes defined as a fiery stroke (ii yi irvpos); in his hymn to Zeus lightning is the symbol of divine activity.
On the other hand, this corporeal thing is veritably and identically reason, mind, and ruling principle (X6-yos, vas, iiyE,uovtKOv); in virtue of its divine origin Cleanthes can say to Zeus, " We too are thy offspring," and a Seneca can calmly insist that, if man and God are not on perfect equality, the superiority rests rather on our side.
Those who own one law are citizens of one state, the city of Zeus, in which men and gods have their dwelling.
And his happiness, since length of time cannot increase it, falls in nothing short of that of Zeus.
It was no doubt as a protection against such dangers that the earliest league of twelve Achaean cities arose, though we are nowhere explicitly informed of its functions other than the common worship of Zeus Amarius at Aegium and an occasional arbitration between Greek belligerents.
These were recognized as probably parts of the Great Altar of Zeus erected by Eumenes II.
In the interval are the Zeus altar; the great hexastyle Doric temple of Athena flanked by the palace on the east, by the theatre and its long terrace on the west, and by a library on the north; and a large Corinthian temple of Trajan.
Beyond it, on the east, was a sacred wood filling the space up to the wall of the precinct; and at the south end of this was a small open space with the altar of Zeus Polieus.
On the summit of Mount Cynthus, above the primitive cavetemple which has always been visible, there have been found the remains of a small precinct dedicated to Zeus Cynthius and Athena Cynthia.
Of the various traditions that were current among the ancient Greeks regarding the origin of Delos, the most popular describes it as drifting through the Aegean till moored by Zeus as a refuge for the wandering Leto.
In the recorded periods of Hellenic history, Zeus was accepted as the chief god of the pantheon of the Greeks; and the religious progress of the people from lower to higher ideas can be well illustrated by the study of his ritual and personality.
Nevertheless, it remains probable that Zeus had already been conceived as a personal and pre-eminent god by the ancestors of the leading Hellenic tribes before they entered the peninsula which became their historic home.
Society may have at one time been matrilinear in the communities that become the historic Hellenes; but of this there is no trace in the worship of Zeus and Hera.18 In fact, the whole of the family morality in Hellas centred in Zeus, whose altar in the courtyard was the bond of the kinsmen; and sins against the family, such as unnatural vice and the exposure of children, are sometimes spoken of as offences against the High God.I" He was also the tutelary deity of the larger organization of the phratria; and the altar of Zeus c Pparpcos was the meetingpoint of the phrateres, when they were assembled to consider the legitimacy of the new applicants for admission into their circle.20 His religion also came to assist the development of certain legal ideas, for instance, the rights of private or family property in land; he guarded the allotments as Zein KAdpcos,2' and the Greek commandment " thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark " was maintained by Zeus " Opcos, the god of boundaries, a more personal power than the Latin Jupiter Terminus.22 His highest political functions were summed up in the title IIoXtfin, a cult-name of legendary antiquity in Athens, and frequent in the Hellenic world.23 His consort in his political life was not Hera, but his daughter Athena Polias.
According to Plato (Symposium, 180), there are two Aphrodites, " the elder, having no mother, who is called the heavenly Aphrodite - she is the daughter of Uranus; the younger, who is the daughter of Zeus and Dione - her we call common."
According to the usual tradition, he was born at Thebes - originally the local centre of his worship in Greece - and was the son of Zeus, the fertilizing rain god, and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus, a personification of earth.
Lycurgus was blinded by Zeus and soon died, or became frantic and hewed down his own son, mistaking him for a vine.
This phase of his character was developed by the Orphic poets, he having here the name of Zagreus (" torn in pieces "), and being no longer the Theban god, but a son of Zeus and Persephone.
The child was brought up secretly, watched over by Curetes; but the jealous Hera discovered where he was, and sent Titans to the spot, who, finding him at play, tore him to pieces, and cooked and ate his limbs, while Hera gave his heart to Zeus.
Aphrodite, charmed by his beauty, hid the infant in a box and handed him over to the care of Persephone, who afterwards refused to give him up. On an appeal being made to Zeus, he decided that Adonis should spend a third of the year with Persephone and a third with Aphrodite, the remaining third being at his own disposal.
In the legend, as set forth in the Homeric hymn to Apollo and the ode of Callimachus to Delos, Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto.
Apollo's oracles, which he did not deliver on his own initiative but as the mouthpiece of Zeus, were infallible, but the human mind was not always able to grasp their meaning; hence he is called Loxias (" crooked," "ambiguous").
There, according to legend, she saved the new-born Zeus, her sixth child, from being devoured by Kronos by substituting a stone for him and entrusting the infant god to the care of her attendants the Curetes.
These attendants afterwards became the bodyguard of Zeus and the priests of Rhea, and performed ceremonies in her honour.
The copious additional information given by later writers is all by way either of interpretation of local legends in the light of Ephorus's theory, or of explanation of the name "Pelasgoi"; as when Philochorus expands a popular etymology "stork-folk" (w€Xaa'yoi-- it €Xap'yoi) into a theory of their seasonal migrations; or Apollodorus says that Homer calls Zeus Pelasgian "because he is not far from every one of us," 6TL Tiffs ryes 7rEXas EaTCV.
The British Museum possesses a beautiful head of Aesculapius (or possibly Zeus) from Melos, and the Louvre a magnificent statue.
She is the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin-sister and counterpart of Apollo.
According to the legend, Callisto, an Arcadian nymph, became by Zeus the mother of Arcas, the eponymous hero of the Arcadians.
Zeus, to conceal the amour, changed Callisto into a she-bear; Hera, however, discovered it, and persuaded Artemis to slay Callisto, who was placed amongst the stars as iiptcros (" the bear").
The principal is the large portion of the Hymn to Zeus which has been preserved in Stobaeus.
In Greek mythology the term was specially applied to the stone supposed to have been swallowed by Cronus (who feared misfortune from his own children) in mistake for his infant son Zeus, for whom it had been substituted by Uranus and Gaea, his wife's parents (Etymologicum Magnum, s.v.).
Other famous baetylic idols were those in the temples of Zeus Casius at Seleucia, and of Zeus Teleios at Tegea.
The exercise of wisdom was now viewed as the pure life of that particle of divine substance which was in very truth the " god within him "; the reason whose supremacy he maintained was the reason of Zeus, and of all gods and reasonable men, no less than his own; its realization in any one individual was thus the common good of all rational beings as such; " the sage could not stretch out a finger rightly without thereby benefiting all other sages," - nay, it might even be said that he was " as useful to Zeus as Zeus to him."
The Zeus of Laodicea, with the curious epithet Azeus or Azeis, is a frequent symbol on the city coins.
For their presumption in calling themselves Zeus and Hera they were changed into birds - Alcyone into a diver, Ceyx into a kingfisher.
By command of Zeus (or Aeolus) the winds ceased to blow during their brooding-time, for seven days before and after the shortest day, that their eggs might not be carried away by the sea.
Sphinxes were represented on the throne of Apollo at Amyclae and on the metopes at Selinus; in the best period of Greek art a sphinx was sculptured on the helmet of the statue of Athena in the Parthenon at Athens; and sphinxes carrying off children were sculptured on the front feet of the throne of Zeus at Olympia.
Outside the Teutonic area he has close affinities not only with Jupiter or Zeus, but still more with the Lithuanian god Perkunas, whose name (which likewise means "thunder") appears to be connected with that of Thor's mother (FiOrgyn).
Even Zeus is unable to resist his influence, and on two occasions was put to sleep by him at the instance of Hera.
Or, again, there is nothing not explicable and natural in the conception of the Olympian Zeus as represented by the great chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, or in the Homeric conception of Zeus as a god who " turns everywhere his shining eyes " and beholds all things.
But the Zeus whose grave was shown in Crete, or the Zeus who played Demeter an obscene trick by the aid of a ram, or the Zeus who, in the shape of a swan, became the father of Castor and Pollux, or the Zeus who was merely a rough stone, or the Zeus who deceived Hera by means of a feigned marriage with an inanimate object, or the Zeus who was afraid of Attes, is a being whose myth is felt to be unnatural and in great need of explanation.
We may therefore say that, while it is rather absurd to believe that Zeus and Tsui-Goab were once real men, yet their myths are such as would be developed by people accustomed, among other forms of religion, to the worship of dead men.
In other words, they regarded Zeus, Aphrodite and the rest as real persons, diabolical not divine.
Take, for example, the name of a god, Zeus, or Athene, or any other.
Therefore, though we may ascertain that Zeus means " sky " and Agni " fire," we cannot assert, with Max Muller, that all the myths about Agni and Zeus were originally told of fire and sky.
We cannot convert Max Muller's proposition " there was nothing told of the sky that could not in some form or other be ascribed to Zeus" into " there was nothing ascribed to Zeus that had not at some time or other been told of the sky."
Thus the ghost of the hero or medicine man of a kin or tribe may be raised to divine rank, while again - the doctrine of spirits once developed, and spirits once allotted to the great elemental forces and phenomena of nature, sky, thunder, the sea, the forests - we have the beginnings of departmental deities, such as Agni, god of fire; Poseidon, god of the sea; Zeus, god of the sky - though in recent theories Zeus appears to be regarded as primarily the god of the oak tree, a spirit of vegetation.
The relation is that of Apollo to Zeus in Greek myth.