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zeno

zeno

zeno Sentence Examples

  • The best account of the life of Davila is that by Apostolo Zeno, prefixed to an edition of the history printed at Venice in 2 vols.

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  • 18) to Zeno, the son of the king of Pontus (Tac. Ann.

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  • At Pavia the barbarian conquerors of Italy proclaimed him king, and he received from Zeno the dignity of Roman patrician.

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  • In 488 Theodoric, king of the East Goths, received commission from the Greek emperor, Zeno, to undertake the affairs of Italy.

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  • Zeno, a Madonna and angels, with four saints on each side.

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  • The leading earlier Cynics were Antisthenes, Diogenes of Sinope, Crates of Thebes, and Zeno; in the later Roman period, the chief names are Demetrius (the friend of Seneca), Oenomaus and Demonax.

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  • Zeno was a pupil of Crates, from whom he learned the moral worth of self-control and indifference to sensual indulgence.

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  • In this way the mosaics of the two arches of the atrium and those of the Zeno chapel were cleaned and preserved.

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  • It is related of Anthemius that, having a quarrel with his next-door neighbour Zeno, he annoyed him in two ways.

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  • First, he made a number of leathern tubes the ends of which he contrived to fix among the joists and flooring of a fine upper-room in which Zeno entertained his friends, and then subjected it to a miniature earthquake by sending steam through the tubes.

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  • Secondly, lie simulated thunder and lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's eyes an intolerable light from a slightly hollowed mirror.

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  • It took its name from Elea, a Greek city of lower Italy, the home of its chief exponents, Parmenides and Zeno.

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  • See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.

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  • Antigonus Gonatas, bluff soldier-spirit that he was, heard the Stoic philosophers gladly, and, though he failed to induce Zeno to come to Macedonia, persuaded Zeno's disciple, Persaeus of Citium, to enter his service.

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  • The short reign of Basiliscus (474-476) favoured the Monophysites, but the restoration of the rightful emperor Zeno marked an attempt at conciliation.

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  • On the advice of Acacius, the energetic patriarch of Constantinople, Zeno issued the Henotikon edict (482), in which Nestorius and Eutyches were condemned, the twelve chapters of Cyril accepted, and the Chalcedon Definition ignored.

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  • By a treaty concluded in 476, the emperor Zeno recognized Genseric as master of all Africa.

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  • ZENO OF SIDON, Epicurean philosopher of the first century B.C., and contemporary of Cicero.

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  • Zeno Of Tarsus >>

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  • The Persian school continued to exist for another 32 years, but was finally closed and destroyed by order of the emperor Zeno in 489.

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  • The narrative was first printed at Pesaro in 1513, in what Apostolo Zeno calls lingua inculta e rozza.

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  • 474) was punished by the emperor Zeno, who gave Gerizim to the Christians.

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  • Zeno (an early bishop of Verona who became its patron saint), which stands outside the ancient city, is one.

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  • Zeno, rebuilt in 1123, are an interesting example of brick and marble construction.

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  • Zeno is mainly built of mixed brick and stone in alternate bands: four or five courses of fine red brick lie between bands of hard creamcoloured limestone or marble, forming broad stripes of red and white all over the wall.

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  • Zeno, but has a fine 12th-century west front of equal interest, richly decorated with naïve Romanesque sculpture (1135).

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  • Zeno; it is trefoilshaped in section, with a tie-beam joining the cusps.

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  • Zeno.

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  • Zeno and the cathedral, dating from the 12th century.

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  • Zeno are especially interesting as being among the earliest important examples in Italy of cast bronze reliefs.

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  • Zeno are signed by the sculptor but these merely constitute lists of names about whom nothing is known.

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  • Zeno and the cathedral, both of which were mainly rebuilt Arci?i in the 12th century, are noble examples of the Lombardic style, with few single-light windows, and with the walls decorated externally by series of pilasters, and by alternating bands of red and white, in stone or brick.

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  • A much better known Giornale was that of Apostolo Zeno, founded with the help of Maffei and Muratori (1710), continued after 1718 by Pietro Zeno, and after 1728 by Mastraca and Paitoni.

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  • Meanwhile, the same considerations had not been applied to time, so that in the days of Zeno of Elea time was still regarded as made up of a finite number of ` moments,' while space was confessed to be divisible without limit.

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  • This was the state of opinion when the celebrated arguments against the possibility of motion, of which that of Achilles and the tortoise is a specimen, were propounded by Zeno, and such, apparently, continued to be the state of opinion till Aristotle pointed out that time is divisible without limit, in precisely the same sense that space is.

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  • ` Zeno ').

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  • According to Aristotle, Zeno of Elea "invented" dialectic, the art of disputation by question and answer, while Plato developed it metaphysically in connexion with his doctrine of "Ideas" as the art of analysing ideas in themselves and in relation to the ultimate idea of the Good (Repub.

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  • 4 Athens was at this time the centre of intellectual life, and could boast an almost unique galaxy of talent - Pericles, Thucydides the son of Melesias, Aspasia, Antiphon, the musician Damon, Pheidias, Protagoras, Zeno, Cratinus, Crates, Euripides and Sophocles.

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  • 42) describes their doctrine as a "nobilis disciplina," and identifies them closely with Parmenides and Zeno.

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  • But their most immediate influence was upon the Stoics, whose founder, Zeno, studied under Stilpo.

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  • But it served as a powerful stimulus to Zeno, who by descent was imbued with oriental mysticism.

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  • Their school at Edessa was closed by Zeno in 489.

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  • 179), he was robbed of his property and came to Athens, where he studied possibly under Zeno, certainly under Cleanthes.

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  • He took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into a definite system; he further defended them against the attacks of the Academy.

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  • It must be added that the dependence of Basilides and Valentinus on Zeno and Plato is beyond dispute.

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  • 50 seq.), an exhortation to philosophy which, according to Zeno the Stoic, was studied by his master Crates.

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  • 44 7rEpi E EVocktvovs, 7repi Zi'vwvos, 7repL Popytov: De Xenophane, Zenone et Gorgia: On Xenophanes, Zeno and Gorgias.

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  • 4); and the dialogue Protrepticus was known to the Cynic Crates, pupil of Diogenes and master of Zeno (Fragm.

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  • LEUCIPPUS, Greek philosopher, born at Miletus (or Elea), founder of the Atomistic theory, contemporary of Zeno, Empedocles and Anaxagoras.

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  • On the one hand Empedocles and Anaxagoras, abandoning the pursuit of the One, gave themselves to the scientific study of the Many; on the other Zeno, abandoning the pursuit of the Many, gave himself to the dialectical study of the One.

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  • In the and and 1st centuries B.C. Apollodorus, nicknamed laprorupavvos (" Lord of the Garden "), and Zeno of Sidon (who describes Socrates as " the Attic buffoon ": Cic. De nat.

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  • ARISTO or ARISTON, of Chios (c. 250 B.C.), a Stoic philosopher and pupil of Zeno.

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  • He differed from Zeno on many points, and approximated more closely to the Cynic school.

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  • He rejected Zeno's doctrine of desirable things, intermediate between virtue and vice.

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  • The emperors Zeno and Anastasius had been strongly suspected of it, and the Roman bishops had refused to communicate with the patriarchs of Constantinople since 484, when they had condemned Acacius for accepting the formula of conciliation issued by Zeno.

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  • Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later.

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  • The emperor Zeno enacted that no one could become patricius who had not been praejectus militum, consul or magister militum, but less careful emperors gave the title to their favourites, however young and undistinguished.

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  • Having made peace with the eastern emperor Zeno in 476, he died on the 25th of January 477.

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  • From a comparison of Melissus with Zeno of Elea, it appears that the spirit of dialectic was already tentatively at work, though it was not conscious of its own power.

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  • Neither Melissus nor Zeno seems to have observed that the application of these destructive methods struck at the root not only of multiplicity but also of the One whose existence they maintained.

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  • Verus by the architect Zeno, for the heirs of a local Roman citizen (as an inscription repeated over both portals attests), its auditorium has a circuit of 313.17 feet.

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  • Thus, though, in so far as he asserted his fundamental doctrine without doubt or qualification, he was a dogmatist, in all else he was a sceptic. Again, the Eleatic Parmenides, deriving from the theologian Xenophanes the distinction between E 71'caT77 /, 07 and (W a, conceived that, whilst the One exists and is the object of knowledge, the Multiplicity of things becomes and is the object of opinion; but, when his successor Zeno provided the system with a logic, the consistent application of that logic resolved the fundamental doctrine into the single proposition " One is One," or, more exactly, into the single identity " One One."

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  • 5, 6), show that, in defending these propositions, Gorgias availed himself of the arguments which Zeno had used to discredit the popular belief in the existence of the Many; in other words, that Gorgias turned the destructive logic of Zeno against the constructive ontology of Parmenides, thereby not only reducing Eleaticism to nothingness, but also, until such time as a better logic than that of Zeno should be provided, precluding all philosophical inquiry whatsoever.

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  • The Stoic teaching is derived from Cleanthes, Chrysippus and Zeno, and is criticized from the writings of Carneades and Clitomachus.

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  • It was Zeno, the controversialist of the Eleatic school, who was regarded in after times as the " discoverer " of dialectic.3 Zeno's amazing skill in argumentation and his paradoxical conclusions, particular and general, inaugurate a new era.

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  • Zeno's paradoxes, notably, for example, the puzzle of Achilles and the Tortoise, are still capable of amusing the modern world.

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  • ZENO OF TARSUS, Stoic philosopher and pupil of Chrysippus, belonged to the period of the Middle Stoa.

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  • Zeno >>

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  • But he was no atheist, for the pantheist Zeno spoke highly of him.

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  • He endeavoured to please both parties by steering a middle course in reference to the Chalcedon decrees, but was induced after great hesitation to agree to the request of Anastasius that he should accept the Henoticon, or decree of union, issued by the emperor Zeno.

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  • The narratives of Caterino Zeno, Barbaro and Contarini, envoys from Venice to the court of Uzun Tlasan, are in this respect especially interesting.

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  • Zeno was sent in 1471 to incite this warlike ruler against the Ottoman sultan, and succeeded in his mission.

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  • There is good reason to suppose that Jahan Shah, the Black Sheep Turkoman, before his defeat by Uzun IJasan, had set up the standard of royalty; and Zeno, at the outset of his travels, calls him king of Persia 1 in 1450.

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  • He is said to have earned the character of a wise and valiant monarch, to, have reigned eleven years, to have lived to the age of seventy, and, on his death in 1477 or (according to Krusinski and Zeno) J478, to have been succeeded on the throne of Persia by his son Yaqub.

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  • Zeno, the anonymous merchant and Angiolello affirm that the devotee was defeated and killed in battlethe first making his conqueror to be Alamut, the second a general of Alamuts, and the third an officer sent by Rustam named Suleiman Bey.

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  • Zeno states that he was then thirteen, which is much more probable,2 and the several data available for reference are in favor of this supposition.

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  • According to IsmaiI Zeno, who seems to have carefully recorded the events of the time, he left his temporary home on an island of Lake Van before he was eighteen, and, passing into Karabakh,3 between the Aras and Kur, turned in a south-easterly direction into Gilan.

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  • 431), describes the altar at the eucharist as " crowned with crowded lights," 2 and even mentions the " eternal lamp."3 For their use at baptisms we have, among much other evidence, that of Zeno of Verona for the West, 4 and that of Gregory of Nazianzus for the East.

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  • Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.

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  • Zeno's residence at Athens fell at a time when the great movement which Socrates originated had spent itself in the second generation of his spiritual descendants.

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  • Zeno visited all the schools in turn, but seems to have attached himself definitely to the Cynics;, as a Cynic he composed at least one of his more important works, " the much admired Republic," which we know to have been later on a stumbling-block to the school.

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  • Zeno commenced, then, as a Cynic; and in the developed system we can point to a kernel of Cynic doctrine to which various philosophemes of other thinkers (more especially Heraclitus and Aristotle, but also Diogenes of Apollonia, the Pythagoreans, and the medical school of Hippocrates in a lesser degree) were added.

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  • In all these particulars Zeno followed them, and the last is the more important, because, Chrysippus having adopted a new criterion of truth - a clear and distinct perception of sense - it is only from casual.

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  • At the same time, it is certain that the main outlines of the characteristic: physical doctrine, which is after all the foundation of their ethics and logic, were the work of Zeno.

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  • In taking this immense stride and identifying the Cynic " reason," which is a law for man, with the " reason " which is the law of the universe, Zeno has been compared with Plato, who similarly extended the Socratic " general notion " from the region of morals - of justice, temperance, virtue - to embrace all objects of all thought, the verity of all things that are.

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  • If the recognition of physics and logic as two studies coordinate with ethics is sufficient to differentiate the mature Zeno from the Cynic author of the Republic, no less than from his own heterodox disciple Aristo, the Cleanthes.

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  • than those of any other Stoic. Zeno's seeming dualism of God (or force) and formless matter he was able to transform into the lofty pantheism which breathes in every line of the famous.

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  • It was left for Cleanthes to discover this motive cause in a conception familiar to Zeno, as to the Cynics before him, but restricted to the region of ethics - the conception of tension or effort.

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  • Zeno had caught the practical spirit of his age - the desire for a popular philosophy to meet individual needs.

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  • In his Republic Zeno had gone so far as to declare the routine education of the day (e.g.

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  • So absolutely is the " rare and priceless wisdom " for which we strive identical with virtue itself that the three main divisions of philosophy current at the time and accepted by Zeno - logic, physics and ethics - are defined as the most generic or comprehensive virtues.

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  • Accordingly Aristo, holding to Cynicism when Zeno himself had got beyond it, rejected two of these parts of philosophy as useless and out of reach - a divergence which excluded him from the school, but strictly consistent with his view that ethics alone is scientific knowledge.

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  • Zeno began, perhaps, by adopting the formulas of the Peripatetics, though no doubt with a conscious difference, postulating that form was always attached to matter, no less than matter, as known to us, is everywhere shaped or informed.

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  • But we can answer authoritatively that to Cleanthes and Chrysippus, if not to Zeno, there was no real difference between matter and its cause, which is always a corporeal current, and therefore matter, although the finest and subtlest matter.

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  • Chrysippus determined it, following Zeno, to be fiery breath or ether, a spiritualized sublimed intermediate element.

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  • 5, 15) point to common study of these writings under Zeno.

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  • That Zeno and Cleanthes crudely compared this presentation to the impression which a seal bears upon wax, with protuberances and indentations, while Chrysippus more prudently determined it vaguely as an occult modification or " mode " of mind, is an interesting but not intrinsically important detail But the mind is no mere passive recipient of impressions from without, in the view of the Stoics.

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  • Zeno, we have reason to believe, adopted the Cynic Logos for his guidance to truth as well as to morality.

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  • Zeno compared sensation to the outstretched hand, flat and open; bending the fingers was assent; the clenched fist was " simple apprehension," the mental grasp of an object; knowledge was the clenched fist tightly held in the other hand.

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  • The circumstances of the time, such as the decay of Greek city-life, the foundation of large territorial states under absolute Greek rulers which followed upon Alexander's conquests, and afterwards the rise of the world-empire of Rome, aided to develop the leading idea of Zeno's There he had anticipated a state without family life, without law courts or coins, without schools or temples, in which all differences of nationality would be merged in the common brotherhood of man.

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  • But Zeno declared images, shrines, temples, sacrifices, prayers and worship to be of no avail.

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  • It remained for Zeno to carry this to a much greater extent and to seek out or invent " natural principles " (Xbyoc and moral ideas in all the legends and in the poetry of Homer and Hesiod.

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  • Chrysippus's im mediate successors were Zeno of Tarsus, Diogenes of Seleucia (often called the Babylonian) and Antipater of Tarsus, men of no originality, though not without ability; the two lastnamed, however, had all their energies taxed to sustain the conflict with Carneades (q.v.).

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  • We have here a compromise between Zeno's and Aristotle's doctrines.

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  • Doubtless, at the first founding of the school Zeno himself and Zeno's pupils were inspired with this hope; they emulated the Cynics Antisthenes and Diogenes, who never shrank out of modesty from the name and its responsibilities.

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  • Zeno indeed could hardly have been denied the title conferred upon Epicurus.

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  • Zeno and Chrysippus had introduced a repellent technical terminology; their writings lacked every grace of style.

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  • Antiochus of Ascalon, the professed restorer of the Old Academy, taught a medley of Stoic and Peripatetic dogmas, which he boldly asserted Zeno had first borrowed from his school.

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  • At the same time the antiquarian study of Stoic writings went on apace, especially those of the earliest teachers - Zeno and Aristo and Cleanthes.

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  • Submission is enforced by an argument which almost amounts to a retractation of the difference between things natural and things contrary to nature, as understood by Zeno.

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  • C. Pearson, The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (London 1891); A.

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  • It was in both characters together that he set out in 488, by commission from the emperor Zeno, to recover Italy from Odoacer.

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  • At Artaxata Zeno, the popular candidate for the throne, was crowned king of Armenia.

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  • Besides Polemon, the statesman Phocion, Chaeron, tyrant of Pellene, the Academic Crantor, the Stoic Zeno and Epicurus are alleged to have frequented his lectures.

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  • 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva under Venetian protection.

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  • Indirectly, through the dialectic of his pupil and friend Zeno and otherwise, the doctrine of the inadequacy of sensation led to the humanist movement, which for a time threatened to put an end to philosophical and scientific speculation.

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  • In the Parmenides reconstruction predominates over criticism - the letter of Eleaticism being here represented by Zeno, its spirit, as Plato conceived it, by Parmenides.

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  • With but four drachmae in his possession he came to Athens, where he listened first to the lectures of Crates the Cynic, and then to those of Zeno, the Stoic, supporting himself meanwhile by working all night as water-carrier to a gardener (hence his nickname (1 3 p€/wrXrls).

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  • His power of patient endurance, or perhaps his slowness, earned him the title of "the Ass"; but such was the esteem awakened by his high moral qualities that, on the death of Zeno in 263, he became the leader of the school.

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  • C. Pearson, Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (Camb., 1891); article by E.

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  • Even in this negative use of the notion it is necessarily implied that whatever active tendencies in man are found to be " natural " - that is, independent of and uncorrupted by social customs and conventions - will properly take effect in outward acts, but the adoption of " conformity to nature " as a general positive rule for outward conduct seems to have been due to the influence on Zeno of Academic teaching.

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  • But beyond this nature did not seem to go in determining the relations of the sexes; accordingly, we find that community of wives was a feature of Zeno's ideal commonwealth, just as it was of Plato's; while, again, the strict.

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  • This paradox is violent, but it is quite in harmony with the spirit of Stoicism; and we are more startled to find that the Epicurean sage, no less than the Stoic, is to be happy even on the rack; that his happiness, too, is unimpaired by being restricted in duration, when his mind has apprehended the natural limits of life; that, in short, Epicurus makes no less strenuous efforts than Zeno to eliminate imperfection from the conditions of human existence.

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  • The sense of the gap between theory and fact gives to the religious element of Stoicism a new force; the soul, conscious of its weakness, leans on the thought of God, and in the philosopher's attitude towards external events, pious resignation preponderates over self-poised indifference; the old self-reliance of the reason, looking down on man's natural life as a mere field for its exercise, makes room for a positive aversion to the flesh as an alien element imprisoning the spirit; the body has come to be a " corpse which the soul sustains," 1 and life a " sojourn in a strange land "; 2 in short, the ethical idealism of Zeno has begun to borrow from the metaphysical idealism of Plato.

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  • ZENO OF ELEA, son of Teleutagoras, is supposed to have been born towards the beginning of the 5th century B.C. The pupil and the friend of Parmenides, he sought to recommend his master's doctrine of the existence of the One by contro verting the popular belief in the existence of the Many.

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  • In Plato's Parmenides, Socrates, "then very young," meets Parmenides, "an old man some sixty-five years of age," and Zeno, "a man of about forty, tall and personable," and engages them in philosophical discussion.

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  • Plato's account of Zeno's teaching (Parmenides, 128 seq.) is, however, presumably as accurate as it is precise.

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  • In reply to those who thought that Parmenides's theory of the existence of the One involved inconsistencies and absurdities, Zeno tried to show that the assumption of the existence of the Many, that is to say, a plurality of things in time and space, carried with it inconsistencies and absurdities grosser and more numerous.

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  • Of the paradoxes used by Zeno to discredit the belief in plurality and motion, eight survive in the writings of Aristotle and Simplicius.

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  • But an infinite distance (which Zeno fails to distinguish from a finite distance infinitely divided) cannot be traversed in a finite time.

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  • Thus Zeno again confounds a finite distance infinitely divided with an infinite distance.

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  • These propositions appeared to Zeno to be irreconcilable.

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  • In other words, Zeno re-affirmed the dogma, "The Ent is, the Non-ent is not."

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  • If tradition has not misrepresented these paradoxes of time, space and motion, there is in Zeno's reasoning an element of fallacy.

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  • It is indeed difficult to understand how so acute a thinker should confound that which is infinitely divisible with that which is infinitely great, as in (I), (2), (5), and (6); that he should identify space and 'magnitude, as in (3); that he should neglect the imperfection of the organs of sense, as in (4); that he should deny the reality of motion, as in (7); and that he should ignore the relativity of speed, as in (8): and of late years it has been thought that the conventional statements of the paradoxes, and in particular of those which are more definitely mathematical, namely (5), (6), (7), (8), do less than justice to Zeno's acumen.

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  • "One of the most notable victims of posterity's lack of judgment," says Bertrand Russell, "is the Eleatic Zeno.

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  • Having invented four arguments all immeasurably subtle and profound, the grossness of subsequent philosophers pronounced him to be a mere ingenious juggler, and his arguments to be one and all sophisms. After two thousand years of continual refutation, these sophisms were reinstated, and made the foundation of a mathematical renaissance, by a German professor, who probably never dreamed of any connexion between himself and Zeno.

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  • "The interpretation of Zeno's last four paradoxes given by Messrs.

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  • The paradox of the arrow (7), says Mr Russell, is a plain statement of a very elementary fact: the arrow is at rest at very moment of its flight: Zeno's only mistake was in inferring (if he did infer) that it was therefore at the same point at one moment as at another.

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  • How far this interpretation of Zeno is historically justifiable, may be doubtful.

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  • We learn from Plato (Parmenides, 127 D) that "the first hypothesis of the first argument" of Zeno's book above mentioned ran as follows: "If existences are many, they must be both like and unlike [unlike, inasmuch as they are not one and the same, and like, inasmuch as they agree in not being one and the same, Proclus, On the Parmenides, ii.

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  • That is to say, not perceiving that the same thing may be at once like and unlike in different relations, Zeno regarded the attribution to the same thing of likeness and unlikeness as a violation of what was afterwards known as the principle of contradiction; and, finding that plurality entailed these attributions, he inferred its unreality.

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  • For three-quarters of a century, then, philosophy was at a standstill; and, when in the second decade of the 4th century the pursuit of truth was resumed, it was plain that Zeno's paradox of predication must be disposed of before the problems which had occupied the earlier thinkers - the problem of knowledge and the problem of being - could be so much as attempted.

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  • It would seem then that, not to Antisthenes only, but to Plato also, Zeno's paradox of predication was a substantial difficulty; and we shall be disposed to give Zeno credit accordingly for his perception of its importance.

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  • In all probability Zeno did not observe that in his controversial defence of Eleaticism he was interpreting Parmenides's teaching anew.

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  • For, while Parmenides had recognized, together with the One, which is, and is the object of knowledge, a Many, which is not, and therefore is not known, but nevertheless becomes, and is the object of opinion, Zeno plainly affirmed that plurality, becoming and opinion are one and all inconceivable.

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  • In a word, the fundamental dogma, "The Ent is, the Non-ent is not," which with Parmenides had been an assertion of the necessity of distinguishing between the Ent, which is, and the Non-ent, which is not, but becomes, was with Zeno a declaration of the Non-ent's absolute nullity.

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  • Thus, just as Empedocles developed Parmenides's theory of the Many to the neglect of his theory of the One, so Zeno developed the theory of the One to the neglect of the theory of the Many.

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  • The first effect of Zeno's teaching was to complete the discomfiture of philosophy.

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  • On the mathematical questions raised by certain of Zeno's paradoxes, see G.

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  • Zeno Of Sidon >>

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  • His first act was to repudiate the Henoticon, a deed of union, originating, it is supposed, with Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, and published by the emperor Zeno with the view of allaying the strife between the Monophysites and their opponents in the Eastern church.

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  • Up to the time when the religious zeal of the emperor Zeno put a stop to the Nestorian school at Edessa, this " Athens of Syria " was active in translating and popularizing the Aristotelian logic. Their banishment from Edessa in 489 drove the Nestorian scholars to Persia, where the Sassanid rulers gave them a welcome; and there they continued their labours on the Organon.

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  • The more powerful of the two fleets which it sent out was despatched into the eastern Mediterranean under Carlo Zeno, the bailiff and captain of Negropont.

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  • While Carlo Zeno harassed the Genoese stations in the Levant, Vettor Pisani brought one of their squadrons to action on the 30th of May 1378 off Punta di Anzio to the south of the Tiber, and defeated it.

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  • Genoa, having recovered from the panic caused by the disaster at Anzio, decided to attack Venice at home while the best of her ships were absent with Carlo Zeno.

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  • Carlo Zeno had long since been ordered to return, but the slowness and difficulty of communication and movement under 14th century conditions delayed his reappearance.

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  • The besiegers of Chioggia were at the end of their powers of endurance, and Pisani had been compelled to give a promise that the siege would be raised, when Zeno's fleet reached the anchorage off Brondolo on the 1st of January 1380.

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  • When, however, Zeno's edict (489) ordered the closing of the school of the Persians at Edessa, East and West drifted apart more and more; the ecclesiastical writer Narsai, " the Harp of the Holy Spirit," fled to Nisibis about 489.

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  • 431, by an edict of the emperor Zeno (to whom the church had sent a cogent argument on its own behalf, the alleged body of its reputed founder St Barnabas, then just discovered at Salamis), and by the Trullan Council in 692.

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  • The bishop of the capital, Salamis or Constantia, was constituted metropolitan by Zeno, with the title "archbishop of all Cyprus," enlarged subsequently into "archbishop of Justiniana Nova and of all Cyprus," after an enforced expatriation to Justinianopolis in 688.

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  • Zeno also gave him the unique privileges of wearing and signing his name in the imperial purple, &c., which are still preserved.

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  • The best account of the life of Davila is that by Apostolo Zeno, prefixed to an edition of the history printed at Venice in 2 vols.

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  • His early training was committed to the ablest and most advanced teachers of the day: Damon instructed him in music, Zeno the Eleatic revealed to him the powers of dialectic; the philosopher Anaxagoras, who lived in close friendship with Pericles, had great influence on his cast of thought and was commonly held responsible for that calm and undaunted attitude of mind which he preserved in the midst of the severest trials.

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  • Pericles also incurred unpopularity because of his rationalism in religious matters; yet Athens in his time was becoming ripe for the new culture, and would have done better to receive it from men of his circle - Anaxagoras, Zeno, Protagoras and Meton - than from the more irresponsible sophists.

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  • 18) to Zeno, the son of the king of Pontus (Tac. Ann.

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  • At Pavia the barbarian conquerors of Italy proclaimed him king, and he received from Zeno the dignity of Roman patrician.

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  • In 488 Theodoric, king of the East Goths, received commission from the Greek emperor, Zeno, to undertake the affairs of Italy.

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  • Meanwhile a fleet was raised for their relief by Carlo Zeno in the Levant, and the admiral Vittore Pisani, who had been imprisoned after the defeat at Pola, was released to lead their forlorn hope from the city side.

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  • The story of two Venetians, Nicolo and Antonio Zeno, who gave a vague account of voyages in the northern seas in the end of the 13th century, is no longer to be accepted as history.

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  • Zeno, a Madonna and angels, with four saints on each side.

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  • The leading earlier Cynics were Antisthenes, Diogenes of Sinope, Crates of Thebes, and Zeno; in the later Roman period, the chief names are Demetrius (the friend of Seneca), Oenomaus and Demonax.

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  • Zeno was a pupil of Crates, from whom he learned the moral worth of self-control and indifference to sensual indulgence (see Stoics).

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  • In this way the mosaics of the two arches of the atrium and those of the Zeno chapel were cleaned and preserved.

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  • It is related of Anthemius that, having a quarrel with his next-door neighbour Zeno, he annoyed him in two ways.

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  • First, he made a number of leathern tubes the ends of which he contrived to fix among the joists and flooring of a fine upper-room in which Zeno entertained his friends, and then subjected it to a miniature earthquake by sending steam through the tubes.

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  • Secondly, lie simulated thunder and lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's eyes an intolerable light from a slightly hollowed mirror.

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  • In the southern were the Orchestra, where the Dionysiac dances took place, and the famous statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton by Antenor which were carried away by Xerxes; also the Metroum, or temple of the Mother of the Gods,the Bouleuterium, or council-chamber of the Five Hundred, the Prytaneum, the hearth of the combined communities, where the guests of the state dined, the temple of the Dioscuri, and the Tholus, or Skias, a circular stone-domed building in which the Prytaneis were maintained at the public expense; in the northern were the Leocorium, where Hipparchus was slain, the QToa /3avtXtK?7, the famous aTOet 7roLKLAn, where Zeno taught, and other structures.

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  • It took its name from Elea, a Greek city of lower Italy, the home of its chief exponents, Parmenides and Zeno.

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  • See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.

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  • Antigonus Gonatas, bluff soldier-spirit that he was, heard the Stoic philosophers gladly, and, though he failed to induce Zeno to come to Macedonia, persuaded Zeno's disciple, Persaeus of Citium, to enter his service.

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  • The short reign of Basiliscus (474-476) favoured the Monophysites, but the restoration of the rightful emperor Zeno marked an attempt at conciliation.

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  • On the advice of Acacius, the energetic patriarch of Constantinople, Zeno issued the Henotikon edict (482), in which Nestorius and Eutyches were condemned, the twelve chapters of Cyril accepted, and the Chalcedon Definition ignored.

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  • By a treaty concluded in 476, the emperor Zeno recognized Genseric as master of all Africa.

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  • ZENO OF SIDON, Epicurean philosopher of the first century B.C., and contemporary of Cicero.

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  • Zeno Of Tarsus >>

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  • The Persian school continued to exist for another 32 years, but was finally closed and destroyed by order of the emperor Zeno in 489.

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  • But, while he thus stood aloof from philosophy, Xenophanes influenced its development in two ways: first, his theological henism led the way to the philosophical henism of Parmenides and Zeno; secondly, his assertion that so-called knowledge was in reality no more than opinion taught his successors to distinguish knowledge and opinion, and to assign to each a separate province.

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  • The narrative was first printed at Pesaro in 1513, in what Apostolo Zeno calls lingua inculta e rozza.

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  • 474) was punished by the emperor Zeno, who gave Gerizim to the Christians.

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  • Zeno (an early bishop of Verona who became its patron saint), which stands outside the ancient city, is one.

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  • Zeno, rebuilt in 1123, are an interesting example of brick and marble construction.

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  • Zeno is mainly built of mixed brick and stone in alternate bands: four or five courses of fine red brick lie between bands of hard creamcoloured limestone or marble, forming broad stripes of red and white all over the wall.

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  • Zeno, but has a fine 12th-century west front of equal interest, richly decorated with naïve Romanesque sculpture (1135).

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  • Zeno; it is trefoilshaped in section, with a tie-beam joining the cusps.

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  • Zeno and the cathedral, dating from the 12th century.

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  • Zeno are especially interesting as being among the earliest important examples in Italy of cast bronze reliefs.

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  • Zeno, are rudely modelled, and yet very dramatic and sculpturesque in style.

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  • Zeno are signed by the sculptor but these merely constitute lists of names about whom nothing is known.

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  • Zeno and the cathedral, both of which were mainly rebuilt Arci?i in the 12th century, are noble examples of the Lombardic style, with few single-light windows, and with the walls decorated externally by series of pilasters, and by alternating bands of red and white, in stone or brick.

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  • A much better known Giornale was that of Apostolo Zeno, founded with the help of Maffei and Muratori (1710), continued after 1718 by Pietro Zeno, and after 1728 by Mastraca and Paitoni.

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  • Meanwhile, the same considerations had not been applied to time, so that in the days of Zeno of Elea time was still regarded as made up of a finite number of ` moments,' while space was confessed to be divisible without limit.

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  • This was the state of opinion when the celebrated arguments against the possibility of motion, of which that of Achilles and the tortoise is a specimen, were propounded by Zeno, and such, apparently, continued to be the state of opinion till Aristotle pointed out that time is divisible without limit, in precisely the same sense that space is.

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  • And the slowness of the development of scientific ideas may be estimated from the fact that Bayle does not see any force in this statement of Aristotle, but continues to admire the paradox of Zeno (Bayle's Dictionary, art.

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  • ` Zeno ').

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  • According to Aristotle, Zeno of Elea "invented" dialectic, the art of disputation by question and answer, while Plato developed it metaphysically in connexion with his doctrine of "Ideas" as the art of analysing ideas in themselves and in relation to the ultimate idea of the Good (Repub.

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  • 4 Athens was at this time the centre of intellectual life, and could boast an almost unique galaxy of talent - Pericles, Thucydides the son of Melesias, Aspasia, Antiphon, the musician Damon, Pheidias, Protagoras, Zeno, Cratinus, Crates, Euripides and Sophocles.

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  • 42) describes their doctrine as a "nobilis disciplina," and identifies them closely with Parmenides and Zeno.

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  • But their most immediate influence was upon the Stoics, whose founder, Zeno, studied under Stilpo.

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  • But it served as a powerful stimulus to Zeno, who by descent was imbued with oriental mysticism.

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  • Their school at Edessa was closed by Zeno in 489.

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  • The grammar of the Stoics, gradually elaborated by Zeno, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, supplied a terminology which, in words such as " genitive," " accusative " and " aorist," has become a permanent part of the grammarian's vocabulary; and the study of this grammar found its earliest home in Pergamum.

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  • 179), he was robbed of his property and came to Athens, where he studied possibly under Zeno, certainly under Cleanthes.

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  • He took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into a definite system; he further defended them against the attacks of the Academy.

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  • It must be added that the dependence of Basilides and Valentinus on Zeno and Plato is beyond dispute.

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  • 50 seq.), an exhortation to philosophy which, according to Zeno the Stoic, was studied by his master Crates.

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  • 44 7rEpi E EVocktvovs, 7repi Zi'vwvos, 7repL Popytov: De Xenophane, Zenone et Gorgia: On Xenophanes, Zeno and Gorgias.

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  • 4); and the dialogue Protrepticus was known to the Cynic Crates, pupil of Diogenes and master of Zeno (Fragm.

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  • LEUCIPPUS, Greek philosopher, born at Miletus (or Elea), founder of the Atomistic theory, contemporary of Zeno, Empedocles and Anaxagoras.

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  • On the one hand Empedocles and Anaxagoras, abandoning the pursuit of the One, gave themselves to the scientific study of the Many; on the other Zeno, abandoning the pursuit of the Many, gave himself to the dialectical study of the One.

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  • In the and and 1st centuries B.C. Apollodorus, nicknamed laprorupavvos (" Lord of the Garden "), and Zeno of Sidon (who describes Socrates as " the Attic buffoon ": Cic. De nat.

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  • ARISTO or ARISTON, of Chios (c. 250 B.C.), a Stoic philosopher and pupil of Zeno.

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  • He differed from Zeno on many points, and approximated more closely to the Cynic school.

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  • He rejected Zeno's doctrine of desirable things, intermediate between virtue and vice.

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  • The emperors Zeno and Anastasius had been strongly suspected of it, and the Roman bishops had refused to communicate with the patriarchs of Constantinople since 484, when they had condemned Acacius for accepting the formula of conciliation issued by Zeno.

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  • Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later.

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  • The emperor Zeno enacted that no one could become patricius who had not been praejectus militum, consul or magister militum, but less careful emperors gave the title to their favourites, however young and undistinguished.

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  • Having made peace with the eastern emperor Zeno in 476, he died on the 25th of January 477.

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  • The fundamental difficulty underlying this logic is the paradox more clearly expressed by Zeno and to a large extent represented in almost all modern discussion, namely that the evidence of the senses contradicts the intellect.

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  • From a comparison of Melissus with Zeno of Elea, it appears that the spirit of dialectic was already tentatively at work, though it was not conscious of its own power.

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  • Neither Melissus nor Zeno seems to have observed that the application of these destructive methods struck at the root not only of multiplicity but also of the One whose existence they maintained.

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  • Verus by the architect Zeno, for the heirs of a local Roman citizen (as an inscription repeated over both portals attests), its auditorium has a circuit of 313.17 feet.

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  • Thus, though, in so far as he asserted his fundamental doctrine without doubt or qualification, he was a dogmatist, in all else he was a sceptic. Again, the Eleatic Parmenides, deriving from the theologian Xenophanes the distinction between E 71'caT77 /, 07 and (W a, conceived that, whilst the One exists and is the object of knowledge, the Multiplicity of things becomes and is the object of opinion; but, when his successor Zeno provided the system with a logic, the consistent application of that logic resolved the fundamental doctrine into the single proposition " One is One," or, more exactly, into the single identity " One One."

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  • 5, 6), show that, in defending these propositions, Gorgias availed himself of the arguments which Zeno had used to discredit the popular belief in the existence of the Many; in other words, that Gorgias turned the destructive logic of Zeno against the constructive ontology of Parmenides, thereby not only reducing Eleaticism to nothingness, but also, until such time as a better logic than that of Zeno should be provided, precluding all philosophical inquiry whatsoever.

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  • The Stoic teaching is derived from Cleanthes, Chrysippus and Zeno, and is criticized from the writings of Carneades and Clitomachus.

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  • It was Zeno, the controversialist of the Eleatic school, who was regarded in after times as the " discoverer " of dialectic.3 Zeno's amazing skill in argumentation and his paradoxical conclusions, particular and general, inaugurate a new era.

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  • Zeno's paradoxes, notably, for example, the puzzle of Achilles and the Tortoise, are still capable of amusing the modern world.

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  • ZENO OF TARSUS, Stoic philosopher and pupil of Chrysippus, belonged to the period of the Middle Stoa.

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  • Parmenides and Zeno (see Eleatic School) enunciated the principle that "Nothing is born of nothing."

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  • But he was no atheist, for the pantheist Zeno spoke highly of him.

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  • He endeavoured to please both parties by steering a middle course in reference to the Chalcedon decrees, but was induced after great hesitation to agree to the request of Anastasius that he should accept the Henoticon, or decree of union, issued by the emperor Zeno.

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  • The narratives of Caterino Zeno, Barbaro and Contarini, envoys from Venice to the court of Uzun Tlasan, are in this respect especially interesting.

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  • Zeno was sent in 1471 to incite this warlike ruler against the Ottoman sultan, and succeeded in his mission.

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  • There is good reason to suppose that Jahan Shah, the Black Sheep Turkoman, before his defeat by Uzun IJasan, had set up the standard of royalty; and Zeno, at the outset of his travels, calls him king of Persia 1 in 1450.

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  • He is said to have earned the character of a wise and valiant monarch, to, have reigned eleven years, to have lived to the age of seventy, and, on his death in 1477 or (according to Krusinski and Zeno) J478, to have been succeeded on the throne of Persia by his son Yaqub.

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  • Zeno, the anonymous merchant and Angiolello affirm that the devotee was defeated and killed in battlethe first making his conqueror to be Alamut, the second a general of Alamuts, and the third an officer sent by Rustam named Suleiman Bey.

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  • Zeno states that he was then thirteen, which is much more probable,2 and the several data available for reference are in favor of this supposition.

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  • According to IsmaiI Zeno, who seems to have carefully recorded the events of the time, he left his temporary home on an island of Lake Van before he was eighteen, and, passing into Karabakh,3 between the Aras and Kur, turned in a south-easterly direction into Gilan.

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  • Zeno states that in the following year Ismail entered upon a new campaign in Kurdistan and Asia Minor, but that he returned to Tabriz without accomplishing his object, having been harassed by the tactics of Ala ud-Daula, a beylerbey, or governor in Armenia and parts of Syria.

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  • 431), describes the altar at the eucharist as " crowned with crowded lights," 2 and even mentions the " eternal lamp."3 For their use at baptisms we have, among much other evidence, that of Zeno of Verona for the West, 4 and that of Gregory of Nazianzus for the East.

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  • STOICS, a school of philosophers founded at the close of the 4th century B.C. by Zeno of Citium, and so called from the Stoa or painted corridor (6roci 7roucLXf) on the north side of the market-place at Athens, which, after its restoration by Cimon, the celebrated painter Polygnotus had adorned with frescoes representing scenes from the Trojan War.

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  • Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.

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  • Zeno's residence at Athens fell at a time when the great movement which Socrates originated had spent itself in the second generation of his spiritual descendants.

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  • Zeno visited all the schools in turn, but seems to have attached himself definitely to the Cynics;, as a Cynic he composed at least one of his more important works, " the much admired Republic," which we know to have been later on a stumbling-block to the school.

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  • Zeno commenced, then, as a Cynic; and in the developed system we can point to a kernel of Cynic doctrine to which various philosophemes of other thinkers (more especially Heraclitus and Aristotle, but also Diogenes of Apollonia, the Pythagoreans, and the medical school of Hippocrates in a lesser degree) were added.

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  • In all these particulars Zeno followed them, and the last is the more important, because, Chrysippus having adopted a new criterion of truth - a clear and distinct perception of sense - it is only from casual.

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  • At the same time, it is certain that the main outlines of the characteristic: physical doctrine, which is after all the foundation of their ethics and logic, were the work of Zeno.

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  • In taking this immense stride and identifying the Cynic " reason," which is a law for man, with the " reason " which is the law of the universe, Zeno has been compared with Plato, who similarly extended the Socratic " general notion " from the region of morals - of justice, temperance, virtue - to embrace all objects of all thought, the verity of all things that are.

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  • If the recognition of physics and logic as two studies coordinate with ethics is sufficient to differentiate the mature Zeno from the Cynic author of the Republic, no less than from his own heterodox disciple Aristo, the Cleanthes.

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  • than those of any other Stoic. Zeno's seeming dualism of God (or force) and formless matter he was able to transform into the lofty pantheism which breathes in every line of the famous.

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  • It was left for Cleanthes to discover this motive cause in a conception familiar to Zeno, as to the Cynics before him, but restricted to the region of ethics - the conception of tension or effort.

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  • The eminent teachers of the time are said to have been Aristo, Zeno's heterodox pupil, and Arcesilas, who in Plato's name brought Megarian subtleties and Pyrrhonian agnosticism to bear upon the intruding doctrine; and after a vigorous upgrowth it seemed not unlikely to die out.

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  • Zeno had caught the practical spirit of his age - the desire for a popular philosophy to meet individual needs.

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  • In his Republic Zeno had gone so far as to declare the routine education of the day (e.g.

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  • So absolutely is the " rare and priceless wisdom " for which we strive identical with virtue itself that the three main divisions of philosophy current at the time and accepted by Zeno - logic, physics and ethics - are defined as the most generic or comprehensive virtues.

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  • Accordingly Aristo, holding to Cynicism when Zeno himself had got beyond it, rejected two of these parts of philosophy as useless and out of reach - a divergence which excluded him from the school, but strictly consistent with his view that ethics alone is scientific knowledge.

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  • Zeno began, perhaps, by adopting the formulas of the Peripatetics, though no doubt with a conscious difference, postulating that form was always attached to matter, no less than matter, as known to us, is everywhere shaped or informed.

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  • But we can answer authoritatively that to Cleanthes and Chrysippus, if not to Zeno, there was no real difference between matter and its cause, which is always a corporeal current, and therefore matter, although the finest and subtlest matter.

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  • Chrysippus determined it, following Zeno, to be fiery breath or ether, a spiritualized sublimed intermediate element.

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  • 5, 15) point to common study of these writings under Zeno.

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  • That Zeno and Cleanthes crudely compared this presentation to the impression which a seal bears upon wax, with protuberances and indentations, while Chrysippus more prudently determined it vaguely as an occult modification or " mode " of mind, is an interesting but not intrinsically important detail But the mind is no mere passive recipient of impressions from without, in the view of the Stoics.

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  • Zeno, we have reason to believe, adopted the Cynic Logos for his guidance to truth as well as to morality.

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  • Zeno compared sensation to the outstretched hand, flat and open; bending the fingers was assent; the clenched fist was " simple apprehension," the mental grasp of an object; knowledge was the clenched fist tightly held in the other hand.

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  • The circumstances of the time, such as the decay of Greek city-life, the foundation of large territorial states under absolute Greek rulers which followed upon Alexander's conquests, and afterwards the rise of the world-empire of Rome, aided to develop the leading idea of Zeno's There he had anticipated a state without family life, without law courts or coins, without schools or temples, in which all differences of nationality would be merged in the common brotherhood of man.

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  • But Zeno declared images, shrines, temples, sacrifices, prayers and worship to be of no avail.

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  • It remained for Zeno to carry this to a much greater extent and to seek out or invent " natural principles " (Xbyoc and moral ideas in all the legends and in the poetry of Homer and Hesiod.

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  • Chrysippus's im mediate successors were Zeno of Tarsus, Diogenes of Seleucia (often called the Babylonian) and Antipater of Tarsus, men of no originality, though not without ability; the two lastnamed, however, had all their energies taxed to sustain the conflict with Carneades (q.v.).

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  • We have here a compromise between Zeno's and Aristotle's doctrines.

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  • Doubtless, at the first founding of the school Zeno himself and Zeno's pupils were inspired with this hope; they emulated the Cynics Antisthenes and Diogenes, who never shrank out of modesty from the name and its responsibilities.

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  • Zeno indeed could hardly have been denied the title conferred upon Epicurus.

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  • Zeno and Chrysippus had introduced a repellent technical terminology; their writings lacked every grace of style.

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  • Antiochus of Ascalon, the professed restorer of the Old Academy, taught a medley of Stoic and Peripatetic dogmas, which he boldly asserted Zeno had first borrowed from his school.

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  • At the same time the antiquarian study of Stoic writings went on apace, especially those of the earliest teachers - Zeno and Aristo and Cleanthes.

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  • Submission is enforced by an argument which almost amounts to a retractation of the difference between things natural and things contrary to nature, as understood by Zeno.

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  • C. Pearson, The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (London 1891); A.

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  • It was in both characters together that he set out in 488, by commission from the emperor Zeno, to recover Italy from Odoacer.

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  • At Artaxata Zeno, the popular candidate for the throne, was crowned king of Armenia.

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  • Besides Polemon, the statesman Phocion, Chaeron, tyrant of Pellene, the Academic Crantor, the Stoic Zeno and Epicurus are alleged to have frequented his lectures.

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  • 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva under Venetian protection.

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  • Indirectly, through the dialectic of his pupil and friend Zeno and otherwise, the doctrine of the inadequacy of sensation led to the humanist movement, which for a time threatened to put an end to philosophical and scientific speculation.

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  • In the Parmenides reconstruction predominates over criticism - the letter of Eleaticism being here represented by Zeno, its spirit, as Plato conceived it, by Parmenides.

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  • With but four drachmae in his possession he came to Athens, where he listened first to the lectures of Crates the Cynic, and then to those of Zeno, the Stoic, supporting himself meanwhile by working all night as water-carrier to a gardener (hence his nickname (1 3 p€/wrXrls).

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  • His power of patient endurance, or perhaps his slowness, earned him the title of "the Ass"; but such was the esteem awakened by his high moral qualities that, on the death of Zeno in 263, he became the leader of the school.

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  • C. Pearson, Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (Camb., 1891); article by E.

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  • Even in this negative use of the notion it is necessarily implied that whatever active tendencies in man are found to be " natural " - that is, independent of and uncorrupted by social customs and conventions - will properly take effect in outward acts, but the adoption of " conformity to nature " as a general positive rule for outward conduct seems to have been due to the influence on Zeno of Academic teaching.

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  • But beyond this nature did not seem to go in determining the relations of the sexes; accordingly, we find that community of wives was a feature of Zeno's ideal commonwealth, just as it was of Plato's; while, again, the strict.

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  • This paradox is violent, but it is quite in harmony with the spirit of Stoicism; and we are more startled to find that the Epicurean sage, no less than the Stoic, is to be happy even on the rack; that his happiness, too, is unimpaired by being restricted in duration, when his mind has apprehended the natural limits of life; that, in short, Epicurus makes no less strenuous efforts than Zeno to eliminate imperfection from the conditions of human existence.

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  • The sense of the gap between theory and fact gives to the religious element of Stoicism a new force; the soul, conscious of its weakness, leans on the thought of God, and in the philosopher's attitude towards external events, pious resignation preponderates over self-poised indifference; the old self-reliance of the reason, looking down on man's natural life as a mere field for its exercise, makes room for a positive aversion to the flesh as an alien element imprisoning the spirit; the body has come to be a " corpse which the soul sustains," 1 and life a " sojourn in a strange land "; 2 in short, the ethical idealism of Zeno has begun to borrow from the metaphysical idealism of Plato.

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  • ZENO OF ELEA, son of Teleutagoras, is supposed to have been born towards the beginning of the 5th century B.C. The pupil and the friend of Parmenides, he sought to recommend his master's doctrine of the existence of the One by contro verting the popular belief in the existence of the Many.

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  • In Plato's Parmenides, Socrates, "then very young," meets Parmenides, "an old man some sixty-five years of age," and Zeno, "a man of about forty, tall and personable," and engages them in philosophical discussion.

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  • Plato's account of Zeno's teaching (Parmenides, 128 seq.) is, however, presumably as accurate as it is precise.

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  • In reply to those who thought that Parmenides's theory of the existence of the One involved inconsistencies and absurdities, Zeno tried to show that the assumption of the existence of the Many, that is to say, a plurality of things in time and space, carried with it inconsistencies and absurdities grosser and more numerous.

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  • Of the paradoxes used by Zeno to discredit the belief in plurality and motion, eight survive in the writings of Aristotle and Simplicius.

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  • But an infinite distance (which Zeno fails to distinguish from a finite distance infinitely divided) cannot be traversed in a finite time.

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  • Thus Zeno again confounds a finite distance infinitely divided with an infinite distance.

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  • These propositions appeared to Zeno to be irreconcilable.

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  • In other words, Zeno re-affirmed the dogma, "The Ent is, the Non-ent is not."

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  • If tradition has not misrepresented these paradoxes of time, space and motion, there is in Zeno's reasoning an element of fallacy.

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  • It is indeed difficult to understand how so acute a thinker should confound that which is infinitely divisible with that which is infinitely great, as in (I), (2), (5), and (6); that he should identify space and 'magnitude, as in (3); that he should neglect the imperfection of the organs of sense, as in (4); that he should deny the reality of motion, as in (7); and that he should ignore the relativity of speed, as in (8): and of late years it has been thought that the conventional statements of the paradoxes, and in particular of those which are more definitely mathematical, namely (5), (6), (7), (8), do less than justice to Zeno's acumen.

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  • "One of the most notable victims of posterity's lack of judgment," says Bertrand Russell, "is the Eleatic Zeno.

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  • Having invented four arguments all immeasurably subtle and profound, the grossness of subsequent philosophers pronounced him to be a mere ingenious juggler, and his arguments to be one and all sophisms. After two thousand years of continual refutation, these sophisms were reinstated, and made the foundation of a mathematical renaissance, by a German professor, who probably never dreamed of any connexion between himself and Zeno.

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  • "The interpretation of Zeno's last four paradoxes given by Messrs.

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  • The paradox of the arrow (7), says Mr Russell, is a plain statement of a very elementary fact: the arrow is at rest at very moment of its flight: Zeno's only mistake was in inferring (if he did infer) that it was therefore at the same point at one moment as at another.

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  • How far this interpretation of Zeno is historically justifiable, may be doubtful.

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  • We learn from Plato (Parmenides, 127 D) that "the first hypothesis of the first argument" of Zeno's book above mentioned ran as follows: "If existences are many, they must be both like and unlike [unlike, inasmuch as they are not one and the same, and like, inasmuch as they agree in not being one and the same, Proclus, On the Parmenides, ii.

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  • That is to say, not perceiving that the same thing may be at once like and unlike in different relations, Zeno regarded the attribution to the same thing of likeness and unlikeness as a violation of what was afterwards known as the principle of contradiction; and, finding that plurality entailed these attributions, he inferred its unreality.

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  • For three-quarters of a century, then, philosophy was at a standstill; and, when in the second decade of the 4th century the pursuit of truth was resumed, it was plain that Zeno's paradox of predication must be disposed of before the problems which had occupied the earlier thinkers - the problem of knowledge and the problem of being - could be so much as attempted.

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  • Thus, in the Parmenides, with the paradox of likeness and unlikeness for his text, he inquires how far the cur14nt theories of being (his own included) are capable of providing, not only for knowledge, but also for predication, and in the concluding sentence he suggests that, as likeness and unlikeness, greatness and smallness, &c., are relations, the initial paradox is no longer paradoxical; while in the Sophist, Zeno's doctrine having been shown to be fatal to reason, thought, speech and utterance, the mutual Koevwvia of Elan which are not abra KaO' abra is elaborately demonstrated.

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  • It would seem then that, not to Antisthenes only, but to Plato also, Zeno's paradox of predication was a substantial difficulty; and we shall be disposed to give Zeno credit accordingly for his perception of its importance.

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  • In all probability Zeno did not observe that in his controversial defence of Eleaticism he was interpreting Parmenides's teaching anew.

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  • For, while Parmenides had recognized, together with the One, which is, and is the object of knowledge, a Many, which is not, and therefore is not known, but nevertheless becomes, and is the object of opinion, Zeno plainly affirmed that plurality, becoming and opinion are one and all inconceivable.

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  • In a word, the fundamental dogma, "The Ent is, the Non-ent is not," which with Parmenides had been an assertion of the necessity of distinguishing between the Ent, which is, and the Non-ent, which is not, but becomes, was with Zeno a declaration of the Non-ent's absolute nullity.

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  • Thus, just as Empedocles developed Parmenides's theory of the Many to the neglect of his theory of the One, so Zeno developed the theory of the One to the neglect of the theory of the Many.

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  • The first effect of Zeno's teaching was to complete the discomfiture of philosophy.

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  • On the mathematical questions raised by certain of Zeno's paradoxes, see G.

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  • Zeno Of Sidon >>

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  • His first act was to repudiate the Henoticon, a deed of union, originating, it is supposed, with Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, and published by the emperor Zeno with the view of allaying the strife between the Monophysites and their opponents in the Eastern church.

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  • Up to the time when the religious zeal of the emperor Zeno put a stop to the Nestorian school at Edessa, this " Athens of Syria " was active in translating and popularizing the Aristotelian logic. Their banishment from Edessa in 489 drove the Nestorian scholars to Persia, where the Sassanid rulers gave them a welcome; and there they continued their labours on the Organon.

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  • The more powerful of the two fleets which it sent out was despatched into the eastern Mediterranean under Carlo Zeno, the bailiff and captain of Negropont.

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  • While Carlo Zeno harassed the Genoese stations in the Levant, Vettor Pisani brought one of their squadrons to action on the 30th of May 1378 off Punta di Anzio to the south of the Tiber, and defeated it.

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  • Genoa, having recovered from the panic caused by the disaster at Anzio, decided to attack Venice at home while the best of her ships were absent with Carlo Zeno.

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  • Carlo Zeno had long since been ordered to return, but the slowness and difficulty of communication and movement under 14th century conditions delayed his reappearance.

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  • The besiegers of Chioggia were at the end of their powers of endurance, and Pisani had been compelled to give a promise that the siege would be raised, when Zeno's fleet reached the anchorage off Brondolo on the 1st of January 1380.

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  • When, however, Zeno's edict (489) ordered the closing of the school of the Persians at Edessa, East and West drifted apart more and more; the ecclesiastical writer Narsai, " the Harp of the Holy Spirit," fled to Nisibis about 489.

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  • 431, by an edict of the emperor Zeno (to whom the church had sent a cogent argument on its own behalf, the alleged body of its reputed founder St Barnabas, then just discovered at Salamis), and by the Trullan Council in 692.

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  • The bishop of the capital, Salamis or Constantia, was constituted metropolitan by Zeno, with the title "archbishop of all Cyprus," enlarged subsequently into "archbishop of Justiniana Nova and of all Cyprus," after an enforced expatriation to Justinianopolis in 688.

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  • Zeno also gave him the unique privileges of wearing and signing his name in the imperial purple, &c., which are still preserved.

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  • Zeno Pro Acne Clearing Device combats one of oil's most ferocious partners - acne.

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