The ancient Zend name is, according to Rawlinson, Paresina, the essential part of Paropamisus; this accounts for the great Asiastic Parnassus of Aristotle, and the Pho-lo-sin-a of Hsiian Tsang.
In both the Rig Veda and Zend Avesta soma is the king of plants; in both it is a medicine which gives health, long life and removes death.
and repeats the nuptial benediction first in Zend and then in Sanskrit.
The later developments of the Iranian alphabet are the Pahlavi and the Zend, in which the MSS.
The fravashi or ideal type, the genius of both men and gods in the Zend Avesta (possibly connected originally with the cultus of the dead "), rises in successive ranks from the worshipper's own person through the household, the village, the district and the province, up to the throne of Ahura himself.'
But the idea of Law was generalized in the figure of Rita (what is " fitted " or " fixed "; or the " course " or " path " which is traversed), whose Zend equivalent asha shows that the conception had been reached before the separation of the Eastern Aryans produced the migrations into India and Iran.'
The fundamental idea remains the same in the Zend Asha, its philological counterpart, but it is applied with a difference.
Nor were the authors of the scriptures whose fragments are preserved in the Zend Avesta less conscious of their divine value.
Ancient Ethnograp/iy.In historical times we find the major portion of Iran occupied by peoples of Indo-European origin, terming themselves Aryans (Arya; Zend, Airya) and their language Aryanso in the inscriptions of Dariusthe same name, which is used by the consanguineous tribes of India who were their nearest relations.
The whole country is designated Ariana (Zend, Airyana) the land Descent of the Aryans the original of the Middle-Persian of the Eran and the modern Iran; the Greek geo- 1rau1ma~ui~, graphers Eratosthenes and Strabo were in error when they limited the name to the eastern districts of Iran.
The names and words of the Scythians (Scoloti) in South Russia, which Herodotus has preserved, are for the most part perfectly transparent Iranian formations, identified by Zeuss and MUllenhoff; among them are many proper names in Arfis(Apto--) and aspa (horsecuriror; Zend, aspa).
The Hyrcanians (Varkdna in Darius, Zend Vehrkna) on the eastern corner of the Caspian, in the fertile district of Astarabad.
But such usurpation at the old Safawid capital would have been too flagrant an act for general assent; so he put forward Ismail, a nephew of Shah Ilusain, as the representative of sovereignty, and himself as one of his two ministersthe other being Karim Khan, a chief of the Zend Kurds.
Shah Ismail, it need scarcely be said, possessed no real authority; but the ministers were strong men in their way, and the Zend especially had many high and excellent qualities.
The Zend issued from Ispahan, and was a second time defeated in a pitched battle by, the Kajar.
On his side were 80,000 men, commanded by a general who had twice defeated the Zend chief on an equal field.
The rule of the great Zend chief was just and mild, and he is on the whole, considering his education and the cirCumstances under which he was placed, one of the most faultless characters to be met with in Persian history.
Hajji Ibrahim, however, contriving to maintain the loyalty of the citizens towards the Zend reigning family, the usurper was killed, and Lutf Ali Khan, son of Jiafir, proclaimed L~tfAJI king.
While differing widely in character, he was a worthy successor of Karim Khan, the great founder of the Zend dynasty.
Astonished at this, the few Zend cavaliers, thinking that the wholy army of Kajars had returned, fled with precipitation leaving the field in possession of Aga Mahommed.
The Zend is said to be a branch of the Lak tribe, dating from the time of the Kaianian kings, and claims to have been charged with the care of the Zend-Avesta by Zoroaster himself.1 The tree attached to Markhams chapter on the dynasty contains the names of eight members of the family only, i.e.
general whose possession of the crown jewels enabled him, after the defeat of his army at Kazvin, to secure his personal safety and obtain a government; of Hosain Kuli Khan) the shahs brother, which was compromised by the mothers intervention; and of Mahommed, son of Zaki Khan, Zend, who was defeated on more than one occasion in battle, and fled into Turkish territory.
Zend or Old Bactrian,Neither of these two titles is well chosen.
The name Old Bactrian suggests that the language was limited to the small district of Bactria, or at least that it was spoken therewhich is, at the most, only an Zend.
Zend, again (originally zaintish), is not the name of a language, as Anquetil Duperron supposed, but means interpretation or explanation, and is specially applied to the medieval Pahlavi translation of the Ayes/a.
But, since we still lack sure data to fix the home of this language with any certainty, the convenient name of Zend has become generally established in Europe, and may be provisionally retained.
But the home of the Zend language was certainly in eastern Iran; all attempts to seek it farther weste.g.
Zend is the language of the so-called Ayes/a,3 the holy book of the Persians, containing the oldest documents of the religion of Zoroaster.
Besides this important monument, which is about twice as large as the Iliad and Odyssey put together, we only possess very scanty relics of the Zend language in medieval glosses and scattered quotations in Pahlavi books.
Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist.
The age of Zend must be examined in connection with the age of the Avesta.
The view wbich became current through Anquetil Duperron, that the Ayes/a is throughout the work of Zoroaster (in Zend, Zarathushtra), the founder of the religion, has long been abandoned as untenable.
The gths are still extremely rough in style and expression; the language is richer in forms than the more recent Zend; and the vocabulary shows important differences.
The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the pi ithas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language P the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the k1 ter Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, Ai :ceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly th ore than two dialects of one tongue.
The language of the other parts of the Avesta is more modern, it not all of one date, so that we can follow the gradual decline Z Zend in the Avesta itself.
The followers of Zoroaster soon ceased to understand Zend.
A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.
ira The phonetic system of Zend consists of simple signs which Ca press the different shades of sound in the language with great Pe ecision.
In the vowel-system a notable feature is the presence th the short vowels e and o, which are not found in Sanskrit and cu d Persian; thus the Sanskrit sanhi, Old Persian hantiy, becomes un, 11i in Zend.
Sanskrit bharahi, Zend wi raiti (he carries); Old Persian margu, Zend murva (Merv); en nskrit rinaktl, Zend irinakhhi.
Triphthongs are not uncommon, th Sanskrit avebhyas (dative plural of acva, a horse) is in Zend in paeibyo; Sanskrit krnoti (he does), Zend kerenaoiti.
Zend has lar 0 a great tendency to insert irrational vowels, especially near ha uids; owing to this the words seem rather inflated; e.g.
Zend asha for Sanskrit tha, Old Persian aria (in dy taxerxes); fravashi for Pahlavi fravardln, New Persian ferrer tn ie spirits of the dead).
thr We do not know in what character Zend wa~ written before the pn ie of Alexander.
coi ientific study of Zend texts began with E.
In the latest inscriptions the iguage is already much degraded; but on the whole it is almost antique as Zend, with which it has many points in common.
Zend bagem, Old Persiah bagam, Sanskrit bhagam; I Persian hamarana, Zenci hamerena, Sanskrit samarana.
As ~ards consonants, it is noticeable that the older I (soft s) still mserved in Zend passes into da rule that still holds in New rsian; compare Sanskrit.
There is nothing to justify us in looking the true Median language either in the cuneiform writings of second class or in Zend.
A series of consonants often disappear in the spirant; thus Old Persian or Zend.
Old y often appears as j: Zend yOma (glass), New Persian jam; yavan (a youth), New Persian javan.
sitadan or istddan (to stand), root 510; birdar (bro~,her), Zend and Pahlavi brOtar.
ZEND - AVESTA, the original document of the religion of Zoroaster, still used by the Parsees as their bible and prayer-book.
The name " Zend-Avesta " has been current in Europe since the time of Anquetil Duperron (c. 1771), but the Parsees themselves call it simply Avesta, Zend (i.e.
Text and translation are often spoken of together in Pahlavi books as Avistak va Zand (" Avesta and Zend "), whence - through a misunderstanding - our word Zend-Avesta.
The language of the Avesta is still frequently called Zend; but, as already implied, this is a mistake.
2) and Zend (lviii.
From the earliest occurrences of the word it is clear that it was used as a national name not only in India but also in Bactria and Persia (in Sanskrit drya- and drya-, in Zend airya-, in Old Persian ariya-).
aryaman-; Zend airyaman-)which is apparently of the same origin.
In both Sanskrit and Zend it means something like "comrade" or "bosom friend," but in Zend is used of the priestly or highest class.
with Mitra and Varuna (Grassmann, Warterbuch, s.v.); in Zend, according to Bartholomae (Altiranisches Warterbuch, s.v.), from the earliest literature, the Gathas, there is nothing definite to be learnt regarding Airyaman.
ksvanam, " of horses"; Zend aspanam; Old Persian aspanam).
sapid; Zend hapta; Gr.
Eirra, "seven"); (4) in Zend there are many vowel changes which it does not share with Old Persian.
eka-; Zend aeva-; Old Persian aiva-, where the Iranian group has the same stem as that seen in the Greek ot(F)o-s, "alone."
It is generally agreed that the second part of the name Asmodeus is the same as the Zend daewa, dew, " demon."
One portion of the Aryans emigrated and settled in what is now Wakhhan (on the Pamir plateau), the present language of which seems very old, dating anterior to the separation of the Vedic and Zend languages.
Celts, Germans, speakers of Sanskrit and Zend, Ldtins and Greeks, all prove by their languages that their tongues may be traced to one family of speech.
The word may have no intelligible meaning in Greek, but its counterpart in the allied tongues, especially in Sanskrit or Zend, may reveal the original significance of the terms. " To understand the origin and meaning of the names of the Greek gods, and to enter into the original intention of the fables told of each, we must take into account the collateral evidence supplied by Latin, German, Sanskrit and Zend philology " (Lect.
In 1875 he published a thesis on the mythology of the Zend Avesta, and in 1877 became teacher of Zend at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes.
He followed up his researches with his Etudes iraniennes (1883), and ten years later published a complete translation of the Zend Avesta, with historical and philological commentary (3 vols., 1892-1893), in the Annales du musee Guimet.
He also edited the Zend Avesta for Max Miller's Sacred Books of the East.
At Surat he succeeded, by perseverance and address in his intercourse with the native priests, in acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the Zend and Pahlavi languages to translate the liturgy called the Vendidad Sade and some other works.
Karim, by their aid, once more repaired his losses and advanced on Ispahan, while Muhammad Hasan with fifty thousand men was coming from the opposite direction, ready to encounter either the Afghan or the Zend.
Our Zend-Avesta does not mean the Avesta in the Zend language, but is an incorrect transcription of the original expression Avistgk Va zand, i.e.
We in ye no chronological points by which to fix the date when Zend 01 ased to be a living language; no part of the Avesta can well be re~ tt later than the 5th or 4th century B.C. Before Alexanders ~r Ire it is said to have been already written out on dressed cowhides d preserved in the state archives at Persepolis.
savya a the left) becomes in Zend havaya; bhrajabi (it glitters), Zend cer razaihi; gnaT (7uv,~), Zend gena.
In the gthgs there is a special ablative, limited, as Pa Sanskrit, to the a stems, whilst in later Zend the ablative is PA tended to all the stems indifferently.
From the Sassanian period we find an alpha- of tic and very legible character in use, derived from Sassanian an hiavi, and closely resembling the younger Pahlavi found in books, is I e oldest known manuscripts are of the 14th century All.3, thi Although the existence of the Zend language was known to the an ford scholar Thomas Hyde, the Frenchman Anquetil Duperron, r~ 0 went to the East Indiei~ in 1755 to visit the Parsee priests, was e.g - first to draw the attention of the learned world to the subject.
r instance, if we take a sentence from an inscription of Darius Auramazda hya imam bumim ada hya avam asmnam ada hya trtiyam ada hya siytim ada rniartiyahya hya Dkrayavauni shayathiyam akunaush aivam paruvnam khshayathiyam, would be in Zend Ahuro mazdgo y imAm bemim adat ye aom asmanem adat y ishim adat y shgitim adat mashyahe y dflraya~vohum khshaetem erenaot OyUm pourunam khshaetem.
We've been known to recommend the Zend Framework, work frequently on Magento e-commerce projects, and stretch WordPress to its limits as a customized Content Management System.