Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
He inherited Flanders and Artois, purchased the county of Namur (1427) and compelled his cousin Jacqueline, the heiress of Holland, Zeeland, Hainault and Friesland, to surrender her possessions to him, 1428.
four duchies, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg; seven counties, Flanders, Artois, Hainault, Holland, Zeeland, Namur and Zutphen; the margraviate of Antwerp; and five lordships - Friesland, Mechlin, Utrecht, Overyssel, and Groningen with its dependent districts.
These striking successes caused a wave of revolt to spread through Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Utrecht and Friesland.
In February 1574 the Spaniards by the fall of Middleburg lost their last hold upon Walcheren and Zeeland.
In the spring of 1575 conferences with a view to peace were held at Breda, and on their failure Orange, in the face of Spanish successes in Zeeland, was forced to seek foreign succour.
The sovereignty of Holland and Zeeland was offered to the queen of England, but she, though promising secret support, declined.
The stadtholder summoned a meeting of the states of Holland and Zeeland to Delft, and on the 25th of April an act of federation between the two provinces was executed.
Things looked ill for the patriots, and Zeeland Smpuatninisyh.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
Act of Federation between Holland and Zeeland.
He therefore refused, with the approval of the representatives of these provinces, to allow the publication of the " Perpetual Edict " in Holland and Zeeland.
Through his exertions the Spanish troops had not only been expelled from Holland and Zeeland, but also from the citadels of Antwerp and Ghent, which were now in the hands of the patriots.
He was invited to come to Brussels, and after some hesitation, and not without having first obtained the approval of the states of Holland and Zeeland, he assented.
The Union of Utrecht was signed on the 29th of January by the representatives of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Zutphen.
He was furnished with four ships of Amsterdam, two of Rotterdam and one from Zeeland.
At the time of his father's assassination in 1584 he was being educated at the university of Leiden, at the expense of the states of Holland and Zeeland.
For ecclesiastical purposes Danish Greenland is reckoned in the province of the bishop of Zeeland.
ZEELAND (or Zealand), a province of Holland, bounded S.E.
Zeeland consists of the delta islands formed about the estuaries of the Maas and Scheldt with its two arms, the Honte or Western Scheldt, and the Ooster Scheldt, together with a strip of mainland called ZeelandFlanders.
The soil of Zeeland consists of a fertile sea clay which especially favours the production of wheat; rye, barley (for malting), beans and peas, and flax are also cultivated.
South Beveland is sometimes called the "granary" and Walcheren the "garden" of Zeeland.
He died on the 13th of July 1629 at Sord in Zeeland.
In 1302 this possession passed by marriage to the influential family of van Borsele, lords of Veere and governors of Zeeland.
In 1110 an apostate monk in Zeeland, Tanchelm, carried their views still farther, and asserted that the sacraments were only valid through the merits and sanctity of the ministers.
On the death of Frederick Henry William succeeded him, not only in the family honours and possessions, but in accordance with the terms of the act of survivance in all his official posts, as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overyssel and Groningen and captain-general and admiral-general of the Union.
Violently attacked by the English and by his own countrymen for this act, he retired from public affairs and, save for a mission to Paris in 1590, lived henceforth in Leiden or on his estate in Zeeland, where he worked at a translation of the Bible.
VEERE, a town in the province of Zeeland, Holland, on the island of Walcheren, 4 m.
His next preferment was that of advocate-general of the fisc for the provinces of Holland and Zeeland.
This was followed by his marriage, in 1608, to Marie Reigersberg, a lady of family in Zeeland, a woman of great capacity and noble disposition.
In 1618 Prince Maurice set out on a sort of pacific campaign, disbanding the civic guards in the various cities of Guelders, Holland and Zeeland, and occupying the places with troops on whom he could rely.
Steam tramways connect it with Schiedam, and with Numansdorp on the south of the island of Beierland, and there is a regular service of steamers by river and canal to Antwerp by way of the South Holland and Zeeland Islands and in every direction.
(Mesch in the province of Limburg), and from 3° 23' 27" (Sluis in the province of Zeeland) to 7° 12' 20" E.
In the north and south, however, this line is broken by the inlets of the sea which form the Frisian and the South Holland and Zeeland islands respectively; but the dunes themselves are found continued along the seaward side of these islands, thus indicating the original continuity of the coast-line.
The extensive sea-arms forming the South Holland and Zeeland archipelago are the Hont or West Scheldt, the East Scheldt, the Grevelingen (communicating with Krammer and the Volkerak) and the Haringvliet, which after being joined by the Volkerak is known as the Hollandsch Diep. These inlets were formerly of much greater extent than now, but are gradually closing up owing to the accumulation of mud deposits, and no longer have the same freedom of communication with one another.
In fact, one quarter of the whole kingdom, consisting of the provinces of North and South Holland, the western portion of Utrecht as far as the Vaart Rhine, Zeeland, except the southern part of ZeelandFlanders, and the north-west part of North Brabant, lies below the Amsterdam zero; and altogether 38% of the country, or all that part lying west of a line drawn through Groningen, Utrecht and Antwerp, lies within one metre above the Amsterdam zero and would be submerged if the sea broke down the barrier of dunes and dikes.
country, whilst the Scheldt has its mouth only in Holland, giving its name to the two broad inlets of the sea which bound the Zeeland islands.
Nearly all the polders of Zeeland and South Holland are able to discharge naturally into the sea at average low water, self-regulating sluices being used.
The final removal of polder water, however, is only truly effected upon its discharge into the " outer waters " of the country, that is, the sea itself or the large rivers freely communicating with it; and this happens with but a small proportion of Dutch polders, such as those of Zeeland, the Holland Ysel and the Noorderkwartier.
Only of certain districts, however, can it be said that they are positively unhealthy; to this category belong some parts of the Holland provinces, Zeeland, and Friesland, where the inhabitants are exposed to the exhalations from the marshy ground, and the atmosphere is often burdened with sea-fogs.
Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer the shore to sandspurry (Spergularia), or sea-poa or floating meadow grass (Glyceria maritima), which grows up to the dikes, and affords pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (Zostera marina) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of June, July and August.
In Zeeland they connect the towns of the interior with the sea or the river mouths; for example, the one from Middelburg to Veere and Flushing (1866-1878), from Goes to the East Scheldt, and from Zierikzee also to the East Scheldt.
Zeeland and Groningen are the two principal agricultural provinces, and after them follow Limburg, North Brabant, Gelderland and South Holland.
The fishing industry of the Netherlands may be said to have been in existence already in the 13th century, and in the following century received a considerable impetus from the discovery how to cure herring by William Beukelszoon, a Zeeland fisherman.
The fisheries are commonly divided into four particular fishing areas, namely, the " deep-sea " fishery of the North Sea, and the " inner " (binnengaatsch) fisheries of the Wadden, the Zuider Zee, and the South Holland and Zeeland waters.
The number of members in the first chamber is 50, South Holland sending io, North Holland 9, North Brabant and Gelderland each 6, Friesland 4, Overysel, Limburg and Groningen each 3, Zeeland, Utrecht and Drente each 2.
of Abjuration, by which at his persuasion the repret sentatives of the provinces of Brabant, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland and Utrecht, assembled at the Hague, declared that Philip had forfeited his sovereignty over them, and that they held themselves henceforth absolved from their allegiance to him.
Antwerp, with St Aldegonde as its burgomaster, was still in the hands of the patriots and barred the way to the sea, and covered Zeeland from invasion.
Maurice of Nassau, William's second son, had indeed on his father's death been appointed captain and admiral-general of the Union, president of the Council of State, and stadholder of Holland and Zeeland, but he was as yet too young, only seventeen, to take a leading part in affairs.
His edict prohibiting all commercial intercourse with the enemy at once aroused against him the bitter hostility of the merchants of Holland and Zeeland, who thrived by such traffic. His attempts to pack the council of State, on which already two Englishmen had seats, with personal adherents and to override the opposition of the provincial states of Holland to his arbitrary acts, at last made his position impossible.
Everywhere, save in staunch and steadfast Holland and Zeeland, a feeling of wavering and hesitation was spreading through the land.
In Holland and Zeeland William was supreme, but elsewhere his aims and his principles were misrepresented and misunderstood.
1581) a treaty was concluded with the duke, by which he, under certain conditions, agreed to accept the sovereignty of the Netherland provinces, except Holland and Zeeland.
The traders of Holland and Zeeland had thriven mightily by the war.
In 1631 a large Spanish fleet carrying a picked force of 6000 soldiers, for the invasion of Zeeland, was completely c destroyed by the Dutch in the Slaak and the troops made prisoners.
A provisional draft of a treaty had already been drawn up before the demise of Frederick Henry, and afterwards, despite the strenuous opposition of the new prince of Orange (who, under the Acte de Survivance, had inherited all his father's offices and dignities) and of two of the provinces, Zeeland and Utrecht, the negotiations were by the powerful support of the States of Holland and of the majority of the States-General, quickly brought to a successful issue.
acclamation William was elected stadholder, first of Zeeland, then of Holland, and was appointed captaingeneral of the Union (June 1672).
By the conquest of Dutch Flanders Zeeland was threatened, and the states of that province, in which there were always many Orange partisans, elected (April 1747) William stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Zeeland.
Jacqueline, countess of Hainaut, the divorced wife of the duke of Brabant and the heiress of Holland and Zeeland, had married the duke of Gloucester, who attempted to take forcible possession of his wife's territories.
Flanders in the feudal period was a fief of the king of France - the count of Flanders being the first of the twelve peers of France; but there was a small strip extending from Alost to the isles of Zeeland, designated Imperial Flanders, of which the count was the vassal of the Holy Roman emperor.
Queenborough to Flushing (Zeeland Steamship company).
and other islands of Zeeland; the quarrel was important, as dealing with the borderland between French and German overlordship. This strife, which lasted 400 years, did not at first break out into actual warfare, because both Dirk and Baldwin V.
Gertrude and her son appear to have withdrawn to the islands of Frisia (Zeeland), leaving William in undisturbed occupation of the disputed lands.
On his marriage his father including the islands of Frisia (Zeeland) west of the the g () invested him with Imperial Flanders, as an apanage Scheldt.
Robert thus, in his own right and that of Dirk, was ruler of all Frisia (Zeeland), and thus became known among his Flemish countrymen as Robert the Frisian.
He had Floris IIL troubles with West Friesland and Groningen, and a war with the count of Flanders concerning their respective rights in West Zeeland, in which he was beaten.
Contests with the Flemings in West Zeeland and with the West Frisians, stirred up to revolt by his brother William, ended in his favour.
His John reign was a struggle between John of Avesnes, the young count's guardian and next heir, and Wolfert van Borselen, who had a strong following in Zeeland.
A war with the Flemings followed, in which the Flemings were at first victorious, but after a struggle of many vicissitudes they were at length driven out of Holland and Zeeland in 1304.
Y Y Y of 1323, by which the full possession of West Zeeland was granted to William, who on his part renounced all claim in Imperial Flanders.
Margaret came in person and was duly recognized as countess in Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut; but returned to her husband after appointing her second son (the eldest, Louis, renounced his rights) Duke William of Bavaria, as stadholder in her place.
shortly afterwards changed sides, and the empress saw herself compelled (1354) to come to an understanding with her son, he being recognized as count of Holland and Zeeland, she of Hainaut.
At a gathering held at the Hague (August 15, 1416) the nobles and representatives of the cities of Holland and Zeeland had promised at William's request to support his daughter's claims to the succession.
A high court of justice was established for Holland, Zeeland and Friesland, and the use of the native language was made official.
and Zeeland was destined to have momentous results to the future of those provinces (see William The Silent).
The capture of Brill and of Flushing in 1572 by the Sea- William Beggars led to the submission of the greater part of of Orange Holland and Zeeland to the authority of the prince Stad- of Orange, who, as stadholder, summoned the states holder.
The act of federation between Holland and Zeeland brought about by the influence of William was the germ of the larger union of Utrecht Union of Utrecht.
But within the larger union the inner and closer union between Holland and Zeeland continued to subsist.
In 1580, when the sovereignty of the Netherlands was offered to the Abjura- duke of Anjou, the two maritime provinces refused tion of to acquiesce, and forced William to accept the title Philip's of count of Holland and Zeeland.
More than half the burden of the charges of the war fell upon this one province; and with Zeeland it furnished the fleets which formed the chief defence of the country.
She was at first welcomed in Holland and Zeeland, but found her claims opposed by her uncle, John of Bavaria, supported by the Cod party.
JACOB CATS (1577-1660), Dutch poet and humorist, was born at Brouwershaven in Zeeland on the 10th of November 1 577.
He returned to Zeeland to die, but was cured mysteriously by a strolling quack.
He married in 1602 a lady of some property, Elisabeth von Valkenburg, and thenceforward lived at Grypskerke in Zeeland, where he devoted himself to farming and poetry.
JACOBA, Or Jacqueline (1401-1436), countess of Holland, was the only daughter and heiress of William, duke of Bavaria and count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut.
Acknowledged as sovereign in Holland and Zeeland, Jacoba was opposed by her uncle John of Bavaria, bishop of Liege.
John of Brabant now mortgaged the two counties of Holland and Zeeland to Philip, who assumed their protectorate.
By a treaty, made in July 1428, Jacoba was left nominally countess, but Philip was to administer the government of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut, and was declared heir in case Jacoba should die without children.
Two years later Philip mortgaged Holland and Zeeland to the Borselen family, of which Francis, lord of Borselen, was the head.
Scarcely an English Catholic would have raised a finger in Philips favor; and when he could not subdue the two provinces of Holland and Zeeland, it is absurd to suppose that he could have simultaneously subdued them and England as well.
With the fall of Antwerp, for Malines and Brussels were already in the hands of Farnese, the whole of the southern Netherlands was brought once more to recognize the authority of Philip. But Holland and Zeeland, whose geographical position made them unassailable except by water, were by the courage and skill of their hardy seafaring population, with the help of English auxiliaries sent by Queen Elizabeth, able to defy his further advance.
He was active in promoting the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the acceptance of the countship of Holland and Zeeland by William (1584) On the assassination of Orange it was at the proposal of Oldenbarneveldt that the youthful Maurice of Nassau was at once elected stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Holland.
In 1576 William, with the support of Holland, Zeeland and their allies, put forth forty articles, by which doctors, elders and deacons were recognized, and church discipline given to the elders, subject to appeal to the magistrate and by which the Church was placed in absolute dependence on the state.
The Great Privilege was supplemented by provincial charters, the Flemish Privilege granted (February 10), the Great Privilege of Holland and Zeeland (February 17), the Great Privilege of Namur and the Joyeuse EntrÃ©e of Brabant, both in May, thus largely curtailing the sovereign's power of interference with local liberties.
Flushing, the port of Zeeland, which commanded the approach to Antwerp; and the inhabitants were compelled to take the oath to the prince of Orange, as stadtholder of the king.
The authority conferred upon Orange as stadtholder by the provinces of Holland and Zeeland was thus ratified, but that astute statesman had no confidence that Philip intended to observe the treaty any longer than it suited his convenience.
(Mesch in the province of Limburg), and from 3Ã‚° 23' 27" (Sluis in the province of Zeeland) to 7Ã‚° 12' 20" E.
He was succeeded in his dignities by his younger brother Frederick Henry (see Frederick Henry, prince of Orange), who was appointed stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland, captain and adjutant-general of the Union and head of the Council of State.
The result was a want of unity in counsel and action among the provinces, Friesland and Groningen standing aloof from the other five, while Holland and Zeeland had to pay for their predominance in the Union by being left to bear the bulk of the charges.
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