Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
They are found in New Zealand and also in New Caledonia, their greatest developments being on the south-west of the Australian continent.
The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.
Wales, 1895; " The Relation of the Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," Nat.
In the southern parts of Australia and in New Zealand the tree seems to flourish as well as in its native home.
New Zealand, 2/18ths with 1 representative.
In the years 1900 and 1902 acts were passed in Western Australia still more closely modelled on the New Zealand act than was the above-mentioned statute in New South Wales.
P. Reeves, State Experiments in Australia and New Zealand; A.
This included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
DUNEDIN, a city of New Zealand, capital of the provincial district of Otago, and the seat of a bishop, in Taieri county.
He was successively governor of Trinidad (1866-70), Mauritius (1871-4), Fiji (1875-80), New Zealand (1880-2) and Ceylon (1883-90).
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
Similar deposits, of approximately the same age, occur in Tasmania and New Zealand; and at about the same time there began the Kainozoic volcanic period of Australasia.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
The industry gravitated to New Zealand, and finally died out, chiefly through the wasteful practice of killing the calves to secure the capture of the mothers.
There is evidence in the languages, too, which supports the physical separation from their New Zealand neighbours and, therefore, from the Polynesian family of races.
Resuming his voyage in an easterly direction, Tasman sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand on the 13th of December of the same year, and describes the coast-line as consisting of " high mountainous country."
On the 6th of October 1769 the coast of New Zealand was sighted, and two days later Cook cast anchor in Poverty Bay, so named from the inhospitality and hostility of the natives.
The copper mines of South Australia were for the time deserted, while Tasmania and New Zealand lost many inhabitants, who emigrated to the more promising country.
At this meeting all the colonies except New Zealand were represented, and it was agreed that the parliament of each colony should be asked to pass a bill enabling the people to choose ten persons to represent the colony on a federal convention; the work of such convention being the framing of a federal constitution to be submitted to the people for approval by means of the referendum.
The model followed in these two states was not Victoria but New Zealand, where an Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was passed in 1894.
Unlike the latter, they reproduced the institution of district conciliation boards in addition to the arbitration court; but these boards were a failure here as they were in New Zealand, and after 1903 they fell into disuse.
There was in addition a considerable inter-colonial traffic between Australia, New Zealand and the Fijis.
AUCKLAND, a city and seaport on the east coast of North Island, New Zealand, in Eden county; capital of the province of its name, and the seat of a bishop. Pop. (1906) 37,736; including suburbs, 82,101.
Auckland harbour, one of the best in New Zealand, is approachable by the largest vessels at the lowest tide.
In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.
The watercress blocks the rivers of New Zealand into which it has been introduced from Europe.
SouTH TEMPERATE REGI0N.This occupies widely separated areas in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and South America.
Travers picked up a seed of Edwardsia in the Chatham Islands, evidently washed ashore from New Zealand (Linn.
The Australian sub-region consists of Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia and New Zealand, and, though partly lying within the tropic is most naturally treated as a whole.
Myrtaceae comes next with Eucalyptus, which forms three-fourths of the forests, and Melaleuca; both are absent from New Caledonia and New Zealand; a few species of the former extend to New Guinea and one of the latter to Malaya.
Amongst Conifers, Podocar pus is found throughout, Agathis is common to Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia; Araucaria ~ ~he first and last.
While the flora of New Caledonia is rich in species (3000), that of New Zealand is poor (1400).
While so many conspicuous Australian elements are wanting in New Zealand, one-eighth of its flora belongs to South American genera.
Of Cupuliferae, Quercus in three species only reaches Colombia, but Fagus, with only a single one in North America, is represented by several from Chile southwards and thence extends to New Zealand and Tasmania.
Amongst Coniferae Podocarpus is common to this and preceding sub-regions; Libocedrus extends from California to New Zealand and New Caledonia; Fitzroya is found in Chile and Tasmania; and Araucaria in its most familiar species occurs in Chile.
New Zealand was poorly stocked with a weak flora; the more robust and aggressive one of the north temperate region was ready at any moment to invade it-, but was held back by physical barriers which human aid has alone enabled it to surpass.
At first sight a South African Euphorbia might be mistaken for a South American Cactus, an Aloe for an A gave, a Senecio for ivy, or a New Zealand Veronica for a European Salicornia.
Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.
In 1837 the New Zealand Association was established, and he became its managing director.
He acted in the same spirit a few months later, when (about July 1839), understanding that the authorities intended to prevent the despatch of emigrants to New Zealand, he hurried them off on his own responsibility, thus compelling the government to annex the country just in time to anticipate a similar step on the part of France.
For several years Wakefield continued to direct the New Zealand Company, fighting its battles with the colonial office and the missionary interest, and secretly inspiring and guiding many parliamentary committees on colonial subjects, especially on the abolition of transportation.
The company was by no means a financial success, and many of its proceedings were wholly unscrupulous and indefensible; its great object, however, was attained, and New Zealand became the Britain of the south.
In 1853, after the grant of a constitution to New Zealand, he took up his residence in the colony, and immediately began to act a leading part in colonial politics.
In 1854 he appeared in the first New Zealand parliament as extra-official adviser of the acting governor, a position which excited great jealousy, and as the mover of a resolution demanding the appointment of a responsible ministry.
by the Scheldt, the Eendracht, the Volkerak and the Hollandsch Diep, which separate it from Zealand and South Holland, N.
Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.
HERMANN JOACHIM BANG (1858-), Danish author, was born of a noble family in the island of Zealand.
It consists in the main of an Archean block or " coign,"which still occupies nearly the whole of the western half of the continent, outcrops in north-eastern Queensland, forms the foundation of southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, and is exposed in western Victoria, in Tasmania, and in the western flank of the Southern Alps of New Zealand.
The first eruptions piled up huge domes of lavas rich in soda, including the geburite-dacites and sOlvsbergites of Mount Macedon in Victoria, and the kenyte and tephrite domes of Dunedin, in New Zealand.
These marine deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia; but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand.
The vessels became separated, and both at different times visited New Zealand.
In 1777, while on his way to search for a north-east passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Cook again touched at the coast of Tasmania and New Zealand.
Pelagohydridae, for the floating polyp Pelagohydra, Dendy, from New Zealand.
The most dominant order in Australia is Leguminosae, including the acacias with leaf-like phyllodes (absent in New Zealand).
Cupuliferae are absent except Fagus in Australia and New Zealand.
The so-called oaks of Australia are Casuarma, which also occurs in New Caledonia, but is wanting in New Zealand.
These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
After the downfall of Mary, Bothwell's good treatment came to an end, and on the 16th of June 1573 he was removed to the castle of Dragsholm or Adelersborg in Zealand.
His only son, Edward Jerningham Wakefield (1820-1879), was a New Zealand politician.
Three of Wakefield's brothers were also interested in New Zealand.
After serving in the Spanish army William Hayward Wakefield (1803-1848) emigrated to New Zealand in 1839.
As an agent of the New Zealand Land Company he was engaged in purchasing enormous tracts of land from the natives, but the company's title to the greater part of this was later declared invalid.
He remained in New Zealand until his death on the 19th of September 1848.
Zealand parrot, Stringops, less in various flightless rails, in the dodo and solitaire.
Others have been discovered in Wyoming; a giant penguin, Palaeeudyptes, is known from New Zealand, and Palaeospheniscus from Patagonia.
New Zealand has also yielded many flightless birds, notably the numerous species and genera of Dinornithidae, some of which survived into the 19th century; Pseudapteryx allied to the Kiwi; Cnemiornis, a big, flightless goose; Aptornis and Notornis, flightless rails; and Harpagornis, a truly gigantic bird of prey with tremendous wings and talons.
The scheme adopted in the following account stands as follows: - New Zealand subregion.
(A) Austrogaea, the Australian region in the wider sense,with the Papuan, Australian and New Zealand subregions, including also Polynesia.
The New Zealand Subregion, considered by Professors Newton and Huxley and various other zoogeographers as deserving the rank of a region, is, and to all appearance has long been, more isolated than any other portion of the globe.
In all, there is a wonderful amount of specialization, though perhaps in a very straight line from generalized forms; but the affinity to Australian or Polynesian types is in many cases clearly traceable, and it cannot be supposed but that these last are of cognate origin with those of New Zealand.
It may be safely deemed the most peculiar area of the earth's surface, while from the richness and multifariousness of its animal, and especially of its ornithic population, New Zealand cannot be 'compared with it.
Apteryx, New Zealand.
Dinornis, numerous species, recently extinct, New Zealand.
Cnemiornis, Pleistocene, New Zealand, flightless.
Harpagornis, Pleistocene, New Zealand; Lithornis, Eocene, England.
Notornis, New Zealand, flightless, nearly extinct.
Aptornis, New Zealand, flightless, extinct.
Nestor, New Zealand.
Xenicidae, New Zealand.
through the island of Zealand.
It was the capital of the kingdom until 1443, and the residence of the bishops of Zealand until the Reformation.
MAORI (pronounced "Mowri"; a Polynesian word meaning "native," "indigenous"; the word occurs in distinction from pakeha, " stranger," in other parts of Polynesia in the forms Maoi and Maoli), the name of the race inhabiting New Zealand when first visited by Tasman in 1642.
They say they came to New Zealand from "Hawaiki,", and they appear to distinguish between a large and small, or a nearer and farther, "Hawaiki."
Dr Thomson, in his Story of New Zealand, quotes a Maori tradition, published by Sir George Grey, that certain islands, among which it names Rarotonga, Parima and Manono, are islands near Hawaiki.
The distance from Rarotonga to New Zealand is about 2000 m., and, with the aid of the trade wind, large canoes could traverse the distance within a month.
Moreover the fauna and flora of New Zealand in many ways resemble those of Samoa.
Thus it would seem certain that the Maoris, starting from "further Hawaiki," or Samoa, first touched at Rarotonga, "nearer Hawaiki," whence, after forming a settlement, they journeyed on to New Zealand.
Maori tradition is explicit as to the cause of the exodus from Samoa, gives the names of the canoes in which the journey was made and the time of year at which the coast of New Zealand was sighted.
There is some evidence that the "tradition of the six canoes" does not represent the first contact of the Polynesian race with New Zealand.
The shell heaps found on the coasts and elsewhere dispose of the theory that New Zealand was uninhabited or practically so six centuries back.
Pember Reeves, New Zealand; A.
Rusden, History of New Zealand (1895); Alfred Saunders, History of New Zealand (1896); James Cowan, The Maoris of New Zealand (1909).
6 in., as in South Africa, Queensland, Tasmania and New Zealand; but in New South Wales the normal is 4 ft.
from Auckland (New Zealand), 2410 from Sydney and 4200 from San Francisco.
- The Samoans are pure Polynesians, and according to the traditions of many Polynesian peoples Savaii was the centre of dispersion of the race over the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to New Zealand.
Thus the term Savaii itself, originally Savaiki, is supposed to have been carried by the Samoan wanderers over the ocean to Tahiti, New Zealand, the Marquesas and Sandwich groups, where it still survives in such variant forms as Havaii, Hawaiki, Havaiki and Hawaii.
In May 1900 the group became a British protectorate under the native flag, the appointment of the consul and agent being transferred to the government of New Zealand.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
The idea that persons who have made their way to the abode of the dead can return to the upper world if they have not tasted the food of the dead appears elsewhere, as in New Zealand (R.
The Australian fauna is rich in characteristic and peculiar genera, and New Zealand, while possessing some remarkable insects of its own, lacks entirely several families with an almost world-wide range - for example, the Notodontidae, Lasiocampidae, and other families of Lepidoptera.
Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
Holoarctic types reappear on the Andes and in South Africa, and even in New Zealand.
The timidity of the Danish admiral Ulrik C. Gyldenldve, and the daring of Charles, who forced his nervous and protesting admiral to attempt the passage of the eastern channel of the Sound, the dangerous flinterend, hitherto reputed to be unnavigable, enabled the Swedish king to effect a landing at Humleback in Sjaelland (Zealand), a few miles north of Copenhagen (Aug.
Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.
Beginning with New Zealand, it is hardly needful to go further back than Sir W.
Buller's beautiful Birds of New Zealand (4to, 1872- New 1873), with coloured plates by Keulemans, since the publi.
cation of which the same author has issued a Manual of the Birds of New Zealand (8vo, 1882), founded on the former; but justice requires that mention be made of the labours of G.
Gray, first in the Appendix to Dieffenbach's Travels in New Zealand (2843) and then in the ornithological portion of the Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S.
Hutton, Mr Potts and others are to be found in the Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute.
Buller's Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand (1905-1906) completes the great work of this author.
Another class of nocturnal demons are the incubi and succubi, who are said to consort with human beings in their sleep; in the Antilles these were the ghosts of the dead; in New Zealand likewise ancestral deities formed liaisons with females; in the Samoan Islands the inferior gods were regarded as the fathers of children otherwise unaccounted for; the Hindus have rites prescribed by which a companion nymph may be secured.
Of extra-Atlantic species the mackerel of the Japanese seas are the most nearly allied to the European, those of New Zealand and Australia, and still more those of the Indian Ocean, differing in many conspicuous points.
There is no actual proof that this spider is more poisonous than others, but it is a significant fact that its species, inhabiting countries as widely separated as Chile, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and South Europe are held in great fear by the indigenous population, and many stories are current of serious or fatal results following their bites.
Bitumen is, in its various forms, one of the most widel y -distributed of substances, occurring in strata of every geological age, from the lowest Archean rocks to those now in process of deposition, and in greater or less quantity throughout both hemispheres, from Spitzbergen to New Zealand, and from California to Japan.
- Spain, Italy, Albania ., Croatia, Hungary, Hesse, Hanover, Transcaspia, Algeria, Florida, Alabama, California, Mexico, Peru, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
GISBORNE, a seaport of New Zealand, in Cook county, provincial district of Auckland, on Poverty Bay of the east coast of North Island.
Work begun in Australia and New Zealand prospered, and the former country finally contributed over 1 i,000 members to the formation of the United Methodist Church of Australia, New Zealand with its 2600 members preferring to remain connected with the home country.
Further, it is the opinion of competent ornithologists that there is affinity of the Australian emeus and cassowaries with the New Zealand moas and with the Malagasy Aepyornis.
ROTORUA, a town of Rotorua county, North Island, New Zealand.
In New Zealand and Australia rabbits, introduced either for profit or sport, have increased to such an extent as to form one of the most serious pests that the farmers have to contend against, as the climate and soil suit them perfectly and their natural enemies are too few and too lowly organized to keep them within reasonable bounds.
New Zealand has a good general map on a scale of 1:633,700.
Some thirty species of Balanoglossus are known, distributed among all the principal marine provinces from Greenland to New Zealand.
One of the most singular facts concerning the geographical distribution of Enteropneusta has recently been brought to light by Benham, who found a species of Balanoglossus, sensu stricto, on the coast of New Zealand hardly distinguishable from one occurring off Japan.
Nelson, New Zealand >>
Very fine obsidians are also obtained in Mexico, at the Yellowstone Park, in New Zealand, Ascension and in the Caucasus.
Terror was the first feeling produced at Copenhagen by the landing of the main Swedish army at Korsor in Zealand.
One of them, Rev. Thomas Spurgeon, after some years of pastorate in New Zealand, succeeded his father as minister of the Tabernacle, but resigned in 1908 and became president of the Pastors' College.
Besides visiting Switzerland and other parts of Europe, he availed himself of his experiences in the United States and in Canada, and journeyed to Spanish America, Australia and New Zealand.
Thames, New Zealand >>
flava is known in gardens as the day lily; Phormium, a New Zealand genus to which belongs New Zealand flax, P. tenax, a useful fibre-plant; Kniphofia, South and East Africa, several species of which are cultivated; and Aloe.
KORSOR, a seaport of Denmark, in the amt (county) of the island of Zealand, 69 m.
He was buried at Soro, in Zealand.
Among its recommendations was the direct political representation of natives in the colonial legislatures on the New Zealand model, and the imposition of direct taxation upon natives, which should not be less than £1 a year payable by every adult male.
NYBORG, a seaport of Denmark on the east side of the island of Fiinen, in the amt (county) of Svendborg, and the point from which the ferry crosses the Great Belt to Korsor in Zealand (1 5 m.).
TAUPO, a township of East Taupo county, New Zealand, in the south-west of the Hot Spring district of North Island.
Between the last days of March and the day of the landing the defence system was overhauled and greatly developed.2 The Franco-British expeditionary force was to be composed of seven divisions - three, the 29th, the 42nd and the Royal Naval, furnished by the United Kingdom, two formed of Australian and New Zealand troops, and two composed of French colonial troops.
s The abbreviated designation of the " Australian and New Zealand Army Corps."
WANGANUI, the principal port on the west coast of North Island, New Zealand, in the Waitotara county, at the mouth of the Wanganui river, 134 m.
They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.
Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand.
New Caledonia is part of the Australasian Festoon, and in its general characters resembles the geology of New Zealand.
There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.
New Zealand has attempted to produce tobacco as a commercial crop, but the effort was abandoned several years ago.
ZEELAND (or Zealand), a province of Holland, bounded S.E.
The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent, having been annexed in 1887.
Allied species inhabit most parts of the world, excepting Africa south of the Sahara, New Zealand and Australia proper, and North America.
aegocephala in its smaller size, and is believed to breed in Amurland, wintering in the islands of the Pacific, New Zealand and Australia.
Australia And New Zealand New South Wales.-The Australian Magazine was published monthly at Sydney in 1821-1822.
The South Australian Twopenny Magazine was published at Plymouth, England, in 1839, and the South Australian Miscellany and New Zealand Review at London in the same year.
New Zealand.-The New Zealand Magazine, a quarterly, was published at Wellington in 1850.
In 1857 appeared the New Zealand Quarterly Review, of little local interest, followed by Chapman's New Zealand Monthly Magazine (1862), the Southern Monthly Magazine (1863), the Delphic Oracle (1866-1870), the Stoic (1871), the Dunedin Review (1885), the Literary Magazine (1885), the four latter being written by J.
Grant, an eccentric genius, the Monthly Review (1888-1890), the New Zealand Illustrated Magazine (1899-1905), chiefly devoted to the light literature of New Zealand subjects, the Maori Record (1905-1907), and the Red Funnel, published since 1905.
Hocken, Bibliography of New Zealand (1909).
The order is practically cosmopolitan, with the exception of New Zealand and certain absolutely isolated oceanic islands, like the Hawaiian islands and the Azores.
They are widely distributed in all tropical and subtropical countries, even in such solitary places as Christmas Island, but they do not occur in New Zealand.
The range of the family extends over all the tropical and subtropical countries, including islands, except New Zealand.
This family comprises about nine-tenths of all recent species of snakes and is cosmopolitan, New Zealand being the most notable exception.
The sub-family is cosmopolitan, excepting the New Zealand sub-region, and finds its natural N.
Tropidonotus, with near 100 species, is cosmopolitan with the exception of New Zealand.
They comprise about 300 species of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, and as a group they are almost cosmopolitan, including Madagascar, but excepting new Zealand.
These snakes are all very poisonous, mostly viviparous and found in all tropical and subtropical countries, with the exception of Madagascar and New Zealand.
The island became a British protectorate on the 10th of April 1900, and was made a dependency of New Zealand in October 1900, the native government, of an elected "king" and a council of headmen, being maintained.
There has been no increase, and, indeed, no large fluctuation until quite recently in the output of New Zealand, which averaged £1,054,000 per annum from 1876 to 1898, but the production of the two years 190oand 1905 rose to £1,425,459 and £2,070,407 respectively.
In working auriferous river-beds, dredges have been used with considerable success in certain parts of New Zealand and on the Pacific slope in America.
OAMARU, a municipal borough on the east coast of South Island, New Zealand, in the county of Waitaki and provincial district of Otago; on the main railway between Christchurch (152 m.
It is the outlet of the largest agricultural district in New Zealand.
Corps (Harper) (5th New Zealand and 37th Div.
on the right and the New Zealand Div.
in line, New Zealand Div.
On the 11th he stood safely on the soil of Sjaelland (Zealand).
At the same time the men of Zealand repulsed a French raid from Ath on Ardenburg, and this infraction of the neutrality of the Spanish Netherlands served but to raise up another enemy for Louis.
of New Zealand and eastward of Antipodes Island.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
The Tonga and Kermadec trenches, both deeper than 4000 fathoms, stretch from the Samoa Islands southwards toward New Zealand for a distance of 1600 nautical miles.
right up to the Antarctic Shelf, with depths ranging down to 2500-3000 fathoms, and communicating with the main Pacific Basin to the east of New Zealand.
NEW PLYMOUTH, a municipality and seaport on the west coast of North Island, New Zealand, capital of the provincial district of Taranaki, 258 m.
The district is not unjustly termed "the garden of New Zealand."
The settlement was founded in 1841 by the Plymouth Company under the auspices of the New Zealand Company, and chiefly consisted of emigrants from Devonshire and Cornwall.
Australia possesses fields of great value, principally in the south-east (New South Wales and Victoria), and in New Zealand considerable quantities of coal and lignite are raised, chiefly in South Island.
It is found chiefly in England and Ireland, but there are branches in the United States of America, in South America and in Australia and New Zealand.
In 1841 a separate census was taken of New Zealand and Tasmania respectively.
From 1861 the census has been taken decennially by all the states except Queensland, where, as in New Zealand, it has been quinquennial since 1875 and 1881 respectively.
In other parts of the British empire there are some 1045 churches and mission stations (many native), South Africa, 385; Australia, 311, and Tasmania, 49; British North America, 151; British Guiana, 50, and Jamaica, 48; New Zealand, 35; India, 15; Hongkong, 1.
NEW ZEALAND, a British colonial Dominion (so named in 1907), consisting mainly of a group of islands lying in the south Pacific between 34° 25' and 47° 17' S., and between 166° 26' and 178° 36' E.
In Polynesia a number of inhabited islands were brought under New Zealand control in 1893.
The first named, the longest river in the colony, though obstructed by a bar like all western, - and most eastern, - New Zealand rivers, is navigable for some 70 m.
in utility to New Zealand commerce.
The dominating features of south New Zealand are not ferny plateaus or volcanic cones, but stern chains of mountains.
New Zealand is part of the Australasian festoon, on the Pacific edge of the Australasian area.
The physical geography of New Zealand is closely connected with its geological structure, and is dominated by two intersecting lines of mountains and earth movements.
But Professor Park has obtained Jurassic fossils in the Maitai series; so that it will probably be ultimately divided between the Carboniferous and Jurassic. The two systems should, however, be separable by an unconformity, unless the Maitai series also includes representatives of the Kaihiku series (the New Zealand Permian), and of the Wairoa series, which is Triassic.
New Zealand includes representatives of all the three Mesozoic systems. The Hokanui group comprises the Triassic Wairoa .and Otapira beds, and the Jurassic Mataura beds.
The Pleistocene system in the South Island includes glacial deposits, which prove a great extension of the New Zealand glaciers, especially along the western coast.
The Cainozoic volcanic history of New Zealand begins in the Oligocene, when the high volcanic domes of Dunedin and Banks Peninsula were built up. The Dunedin lavas including tephrites and kenytes correspond to the dacite eruptions in the volcanic history of Victoria.
The healthiness of the New Zealand climate in all parts is attested by the death-rate, which, varying (1896-1906) from 9 to 10.50 per 1000, is the lightest in the world.
The New Zealand flora, like the fauna, has been cited in support of the theory of the remote continental period.
The destruction of the forest is telling fatally on the ' See the geological map of New Zealand by Sir James Hector (1884).
New Zealand Inst.
Fullest information about the geology of New Zealand is given in the Reports of Geological Explorations issued by the Geological Survey of New Zealand, and the Annual Reports of the mines department.
Acclimatization, indeed, had played a chief part in the settlement of New Zealand.
As some compensation for its paucity of useful animals and food plants, New Zealand was, of course, free from wild carnivora, has no snakes, and only one poisonous insect, the katipo, a timid little spider found on certain sea-beaches.
In January 1840 there may have been 2000 whites in New Zealand.
About 70% of the population is New Zealand born.
Thanks, however, to the low death-rate, elsewhere referred to, the margin of increase in New Zealand is over 17.
Of the five banks of issue doing business in the dominion three are Australian and New Zealand institutions.
Thanks to the tariff of the United States the balance of trade with North America is heavily against New Zealand.
With these exceptions New Zealand trade is almost all done with Australia (£5,348,000 in 1907) and the United Kingdom; the latter's share in 1906 was £26,811,000 of the whole.
The result is seen in the price obtained for New Zealand sheep in Smithfield Market, which is from Id.
In London, New Zealand cheese fetches as high a price as Canadian; the value of the cheese exported was £662,000 in 1907.
The total value of the gold exported from New Zealand from the discovery of the metal in 1857 to 1907 was, roundly, £70,000,000.
Excellent as the quality of the best New Zealand coal is, the cost of mining and shipping it prevents the growth of any considerable export trade.
New Zealand was not colonized in the ordinary manner around one centre.
The university of New Zealand is an examining body, and grants honours, degrees and scholarships.
to the New Zealand University, which has about fifteen hundred undergraduates keeping terms. The state in no way controls or interferes with religious administration.
In this connexion it may be claimed that the proportion of policemen to population (1 to 1375) is lower in New Zealand than in any other colony.
The date, even the approximate date, of man's arrival in New Zealand is uncertain.
In vain Edward Gibbon Wakefield, organizer of colonizing associations, prayed and intrigued for permission to repeat in New Zealand the experiment tried by him in South Australia.
Lord Glenelg, the colonial minister, had the support of the missionaries in withstanding Wakefield's New Zealand Company, which at length resolved in desperation to send an agent to buy land wholesale in New Zealand and despatch a shipload of settlers thither without official permission.
Meanwhile, a week after Hobson's arrival, Wakefield's colonists had sailed into Port Nicholson, and proposed to take possession of immense tracts which the New Zealand Company claimed to have bought from the natives, and for which colonists had in good faith paid the company.
Meanwhile the industrial story of New Zealand may be summed up in the words wool and gold.
Peace, railways, telegraphs (including cable connexion with Europe), agricultural machinery and a larger population had carried New Zealand beyond the primitive stage.
The socialistic bent of New Zealand was already discernible in a public trustee law and a state life insurance office.
The former supervises the labour laws and endeavours to deal with unemployment; the latter has done much practical teaching, inspection, &c. Butter, cheese and New Zealand hemp are by law graded and branded by departmental inspectors before export.
The outbreak of the Boer War in October 1899 was followed in New Zealand by a prompt display of general and persistent warlike enthusiasm: politics ceased to be the chief topic of interest; the general election of 1899 was the most languid held for fifteen years.
Undoubtedly also commercial confidence was restored by the reconstruction in 1895 of the Bank of New Zealand, and activity has been stimulated by large public loans, while more cautious banking and the systems of taxation and rating on land values, adopted in 1891 and 1896, have done something to check land speculation.
Between 1879 and 1908 seven governors represented the crown in New Zealand.
The presence of New Zealand premiers at the imperial conferences in London in 1897, 1903 and 1907 helped to bring the colony into conscious touch with imperial public questions.
- The only lengthy historical account of any note is Rusden's three-volume History of New Zealand (2nd ed., Melbourne, 1896), chiefly valuable as a statement of the grievances of the Maori race.
Alpers, The Progress of New Zealand in the Century (London, 1902), and W.
Sir William Fox, The War in New Zealand (London, 1866) is the best account of any portion of the native wars.
Thomson's Story of New Zealand (London, 1859) is historical as well as descriptive.
William Gisborne's New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen,1844-1897 (London, 1897), gives many graphic portraits.
Grey, Polynesian Mythology and Maori Legends (New Zealand, 1885); Edward Tregear, The Maori Race (New Zealand, 1704); S.
Percy Smith, Hawaiki (New Zealand, 1903); John White, The Ancient History of the Maori (6 vols., London, 1889); and many papers - especially by the three last-named, and Colenso, Stack, Wohlers, Best, von Haast, Travers and Shand - in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (New Zealand, annual), and the Journal of the Polynesian Society (New Zealand, annual).
Wakefield, Adventure in New Zealand (new ed., New Zealand, 1908); Hon.
McNab, Murihuku (New Zealand, 1907); T.
Hocken, Contributions to the Early History of New Zealand (London, 1898); Samuel Butler, First Year in the Canterbury Settlement (1863).
For later impressions note: Lady Barker, Station Life in New Zealand (London, 1869); Sir Charles Dilke, Greater Britain (London, new ed., 1885); Anthony Trollope, Australia and New Zealand (London, 1875); J.
An anthology of New Zealand verse appeared in London in 1907.
Sir John Gorst, New Zealand Revisited (London, 1908).
von Hochstetter, New Zealand (translation, London, 1861); J.
Kirk, The Forest Flora of New Zealand (New Zealand, 1889); Sir J.
Hooker, Handbook of the New Zealand Flora (London, 1864); Laing and Blackwell, The Plants of New Zealand (New Zealand, 1906); Professor E.
Hutton and James Drummond, The Animals of New Zealand (New Zealand, 1905); Sir W.
Buller, The Birds of New Zealand, finely illustrated (new ed., London, 1906); S.
Percy Smith, The Eruption of Tarawera (New Zealand, 1887).
P. Reeves, State Experiments in Australia and New Zealand (2 vols., London, 1902); H.
On Alpine climbing the best book is still The High Alps of New Zealand by W.
The flora is most closely associated with that of New Zealand, and the avifauna indicates the same connexion rather than one with Australia, as those birds which belong to Australian genera are apparently immigrants, while those which occur on the island in common with New Zealand would be incapable of such distant migration.
First Valdemar aimed at the recovery of Zealand, which was actually partitioned among a score of Holstein mortgagees who ruled their portions despotically from their strong castles, and sucked the people dry.
In November 1343 he obtained the town and castle of Copenhagen from King Magnus Smek of Sweden, by reconfirming in still more stringent terms the previous surrender of the rich Scanian provinces, and by the end of the following year he had recovered the whole of North Zealand.
In 1347 the remainder of Zealand was redeemed, and the southern isles, Laaland, Falster and Mon, also fell into the king's strenuous hands.
In 1349, at the Landsting of Ringsted, Valdemar proudly rendered an account of his stewardship to the Estates of Zealand, and the bishop of Roskilde congratulated him on having so miraculously delivered his people from foreign thraldom.
The larva of a New Zealand moth, Morova subfasciata, Walk.
The earliest account of these birds is that of Polack (New Zealand, London, 1838), who speaks of the former existence of some struthious birds in the north island as proved by fossil bones which were shown to him.
18 93, pp. 374-3 80), "down even to the time that Captain Cook visited New Zealand."
' "The Moos of New Zealand," Tr.
44) relates that one who touched a sacrifice meant to avert divine anger must bathe and wash his clothes in running water before returning to his city and home, and similar scruples in regard to holy objects and persons have been observed among the natives of Polynesia, New Zealand and ancient Egypt.
There are Zoological Gardens at Melbourne (founded in 1857), Adelaide, Sydney and Perth, and small gardens at Wellington, New Zealand, supported partly by private societies and partly by the municipalities.
He intended to follow it up with similar treatises on Mars, Jupiter, sun, moon, comets and meteors, stars, and nebulae, and had in fact commenced a monograph on Mars, when the failure of a New Zealand bank deprived him of an independence which would have enabled him to carry out his scheme without anxiety as to its commercial success or failure.
In 1842 Domett emigrated to New Zealand where he filled many important administrative posts, being colonial secretary for New Munster in 1848, secretary for the colony in 1851, and prime minister in 1862.
This bank continues southwards to the Antarctic Ocean, expanding into a plateau on which Australia stands, and a branch runs eastwards and then southwards from the north-east of Australia through New Zealand.
The most considerable areas over 3000 fathoms are the Aldrich deep, an irregular triangle nearly as large as Australia, situated to the east of New Zealand, in which a sounding of 5155 fathoms was obtained by H.M.S.
Between these two areas, almost on the equator, a strip of globigerina ooze was found, corresponding to the zone of globigerina in the equatorial region of the Atlantic. Globigerina ooze covers considerable areas in the intermediate depths of the west and south Pacific - west of New Zealand, and along the parallel of 40° S., between 80°-98° W.
On reaching the western Pacific part of this current passes southwards, east of New Zealand, and again east of Australia, as the East Australian Current, part northwards to join the Equatorial CounterCurrent, and during the north-east monsoon part makes its way through the China Sea towards the Indian Ocean.
Next follow the two great islands and attendant islets of New Zealand.
There are ancient rocks, however, in New Caledonia, which .has a geological affinity with New Zealand; old sedimentary rocks are known in New Pomerania, besides granite and porphyry, and slates, sandstone and chalk occur in Fiji, as well as young volcanic rocks.
Along with these, similarly, hornblende and diabase occur in the Pelew Islands and gneiss and mica 1 These are dependencies of New Zealand, as are also the following islands and groups which lie apart from the main Polynesian clusters, nearer New Zealand itself: Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Islands, Chatham Islands, Kermadec Islands.
The tropical Asiatic element predominates on the low lands; types characteristic of Australia and New Zealand occur principally on the upper parts of the high islands.
In1642-1643Abel Tasman, working from the east, discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and the west coast of New Zealand, subsequently reaching the Tonga Islands.
Within the limits of the area under notice, his first voyage (1769) included visits to Tahiti and the Society group generally, to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, his second (1773-1774) to New Zealand, the Paumotu Archipelago, the Society Islands, Tonga and subsequently Easter Island, the Marquesas and the New Hebrides; and his third (1777-1778) to Tonga, the Cook or Norway group, and the Hawaiian Islands, of which, even if they were previously known to the Spaniards, he may be called the discoverer, and where he was subsequently killed.
the first important American expedition was made under Charles Wilkes, who covered a great extent of the ocean from Hawaii to Tonga, Fiji and New Zealand.
Of the British possessions among the islands of the Pacific, Fiji is a colony, and its governor is also high commissioner for the western Pacific. In this capacity, assisted by deputies and resident commissioners, he exercises jurisdiction over all the islands except Fiji and those islands which are attached to New Zealand and New South Wales.
Naultinus elegans of New Zealand is said to be viviparous; the others lay but one rather large egg at a time.
They are an exclusively Old World family; they are most numerous in Australia (except New Zealand) and the Indian and Malay countries; comparatively few live in Africa (none in Madagascar) and in the countries from Asia Minor to India.
New Zealand has at least 6 species of Lygosoma.
Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).
Similarly, the Mesozoic reptiles have been traced successively to various parts of the world from France, Germany, England, to North America and South America, to Australia and New Zealand and to northern Russia, from Cretaceous times back into the Permian, and by latest reports into the Carboniferous.
Thus the analysis of George Baur of the ancestral form of the lizards, mosasaurs, dinosaurs, crocodiles and phytosaurs led both to the generalized Palaeohatteria of the Permian and indirectly to the surviving Tuatera lizard of New Zealand.
CHATHAM ISLANDS, a small group in the Pacific Ocean, forming part of New Zealand, 536 m.
The geological formation is principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiary limestone; and an early physical connexion of the islands with New Zealand is indicated by their geology and biology.
The climate is colder than that of New Zealand.
Their language was allied to that of the Maoris of New Zealand, but they differed somewhat from them in physique, and they were probably a cross between an immigrating Polynesian group and a lower indigenous Melanesian stock.
There is also a small export by the natives of the flesh of young albatrosses and other sea-birds, boiled down and cured, for the Maoris of New Zealand, by whom it is reckoned a delicacy.
There are no indigenous mammals; the reptiles belong to New Zealand species.
There have also been discovered the remains of a species of swan belonging to the South American genus Chenopis, and of the tuatara (Hatteria) lizard, the unique species of an ancient family now surviving only in New Zealand.
The swan is identical with an extinct species found in caves and kitchen-middens in New Zealand, which was contemporaneous with the prehistoric Maoris and was largely used by them for food.
New Zealand Institute, vol.
Not long after this he visited the king of Denmark, Sweyn Estrithson, in Zealand; on the death of Adalbert, in 1072, he began the Historia Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae, which he finished about 1075.
Of his minor informants he names several, such as Adelward, dean of Bremen, and William the Englishman, "bishop of Zealand," formerly chancellor of Canute the Great, and an intimate of Sweyn Estrithson.
1109]; New Zealand, Public Works Act 18 94 [58 Vict.
He then joined George Augustus Selwyn, bishop of New Zealand, in a mission to the Melanesian islands.
Certain resins are obtained in a fossilized condition, amber being the most notable instance of this class; African copal and the kauri gum of New Zealand are also procured in a semi-fossil condition.
Whatever value may attach to the consolidation of the British Empire itself as a factor in spreading the peace which reigns within it, it is also a great contribution to the peace of the world that the British race should have founded practically independent states like the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the South African Union and the Dominion of New Zealand.
In 1831 agents were sent to Canada and Prince Edward's Island, in 1850 to South Australia, in 1855 to Victoria, in 1866 to Queensland, in 1877 to New Zealand and in 1885 to China, so that the original O'Bryan tradition of fervid evangelism was amply maintained.
Thus in New Zealand "a priest by repeating charms can cause the spirit to enter into the idol.
of the middle of the inhabited group, the distance to San Francisco is about 2100 m.; to Auckland, New Zealand, about 3810 m.; to Sydney, New South Wales, about 4410 m.; to Yokohama, about 3400 m.; to Hong-Kong, about 4920 m.; to Manila, about 4890 m.
They had been offered for sale or lease in accordance with land acts (of 1884 and 1895 - the latter corresponding generally to the land laws of New Zealand) designed to promote division into small farms and their immediate improvement.
de la "Coquille," zoologie, p. 418), and now very generally adopted in English - of one of the most characteristic forms of New Zealand birds, the Apteryx of scientific writers.
Residence in New Zealand, p. 313) had spoken of an "emeu" found in that island, which must of course have been an Apteryx.
In 1851 the first kiwi known to have reached England alive was presented to the Zoological Society by Eyre, then lieutenant-governor of New Zealand.
The kiwis are peculiar to New Zealand, and it 3 In 1842, according to Broderip (Penny Cyclopaedia, xxiii.
146), two had been presented to the Zoological Society by the New Zealand Company, and two more obtained by Lord Derby, one of which he had given to Gould.
of New Zealand, p. 362): "The kiwi is in some measure compensated for the absence of wings by its swiftness of foot.
KAKAPO, the Maori name, signifying "night parrot," and frequently adopted by English writers, of a bird, commonly called by the British in New Zealand the "ground-parrot" or "owl-parrot."
It thus becomes an easy prey to the marauding creatures - cats, rats and so forth - which European colonists have, by accident or design, let loose in New Zealand.
241), and Sir Walter Buller's Birds of New Zealand especially.
In New Zealand Maui, the divine hero of Polynesia, was not properly baptized.
Owen, approximating more closely than any other living birds to the extinct moas of New Zealand.
The Melanesian Mission, associated with the names of Selwyn and Patteson, is officially connected with the Church of New Zealand, but is also largely supported in Australia.
In New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand and Canada there are also Church missionary associations which supply missionaries, and support them, for the mission fields of the Church Missionary Society.
New Zealand; N.
- Missions: Fiji, Navigator's Island, New Caledonia, Central Oceania, Solomon Islands, parts of New Zealand (dioceses of Wellington and Christchurch).
Missions: Ceylon (diocese of Kandy), New Zealand (diocese of Auckland), N.
Australia and New Zealand.
The Maoris of New Zealand first came under Christian influence through the efforts of Samuel Marsden, a colonial chaplain in New South Wales about 1808.
Opossums and wallabies, good useful furs, come from Australia and New Zealand.
Formerly many skins were obtained from New Zealand and Australia, but the importation is now small and the quality not good.
COPENHAGEN (Danish Kjobenhavn), the capital of the kingdom of Denmark, on the east coast of the island of Zealand (Sjaelland) at the southern end of the Sound.
The nucleus of the city is built on low-lying ground on the east coast of the island of Zealand, between the sea and a series of small freshwater lakes, known respectively as St JOrgens So, Peblings So and Sortedams So, a southern portion occupying the northern part of the island of Amager.
The older city, including both the Zealand and Amager portions, was formerly surrounded by a complete line of ramparts and moats; but pleasant boulevards and gardens now occupy the westward or landward site of fortifications.
in circuit), there are extensive suburbs, especially on the Zealand side (Osterbro, Ndrrebro and Vesterbro or Osterfolled, &c., and Frederiksberg), and Amagerbro to the south of Christianshavn.
The Zealand Northern railway passes Lyngby, on the lake of the same name, a favourite summer residence, and Hillerod (21 m.), a considerable town, capital of the amt (county) of Frederiksberg, and close to the palace of Frederiksberg.
Copenhagen lies on the east side of the island of Zealand; opposite it is the shoal known as the Middle Ground.
Their hulks and bomb-vessels were supported by batteries on Zealand; but, as the water is shallow for a long distance from the shore, these defences were too far off to render them effectual aid on the south end of their line.
PHORMIUM, or NEW Zealand Flax (also called "New Zealand hemp"), a fibre obtained from the leaves of Phormium tenax (nat.
Liliaceae), a native of New Zealand, the Chatham Islands and Norfolk Island.
Phormium has been treated as a cultivated plant in New Zealand, though only to a limited extent; for the supplies of the raw material dependence has been principally placed on the abundance of the wild stocks and on sets planted as hedges and boundaries by the Maoris.
The New Zealand government in 1893 offered a premium of £1750 for a machine which would treat the fibre satisfactorily, and a further £250 for a process of treating the tow; and with a view to creating further interest in the matter a member of a commission of inquiry visited England during 1897.
In 1903 it was stated that a German chemist had discovered a method of working and spinning the New Zealand fibre.
New Zealand -.
New Zealand - -.
object of his reign to increase the power of his house, but he failed in his attempts to add Bohemia and Thuringia to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, and he was equally unsuccessful in his endeavour to seize the countries of Holland and Zealand as vacant fiefs of the Empire.
Nothing more was needed to unite together all the emperors foes, including Pope Clement VI., who, like his predecessors, had rejected the advances of Louis; but in 1345, before the gathering storm broke, the emperor took possession of the counties of Holland, Zealand and Friesland, which had been left without a ruler by the death of his brother-in-law, Count William IV.
Lakes, though small, are numerous; the largest are the Arresii and the Esromso in Zealand, and the chain of lakes in the Himmelbjerg region, which are drained by the largest river in Denmark, the Gudenaa, which, however, has a course not exceeding 80 m.
The islands may be divided into two groups, consisting of the two principal islands Fiinen and Zealand, and the lesser islands attendant on each.
Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 1 535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast.
The strait crossed by the Nyborg-Korsor ferry is the Great Belt which divides the Fiinen from the Zealand group, and is continued south by the LangeIands Belt, which washes the straight eastern shore of that island, and north by the Samso Belt, named from an island 15 m.
Zealand, or Sealand (Dan.
Its topography is described in detail under Zealand.
Jutland showed an average of only 109 inhabitants per square mile, whilst on the islands, which had a total population of 1,385,537, the average stood at 272.95, owing, on the one hand, to the fact that large tracts in the interior of Jutland are almost uninhabited, and on the other to the fact that the capital of the country, with its proportionately large population, is situated on the island of Zealand.
From the frontier a line runs east by Fredericia, across the island of Flinen by Odense and Nyborg, to Korsiir on Zealand, and thence by Roskilde to Copenhagen.
The manufacture of woollens and cotton, the domestic manufacture of linen in Zealand, sugar refineries, paper mills, breweries, and distilleries may also be mentioned.
(I) Covering the islands of Zealand and lesser adjacent islands, Copenhagen, Frederiksborg, Holbaek, Soro, Praesto.
There are seven dioceses, Fiinen, Laaland and Falster, Aarhus, Aalborg, Viborg and Ribe, while the primate is the bishop of Zealand, and resides at Copenhagen, but his cathedral is at Roskilde.
Zealand, Moen, Falster and Laaland), Jutland (with Fyen) and Skaane.
These three divisions always remained more or less distinct, and the Danish kings had to be recognized at Lund, Ringsted and Viborg, but Zealand was from time immemorial the centre of government, and Lejre was the royal seat and national sanctuary.
He was a son of Othin and husband of the goddess Gefjon, who created Zealand.
There can be little doubt that from a remote antiquity Zealand had been a religious sanctuary, and very probably the god Nerthus was worshipped here by the Angli and other tribes as described in Tacitus (Germania, c. 40).
In his time it is said that the land was divided into four kingdoms - Skaane, Zealand, Fyen and Jutland.
on the 7th of June 1671, a ceremony by way of symbolizing the new autocrat's humble submission to the Almighty, the officiating bishop of Zealand delivered an oration in which he declared that the king was God's immediate creation, His vicegerent on earth, and that it was the bounden duty of all good subjects to serve and honour the celestial majesty as represented by the king's terrestrial majesty.
These charges gathered weight until the minister was forced to resign in July 1908, and in September he was arrested on a charge of forgery in his capacity as director of the Zealand Peasants' Savings Bank.
In theology Christian Bastholm (1740-1819) and Nicolai Edinger Balle (1744-1816), bishop of Zealand, a Norwegian by birth, demand a reference.
Christian Winther (q.v.; 1796-1876) made the island of Zealand his loving study, and that province of Denmark belongs to him -no less thoroughly than the Cumberland lakes belong to Wordsworth.
The Australian, Canadian and New Zealand censorships adopted a different system, so that the exploits of these troops were and are well known throughout the world.
The diocese of New Zealand was founded in 1841, being endowed by the Church Missionary Society through the council, and George Augustus Selwyn was chosen as the first bishop. Since then the increase has gone on, as the result both of home effort and of the action of the colonial churches.
Similar action was taken in 1858, when Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of New Zealand; and again in 1860, when, on the petition of the Canadian bishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent were issued appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office.
Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, where no single city can claim pre-eminence, the metropolitan is either elected or else is the senior bishop by consecration.
Two further developments must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towards the close of the r9th century the title of archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of several provinces.
C. Patteson for Melanesia, by the metropolitans of Cape Town and New Zealand respectively.
With the exception of Colenso the South African bishops forthwith surrendered their patents,and formally accepted Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in 1865 in the province of New Zealand.
(9) The Church of New Zealand, i province of 7 dioceses, together with the missionary jurisdiction of Melanesia.
Besides going to Aachen for the coronation, he made excursions down the Rhine from Cologne to Nijmwegen, and back overland by 's Hertogenbosch; to Brussels; to Bruges and Ghent; and to Zealand with the object of seeing a natural curiosity, a whale reported ashore.
It thus comprises all the insular groups which extend almost continuously from the south-eastern extremity of Asia to more than half-way across the Pacific. Its chief divisions are Malaysia with the Philippines; Australia with Tasmania and New Zealand; Melanesia, that is, New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty, the Solomons, New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, Fiji, Loyalties and New Caledonia; Micronesia, that is, the Ladrones, Pelew and Carolines, with the Marshal] and Gilbert groups; lastly, Polynesia, that is, Samoa, Tonga, Cook, Tahiti, the Marquesas, Ellice, Hawaii and all intervening clusters.
In a more restricted sense the term Australasia corresponds to the large division including Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.
INVERCARGILL, the chief town of Southland county, South Island, New Zealand, 139 m.
Mr Shortland appears to think that cannibalism among the Maories of New Zealand may have thus originated.
When New Zealand was occupied (1840) the Maori were said to number 120,000, and were doubtfully stated to be still 56,000 in 1857; since then the returns of the 1881 and 1891 censuses gave 44,000 and 40,000 respectively.
Most of these abuses have been checked or removed, and the results may perhaps be detected in a less accelerated rate of decline, which no longer proceeds in geometric proportion, and seems even almost arrested in some places, as in Samoa and New Zealand.
The Kauri pine (Dammara australis) is a native of New Zealand.
ZEALAND (also Sealand or Seeland; Danish Sjaelland), the largest island of the kingdom of Denmark.
Zealand is divided into five amter (counties).
NELSON, a seaport of New Zealand, the seat of a bishop and capital of a provincial district of the same name; at the head of Blind Bay on the northern coast of the South Island.
The settlement was planted by the New Zealand Company in 1842.
Evans having returned ill to New Zealand and Dr.
18 1913 and a few days later took off the entire party, reaching New Zealand on Feb.
157° 30' E., he brought the disabled vessel safely to New Zealand.
The ship was repaired by the New Zealand Government and dispatched under the command of Capt.
bulleri to New Zealand, - the last indeed perhaps only to the South Island.
The cellular system has been adopted in all British colonies with various modifications, and prisons built on modern principles are to be found in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Cape of Good Hope.
Benham, "Heteropleuron of New Zealand," ib.
The genuine Isopoda are divided among the Flabellifera, in which the terminal segment and uropods form a flabellum or swimming fan; the Epicaridea, parasitic on Crustaceans; the Valvifera, in which the uropods fold valve-like over the branchial pleopods; the Asellota, in which the first pair of pleopods of the female are usually transformed into a single opercular plate; the Phreatoicidea, a fresh-water tribe, known as yet only from subterranean waters in New Zealand and an Australian swamp nearly 6000 ft.
It is worth noting, too, that the fall in the crude birth-rate is not confined to, the Old World, but has attracted special attention in Australia and New Zealand, where a rate of 40 per mille in the period1861-1870has now given place to one of 26.
In New South Wales and New Zealand, too, the marriage-rates fell off in the same period by 11 and 28% respectively, whilst the decline in the birth-rates amounted to 35 and 31%.
In New Zealand the consequences of the cessation of special encouragement to emigration were still more marked, the foreign-born declining in proportion from 63 to 33%.
Society, 1876, pp. 317-332), says that it presents three local forms - one occurring from New Zealand to Norfolk Island and past Kerguelen Land to the Cape of Good Hope, another restricted to the Falklands, and the third hitherto only met with near the south-polar ice.
Three other smaller species of the genus are known, and each is more widely distributed than those just mentioned, but the home of all is in the more northern parts of the earth, though in winter two of them go very far south, and, crossing the equator, show themselves on the seas that wash the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand and Peru.
Confirmation of this is afforded by the occurrence in the mountains of Java of a pariah-like dog which has reverted to an almost completely wild condition; and likewise by the fact that the old voyagers met with dogs more or less similar to the dingo in New Guinea, New Zealand and the Solomon and certain other of the smaller Pacific islands.
The islands belong politically to New Zealand.
So in the New Zealand myth, Rangi and Papa, Sky and Earth, who once clave together in the darkness, were rent asunder by the forest-god Tane-mahuta, who forced up the sky far above him.
Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New Zealand, Tasmania, Canada (four Unions) and S.
Agassiz (in his work on Lake Superior) tells us that the roadside weeds of the north-eastern United States, to the number of 130 species, are all European, the native weeds having disappeared westwards; while in New Zealand there are, according to T.
Kirk (Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, vol.
Among animals, the European rat, goat and pig are naturalized in New Zealand, where they multiply to such an extent as to injure and probably exterminate many native productions.
This has been especially the case in Hawaii and New Zealand; in America, Australia and Hawaii, horses and cattle are also feral.
Feral pigs are numerous in New Zealand.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is now widely distributed as a wild animal over New Zealand, where also the fallow-deer (C. dama) and the Indian sambar (C. aristotelis or unicolor) have been introduced locally.
The hare has been established in New Zealand and Barbadoes.
To check the increase of the rabbit, stoats, weasels and polecats (the last in the form of the domesticated ferret) were introduced into New Zealand on a very large scale in the last quarter of the 19th century.
The common Australian "opossum" or phalanger (Trichosurus vulpecula) has been naturalized in New Zealand, although very destructive to fruit trees; the value of its fur being probably the motive.
It is said that the pelage of the New Zealand specimens is superior, as might be expected from the colder climate.
The pheasant has been naturalized in the United States, New Zealand, Hawaii and St Helena.
Thus those acclimatized were usually, no doubt, of mixed blood, and further introductions of pure Chinese stock have tended to make the latter the dominant form, at any rate in the United States (where it is erroneously called Mongolian') and in New Zealand.
Of the partridges, the continental red-leg (Caccabis rufa) is established in England, and its ally, the Asiatic chukore (C. chukar), in St Helena, as is the Californian quail (Lophortyx californica) in New Zealand and Hawaii.
The latter, however, though thriving as an aviary bird, has failed at large in England, as did the bob-white (Onyx virginianus) both there and in New Zealand.
The modern presence of the black swan of Australia (Chenopis atrata) in New Zealand appears to be due to a natural irruption of the species about half a century ago as much as to acclimatization by man, if not more so.
There has also been very little naturalization of parrots, but the rosella parrakeet of Australia (Platycercus eximius) is being propagated by escaped captives in the north island of New Zealand, and its ally the mealy rosella (P. pallidiceps) is locally wild in Hawaii, the stock in this case having descended from a single pair intentionally liberated.
It is, in fact, as notorious an example of over-successful acclimatization as the rabbit, but in Hutton and Drummond's recent work on the New Zealand animals (London, 1905) it is not regarded in this light, considering that some very common exotic birds were needed to keep down the insects, which it certainly did.
Returning to the true finches, the only one which can compete with the house-sparrow in the extent of its distribution by man is the goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), now established all over New Zealand, as well as in Australia, the United States and Jamaica.
The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is naturalized in New Zealand, Australia and to some extent in the United States.
Thrushes have not been widely introduced, but the song-thrush and blackbird (Turdus musicus and Merula merula) are common in New Zealand; attempts were made, but unsuccessfully, to establish the latter in the United States.
The so-called hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis), really a member of this group, is one of the successful introductions into New Zealand.
Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and the Australian "magpie" or piping crow (Gymnorhina) are to be found in New Zealand, but only locally, especially the former.
An Australian tree-frog (Hyla peronii) is naturalized in many parts of the north island of New Zealand.
The Prussian carp (Carassius vulgaris) is established in New Zealand, and the nearly-allied goldfish, a domestic form (C. auratus) of Chinese origin, has been widely distributed as a pet, and is feral in some places.
The most important case of naturalization of fish is, however, the establishment of some Salmonidae in Tasmania and New Zealand.
irideus) has thriven in New Zealand, and the brook char of the same continent (S.
Many insects and other invertebrates, mostly noxious, have been accidentally naturalized, and some have been deliberately introduced, like the honey-bee, now feral in Australasia and North America, and the humble-bee, imported into New Zealand to effect the fertilization of red clover.
The spread of the European house-fly has been deliberately encouraged in New Zealand, as wherever it penetrates the native flesh-fly, a more objectionable pest, disappears.
Thus, the linnet and partridge have failed to establish themselves in New Zealand.
Under certain circumstances, however, the native animals may recover, for in some cases they even profit by man's advent, and at times themselves become pests, like the Kea parrot (Nestor notabilis), which attacks sheep in New Zealand, and the bobolink or rice-bird (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in North America.
The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity retained for use in various years (1890-19ò5):--- During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95, 6 3 2, 59 8; (1909), 1 7 6, 457, 1 5 0; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), 10, 8 73,7 88; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.
TIMARU, a seaport of Geraldine county, New Zealand, on the E.
During the heat of summer voyages to the North Cape are suitable, and during the spring and autumn to the Mediterranean, but in the colder months of the year the West Indies, India, Cape Town, Australia or New Zealand forms the best objective.
Next to Great Britain the countries doing most trade with South Africa are Australia and New Zealand, Germany, the United States, Canada, Brazil, India, Belgium, Holland and France.
every part of the empire in support of the policy of the government, and from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and India, contingents wore sent to the front.
GREYMOUTH, a seaport of New Zealand, the principal port on the west coast of South Island, in Grey county.
He was distinguished for his researches on the Tertiary floras of various parts of Europe, and on the fossil floras of Australia and New Zealand.
Investigations in this subject have rendered it very probable that the island of Nerthus was Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be observed that the kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately to a certain Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Sk16ldr, the mythical founder of the Danish royal family (Skidldungar).
New Zealand has a church at Auckland (1883) and scattered members in the south island.
Gold coin and bullion form one of the principal items in the export list, but only a small portion of the export is of local production, the balance being Queensland and New Zealand gold sent to Sydney for coinage.
After he had observed the transit of Venus at Tahiti, he circumnavigated New Zealand and went in search of the eastern coast of the great continent whose western shores had long been known to the Dutch.
Van Diemen's Land was declared a separate colony in 1825, West Australia in 1829, South Australia in 1836 and New Zealand in 1839; so that before 1840 the original area of New South Wales, which at first included the mainland of Australia and the islands in the South Pacific, had been greatly reduced.
So overwhelming did Christian's difficulties appear that he took ship to seek help abroad, and on May 1st landed at Veere in Zealand.
coast of Zealand, 59 m.
Thus of the 90 indigenous genera (many monotypic or very small) only 14 are endemic, i extends to South Africa, 3 are common to Australia and New Zealand, 18 extend also into Asia, whilst no fewer than 54 are found in both the Old and New Worlds, 26 being chiefly tropical and 28 chiefly extra-tropical.