In point of international law, its existence may be said to date from Dec. I 1918, when the Prince-Regent Alexander of Serbia formally complied with the invitation of the Yugoslav National Council to assume the regency over the sister provinces also.
The Yugoslav movement was by no means a recent one, as is often assumed.
- In the late 'sixties the Yugoslav idea met with a serious set-back.
The Cuvaj regime had a magical effect in furthering the movement for Yugoslav unity.
This gave rise to sympathetic demonstrations in many Dalmatian and Bosnian towns, and to a series of interpellations and speeches by the Yugoslav and Czech deputies in the Parliament of Vienna.
The battle of Kumanovo in particular was greeted with indescribable enthusiasm throughout the Yugoslav provinces.
On all sides Serbia was now regarded as the southern Slav Piedmont: and the Dual Monarchy's consistently hostile policy toward Belgrade, and its only too successful efforts to set Serbia and Bulgaria by the ears, intensified the excitement and resentment among its Yugoslav subjects.
The Trialist solution (which would have united the Yugoslav provinces of Austria-Hungary in a third state enjoying equality with the two existing partners) rapidly lost popularity, even among the clerical parties, which had been attracted by the prospect of Catholic predominance in such a State.
The coalition maintained its majority, the Government only obtaining ten seats: but though this time the Diet was allowed to meet, no attempt was made to satisfy Yugoslav aspirations or to solve the real issues at stake between Hungary and Croatia.
- Immediately on the outbreak of the World War measures of extreme severity were taken by the civil and military authorities of Austria-Hungary throughout their Yugoslav provinces.
Press censorship was of course very rigid throughout the Dual Monarchy, but many Yugoslav newspapers were suppressed altogether.
In March 1915, 28 schoolboys of Banjaluka were sentenced to terms varying from two years to four months for founding a local Yugoslav society.
Yugoslav Propaganda Abroad.
- Meanwhile a certain number of Yugoslav leaders had managed to reach foreign soil before the outbreak of war, and during the winter of 1914 constituted themselves as the Yugoslav Committee.
Their first public pronouncement was an appeal to the British Parliament and nation (May 1915) for sympathy with the cause of Yugoslav unity and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary.
The entry of Italy into the war was a serious set-back to the Yugoslav cause, for under the Treaty of London (April 27 1915) she was to obtain, in the event of an Entente victory, wide districts in Gorizia, Carniola, Istria and Dalmatia, peopled by not less than 700,000 Yugosla y s.
During the winter of 1915 delegates of the Yugoslav Committee, with the Tsar's special permission, began enrolling volunteers from among the prisoners on the Russian front; and by March 1916 a division of 23,000 men had been concentrated at Odessa, and a second was formed later.
In 1916 the Yugoslav Committee had also set itself to recruiting among its compatriots in America, but in this case its success was hampered by many cross currents of republican, clerical, Austrian and Montenegrin feeling: and those who did actually volunteer showed considerable lack of discipline and were not always treated with the necessary tact by the Serbian military authorities.
No sooner was political life thus resumed than all the Slovene, Croat and Serb deputies of Austria united to form a " Yugoslav parliamentary Club," which entered into close alliance with the Czech Club.
At the opening sitting (May 30) Czechs, Poles and Ruthenes defined their national attitude in formal resolutions, and the Slovene leader, Father Korosec, in the name of the Yugoslays, demanded " the union of all the Yugoslav territories of the Monarchy in an independent state organism, free from the rule of any foreign nation, and resting on a democratic basis, under the sceptre of the Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty."
Meanwhile the opposition parties openly allied themselves with the Yugoslav Club in Austria, which agitated for complete national unity, but saved itself from prosecution by occasional references to the dynasty and absolute silence regarding Serbia.
It was left to the Yugoslav Committee abroad to claim independence as well as unity, to repudiate the Habsburgs (in a manifesto on the eve of the Budapest coronation) and to exalt the achievements of Serbia and the Karagjorgjevic dynasty.
- After some weeks of negotiation the so-called " Declaration of Corfu " was signed on July 20 1917, between Pasic as Serbian Premier (and in this case as the mouthpiece of all the Serbian parties) and Dr. Trumbic as president of the Yugoslav Committee.
The facts regarding the Yugoslav legions and the services rendered by Yugoslav deserters at Gorizia and in the Trentino were simply suppressed.
Unfortunately, while the new Czechoslovak army was recognized by Italy and took its place in the front line, Baron Sonnino, for political reasons, vetoed the formation of similar Yugoslav legions, though General Diaz had consented, and though the Yugoslays interned at Nocera and elsewhere were clamouring to be enrolled.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
Lansing in the name of America (May 31) was a fresh encouragement: and Korosec, after constituting a Yugoslav National Council for the furtherance of unity, convoked a new Slav congress at Lyublyana (Ljubljana) on Aug.
a mainly Yugoslav revolutionary committee had almost gained control of the Cattaro naval base, which would have fallen into Entente hands if the ringleaders, who crossed the Adriatic for help, had not been detained by subordinate Italian subordinates until the Pola squadron had time to crush the mutiny.
During the late summer the authorities in Vienna and Budapest keenly debated rival plans for solving the southern Slav question - in every case, however, in accordance with Austrian or Hungarian rather than Yugoslav interests.
This last attempt to win support for the Magyar solution was everywhere met with a blank refusal, and in Bosnia especially the Orthodox, Catholic and Moslem leaders united in a manifesto assuring him of their adherence to the full programme of Yugoslav unity.
The Czech and Yugoslav spokesmen in the Reichsrat insisted upon separate representation at the peace negotiations, and the absolute right to decide their own future State allegiance (Oct.
This only precipitated the collapse, and while Count Tisza voiced Hungarian public opinion in declaring the basis of the Dual system to be shattered, the Yugoslav National Council was transplanted from Ljubljana to Zagreb and strengthened by the inclusion of representatives of all parties (Oct.
On the 16th the Hungarian Government declared in favour of personal union, and next day Hussarek published an imperial proclamation, dividing Austria (not Austria-Hungary) into four federal units (German, Czech, Yugoslav and Ukrainian) and leaving the Poles to make their own decision.
Korosec in the name of the Czech and Yugoslav Clubs unreservedly rejected it and claimed that the future of both nations was an international problem which only the future Peace Conference could solve.
21 the news of President Wilson's answer to Count Burian's final peace note (refusing to negotiate save on the basis of a recognition of Czechoslovak and Yugoslav national claims) became generally known, the old regime vanished almost as if by magic. Extraordinary scenes took place in many towns, the troops tearing off their military badges with the Habsburg arms, and trampling them underfoot.
31 making over the whole Austro-Hungarian fleet to the Yugoslav State.
4 Stepanek and Giunio, as delegates of the Czech and Yugoslav revolutionary committees, reached Italy in a fishing-boat, to concert with the Allies a general rising along the coast, but were closely imprisoned in Rome and not allowed to communicate with Doctor Benes and Doctor Trumbic till nearly three weeks had been lost.
The Allies very properly insisted that the fleet must be surrendered into their hands, but before this could take place a deplorable incident occurred in Pola harbour, the " Viribus Unitis " being blown up by an Italian mine, with a Yugoslav admiral and crew on board.
During the summer America gave a lead to the Allies by accepting the Yugoslav programme, and after Austria's failure on the Piave there was a growing disposition on the part of the western Powers to fall into line with Mr. Lansing's very clear pronouncements.
But Pasic, free from the restraints of a coalition and from all parliamentary control, had reverted to his original pan-Serb standpoint, and steadily declined to reconstruct his Cabinet on a wider Yugoslav basis.
by Pa g e, .the reason, being his refusal as a good Yugoslav to transmit to the American Government a project assigning Bosnia to Serbia as " compensation " in the event of a patched-up peace.
On July 25 at the London Mansion House Mr. Balfour publicly indorsed the full Yugoslav programme, as formulated by the Serbian minister, Mr. Jovanovic: but the latter's full report to his home Government was answered by a severe snub, and during the winter he too was dismissed for his Yugoslav sentiments.
the rival statesmen moved from London to Paris, all hope of Yugoslav recognition before the opening of the Peace Conference had vanished, owing to the stiffening in the attitude of Italy.
g the Declaration of Geneva was signed by Pasic as Serbian Premier, Father Korosec, Doctor Cingrija (mayor and deputy of Ragusa) and Doctor Zerjav (a Slovene Progressive) for .the Zagreb Council, Trumbic and four others for the Yugoslav Committee, and Trifkovic, Draskovic and Marinkovic as chiefs of the Serbian opposition parties.
For to meet this danger, the Zagreb Government urgently invited the assistance of the Serbian army, which during the final advance contained a large proportion of Yugoslav volunteers.
The first Yugoslav Cabinet was constituted ?tinder Protic as Premier and Father Korosec as vice-Premier: Trumbic became foreign minister, and the other portfolios were diyided more or less equally between Serbia and the new territories.
Friction was increased by a whole series of incidents along the coast, by the deportation of prominent Yugosla y s to Italy and by the entry of Italian troops into Fiume, despite the protests of the Yugoslav civil and military authorities (Nov.
On March 3, however, Italy, who had steadily refused to recognize the accomplished fact of Yugoslav unity and insisted on the Conference only admitting the Yugosla y s as a " Serbian " delegation, declined American arbitration and threatened to withdraw altogether from Paris unless their territorial demands were conceded.
As however Trumbic rallied the Yugoslav delegation to refuse the Franco-British project, Clemenceau the very next day introduced the important modification that Fiume should be an independent state under the League.
The corpus separatum became an independent unit under the League of Nations, the Croat suburb of Susak remaining in Yugoslavia and the Baros port being added as an outlet for Yugoslav trade.
The regulation of the new Yugoslav frontier with Austria proved very thorny.
Against Bulgaria the Yugoslav delegation claimed considerable frontier rectifications - (a) the Strumnica salient, which threatened the Vardar railway from the east, (b) the district of Kochana (Tocana) and the Bregalnitsa (Bregalnica), (c) a strip of territory running parallel with the old Serbo-Bulgarian frontier the whole way from Zajecar to Kyustendil, and (d) the town of Vidin on the Danube and the salient between it and the Timok.
The Pan-Serb section of opinion in Belgrade, encouraged in this instance by some of the army chiefs for strategic reasons, has always coveted northern Albania: and the Montenegrin Unionists, led by Radovie, made every effort to secure the adoption of their full claim by the Yugoslav delegation.
This was opposed by Trumbie and all the more progressive elements in the new State, who realized that the claim to Skutari knocked the bottom out of the whole Yugoslav case against Italy and Austria.
Her claim to Pecs (Fiinfkirchen) was disallowed, but owing to the long delay in ratifying the treaty, Yugoslav troops remained in occupation of this district and its valuable coal-mines till Aug.
Meanwhile Pecs had become a centre of the exiled Magyar progressives, who preferred a provisional Yugoslav regime to the white terror of Adml.
During 1919 internal politics centred in a struggle between the Radicals, who still possessed the best party machine and stood for a narrowly Serbian as opposed to a Yugoslav programme, and the newly constituted Democratic party, which absorbed most of the Serbian Opposition parties, the old Serbo-Croat coalition of Zagreb, and the Slovene Liberals.
Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente (1919, contains important original documents); The Southern Slav Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8).
On the break-up of the State in 1918 the German deputies of this rump Parliament assembled to form the constituent national assembly of German Austria, while in the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav states there were committees from which the German and Italian deputies were excluded, which proceeded to take measures towards forming states.
agitateof the same countries that were agitating for war against Yugoslav President Milosevic suddenly find war with Iraq intolerable.
There are articles about mass desertions in the Yugoslav National Army.
Then it all changed: the rise of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic and the subsequent dissolution of Yugoslavia proved disastrous for Kosovo's economy.
Eventually, faced with the evidence of brutal ethnic cleansing by the Serb Yugoslav security forces, NATO acted.
ethnic cleansing by the Serb Yugoslav security forces, NATO acted.
However, they resurfaced once the Yugoslav federation began to unravel, from 1990 onwards.
During World War Two he served as a full Colonel with the Yugoslav partisans, retiring to his family home in Somerset in 1946.
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia could well become the next powder keg.
Reports of large Yugoslav troop movements around Kosova have created a further pretext for NATO to repeat its threat to launch military action.
Montenegro is the last of the former Yugoslav republics still joined in a bond with Serbia.
The Yugoslav revolution can become the springboard from which the Fourth will launch itself on its conquest of the masses ' .
- The " Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes " (Kraljevina Srba Hrvata i Slovenaca), more commonly known as Yugoslavia, came into being in the closing months of 1918 as a result of the collapse of AustriaHungary and the voluntary union of its Yugoslav territories with the former Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.
The Slovenes - clericals no less than progressives - became increasingly active in the Yugoslav movement, and their press began to demand the abandonment of the distinctive Slovene dialect as a hindrance to unity..
With every year of war the number of confiscations of property increased in the Yugoslav provinces, as in Bohemia and Transylvania - vengeance upon the families at home being widely used in order to deter Slav, Italian or Rumanian prisoners from enlisting in the various volunteer corps in process of formation on the Russian, Balkan and Italian fronts.
Its two foremost leaders were Doctor Trumbic and Mr. Supilo (two of the makers of the Resolution of Fiume) and it also included Doctor Hinkovic (known as the chief advocate in the Zagreb treason trial), Ivan Mestrovic the sculptor, the Slovene deputies Gregorin and Trinajstic, the Bosnian Serb deputies Stojanovic, SrSkic and Vasiljevic, publicists of repute such as Marjanovic and Banjanin, and prominent representatives of the Yugoslav colonies in North and South America, such as the scientist Pupin and the shipping magnate Baburica.
American supporters, who had long been enthusiasts for the Yugoslav idea.
9 Mr. Balfour officially recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as " trustee of the future Czechoslovak Government," he was ready to extend a similar recognition to the Yugoslav cause, but as a preliminary condition he very reasonably insisted upon unanimity between those who claimed to represent the two groups of Yugoslays.
Italy in her reply (Dec. io) insisted on continuity (the real if unavowed motive of which was to control the port of Fiume in the interests of Trieste and Venice, and so retain some hold over Yugoslavia's commercial development), demanded the island of Cherso and the neutralization of the Yugoslav coast, and suggested a triple division - the corpus separatum of Fiume to Italy, the port to the League of Nations, and the rest of the buffer state to Yugoslavia.
At this stage the Yugoslav delegation committed a grave tactical blunder, * Trumbic's views being overridden by the Balkan imperialistic aims of Pasic., While pleading for a plebiscite against Italy and doing lip service to an independent Albania within the frontiers of 1913, it added that in the event of any revision of those frontiers Yugoslavia would claim Skutari and all territory north of the river Drin (Drim).
The Serb-dominated Yugoslav Army tried to halt the secession of Slovenia by force, but failed.
Yugoslav fresco and beyond, St. Peter is always portrayed with curly, shortish hair and a rounded white beard.
The Yugoslav revolution can become the springboard from which the Fourth will launch itself on its conquest of the masses '.
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