To these elements of discord we must add: - (r) That the Arabs, notwithstanding the bond of Islam that united them, maintained their old tribal institutions, and therewith their old feuds and factions; (2) that the old antagonism between Ma`adites 1 - (original northern tribes) and Yemenites (original southern tribes), accentuated by the jealousy between the Meccans, who belonged to the former, and the Medinians, who belonged to the latter division, gave rise to perpetual conflicts; (3) that more than one dangerous pretender - some of them of the reigning family itself - contended with the caliph for the sovereignty, and must be crushed collie que collie.
It is not unlikely that the chief leader of the Yemenites in Ali's army, Ash`ath b.
The mother of Yazid, Maisun, belonged to the most powerful tribe in Syria, the Kalb, and it seems that this and the cognate tribes of Qoda'a (Yemenites) had enjoyed certain prerogatives, which had aroused the jealousy of the Qais and the cognate tribes of Modar.
For about ten years the Syrian and Mesopotamian deserts were the scene of a series of raids, often marked by great cruelty, and which have been the subject of a great many poems. Abdalmalik had need of all his tact and energy to pacify ultimately the zealous sectaries, but the antagonism between Yemenites (Kalb and Azd) and Madarites (Qais and Tamim) had been increased by these struggles, and even in the far east and the far west had fatal consequences.
In these years the antagonism between Qais (Modar) and Yemenites became more and more acute, especially in Khorasan.
This very able man, who under Hajjaj had been prefect of Mecca, belonged properly neither to the Qaisites nor to the Yemenites, but as he took the place of Ibn Hobaira and dismissed his partisans from their posts, the former considered him as their adversary, the, latter as their benefactor.
After his death, in particular, the Yemenites celebrated him as their chief, and assigned as the reason for their revolt the injuries which he suffered.
Hisham tried to keep himself free from and above the rival parties, but as his vicegerents were inexorable in the exaction of tribute, the Qaisites against the Yemenites, the Yemenites against the Qaisites, both parties alternately had reason to complain, whilst the non-Arabic Moslems suffered under the pressure and were dissatisfied.
Walid I., and joined by the majority of the Merwanid princes and many Kalbites and other Yemenites who regarded the ill-treatment of Khalid al-Qasri as an insult to themselves.
But Nasr had a personal enemy, the chief of the Azd (Yemenites) Jodai` alKirmani, a very ambitious man.
Being a Tamimite, he belonged to the Moelar, on whom the government in Khorasan depended; but he aided the Yemenites to gain the upper hand of them.
The dynasty struggled on till the end of the century, amid civil war, in which the parties seem to have been divided by the earlier Arab factions of Kaisites (Qaisites) and Yemenites, the Maan belonging to the latter.
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