"Without a sanctuary Yahweh would have seemed a foreigner to Israel.
The prophet's thought is summed up in the name of the city: Yahweh Shammah, " Yahweh is there," God dwelling for ever in the midst of his people.
a man-like form (Yahweh) surrounded by a rainbow brightness.
i., in which Yahweh is represented as leaving Jerusalem and coming to take up his abode among them in Babylonia for a time, intending, however, to return to his own city (xliii.
His conception of Yahweh shows a mingling of the high and the low.
7, Yahweh breathes his own breath into the lifeless body.
The wheels symbolize divine omniscience and control, and the whole vision represents the coming of Yahweh to take up his abode among the exiles.
7), Yahweh made for Israel "statute and judgment" and "proved them."
2), God spake to Moses and said to him: " I am Yahweh.
The episode of Melchizedek, though connected with the main narrative by the epithets given to Yahweh in Gen.
But Wellhausen 1 is probably right in taking the word as a contraction for Hagariah ("Yahweh hath girded"), just as Zaccai (Zacchaeus) is known to be a contraction of Zechariah.
He, like Jeremiah, was friendly to Nebuchadrezzar, regarding him as Yahweh's instrument for the chastisement of the nation.
His strongest denunciation is directed against the religious practices of the time in Judea - the worship of the Canaanite local deities (the Baals), the Phoenician Tammuz, and the sun and other Babylonian and Assyrian gods (vi., viii., xvi., xxiii.); he maintained vigorously the prophetic struggle for the sole worship of Yahweh.
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
The prophet regards Yahweh's administrative control as immediate:' he introduces no angels or other subordinate supernatural agents - the cherubs and the " men " of ix.
According to ' Yahweh's spirit, thought of as Yahweh's vital principle, as man's spirit is man's vital principle, is to be breathed into them, as, in Gen.
2 After a comparison of Israel to a worthless wild vine (xv.) come two allegories, one portraying idolatrous Jerusalem as the unfaithful spouse of Yahweh (xvi.), the other describing the fate of Zedekiah (xvii.).
to the vicegerent of Yahweh, seated on the throne of Zion, the king of Israel who is also priest after the order of Melchizedek, and then, after the Gospel had ensured the Messianic interpretation of the Psalm (Matt.
The prevalent famine and distress are due to Yahweh's indignation at such remissness.
27 seq.).5 Some tradition of a widespread movement appears to be ascribed to the age of Jehu, whose accession, promoted by the prophet Elisha, marks the end of the conflict between Yahweh and Baal.
The precepts of the law were valuable in the eyes of the Scribes because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the barrier erected between the world at large and the exclusive community of Yahweh's grace.
In this form the seventh day's rest was one of the few outward ordinances by which the Israelite could still show his fidelity to Yahweh and mark his separation from the heathen.
13), and the character of a sign between Yahweh and Israel ascribed to it in the post-exilic law.
This attachment to the Sabbath, beautiful and touching so long as it was a spontaneous expression of continual devotion to Yahweh, acquired a less pleasing character when, after the exile, it came to be enforced by the civil arm (Neh.
The deity revealed himself in a new name, Yahweh, and with signs and wonders fortified Moses for his task.
To the Israelites, however, it was a miracle, an unexpected intervention on the part of Yahweh, and the first of many marvels which he performed on behalf of the people of his choice.
This was the scene of the "strife" at Meribah (striving) where Yahweh "shewed himself holy" (Num.
1-13); a parallel account joins the name with Massah (trial, proof) where Yahweh "proved" the people (Exod.
8) and here, finally, for some cause, now obscured, Moses and his brother Aaron incurred Yahweh's displeasure (Num.
1 Yahweh appears to have been known to them before he revealed himself to Moses, and the ancestors of the Israelites are recognized as worshippers of Yahweh, but are on another level (Exod.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
26, so far from the name Yahweh having been made known to Israel by Moses (Exod.
4) from the fact that its author regularly uses the divine name Jehovah (Yahweh).
Elohim (God) instead of Yahweh.
The one form, which probably arose from the conception of Yahweh as in an especial sense the protector of the poor, was that gifts to God may properly be bestowed on the needy, and that consequently alms have the virtue of a sacrifice.
The other form, which was probably a relic of the conception of Yahweh as the author of natural fertility, was that part of the fruits of the earth should be offered to God in acknowledgment of His bounty, and that what was so offered was especially blessed and brought a blessing upon both those who offered it and those who afterwards partook of it.
That Moses united the scattered tribes, probably consisting at first mainly of the Josephite, under the common worship of Yahweh, and that upon the religion of Yahweh a distinctly ethical character was impressed,is generally recognized.
The tradition of the earliest document J ascribes the worship of Yahweh to much earlier times, in fact to the dawn of human life.
Under the name Shaddai (which Neldeke suggests 2 was originally Shed' " my demon ") it is possible to discern the name of a deity who in later times came to be identified with Yahweh.
in the days of Saul and David) it was the priest with the ephod or image of Yahweh who gave answers to those who consulted him.
This could never have been accomplished without unity of worship. The object of this worship was Yahweh.
As we have already indicated, the document J assumes that Yahweh was worshipped by the Hebrew race from the first.
But I appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as El Shaddai and by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them."
According to this later tradition Yahweh was unknown till the days of Moses, and under the aegis of His power the Hebrew tribes were delivered from Egyptian thraldom.
Yahweh now becomes the supreme deity of the Hebrew people, and an ark analogous to the Egyptian and Babylonian arks portrayed on the monuments' was constructed as embodiment of the rumen of Yahweh and was borne in front of the Hebrew army when it marched to war.
xvii.) that consolidated the prestige of Yahweh, Israel's war-god.
We note (a) that in the worship of Yahweh the sacred seasons of new moon and Sabbath are obviously lunar.
It is probable that Moses held the larger rather than the narrower conception of Yahweh's sphere of influence.
While the ark carried with Israel's host symbolized His presence in their midst, He was also known to be present in the cloud which hovered before the host and in the lightning ('esh Yahweh or " fire of Yahweh ") and the thunder (kol Yahweh or " voice of Yahweh ") which played around Mount Sinai.
Through the influence of Mosaic teaching and law a definitely ethical character was ascribed to Yahweh.
The most strongly distinguishing feature of the code is the rigid exclusion of the worship of other gods than Yahweh.
From first to last the true religion of Yahweh was pure of sexual taint.
Of this tradition the Naboth incident in the time of Ahab furnishes a clear example which brings to light the contrast between the Tyrian Baal-cult, which was scarcely ethical, and of which Jezebel and Ahab were devotees, and the moral requirements of the religion of Yahweh of which Elijah was the prophet and impassioned exponent.
Again, the conception of Yahweh suffered modification.
Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.
power and presence (numen) there, and the same festivals and sacrifices which had previously been devoted to the cult of the Canaanite Baal were now annexed to the service of Yahweh, the war-god of the conquering race.
In this way Yahweh came to be called the Baal or " lord " of any sacred place where the armies of Israel by their victories attested " his mighty hand and outstretched arm."
For when Yahweh gradually became Israel's local Baal he became worshipped like the old Canaanite deity, and all the sensuous accompaniments of Kedeshoth,' as well as the presence of the asherah or sacred pole, became attached to his cult.
But the symbol carried with it the numen of the goddess symbolized, and there can be little doubt that Asherah came to be regarded as Yahweh's consort.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.
Each had a Yahweh of its own.
It was no easy task to establish Yahweh in permanent possession of the new lands conquered by the Hebrew settlers.
io) are described as suffering from the depredations of lions, and a priest from the deported Ephraimites is sent to them to teach them the worship of Yahweh, the god of the land.
Even in the days of Hosea the rivalry between Yahweh and the old Canaanite Baal still continued.
External danger from a foreign foe, such as Midian or the Philistines, at once brought into prominence the claim and power of Yahweh, Israel's national war-god since the great days of the exodus.
The religion of Yahweh (as Wellhausen said) meant patriotism, and in war-time tended to weld the participating tribes into a national unity.
as defection from Yahweh.
Israelite tribes by the rallying cry " the sword of Yahweh " (Judges vii.
Despite the capture of the ark after the disastrous battle of Shiloh, Yahweh had in the end shown himself through a destructive plague superior in might to the Philistine Dagon.
Yahweh was god only of Israel and of Israel's land.
But the arts of the necromancer were always and without exception treated as foreign to the religion of Yahweh.
Probably there was little externally to distinguish the prophet of Yahweh in the days of Samuel from the CanaanitePhoenician prophets of Baal and Asherah (1 Kings xviii.
The special quality which distinguished these prophetic gilds or companies was an intense patriotism combined with enthusiastic devotion to the cause of Yahweh.
such enthusiastic devotees of Yahweh, in days when religion meant patriotism, did much to keep alive the flame of Israel's hope and courage in the dark period of national disaster.
For the prophet's function became in an increasing degree a function of mind, and not merely of traditional routine or mechanical technique, like that of the diviner with his arrows or his lots which he cast in the presence of the ephod or plated Yahweh image.
Even as early as the time of David it would seem that Nathan assumed this more developed function as interpreter of Yahweh's righteous will to David.
We stand on safer ground when we come to Elijah's bold intervention on behalf of righteousness when he declared in the name of Yahweh the divine judgment on Ahab and his house for the judicial murder of Naboth.
Of this we have an interesting example in the vivid episode that preceded the battle of Ramoth-Gilead described in 1 Kings xxii., when Micaiah appears as the true prophet of Yahweh, who in his rare independence stands in sharp contrast with the conventional court prophets, who prophesied then, as their descendants prophesied more than two centuries later, smooth things.
This is due to the fact that it for the first time unfolded the true character of Yahweh, implicit in the old Mosaic religion and submerged in the subsequent centuries of Israel's life in Canaan, but now at length made clear and explicit to the mind of the 1 In Isa.
Even Elisha, the greatest prophet of the 9th century, had remained within these national limitations which characterized the popular conceptions of Yahweh.
Yahweh was Israel's wargod.
If Naaman was to be healed, it could only be in a Palestinian river, and :two mules' load of earth would be the only permanent guarantee of Yahweh's effective blessing on the Syrian general in his Syrian home.
The existence of the purer and larger conception of Yahweh's character and power before the advent of Amos indicates that the transition from the past was not so sudden as Wellhausen's graphic portrayal in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia (art.
If Assyria finally overthrew Israel and carried off Yahweh's shrine, Assur (Asur), the tutelary deity of Assyria, was mightier than Yahweh.
Yahweh would be powerless in the presence of Ashur (2 Kings xviii.
This problem of religion was solved by Amos and by the prophets who succeeded him through a more exalted conception of Yahweh and His sphere of working, which tended to detach Him from His limited realm as a national deity.
Yahweh was not only the lord of the universe and possessed of sovereign power.
The prophet also emphasized with passionate earnestness that Yahweh was a God whose character was righteous, and God's demand upon His people Israel was not for sacrifices but for righteous conduct.
In the younger contemporary prophet of Ephraim, Hosea, the stress is laid on the relation of love (hesed) between Yahweh, the divine husband, and Israel, the faithless spouse.
Israel's faithlessness is shown in idolatry and the prevailing corruption of the high places in which the old Canaanite Baal was worshipped instead of Yahweh.
Compacts with a powerful foreign state, under whose aegis Israel was glad to shelter, involved covenants sealed by sacrificial rites in which the deity or deities of the foreign state were involved as well as Yahweh, the god of the weaker.
And so Yahweh's honour was compromised.
While these aspects of Israel's relation to Yahweh are emphasized by the Ephraimite prophet, the larger conceptions of Yahweh's character as universal Lord and the God of righteousness, whose government of the world is ethical, emphasized by the prophet of Tekoah, are scarcely presented.
Yahweh's relation of love to Israel is exhibited under the purer symbol of fatherhood (Isa.
The "fullness of the earth " is Yahweh's glory (vi.
Assyria is the " bee " and Egypt the " fly " for which Yahweh hisses.
Though Yahweh's chastisements on Ephraim and Judah would continue to fall till scarcely a remnant was left (Isa.
be converted" to Yahweh.
Ezekiel, who borrowed both Jeremiah's language and ideas, expresses the same thought in the well-known words that Yahweh would give the people instead of a heart of stone a heart of flesh (Ezek.
The onward progress of the Persian Cyrus and his anticipated conquest of Babylonia marked him out as Yahweh's anointed instrument for effecting the deliverance of exiled Israel and their restoration to their old home and city (Isa.
12) the ideal suffering servant of Yahweh is portrayed most definitely as an individual.
These views of Duhm, in which a severe distinction is thus drawn between the representation of Yahweh's servant in the servant-passages, and that which meets us in the rest of the Deutero-Isaiah, have been challenged by a succession of critics.'
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
Nowhere in the Old Testament does the doctrine taught by Amos of Yahweh's universal power and sovereignty 1 Viz.
18), of stone pillars to the Canaanite Baal, of the Asherah-pole, molten images and the worship of other gods than Yahweh (Ex.
Jerusalem) which Yahweh your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there " (xii.
Doubtless such a reform met with strong resistance from the disestablished and vested interests, but it was firmly supported by royal influence and by the Jerusalem priesthood as well as by the true prophets of Yahweh who had protested against the idolatrous usages and corruptions of the high places.
The book of Deuteronomy, in conjunction with the reformation of Josiah's reign (which synchronizes with the rapid decline of Assyria and the reviving prestige of Yahweh), appeared to mark the triumph of the great prophetic movement.
Yahweh's care for other peoples does not appear.
1) and expressed itself as a word of instruction of Yahweh (torah); see Isa.
In the innermost the presence of Yahweh abides.
Yahweh's servant David, whereas in the ideal scheme detailed in chap. xl.
By the older prophets this judgment of God or " day of Yahweh " was never held to be far removed from the horizon of the present or the world in which they lived.
It is only after a great war of destruction, a day of Yahweh's great judgment, that the dominion of God will begin " (Bousset).
Sebaoth, or " hosts," attached to the name of Yahweh, denoted the heavenly retinue of stars.
The seraphim were burning serpentine forms who hovered above the enthroned Yahweh and chanted the Trisagion in Isaiah's consecration vision (Isa.
This especially applies to the " angel of Yahweh " or angel of His Presence [Ex.
The story of the " exodus " is that of the religious birth of " Israel," joined by covenant with the national god Yahweh' whose aid in times of peril and need ' On the name see Jehovah, Tetragrammaton.
Although it is difficult to determine the true historical kernel, two features are most prominent in the narratives which the post-exilic compiler has incorporated: the revelation of Yahweh, and the movement into Palestine.
Yahweh had admittedly been the God of Israel's ancestors, but his name was only now made known (Exod.
2 seq.), and this conception of a new era in Yahweh's relations with the people is associated with the family of Moses and with small groups.
Amid a great variety of motives the prominence of Kadesh in south Palestine is to be recognized, but it is uncertain what clans or tribes were at Kadesh, and it is possible that traditions, originally confined to those with whom the new conception of Yahweh is connected, were subsequently adopted by others who came to regard themselves as the worshippers of the only true Yahweh.
External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."
(2) But other traditions represent the people scattered and in hiding; Israel is groaning under the Philistine yoke, and the unknown Saul is raised up by Yahweh to save his people.
Judaean tradition dated the sanctity of Jerusalem from the installation of the ark, a sacred movable object which symbolized the presence of Yahweh.
Yet again, Saul had been chosen by Yahweh to free his people from the Philistines; he had been rejected for his sins, and had suffered continuously from this enemy; Israel at his death was left in the unhappy state in which he had found it; it was the Judaean David, the faithful servant of Yahweh, who was now chosen to deliver Israel, and to the last the people gratefully remembered their debt.
Israel, on the other hand, had signed its death-warrant by the institution of calf-cult, a cult which, however, was scarcely recognized as contrary to the worship of Yahweh before the denunciations of Hosea.
The conflict between Yahweh and Baal and the defeat of the latter are the characteristic notes of the religious history of the period, and they leave their impression upon the records, which are now more abundant.
To one who favoured simplicity of cult the new worship was a desecration of Yahweh, and, braving the anger of the king and queen, he foreshadowed their fate.
Jehu (q.v.) became king as the champion of the purer worship of Yahweh.
" In those days Yahweh began to cut short " (or, altering the text, " to be angry with ") " Israel."
Jehoash, it is said, turned away from Yahweh after the death of Jehoiada and gave heed to the Judaean nobles, " wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for their guilt," prophets were sent to bring them back but they turned a deaf ear.
Here it is enough to observe that the highly advanced doctrines of the distinctive character of Yahweh, as ascribed to the 8th century B.C., presuppose a foundation and development.
Yahwism presents itself under a variety of aspects, and the history of Israel's relations to the God Yahweh (whose name is not necessarily of Israelite origin) can hardly be disentangled amid the complicated threads of the earlier history.
The view that the seeds of Yahwism were planted in the young Israelite nation in the days of the " exodus " conflicts with the belief that the worship of Yahweh began in the pre-Mosaic age.
The change from the dynasty of Omri to that of Jehu has been treated by several hands, and the writers, in their recognition of the introduction of a new tendency, have obscured the fact that the cult of Yahweh had flourished even under such a king as Ahab.
At Horeb, the mount of God, was located the dramatic theophany which heralded to Elijah the advent of the sword, and Jehu's supporter in his sanguinary measures belongs to the Rechabites, a sect which felt itself to be the true worshipping community of Yahweh and is closely associated with the Kenites, the kin of Moses.
Yahweh of Moses was found, and scattered traces survive of a definite belief in the entrance into Palestine of a movement uncompromisingly devoted to the purer worship of Yahweh.
The problem cannot be approached from modern preconceptions because there was much associated with the worship of Yahweh which only gradually came to be recognized as repugnant, and there was much in earlier ages and in other lands which reflects an elevated and even complex religious philosophy.
Much is related of his wickedness and enmity to the followers of Yahweh, but few political details have come down.
A roll, it is said, was found in the Temple, its contents struck terror into the hearts of the priests and king, and it led to a solemn covenant before Yahweh to observe the provisions of the law-book which had been so opportunely recovered.
It is part of the scheme which runs through the book of Kings, and its apparent object is to show that the Temple planned by David and founded by Solomon ultimately gained its true position as the only sanctuary of Yahweh to which his worshippers should repair.
10), and those who claim to possess Yahweh's law are denounced (viii.
Thenceforth they continued the worship of the Israelite Yahweh along with their own native cults (2 Kings xvii.
Cyrus was hailed as the divinely appointed saviour, the anointed one of Yahweh.
Nevertheless, if Cyrus was not originally a Persian and was not a worshipper of Yahweh (Isa.
The new temple heralded a new future; the mournful fasts commemorative of Jerusalem's disasters would become feasts; Yahweh had left the Temple at the fall of Jerusalem, but had now returned to sanctify it with his presence; the city had purged its iniquity and was fit once more to become the central sanctuary.
OLD] ideal kingdom, the trusted and highly favoured minister who was the signet-ring upon Yahweh's hand (contrast Hag.
Of Kenite interest is the position'of Cain, ancestor of heroes of culture and of the worship of Yahweh (Gen.
But Tobiah and Johanan themselves were worshippers of Yahweh (as their names also show), and consequently, with prophets taking different sides and with the Samaritan claims summarily repudiated (Neh.
But the former gained the day, and, realizing that the only hope of maintaining a pure worship of Yahweh lay in a forcible isolation from foreign influence, its adherents were prepared to take measures to ensure the religious independence of their assembly.
At a time when men were attracted by the wisdom and science of the Greeks, he taught that all wisdom came from Yahweh who had chosen Israel to receive it in trust.
He discouraged inquiries into the nature and purpose of things: it was enough for him that Yahweh had created and ruled the universe.
The centre of the life of Israel was the Temple, over which the high priest presided and which was inhabited by Yahweh, the God of Israel.
A massacre took place, and Antiochus braved the anger of Yahweh by entering and pillaging the Temple with impunity.
Hadrian had forbidden circumcision as illegal mutilation: he had also replaced Jerusalem by a city of his own, Aelia Capitolina, and the temple of Yahweh by a temple of Jupiter.
xviii., Saul's jealousy leaped at once to the conclusion that David's ambition would not stop short of the kingship. Such a suspicion would be intelligible if we could suppose that the king had heard something of the significant act of Samuel, which now stands at the head of the history of David in witness of that divine election and unction with the spirit of Yahweh on which his whole career hung (xvi.
The Philistines for once directed their forces towards the plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon) in the north; and Saul, forsaken by Yahweh, already gave himself up for lost.
The wish was gratified at the risk of the lives of three brave men, and he recognized the solemnity of the occasion by pouring out the water as an offering unto Yahweh.
Meanwhile the ark of Yahweh, the only sanctuary of national significance, had remained in obscurity since its return from the Philistines in the early youth of Samuel.
vi.) represents the act as that of a loyal and God-fearing heart which knew that the true principle of Israel's unity and strength lay in national adherence to Yahweh; but the event was far from having the significance which later times ascribed to it (1 Chron.
sqq.); even Solomon visited the sanctuary at Gibeon, and Absalom vowed his vow unto Yahweh at Hebron.
It was not unnatural that the king who had his palace built by Tyrian artists should have proposed to erect a permanent temple to Yahweh.
The incident is a valuable picture of crude ideas of Yahweh, and, if nothing else were needed, it was sufficient to involve David in a feud with the Benjamites.
The conceptions of Yahweh and of the religion which was acceptable to him were constantly being elevated and purified.
It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.
The name of the god signifies the "high one" and he was probably a god of the atmospheric region above the earth - perhaps a storm god like Adad, or like Yahweh among the ancient Hebrews.
This last name is evidently meant to be Hebrew, "Yahweh of the heavens," the God of the Jews being of a secondary rank in the usual Gnostic style.
That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron.
also the name Be`aliah, "Yahweh is baal or lord," which survives in 1 Chron.
pp. The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh.
The history of Baalism among the Hebrews is obscured by the difficulty of determining whether the false worship which the prophets stigmatize is the heathen worship of Yahweh under a conception, and often with rites, which treated him as a local nature god; or whether Baalism was consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first.
Later religious practice was undoubtedly opposed to that of earlier times, and attempts were made to correct narratives containing views which had come to be regarded as contrary to the true worship of Yahweh.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
There is strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh worship existed from his day.
1 whose protection he still cherished when he named his sons Ahaziah and Jehoram ("Yahweh] holds," "Y.
4) afford complete testimony for the prevalence of Baalism as late as the exile, but prove that the clearest distinction was then drawn between the pure worship of Yahweh the god of Israel and the inveterate and debased cults of the gods of the land.
12), and with the wrathful intervention of Yahweh referred to by Isaiah (xxviii.
The event was commemorated by the erection of the altar "Yahwehnissi" ("Yahweh my banner" or "memorial"), and rendered even more memorable by the utterance, "Yahweh hath sworn: Yahweh will have war with Amalek from generation to generation" (Ex.
The same sentiment recurs in Yahweh's command to Saul to destroy Amalek utterly for its hostility to Israel (1 Sam.
It is possible that he offered sacrifice to Yahweh in Jerusalem.
Jeremiah promised them as a reward of their obedience that they should never lack a man to represent them (as a priest) before Yahweh, whence perhaps the later Jewish tradition that the Rechabites intermarried with the Levites and so entered the temple service.
22 its destruction is foretold, and the Amalekites, of whom they formed a division, are consistently represented as the inveterate enemies of Yahweh and of his people Israel.
43, where Yahweh occurs first, then Elohenu, and then again Yahweh, we are told " The voice though one, consists of three elements, fire (i.e.
Thus also Yahweh, Elohenu, Yahweh, constitute one - three forms which are one " (Zohar, ii.
The latter were concerned only with the maintenance of the sole worship of Yahweh and of social morality.
the Yahweh addresses in Job, and Ecclus.
17 ff.) they are regarded as disciplinary; the Yahweh speeches declare man's inability to understand God's dealings; the prosperity of the wicked is nowhere explained.
2-4) is substantially the position of the Yahweh speeches in Job directed against the "unco-wise" of his day.
The fuller titles of the ark originate in the belief that it contained the "covenant" (berith) or "testimony" (`eduth), the technical terms for the Decalogue; primarily, however, it would seem to have been called "the ark of Yahweh" (or "Elohim"), or simply "the ark."
As the ark started, it was hailed with the cry,"Arise, Yahweh, let thine enemies be scattered, let them that hate thee flee from before thee," and when it came to rest, the cry again rang out, "Return, O Yahweh, to the myriads of families of Israel" (Num.
This saying appears to imply a settled life in Canaan, but both affirm the warlike significance of Yahweh and the ark.
Thus it is the permanent pledge of Yahweh's gracious presence; it guides the people on their journey and leads them to victory.
It is no mere receptacle, but a sacrosanct object as much to be feared as Yahweh himself.
Once at Jerusalem, it seems to have lost its unique value as the token of Yahweh's presence; its importance was apparently merged with that of the Temple which Solomon built.
Whether the ark originally contained some symbol of Yahweh or not has been the subject of much discussion.
Thus, it has been held that it contained stone fetishes (meteoric stones and the like) from Yahweh's original abode on Sinai or Horeb.
It is enough to decide that the ark represented in some way or other the presence of Yahweh and that the safety of his followers depended upon its security (analogies in Frazer, Paus.
11), and there are means whereby the follower of Yahweh may continue his worship even when outside Yahweh's land (2 Kings v.
The second book among the minor prophets in the Bible is entitled The word of Yahweh that came to Joel the son of Pethuel, or, as the Septuagint, Latin, Syriac and other versions read, Bethuel.
The most remarkable part of the book is the eschatological picture with which it closes; and the way in which the plague of locusts appears to be taken as foreshadowing the final judgment - the great day or assize of Yahweh, in which Israel's enemies are destroyed - is so unique as greatly to complicate the exegetical problem.
between the adherents of spiritual prophecy and a party whose national worship of Yahweh involved for them no fundamental separation from the surrounding nations.
The book, therefore, must have been written before the ethico-spiritual and the popular conceptions of Yahweh came into conscious antagonism, or else after the fall of the state and the restoration of the community of Jerusalem to religious rather than political existence had decided the contest in favour of the prophets, and of the Law in which their teaching was ultimately crystallized.
That the Persians do not appear as enemies of Yahweh and his people is perfectly natural.
To Joel Judah and the people of Yahweh are synonyms; northern Israel has disappeared.
But in ancient times it was not so; and under Joash, the contemporary of Elisha, such a limitation of the people of Yahweh is wholly inconceivable.
In other words, the daily offering is the continual symbol of gracious intercourse between Yahweh and his people and the main office of religion.
In the first the prophet speaks in his own name, addressing himself to the people in a lively description of a present calamity caused by a terrible plague of locusts which threatens the entire destruction of the country, and appears to be the vehicle of a final consuming judgment (the day of Yahweh).
12 the prophet, speaking now for the first time in Yahweh's name, calls the people to a solemn fast at the sanctuary, and invites the intercession of the priests.
The second part of the book is Yahweh's answer to the people's prayer.
In the new prosperity of the land the union of Yahweh and his people shall be sealed anew, and so the Lord will proceed to pour down further and higher blessings.
32), and it is their heathen enemies, assembled before Jerusalem to war against Yahweh, who shall be mowed down in the valley of Jehoshaphat ("Yahweh judgeth") by no human arm, but by heavenly warriors.
Egypt and Edom, on the other hand, shall be desolate, because they have shed the blood of Yahweh's innocents.
19, that the seasons shall henceforth be fruitful, is given after Yahweh has shown his zeal and pity for Israel, not of course by mere words, but by acts, as appears in verses 20, 21, where the verbs are properly perfects recording that Yahweh hath already done great things, and that vegetation has already revived.
18 as a fictitious prophecy in the interests of Onias, the founder of the rival Egyptian temple to Yahweh at Leontopolis in the name of Heliopolis (Josephus, Ant.
9, io) of the heathen Cyrus as the instrument of Yahweh's purposes, as in fact his Messiah or Anointed One (xlv.
Then another mysterious form appears on the scene, bearing the honourable title of "Servant of Yahweh," through whom God's gracious purposes for Israel and the world are to be realized.
These two oracles agree in the elaborateness of their description of the fearful fate of the enemies of Yahweh (Babylon and Edom are merely representatives of a class), and also in their view of the deliverance and restoration of Israel as an epoch for the whole human race.
14); (2) the conception of the "Servant of Yahweh"; (3) the ironical descriptions of idolatry (Isaiah in the acknowledged prophecies only refers incidentally to idolatry) xl.
6; (4) the personality of the Spirit of Yahweh (mentioned no less than seven times, see especially xl.
The golden plate inscribed " holy to Yahweh " placed over the head (the details are discrepant) had a mystic atoning force (Ex.
The Israelite distinctive costume and toilet as part of a distinctive national religion was in harmony with oriental thought, and, as a people chosen and possessed by Yahweh, " a kingdom of priests and an holy nation " (Ex.
scholars have seen that of the Hebrew deity Yahweh.
Once more such ideas as those of "the day of Yahweh" and the "new heavens and a new earth" were constantly re-edited with fresh nuances in conformity with their new settings.
10-20), where Sarah his wife is taken into the royal household, and the plagues sent by Yahweh lead to the discovery of the truth.
seigneur; thus in the Old Testament it represents Yahweh, Jehovah, and in the New Testament «upcos, as a title of Jesus Christ.
The divine chariots and horses that make the round of the world by Yahweh's orders return to the heavenly palace and report that there is still no movement among the nations, no sign of the Messianic crisis.
It is to have no walls, that its population may not be limited, and it needs none, for Yahweh is its protection.
The catastrophe of " the land of the north " is near to come; then the exiles of Zion shall stream back from all quarters, the converted heathen shall join them, Yahweh Himself will dwell in the midst of them, and even now He stirs Himself from His holy habitation.
The high priest Joshua is accused before Yahweh by Satan, but is acquitted and given rule in Yahweh's house and courts, with the right of access to Yahweh in priestly intercession.
The divine teams, four in number, again traverse the world toward the four winds, to execute Yahweh's commands.
Jews from Babylon have brought gold and silver to Jerusalem; of these the prophet mist make a crown designed for the " branch " who is to build Yahweh's house and sit king on the throne, but retain a good understanding with the high priest.
Noteworthy is the affinity between some notions evidently not first framed by the prophet himself and the prologue to Job - the heavenly hosts that wander through the earth and bring back their report to Yahweh's throne, the figure of Satan, the idea that suffering and calamity are evidences of guilt and of accusations presented before God.
(1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.
1-3: " Ask rain of Yahweh, not of the diviners ") a second and quite analogous Messianic prophecy follows.
Yahweh first gives victory to the countryfolk of Judah and then they rescue the capital.
The Yahweh, at a time known only to Himself, shall appear with all His saints on Mount Olivet and destroy the heathen in battle, while the men of Jerusalem take refuge in their terror in the great cleft, that opens where Yahweh sets His foot.
Now the new era begins, and even the heathen do homage to Yahweh by bringing due tribute to the annual feast of tabernacles.
On the other hand (I) implies a period when the Jews were governed by the Seleucids, since it is against these that the anger of Yahweh is first directed (ix.
JEHOVAH (YAHWEH 2), in the Bible, the God of Israel.
2 This form, Yahweh, as the correct one, is generally used in the separate articles throughout this work.
1 ' Finally, there is evidence from more than one source that the modern Samaritan priests pronounce the name Yahweh or Yahwa."
There is no reason to impugn the soundness of this substantially consentient testimony to the pronunciation Yahweh or Jahveh, coming as it does through several independent channels.
These various forms are perfectly regular if the divine name was Yahweh, and, taken altogether, they cannot be explained on any other hypothesis.
Recent scholars, accordingly, with but few exceptions, are agreed that the ancient pronunciation of the name was Yahweh (the first h sounded at the end of the syllable).
Jahveh or Yahweh is apparently an example of a common type of Hebrew proper names which have the form of the 3rd pers.
14, 15, where " Yahweh 13 hath sent me " in v.
14, thus seeming to connect the name Yahweh with the Hebrew verb hayah, " to become, to be."
A serious objection to this theory in every form is that the verb hayah, " to be," has no causative stem in Hebrew; to express the ideas which these scholars find in the name Yahweh the language employs altogether different verbs.
This assumption that Yahweh is derived from the verb "to be," as seems to be implied in Exod.
This hypothesis is not intrinsically improbable - and in Aramaic, a language closely related to Hebrew, " to be " actually is hawa - but it should be noted that in adopting it we admit that, using the name Hebrew in the historical sense, Yahweh is not a Hebrew name.
r4 seq., intended to give an etymological interpretation of the name Yahweh," his etymology is any better than many other paronomastic explanations of proper names in the Old Testament, or than, say, the connexion of the name 'A7roXXcwv with airo?ovwv, 6.7roXuwv in Plato's Cratylus, or the popular derivation from eurOXXvµe.
A Catholic commentator of the 16th century, Hieronymus ab Oleastro, seems to have been the first to connect the name " Jehova " with howah interpreting it contritio, sive pernicies (destruction of the Egyptians and Canaanites); Daumer, adopting the same etymology, took it in a more general sense: Yahweh, as well as Shaddai, meant " Destroyer," and fitly expressed the nature of the terrible god whom he identified with Moloch.
The derivation of Yahweh from hawah is formally unimpeachable, and is adopted by many recent scholars, who proceed, however, from the primary sense of the root rather than from the specific meaning of the nouns.
It is obvious that if the derivation be correct, the significance of the name, which in itself denotes only " He falls" or "He fells," must be learned, if at all, from early Israelitish conceptions of the nature of Yahweh rather than from etymology.
A more fundamental question is whether the name Yahweh originated among the Israelites or was adopted by them from some other people and speech.'
The biblical author of the history of the sacred institutions (P) expressly declares that the name Yahweh was unknown to the patriarchs (Exod.
13-15), apparently following a tradition according to which the Israelites had not been worshippers of Yahweh before the time of Moses, or, as he conceived it, had not worshipped the god of their fathers under that name.
The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.
I); to this mountain he led the Israelites after their deliverance from Egypt; there his father-in-law met him, and extolling Yahweh as " greater than all the gods," offered (in his capacity as priest of the place?) sacrifices, at which the chief men of the Israelites were his guests; there the religion of Yahweh was revealed through Moses, and the Israelites pledged themselves to serve God according to its prescriptions.
It appears, therefore, that in the tradition followed by the Israelite historian the tribes within whose pasture lands the mountain of God stood were worshippers of Yahweh before the time of Moses; and the surmise that the name Yahweh belongs to their speech, rather than to that of Israel, has considerable probability.
The Kenites also, with whom another tradition connects Moses, seem to have been worshippers of Yahweh.
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
From some of these peoples and at one of these holy places, a group of Israelite tribes adopted the religion of Yahweh, the God who, by the hand of Moses, had delivered them from Egypt.2 The tribes of this region probably belonged to some branch of the great Arab stock, and the name Yahweh has, accordingly, been connected with the Arabic hawa, " the void " (between heaven and earth), " the atmosphere," or with the verb hawa, cognate with Heb.
The attempts to connect the name Yahweh with that of an Indo-European deity (Jehovah-Jove, &c.), or to derive it from Egyptian or Chinese, may be passed over.
But one theory which has had considerable currency requires notice, namely, that Yahweh, or Yahu, Yaho, 3 is the name of a god worshipped throughout the whole, or a great part, of the area occupied by the Western Semites.
There remain, however, some cases in which it is highly probable that names of nonIsraelites are really compounded with Yahweh.
We should thus have in the tablets evidence of the worship of Yahweh among the Western Semites at a time long before the rise of Israel.
In a tablet attributed to the 14th century B.C. which Sellin found in the course of his excavations at Tell Ta'annuk (the Taanach of the O.T.) a name occurs which may be read Ahi-Yawi (equivalent to Hebrew Ahijah); 6 if the reading be correct, this would show that Yahweh was worshipped in Central Palestine before the Israelite conquest.
The fact that the full form Yahweh appears, whereas in Hebrew proper names only the shorter Yahu and Yah occur, weighs somewhat against the interpretation, as it does against Delitzsch's reading of his tablets.
Assuming that Yahweh was primitively a nature god, scholars in the 19th century discussed the question over what sphere of nature he originally presided.
The association of Yahweh with storm and fire is frequent in the Old Testament; the thunder is the voice of Yahweh, the lightning his arrows, the rainbow his bow.
Yahweh leads Israel through the desert in a pillar of cloud and fire; he kindles Elijah's altar by lightning, and translates the prophet in a chariot of fire.
In Ezekiel the throne of Yahweh is borne up on Cherubim, the noise of whose wings is like thunder.
As the God of Israel Yahweh becomes its leader and champion in war; he is a warrior, mighty in battle; but he is not a god of war in the specific sense.
In the inquiry concerning the nature of Yahweh the name Yahweh Sebaoth (E.
45, and note the association of the name in the Books of Samuel, where it first appears, with the ark, or with war); by others, of the heavenly hosts, the stars conceived as living beings, later, perhaps, the angels as the court of Yahweh and the instruments of his will in nature and history (Ps.
In many passages the name seems to be only a more solemn substitute for the simple Yahweh, and as such it has probably often been inserted by scribes.
SAMUEL, a prominent figure in Old Testament history, was born at Ramah and was dedicated to the service of Yahweh at the sanctuary of Shiloh where his youth was spent with Eli.
Other interpretations are "posterity of God" or "his name (shemo; perhaps Yahweh's) is God."
After a period of oppression, Samuel suddenly reappears as a great religious leader of Israel, summons the people to return to Yahweh, and convenes a national assembly at Mizpah.
The Philistines are defeated at Ebenezer (near Mizpah) through the direct interposition of Yahweh, and Samuel rules peacefully as a theocratic judge (vii).
The request for a monarchy is a deliberate offence against Yahweh (viii.
Samuel is a local seer consulted by Saul, and is bidden by Yahweh to see in the youth the future ruler.
Next we find that Samuel's interest on behalf of the Israelite king is transferred to David, the founder of the Judaean dynasty, and it is his part to announce the rejection of Saul and Yahweh's new decision (xiii.
Further, while on the one side the institution of the monarchy is subsequently regarded as hostile to the preeminence of Yahweh, Samuel's connexion with the history of David belongs to a relatively late stage in the history of the written traditions where events are viewed from a specifically Judaean aspect.
THE GOLDEN CALF, a molten image made by the Israelites when Moses had ascended the Mount of Yahweh to receive the Law (Ex.
This was celebrated by a sacred festival, and it was only through the intervention of Moses that the people were saved from the wrath of Yahweh (cp. Deut.
Nevertheless 3000 of them fell at the hands of the Levites who, in answer to the summons of Moses, declared themselves on the side of Yahweh.
In early Israel it was considered natural to worship Yahweh by means of images (cp. the story of Gideon, Judg.
The name in various modifications - Micaiahu, Micaiehu, Micaiah - is common in the Old Testament, expressing as it does a fundamental point of Hebrew faith: Who is like Yahweh ?
no longer deals with idolatry, but with the corruption of society, and particularly of its leaders - the grasping aristocracy whose whole energies are concentrated on devouring the poor and depriving them of their little holdings, the unjust judges and priests who for gain wrest the law in favour of the rich, the hireling and gluttonous prophets who make war against every one "that putteth not into their mouth," but are ever ready with assurances of Yahweh's favour to their patrons, the wealthy and noble sinners that fatten on the flesh of the poor.
But this ruin does not present itself to him as involving the captivity or ruin of the nation as a whole; the congregation of Yahweh remains in Judaea when the oppressors are cast out (ii.
5); Yahweh's words are still good to them that walk uprightly; the glory of Israel is driven to take refuge in Adullam, l as in the days when David's band of broken men was the true hope of the nation, but there is no hint that it is banished from the land.
The prophetic thought is that the daughter (population) of Zion shall not be saved by her present rulers or defensive strength; she must come down from her bulwarks and dwell in the open field; there, and not within her proud ramparts, Yahweh will grant deliverance from her enemies.
15), goes forth from Bethlehem to feed the flock in the strength of Yahweh.
Yahweh is king on Mount Zion, and no inventions of man come between Him and His people.
Yahweh appears to plead with His people for their sins, but the sinners are no longer a careless and oppressive aristocracy buoyed up by deceptive assurances of Yahweh's help, by prophecies of wine and strong drink; they are bowed down by a religion of terror, wearied with attempts to propitiate an angry God by countless offerings, and even by the sacrifice of the first-born.
Yahweh's judgments are multiplied against the land, and the issue can be nothing else than its total desolation.
Then Yahweh shall arise mindful of His oath to the fathers, Israel shall be forgiven and restored, and the heathen humbled.
5), and when she uttered a curse upon the unknown thief he restored the money and she consecrated it to Yahweh.
a docile Israelitish writer accepted one of the chief forms of the Babylonian cosmogony, merely omitting its polytheism and substituting " Yahweh " for " Marduk."
I) contains the " word of Yahweh to Israel by the hand of Malachi."
It could be explained as a contraction of Malachiah, messenger of Yahweh "; but the Septuagint is probably right in not regarding it as a proper name (" by the hand of His messenger ").
These apply, in various ways, the truth emphasized at the outset: Yahweh's love for Israel in contrast with his treatment of Edom (i.
Israel's response should be a proper regard for the ritual of His worship; yet any offering, however imperfect, is thought good enough for Yahweh's altar (i.
2 The prevalence of wrongdoing has provoked scepticism as to righteous judgment; but the messenger of Yahweh is at hand to purge away indifferentism from worship and immorality from conduct (ii.
Religion may seem useless, but Yahweh remembers His own, and will soon in open judgment distinguish them from the irreligious (iii.
In view of these conditions, the prophet's message is to reassert the true relation of Israel to Yahweh, and to call for a corresponding holiness, especially in regard to questions of ritual and of marriage.
At an earlier date the prophet Haggai had taught that the people could not expect Yahweh's blessing while the Temple lay in ruins.
22]); let the people return to Yahweh, and He will return to them.
It was in vain to complain, saying, " Every one that doeth evil is good in the eyes of Yahweh," or " Where is the God of judgment ?
He calls the people to repentance, and he enforces the call by proclaiming the approach of Yahweh in judgment against Lhe sorcerers, the adulterers, the false swearers, the oppressors of the poor, the orphan and the stranger.
The Sun of Righteousness shall shine forth on those that fear Yahweh's name; they shall go forth with joy, and tread the wicked under foot.
The conception of the day of final decision, when Yahweh shall come suddenly to His temple (iii.
That the day of Yahweh is delayed in such a state of things is but a new proof of His unchanging love (iii.
The prophet Elijah must reappear to bring back the hearts of fathers and children before the great and terrible day of Yahweh come.
But David was resigned to the will of Yahweh and refused to entertain the suggestions.
Text of Kings) reads: "how he fought with Damascus and how he turned away the wrath of Yahweh from Israel"; see also Ency.
invoked) the name of Yahweh (Gen.
In the subsequent history of Lot and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abram appears prominently in a fine passage where he intercedes with Yahweh on behalf of Sodom, and is promised that if ten righteous men can be found therein the city shall be preserved (xviii.
Beersheba, which figures in both, is celebrated by the planting of a sacred tree and (like Bethel) by the invocation of the name of Yahweh.
The promise of a son to Sarah made Abraham "laugh", a punning allusion to the name Isaac which appears again in other forms. Thus, it is Sarah herself who "laughs" at the idea, when Yahweh appears to Abraham at Mamre (xviii.
He became to the Hebrews the embodiment of their ideals, and stood at their head as the founder of the nation, the one to whom Yahweh had manifested his love by frequent promises and covenants.
From the time when he was bidden to leave his country to enter the unknown land, Yahweh was ever present to encourage him to trust in the future when his posterity should possess the land, and so, in its bitterest hours, Israel could turn for consolation to the promises of the past which enshrined in Abraham its hopes for the future.
Possessing no images of Yahweh the Jews were also not exposed to the same risk as were idolaters of having their gods stolen by their foes and used against them.
2 The narrative (which must be judged with due regard to the conditions of the age) shows that the sacrifice of the first-born, though not inconsistent with Yahweh's claims (Ex.
It emphasizes more particularly the position of the Hebrews as a religious community, bound together by common aims and by their covenant-relation with the national God, Yahweh.
On this account Saul spared them when bidden by Yahweh to destroy Amalek; David, too, whilst living in Judah, appears to have been on friendly terms with them (I Sam.
19), and a remnant of the Philistines may become worshippers of Yahweh (Zech.
Balak, king of Moab, became alarmed, and sent for Balaam to curse Israel; Balaam came after some hesitation, but when he sought to curse Israel Yahweh compelled him to bless them.
He sends back word that he can only do what Yahweh commands.
Nevertheless Balaam sets out with two servants to go to Balak, but the Angel of Yahweh meets him.
Yahweh at last enables Balaam to see the Angel, who tells him that he would have slain him but for the ass.
Balak offers sacrifices, but Yahweh inspires Balaam with a blessing on Israel.
from their loyalty to Yahweh.
He was one of the Anakim, or giants of Palestine; he read the books of Abraham, where he got the name Yahweh, by virtue of which he predicted the future, and got from God whatever he asked.
Yahweh is as much the God of Balaam as he is of Moses.
Probably the original tradition goes back to a time when Yahweh was recognized as a deity of a circle of connected tribes of which the Israelite tribes formed a part.
But the retention of the story without modification may imply a continuous recognition through some centuries of the idea that Yahweh revealed his will to nations other than Israel.
Rites are practised in the name of religion which are abhorrent to Yahweh, because they either have no moral meaning at all, and are mere forms.
For Amos cannot have been quite alone either in Israel or in Judah; there must have been a little flock of those who felt with Amos that there was small reason indeed to "desire the day of Yahweh" (v.
He means this - that he is no mere ecstatic enthusiast or "dervish," whose primary aim is to keep up the warlike spirit of the people, taking for granted that Yahweh is on the people's side, and that he is perfectly free from the taint of selfishness, not having to support himself by his prophesying.
Hence they came to be used collectively of superhuman beings, distinct from Yahweh, and therefore inferior, and ultimately subordinate.'
So, too, the angels are styled " holy ones," 2 and " watchers," 3 and are spoken of as the " host of heaven " 4 or of " Yahweh."
5 The " hosts," fl s; Sebaoth in the title Yahweh Sebaoth, Lord of Hosts, were probably at one time identified with the angels.
7 In the earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism had not been formally stated, so that the idea of " angel " in the modern sense does not occur, but we find the Mal'akh Yahweh, Angel of the Lord, or Mal'akh Elohim, Angel of God.
Those who see the Mal' akh Yahweh say they have seen God.
8 The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.
10 The identificaton of the Mal'akh Yahweh with the Logos, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish persons within the unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree.
In the earlier literature the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim is almost the only mal'akh (" angel ") mentioned.
There are, however, a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim.
(J) the appearance of Yahweh to Abraham and Lot is connected with three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in the original form of the story Yahweh appeared alone."
13 In all these cases the angels, like the Mal'akh Yahweh, are connected with or represent a theophany.
the seraphim, superhuman beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of Yahweh.
Thus the pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say about angels or about superhuman beings other than Yahweh and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mention angels.
l5 Nevertheless we may well suppose that the popular religion of ancient Israel had much to say of superhuman beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying.
18 might be the Mal'akh Yahweh, as in xix.
Somewhat later, in the visions of Zechariah, angels play a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as " men," sometimes as mal'akh, and the Mal'akh Yahweh seems to hold a certain primacy among them.21 Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the High Priest before the divine tribunal.
The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven eyes of Yahweh in Zech.
Angels are constantly spoken of as " men," and, including even the Angel of Yahweh, are spoken of as discharging the various functions of human life; they eat and drink 12, walk 13 and speak 14.
The function of the angels is that of the supernatural servants of God, His agents and representatives; the Angel of Yahweh, as we have seen, is a manifestation of God.
For ideas associating Yahweh (Jehovah) with trees, see J.
of Yahweh, the spiritual God.
which finally vindicated the reality of spiritual things and the supremacy of Yahweh's purpose, in the political ruin of the' nation which was the faithless depository of these sacred truths.
Large sections of the old history are devoted to the religion and politics of the ten tribes, which are altogether unintelligible and uninteresting when measured by a strictly Levitical standard; and in general the whole problems and struggles of the prophetic period turn on points which had ceased to be cardinal in the life of the New Jerusalem, which was no longer called to decide between the claims of the Word of Yahweh and the exigencies of political.
In the later history the ten tribes are quite neglected ("Yahweh is not with Israel," 2 Chron.
Yahweh appeared to Solomon in a dream and offered to grant whatever he might ask.
2), subsequent history shows that the high-places, like the altars to heathen deities in Jerusalem itself, long remained undisturbed; it was the Deuteronomic reformation, ascribed to Josiah, which marked the great advance in the religion of Yahweh, and under its influence the history of the monarchy has been compiled.
At the same time, the horrid ritual was so closely associated with Yahweh worship (Ezek.
39) that Jeremiah more than once finds it necessary to protest that it is not of Yahweh's institution (vii.
So too it is the idea of sacrificing the firstborn to Yahweh that is discussed and rejected in Micah vi.
It is indeed plain that such a sacrifice - for we have here to do, not with human victims in general, but with the sacrifice of the dearest earthly thing - could only be paid to the supreme deity; and Manasseh and his people never ceased to acknowledge Yahweh as the God of Israel..
2 -5) and the author of Kings, seem to mark out the Molech or Baal as a false god, distinct from Yahweh, is precisely parallel to the way in which Hosea speaks of the golden calves or Baalim.
In each case the people thought themselves to be worshipping Yahweh under the title of Molech or Baal; but the prophet refuses to admit that this is so, because the worship itself is an apostasy to heathenism.
The object of the observances was to cleanse the sanctuary, the priesthood and the people from all their sins, and to renew and maintain favourable relations between Yahweh and Israel.
8 Above all the Servant of Yahweh 9 appears as atoning for sinners by his sufferings and death.
It is further said that after Enos was born, men began to worship Yahweh.
25, 26 had no original connexion with J.'s story of the creation, which speaks of Yahweh freely from the outset.
The cherub-images, where such occur, represent to the imagination the supernatural bearers of Yahweh's throne or chariot, or the guardians of His abode; the cherub-carvings at least symbolize His presence, and communicate some degree of His sanctity.
2) as a divine title "that sitteth upon the cherubim"; here it is doubted whether the cherubim are the material ones in the temple, or those which faith assumes and the artist tries to represent - the supernatural steeds upon which Yahweh issues forth to interfere in human affairs.
- The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."
Yahweh was Israel's only god, who tolerated no other god beside Himself, and who claimed to be the sole object of the Israelite's reverence.
Moses had used different documents, and that of these the two chief were distinguished by their use of different divine names - Elohim and Yahweh; by the use of this clue he gave a detailed analysis of the passages belonging to the several documents.
2 Nevertheless, while the propheticral teaching came to regard the ephod as contrary to the true worship of Yahweh, the priestly doctrine of the post-exilic age (when worship was withdrawn from the community at large to the recognized priesthood of Jerusalem) has retained it along with other remains of earlier usage, legalizing it, as it were, by confining it exclusively to the Aaronites.
to), and henceforth he regularly inquires of Yahweh in his movements (I Sam.
It is regarded as a departure from the worship of Yahweh, although the writer of ver.
20 (" thou shalt fear [eth-] Yahweh thy God ") was interpreted to include the veneration of the doctors of the law along with Yahweh.
It was perhaps only in time of war, when Israel felt himself to be fighting the battles of Yahweh, that the Hebrew was stirred to the depths of his nature by emotions of a religious colour.
Thus the deeper feelings of religion were embodied in warlike patriotism, and these feelings the Philistine oppression had raised to extreme tension among all who loved liberty, while yet the want of a captain to lead forth the armies of Yahweh against his foemen deprived them of their natural outlet.
The worship of the local sanctuaries did nothing to promote the sense of the religious unity of Israel; Yahweh in the age of the Judges ran no small risk of being divided into a number of local Baals, givers of natural good things each to his own locality.
The struggle for freedom called forth a deeper sense of the unity of the people of the one Yahweh, and in so doing raised religion to a loftier plane; for a faith which unites a nation is necessarily a higher moral force than one which only unites a township or a.
5), and by-and-by it comes to be clearly understood that the prophets are the appointed organ of Yahweh's communications with His people or His king.
Yahweh's ever-present kingship in Israel, which was the chief religious idea brought into prominence by the national revival, demanded a more continuous manifestation of His revealing spirit than was given either by the priestly lot or by the rise of occasional seers; and where could this be sought except among the prophets?
It does not, of course, follow that everyone who had shared in the divine afflatus of prophetic enthusiasm gave forth oracles; but the prophets as a class stood nearer than other men to the mysterious workings of Yahweh, and it was in their circle that revelation seemed to have its natural home.
A most instructive passage in this respect is i Kings xxii., where we find some four hundred prophets gathered together round the king, and where it is clear that Jehoshaphat was equally convinced, on the one hand, that the word of Yahweh could be found among the prophets, and on the other that it was very probable that some, or even the mass of them, might be no better than liars.
And here it is to be observed that Micaiah, who proved the true prophet, does not accuse the others of conscious imposture; he admits that they speak under the influence of a spirit proceeding from Yahweh, but it is a lying spirit sent to deceive.
The fundamental idea that Yahweh guides His people by the word of revelation is older than the separation of special classes of theocratic organs; Moses, indeed, is not only prophet and priest, but judge and ruler.
But, as the history goes on, the prophet stands out more acid more as the typical organ of revelation, the type of the man who is Yahweh's intimate, sharing His secrets (Amos iii.
Io, 13), and also the sentences of awful judgment by which Yahweh rebukes rebellion (Hos.
This growth in the conception of the prophetic function is reflected in parts of the Pentateuch, which may be dated with probability as belonging to the period just named; the name of nabhi ¢ is extended to the patriarchs as Yahweh's intimates (Gen.
Again, Moses differs from all other prophets in that Yahweh speaks to him face to face, and he sees the similitude of Yahweh.
It has always been the evil fate of the Hebrews to destroy their own highest ideals by attempting to translate them into set forms, and the ideal of a prophetic guidance of the nation of Yahweh could not have been more effectually neutralized than by committing its realization to the kind of state Church of professional prophets, "eating bread" by their trade (Amos vii.
Formerly the prophets of Yahweh had been all on the same side; their opponents were the prophets of Baal.
But henceforth there were two parties among the prophets of Yahweh themselves, the new prophets accusing the old of imposture and disloyalty to Yahweh, and these retaliating with charge of disloyalty to Israel.
Yahweh's character, purpose and relation to His people.
But the false prophets were by no means mere common impostors; they were the accredited exponents of the common orthodoxy of their day, for the prophets who opposed Jeremiah took their stand on the ground of the prophetic traditions of Isaiah, whose doctrine of the inviolability of Yahweh's seat on Zion was the starting-point of their opposition to Jeremiah's predictions of captivity.
The popular faith was full of heathenish superstition strangely blended with the higher ideas which were the inheritance left to Israel by men like Moses and Elijah; but the common prophets accepted all alike, and combined heathen arts of divination and practices of mere physical enthusiasm with a not altogether insincere pretension that through their professional oracles the ideal was being maintained of a continuous divine guidance of the people of Yahweh.
"The Lord Yahweh will do nothing, but He revealeth His secret to His servants the prophets."
"By a prophet Yahweh brought Israel out of Egypt, and by a prophet" in each successive age Israel had been watched over and preserved.
And this it knows, not by a mere ethical judgment on the visible state of society, but because it has read Yahweh's secret written in the signs of the times and knows that He has condemned His people.
To the mass these signs are unintelligible, because they deem it impossible that Yahweh should utterly cast off His chosen nation; but to those who know His absolute righteousness, and confront it with the people's sin, the impending approach of the Assyrian can have only one meaning and can point to only one issue, viz.