In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.
In this connexion it is noteworthy that so many of the higher forms are adapted as bulbous geophytes, or as aerophytes to special xerophilous conditions.
The similarity of certain xerophilous Euphorbiaceae to Cactaceae is a ready illustration of this phenomenon.
A very few species, like Chroolepus, which grows on rock surfaces, are comparable with the land plants which have been termed xerophilous.
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