How to use X-linked in a sentence
Subsequently, five further families have been identified, some of which also include individuals with X-linked mental retardation without infantile spasms 48-52.
Includes X-linked recessive and Autosomal recessive modes of inheritance.
Inheritance patterns within this group include X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive.
In X-linked EDS, a specific gene on the X chromosome must be changed.
However, because males only have one X-chromosome, they are affected if an X-linked recessive EDS gene is changed on their single X-chromosome.Advertisement
X-linked recessive EDS is accompanied by a slightly more complicated pattern of inheritance.
If a father with an X-linked recessive form of EDS passes a copy of his X chromosome to his children, the sons will be unaffected and the daughters will be carriers.
If a mother is a carrier for an X-linked recessive form of EDS, she may have affected or unaffected sons, or carrier or unaffected daughters, depending on the second sex chromosome inherited from the father.
This condition has an X-linked, recessive pattern of inheritance, meaning that the defective gene is carried on the X chromosome.
Because this is an X-linked condition, it occurs only in boys.Advertisement
Children with X-linked SCID have low T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell levels but elevated B-cell levels.
In this form of SCID the lymphocyte or white blood evaluation is identical to X-linked SCID but is autosomal recessive and, therefore, occurs in girls and boys.
Unlike the other MPS conditions, MPS II is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, which means that the gene causing the condition is located on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes.
X-linked gene-A gene carried on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes.
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a sex-linked disorder characterized by progressive symptoms that begin as behavioral changes, muscle weakness, and speech difficulties.Advertisement
The more common of the two, known as X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIM), is caused by an abnormal gene on the X chromosome and affects only boys.
X-linked diseases include DMD, BMD, and EDMD.
Women are not usually affected by X-linked diseases, since they will likely have one unaffected copy between the two chromosomes.
Women carriers of X-linked diseases have a one-in-two chance of passing the flawed gene on to each child born.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited disease stemming from a defect on the X chromosome, consequently affecting more males than females.Advertisement
X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia can occur in combination with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, producing short stature and delayed puberty, primarily in boys but also occurring in girls.
Those that are X-linked occur more in males than females; other immunoglobulin deficiencies occur equally in both sexes.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an example of this disease.
The congenital immunodeficiency disorder, Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, results in a decrease or absence of B lymphocytes and, therefore, a decreased ability to make antibodies.
The most common form of SCID is X-linked, i.e. the defect is on the X chromosome and, therefore, occurs only in boys.Advertisement
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia is also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA).
This is why diseases associated with X linked genes are usually much more common in boys than in girls.
This form of spinal muscular atrophy only affects men; it is an X-linked recessive disorder, meaning that the defective gene is passed from mother to son.
Congenital nystagmus may be transmitted genetically, either as an autosomal recessive or dominant, or as an X-linked recessive trait.
For example, Leber's amaurosis is an autosomal dominant trait and albinism is X-linked.
The mild form, X-linked thrombocytopenia, is also caused by mutations in this same gene.
A less severe form of the disease, X-linked thrombocytopenia, affects mainly the platelets.
This may be particularly important for female relatives on the maternal side of a family where a male baby has an X-linked immunodeficiency.