X sentence example

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  • The swellings have been found to be due to a curious hypertrophy of the tissue of the part, the cells being filled with an immense number of minute bacterium-like organisms of V, X or Y shape.

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  • In general his object is to reduce the final equation to a simple one by making such an assumption for the side of the square or cube to which the expression in x is to be equal as will make the necessary number of coefficients vanish.

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  • See The Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908), x.

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  • Thus, i part by weight of hydrogen unites with 8 parts by weight of oxygen, forming water, and with 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide.

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  • Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.

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  • Di-derivatives x x x p v as $ v as s Here we have assumed the substituent groups to be alike; when they are unlike, a greater number of isomers is possible.

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  • Thomsen deduces the actual values of X, Y, Z to be 14.71, 13.27 and zero; the last value he considers to be in agreement with the labile equilibrium of acetylenic compounds.

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  • It will be seen that (1) the increase in equivalent volume is about 6.6; (2) all the topic parameters are increased; (3) the greatest increase is effected in the parameters x and tG, which are equally lengthened.

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  • The words ascribed to Christ in Luke x.

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  • Such curves are given by the equation x 2 - y 2 = ax 4 -1bx 2 y 2 +cy 4 .

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  • In the very early rock inscriptions of Thera (700-600 B.C.), written from right to left, it appears in a form resembling the ordinary Greek X; this form apparently arose from writing the Semitic symbol upside down.

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  • Thus if a person holds futures for 10,000 bales which stood at 5.20 on the last settlement day and now stand at 5.30, and in the course of the previous week has sold 5000 bales of " futures " at 5.1 o, he receives 10,000 X - i ce o d.

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  • During 1822 and the succeeding years he travelled about Europe on the search for materials for his Collection des chroniques rationales fran4aises ecrites en langue vulgaire cat XIII e au X VI' siècle (47 vols., 1824-1829).

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  • In any case, since Ben-Sira belongs to about 180 B.C., the date of' Koheleth, so far as these coincidences indicate it, would not be far from 200 B.C. The contrast made in x.

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  • The " Long Walls " (Ta µaKpet TEixn, Ta cnc X) consisted of (1) the " North Wall " (TO l36p€tov TEIXor), (a) the Walls."

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  • The arch is surmounted by a triple attic with Corinthian columns; the frieze above the keystone bears, on the north-western side, the inscription aZS' 'Aqvat, OouEw 7rpiv rats, and on the south-eastern, aZS' do' `ASptavoii Kai ou X i Ono-Los 'TO Xis.

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  • To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.

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  • A, Five specimens of Echinorhynchus acus, Rud., attached to a piece of intestinal wall, X 4.

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  • Some, however, see in it a corruption of the Semitic name samekh, the letter which corresponds in alphabetic position and in shape to the Greek (x).

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  • Coote's Remarkable Maps of the X Vth, X Vlth and X VIIth Centuries reproduced in their Original Size (Amsterdam, 1894-1897), and Bibliotheca lindesiana (London, 1898) with facsimiles of the Harleian and other Dieppese maps of the 16th century.

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  • Also a unit class is any class with the property that it possesses a member x such that, if y is any member of the class, then x and y are identical.

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  • A doublet is any class which possesses a member x such that the modified class formed by all the other members except x is a unit class.

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  • A relation (R) is serial when (I) it implies diversity, so that, if x has the relation R to y, x is diverse from y; (2) it is transitive, so that if x has the relation R to y, and y to z, then x has the relation R to z; (3) it has the property of connexity, so that if x and y are things to which any things bear the relation R, or which bear the relation R to any things, then either x is identical with y, or x has the relation R to y, or y has the relation R to x.

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  • Two relations R and R' are said to be ordinally similar, if a one-one relation holds between the members of the two fields of R and R', such that if x and y are any two members of the field of R, such that x has the relation R to y, and if x' and y are the correlates in the field of R' of x and y, then in all such cases x has the relation R' to y', and conversely, interchanging the dashes on the letters, i.e.

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  • R and R', x and x', &c. It is evident that the ordinal similarity of two relations implies the cardinal similarity of their fields, but not conversely.

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  • If m and n are finite cardinal numbers, the rational number m/n is the relation which any finite cardinal number x bears to any finite cardinal number y when n X x = m X y.

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  • If a is a real number, +a is defined to be the relation which any real number of the form x+a bears to the real number x, and - a is the relation which any real number x bears to the real number x+a.

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  • If such a complex number is written (as usual) in the form x i e l +x 2 e 2 +...

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  • The product of two complex numbers of the second order - namely, l e l +x 2 e 2 and y i e l +y 2 e 2, is in this case defined to mean the complex (x i y i - x 2 y 2)e i +(x i y 2 +x 2 y 1)e 2.

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  • Call this class w; then to say that x is a w is equivalent to saying that x is not an x.

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  • Now consider a propositional function Fx in which the variable argument x is itself a propositional function.

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  • Accordingly, it is a fallacy for any determination of x to consider "x is an x" or "x is not an x" as having the meaning of propositions.

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  • Note that for any determination of x, "x is an x" and "x is not an x," are neither of them fallacies but are both meaningless, according to this theory.

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  • His orders were at once issued and complied with with such celerity that by the 31st he stood prepared to advance with the corps of Soult, Ney, Davout and Augereau, the Guard and the reserve cavalry (80,000 men on a front of 60 m.) from Myszienec through Wollenberg to Gilgenberg; whilst Lannes on his right towards Ostrolenka and Lefebvre (X.) at Thorn covered his outer flanks.

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  • The Flos of Leonardo turns on the second question set by John of Palermo, which required the solution of the cubic equation x 3 -{-2x'-}-lox = 20.

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  • Perfectly pure distilled sea-water dissociates, to an infinitesimal degree, into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (HO) ions, so that one litre of such water contains 1 X 10 7, or 1 part of a gram-molecule of either hydr010,000,000 gen or hydroxyl (a gramme-molecule of hydrogen is 2 grammes, or of hydroxyl 17 grammes).

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  • Taking the chemical equivalent weight of silver, as determined by chemical experiments, to be 107.92, the result described gives as the electrochemical equivalent of an ion of unit chemical equivalent the value 1 036 X 5.

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  • If, as is now usual, we take the equivalent weight of oxygen as our standard and call it 16, the equivalent weight of hydrogen is I o08, and its electrochemical equivalent is I 044 X 5.

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  • Let x be the number of molecules which dissociate per second when the number of undissociated molecules in unit volume is unity, then in a dilute solution where the molecules do not interfere with each other, xp is the number when the concentration is p. Recombination can only occur when two ions meet, and since the frequency with which this will happen is, in dilute solution, proportional to the square of the ionic concentration, we shall get for the number of molecules re-formed in one second ye where q is the number of dissociated molecules in one cubic centimetre.

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  • The number of undissociated molecules is then I - a, so that if V be the volume of the solution containing I gramme-molecule of the dissolved substance, we get q= and p= (I - a)/V, hence x(I - a) V =yd/V2, and constant = k.

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  • The dynamical equivalent of the calorie is 4.18 X Io 7 ergs or C.G.S.

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  • If we take as an example a concentration cell in which silver plates are placed in solutions of silver nitrate, one of which is ten times as strong as the other, this equation gives E = o 060 X Io 8 C.G.S.

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  • In the theory of surfaces we transform from one set of three rectangular axes to another by the substitutions 'X=' by+ cz, Y = a'x + b'y + c'z, Z =a"x+b"y-l-c"z, where X 2+Y2+Z2 = x2+ y2+z2.

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  • For the second order we may take Ob - I - A, 1 1 +A2, and the adjoint determinant is the same; hence (1 +A2)x1 = (1-A 2)X 1 + 2AX2, (l +A 2)x 2 = - 2AX1 +(1 - A2)X2.

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  • From the differential coefficients of the y's with regard to the x's we form the functional.

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  • Hence if A does not vanish x 1 = x 2 =...

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  • Assuming then 01 to have the coefficients B1, B2,...B,, and f l the coefficients A 1, A21...A,n, we may equate coefficients of like powers of x in the identity, and obtain m+n homogeneous linear equations satisfied by the m+n quantities B1, 2, ...B n, A 1, A 2, ...A m.

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  • Multiplying out the right-hand side and comparing coefficients X1 = (1)x1, X 2 = (2) x2+(12)x1, X3 = (3)x3+(21)x2x1+ (13)x1, X4 = (4) x 4+(31) x 3 x 1+(22) x 2+(212) x2x 1 +(14)x1, Pt P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 Xm=?i(m l m 2 m 3 ...)xmlxm2xm3..., the summation being for all partitions of m.

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  • For such functions remain unaltered when each root receives the same infinitesimal increment h; but writing x-h for x causes ao, a1, a 2 a3,...

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  • Further, let 1 -1-b i x+ b 2 x 2' +...

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  • If m be infinite and 1 + b i x + b 2 x 2 +...

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  • In this notation the fundamental relation is written (l + a i x +01Y) (I + a 2x+l32Y) (1 + a3x+133y)...

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  • It may be written in the form n n-1 2 ax 1 +bx1 x2 +cx 1 x 2 + ...; or in the form n n n=1 n n-2 2 +(1)bx x2+ ?

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  • By solving the equations of transformation we obtain rE1 = a22x1 - a12x1, r = - a21x1 + allx2, aua12 where r = I = anon-anon; a21 a22 r is termed the determinant of substitution or modulus of transformation; we assure x 1, x 2 to be independents, so that r must differ from zero.

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  • Moreover, instead of having one pair of variables x i, x2 we may have several pairs yl, y2; z i, z2;...

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  • Such an expression as a l b 2 -a 2 b i, which is aa 2 ab 2 aa x 2 2 ax1' is usually written (ab) for brevity; in the same notation the determinant, whose rows are a l, a 2, a3; b2, b 2, b 3; c 1, c 2, c 3 respectively, is written (abc) and so on.

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  • For this reason the umbrae A1, A 2 are said to be contragredient to xi, x 2.

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  • For this reason the umbrae -a 2, a l are said to be cogredient to 5 1 and x 2.

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  • In general it will be simultaneous covariant of the different forms n 1 rz 2 n3 a, b x, ?

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  • From the three equations ax = alxl+ a2x2, b.= blxl+b2x2, cx = clxi+c2x2, we find by eliminating x, and x 2 the relation a x (bc)+b x (ca) +c x (ab) =0.

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  • X1, X 2, u1, /22 being as usual the coefficients of substitution, let x1a ?

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  • If we have a symbolic product, which contains the symbol a only in determinant factors such as (ab), we may write x 2, -x 1 for a 1, a 2, and thus obtain a product in which (ab) is replaced by b x, (ac) by c x and so on.

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  • In particular, when the product denotes an invariant we may transform each of the symbols a, b,...to x in succession, and take the sum of the resultant products; we thus obtain a covariant which is called the first evectant of the original invariant.

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  • From (ac) 2 (bd) 2 (ad)(bc) we obtain (bd) 2 (bc) cyd x +(ac) 2 (ad) c xdx - (bd) 2 (ad)axb x - (ac)2(bc)axbx =4(bd) 2 (bc)c 2.

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  • Similarly regarding 1 x 2 as additional parameters, we see that every covariant is expressible as a rational function of n fixed covariants.

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  • To exhibit any covariant as a function of uo, ul, a n = (aiy1+a2y2) n and transform it by the substitution fi y 1+f2 y where f l = aay 1, f2 = a2ay -1, x y - x y = X x thence f .

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  • The first transvectant, (f,f') 1 = (ab) a x b x, vanishes identically.

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  • If (f,4) 1 be not a perfect square, and rx, s x be its linear factors, it is possible to express f and 4, in the canonical forms Xi(rx)2+X2(sx)2, 111(rx)2+1.2 (sx) 2 respectively.

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  • In fact, if f and 4, have these forms, it is easy to verify that (f, 4,)i= (A j z) (rs)r x s x .

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  • The simplest form to which the quartic is in general reducible is +6mxix2+x2, involving one parameter m; then Ox = 2m (xi +x2) +2 (1-3m2) x2 ix2; i = 2 (t +3m2); j= '6m (1 - m) 2; t= (1 - 9m 2) (xi - x2) (x21 + x2) x i x 2.

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  • T = (j, j) 2 jxjx; 0 = (iT)i x r x; four other linear covariants, viz.

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  • When C vanishes j has the form j = pxg x, and (f,j) 3 = (ap) 2 (aq)ax = o.

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  • For example, take the ternary quadratic (aixl+a2x2+a3x3) 2 =a2x, or in real form axi +bx2+cx3+2fx 2 x 3+ 2gx 3 x 1 +2hx i x 2.

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  • We can see that (abc)a x b x c x is not a covariant, because it vanishes identically, the interchange of a and b changing its sign instead of leaving it unchanged; but (abc) 2 is an invariant.

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  • The Hessian is symbolically (abc) 2 azbzcz = H 3, and for the canonical form (1 +2m 3)xyz-m 2 (x 3 +y 3 +z 3).

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  • This is of degree 8 in the coefficients, and degree 6 in the variables, and, for the canonical form, has the expression -9m 6 (x 3 +y 3 +z 3) 2 - (2m +5m 4 +20m 7) (x3 +y3+z3)xyz - (15m 2 +78m 5 -12m 8) Passing on to the ternary quartic we find that the number of ground forms is apparently very great.

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  • He proves, by means of the six linear partial differential equations satisfied by the concomitants, that, if any concomitant be expanded in powers of xi, x 2, x 3, the point variables-and of u 8, u 2, u3, the contragredient line variables-it is completely determinate if its leading coefficient be known.

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  • When R =0, and neither of the expressions AC - B 2, 2AB -3C vanishes, the covariant a x is a linear factor of f; but, when R =AC - B 2 = 2AB -3C =0, a x also vanishes, and then f is the product of the form jx and of the Hessian of jx.

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  • When a z and the invariants B and C all vanish, either A or j must vanish; in the former case j is a perfect cube, its Hessian vanishing, and further f contains j as a factor; in the latter case, if p x, ax be the linear factors of i, f can be expressed as (pa) 5 f =cip2+c2ay; if both A and j vanish i also vanishes identically, and so also does f.

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  • Similarly, if 0 =3, every form (3K+12,x) is a perpetuant.

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  • Forms.-Taking the two forms to be a o xi + pa l x i 1x2+p(p-1)a2xr2x2-I-...

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  • As new axes of co-ordinates we may take any other pair of lines through the origin, and for the X, Y corresponding to x, y any new constant multiples of the sines of the angles which the line makes with the new axes.

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  • The substitution for x, y in terms of X, Y is the most general linear substitution in virtue of the four degrees of arbitrariness introduced, viz.

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  • Thus what have been called seminvariants are not all of them invariants for the general substitution, but are invariants for the particular substitution xl = X11 + J-s12, X 2 = 112 Again, in plane geometry, the most general equations of substitution which change from old axes inclined at w to new axes inclined at w' =13 - a, and inclined at angles a, l3 to the old axis of x, without change of origin, are x-sin(wa)X+sin(w -/3)Y sin w sin ' _sin ax y sin w a transformation of modulus sin w' sin w' The theory of invariants originated in the discussion, by George Boole, of this system so important in geometry.

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  • This is called the direct orthogonal substitution, because the sense of rotation from the axis of X i to the axis of X, is the same as that from that of x i to that of x 2.

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  • In the a x = aixi+a2x2, observe that a a = a2, ab = aibi +a2b2.

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  • Since +xZ=x x we have six types of symbolic factors which may be used to form invariants and covariants, viz.

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  • To assist us in handling the symbolic products we have not only the identity (ab) cx + (bc) a x + (ca) bx =0, but also (ab) x x+ (b x) a + (ax) b x = 0, (ab)a+(bc)a s +(ca)a b = 0, and many others which may be derived from these in the manner which will be familiar to students of the works of Aronhold, Clebsch and Gordan.

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  • Every other concomitant is a rational integral function of these four forms. The linear covariant, obviously the Jacobian of a x and x x is the line perpendicular to x and the vanishing of the quadrinvariant a x is the condition that a x passes through one of the circular points at infinity.

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  • In general any pencil of lines, connected with the line a x by descriptive or metrical properties, has for its equation a rational integral function of the four forms equated to zero.

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  • There is no linear covariant, since it is impossible to form a symbolic product which will contain x once and at the same time appertain to a quadratic. (v.) is the Jacobian; geometrically it denotes the bisectors of the angles between the lines ax, or, as we may say, the common harmonic conjugates of the lines and the lines x x .

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  • If V denote the potential, F the resultant force, X, Y, Z, its components parallel to the co-ordinate axes and n the line along which the force is directed, then - sn = F, b?= X, - Sy = Y, -s Surfaces for which the potential is constant are called equipotential surfaces.

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  • If F T is the force along r and F t that along t at right angles to r, F r =X cos 0+ Y sin 0=M 2 cos 0, F t = - X sin 0+ Y cos 0 = - r 3 sin 0.

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  • Since 7ra'I is the moment of the sphere (=volume X magnetization), it appears from (10) that the magnetized sphere produces the same external effect as a very small magnet of equal moment placed at its centre and magnetized in the same direction; the resultant force therefore is the same as in (14).

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  • Hopkinson pointed out that the greatest dissipation of energy which can be caused by a to-and-fro reversal is approximately represented by Coercive force X maximum induction fir.

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  • The actual experiment to which it relates was carried only as the point marked X, corresponding to a magnetizing force of 65, and an induction of nearly 17,000.

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  • If the pull is measured in pounds and the area in square inches, the formula may be written B =1317 X iI P/S +H.

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  • If V is the volume of a ball, H the strength of the field at its centre, and re its apparent susceptibility, the force in the direction x is f= K'VH X dH/dx; and if K',, and are the apparent susceptibilities of the same ball in air and in liquid oxygen, K' Q -K'o is equal to the difference between the susceptibilities of the two media.

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  • According to the notation adopted by Meyer the atomic susceptibility k=KX atomic-weight/ (density X 1000).

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  • About 2000 blue fox-skins were x.

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  • The results, of which the most important are summarized in the article Sparta, are published in the British School Annual, x.

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  • His development of the equation x m +- px = q in an infinite series was extended by Leonhard Euler, and particularly by Joseph Louis Lagrange.

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  • We may regard this as meaning the same as 5 X3 X7 lb, since 7 lb itself means 7 X 1 lb, and the lb is the unit in each case.

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  • But it does not mean the same as 5 X 21 lb, though the two are equal, i.e.

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  • This rule as to the meaning of X is important.

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  • If it is intended that the first number is to be multiplied by the second, a special sign such as X should be used.

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  • The sign X coming immediately before, or immediately after, a bracket may be omitted; e.g.

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  • Thus 8+ (7 X 6) +3 may be written 8+7.6+3, and 8+s+3 may be written 8+7/6+3.

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  • If the answer to the question is X, we have either (a) I os.

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  • Let the answer be X; then 24d.

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  • Let the answer be x; then 24d.

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  • Let the answer be X; then 125 c.dm.

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  • Let the answer be x; then 125 =5 x, ..

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  • To say, for instance, that X is equal to A -B, is the same thing as to say that X is a quantity such that X and B, when added, make up A; and the above five statements of necessary connexion between two statements of equality are in fact nothing more than definitions of the symbols -, m of, =,, and loga.

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  • The statement, for instance, that 32 - x = 25, is really a statement that 32 is the sum of x and 25.

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  • From these statements, working backwards, we find successively that v= 5, u = 20, X = 22.

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  • We may therefore conveniently take as our unit, in place of x, a number y such that x=6y.

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  • From this we can deduce successively X - 3s.= 26s., X= 29s.

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  • In the same way, the transition from (x 2 +4x+4) - 4= 21 to x 2 +4x+4 = 25, or from (5+2) 2 =25 to x+2= 1 /25, is arithmetical; but the transition from 5 2 + 45+4= 25 to (5+2) 2 = 25 is algebraical, since it involves a change of the number we are thinking about.

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  • This is a definition of x 3; the sign = is in such cases usually replaced by =.

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  • If the operator 12d X is omitted, the statement is really an equation, giving Is.

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  • We replace 4(x3), for instance, by 4x4.3, because we know that, whatever the value of x may be, the result of subtracting 3 from it and multiplying the remainder by 4 is the same as the result of finding 4x and 4.3 separately and subtracting the latter from the former.

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  • For multiplication, for instance, we have the statement that, if P and Q are two quantities, containing respectively p and q of a particular unit, then p X Q = q X P; or the more abstract statement that p X q= q X p.

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  • We cannot solve the equation 7X =4s.; but we are accustomed to subdivision of units, and we can therefore give a meaning to X by inventing a unit w s.

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  • When, however, we come to the equation x 2 --- 5, where we are dealing with numbers, not with quantities, we have no concrete facts to assist us.

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  • When, by practice with logarithms, we become familiar with the correspondence between additions of length on the logarithmic scale (on a slide-rule) and multiplication of numbers in the natural scale (including fractional numbers), A /5 acquires a definite meaning as the number corresponding to the extremity of a length x, on the logarithmic scale, such that 5 corresponds to the extremity of 2X.

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  • We find that the product a m X a m X a m is equal to a im; and, by definition, the product; /a X -la X Ala is equal to a, which is a'.

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  • Let X and Y be the related quantities, their expressions in terms of selected units A and B being x and y, so that X=x.A, Y = y.

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  • We take a fixed line OX, usually drawn horizontally; for each value of X we measure a length or abscissa ON equal to x.L, and draw an ordinate NP at right angles to OX and equal to the corresponding value of y .

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  • Y is represented by the length of the ordinate NP, so that the representation is cardinal; but this ordinate really corresponds to the point N, so that the representation of X is ordinal.

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  • In the first class come equations in a single unknown; here the function which is equated to zero is the Y whose values for different values of X are traced, and the solution of the equation is the determination of the points where the ordinates of the graph are zero.

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  • Similarly the equalities 99 X I o I = 9999 = wow - I 98 X 102 = 999 6 = moo() - 4 97 X 10 3 =9991 =1 0000 - 9 lead up to (A - a) (A+a) = A 2 - a 2.

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  • Thus, to multiply x 3 -2x+1 by 2x 2 +4, we write the process +I +0-2+I +2+0+4 +2+0-4+2 +0+0 - 0+0 +4+0-8+4 +2+0+0+2-8+4 giving 2x 5 + 2x 2 -8x+4 as the result.

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  • An equation of the form ax=b, where a and b do not contain x, is the standard form of simple equation.

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  • Thus 2 x 2 - I - x +x-2 (x _ I) (x+2) is equal to x + 2 q, except when x=1.

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  • It is convenient to retain x, to denote x r /r!, so that we have the consistent notation xr =x r /r!, n (r) =n(r)/r!, n[r] =n[r]/r!.

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  • The binomial theorem for positive integral index may then be written (x + y) n = -iyi +.

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  • If we represent this expression by f (x), the expression obtained by changing x into x-+-h is f(x+h); and each term of this may be expanded by the binomial theorem.

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  • If we denote these by f i (x), f 2 (x),..

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  • In algebraical transformations, however, such as (x-a)2 = x 2 - 2ax+a 2, the arithmetical rule of signs enables us to combine the sign-with a number and to treat the result as a whole, subject to its own laws of operation.

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  • Thus, to divide i by i +x algebraically, we may write it in the form I+o.x+o.x 2 +o.x 3 +o.x 4, and we then obtain I I +0.x+0.x2+0.x3 '+0.x4 = I' x+x2 - x 3 + x4 I+x I+x' where the successive terms of the quotient are obtained by a process which is purely formal.

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  • If we divide the sum of x 2 and a 2 by the sum of x and a, we get a quotient x - a and remainder 2a 2, or a quotient a - x and remainder 2x 2, according to the order in which we work.

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  • The highest common factor (or common factor of highest degree) of two rational integral functions of x is therefore found in the same way as the G.C.M.

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  • In the same way, to find X I I 4, where X= i+aix+a2x2+.

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  • Considered in this way, the relations between the coefficients of the powers of x in a series may sometimes be expressed by a formal equality involving the series as a whole.

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  • This accounts for the fact that the same table of binomial coefficients serves for the expansions of positive powers of i+x and of negative powers of i - x.

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  • Thus, to solve the equation ax e +bx+c = o, we consider, not merely the value of x for which ax 2 +bx+c is o, but the value of ax e +bx+c for every possible value of x.

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  • Simultaneous equations in two unknowns x and y may be treated in the same way, except that each equation gives a functional relation between x and y.

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  • We cannot, for instance, say that the fraction C _2 I is arithmetically equal to x+I when x= I, as well as for other values of x; but we can say that the limit of the ratio of x 2 - I to x - I when x becomes indefinitely nearly equal to I is the same as the limit of x+ On the other hand, if f(y) has a definite and finite value for y = x, it must not be supposed that this is necessarily the same as the limit which f (y) approaches when y approaches the value x, though this is the case with the functions with which we are usually concerned.

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  • We know that log l oN(I+9) = log l oN+log 10 (I+0), and inspection of a table of logarithms shows that, when 0 is small, log 10 (I+B);s approximately equal to X0, where X is a certain constant, whose value is.

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  • Suppose, for instance, that y=x 2; then to every rational value of x there corresponds a rational value of y, but the converse does not hold.

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  • They are (a+b)-?-c=a+(b+c) (A) (aXb)Xc=aX(bXc) (A') a+b=b+a (c) aXb=bXa (c') a(b c) =ab-Fac (D) (a - b)+b=a (I) (a=b)Xb=a (I') These formulae express the associative and commutative laws of the operations + and X, the distributive law of X, and the definitions of the inverse symbols - and =, which are assumed to be unambiguous.

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  • Let a+b denote the region made up of a and b together (the common part, if any, being reckoned only once), and let a X b or ab mean the region common to a and b.

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  • For instance, x+y = x+xy and xy = x(x+y) are reciprocal.

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  • So, in general, if we put aA+ 1 3B+yC+...+AL = (a+13+y+...+X)X.

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  • X is, in general, a determinate point, the barycentre of aA, 3B, &c. (or of A, B, &c. for the weights a, 0, &c.).

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  • From A Merely Formal Point Of View, We Have In The Barycentric Calculus A Set Of " Special Symbols Of Quantity " Or " Extraordinaries " A, B, C, &C., Which Combine With Each Other By Means Of Operations And Which Obey The Ordinary Rules, And With Ordinary Algebraic Quantities By Operations X And =, Also According To The Ordinary Rules, Except That Division By An Extraordinary Is Not Used.

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  • The sum and product of two quaternions are defined by the formulae mi ase + F+lases = (a s + 133) es 2arer X ZO,es = Fiarfseres, where the products e,e, are further reduced according to the following multiplication table, in which, for example, the eo e1 e2 e3 second line is to be read eieo = e1, e 1 2 = - eo, e i e 2 = es, eie3 = - e2.

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  • On the other hand, the equations q'x = q and yq' = q have, in general, different solutions.

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  • It is the value of y which is generally denoted by q= q'; a special symbol for x is desirable, but has not been established.

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  • The values of x and y are different, unless V (qq o) = o.

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  • If A 1 = X a i e i, B i = /if i e i, the distributive law of multiplication is preserved by assuming A1B1=E(a0 i 3)eiej; it follows that A 1 B 1 = - B 1 A 1, and that A l 2 = o.

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  • He solved quadratic equations both geometrically and algebraically, and also equations of the form x 2 "+ax n +b=o; he also proved certain relations between the sum of the first n natural numbers, and the sums of their squares and cubes.

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  • His first contention was not disproved until the 15th century, but his second was disposed of by Abul Wefa (940-998), who succeeded in solving the forms x 4 =a and x4-%ax3=b.

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  • Although the foundations of the geometrical resolution of cubic equations are to be ascribed to the Greeks (for Eutocius assigns to Menaechmus two methods of solving the equation x 3 = a and x 3 = 2a 3), yet the subsequent development by the Arabs must be regarded as one of their most important achievements.

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  • An imperfect solution of the equation x 3 +-- px 2 was discovered by Nicholas Tartalea (Tartaglia) in 1530, and his pride in this achievement led him into conflict with Floridas, who proclaimed his own knowledge of the form resolved by Ferro.

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  • We imagine a wave-front divided o x Q into elementary rings or zones - often named after Huygens, but better after Fresnelby spheres described round P (the point at which the aggregate effect is to be estimated), the first sphere, touching the plane at 0, with a radius equal to PO, and the succeeding spheres with radii increasing at each step by IX.

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  • Thus in the case of the circular disk, equidistant (r) from the source of light and from the screen upon which the shadow is observed, the width of the first exterior zone is given by = X(2r)/4(2x), 2x being the diameter of the disk.

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  • Taking co-ordinates in the plane of the screen with the centre of the wave as origin, let us represent M by, n, and P (where dS is situated) by x, y, z.

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  • In the applications with which we are concerned, t, n are very small quantities; and we may take P = x yn - At the same time dS may be identified with dxdy, and in the de nominator p may be treated as constant and equal to f.

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  • A diminution of X thus leads to a simple proportional shrinkage of the diffraction pattern, attended by an augmentation of brilliancy in proportion to A-2.

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  • We will now apply the integrals (2) to the case of a rectangular aperture of width a parallel to x and of width b parallel to y.

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  • The limits of integration for x may thus be taken to be -2a and -Fla, and for y to be -2b, +2b.

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  • Analytically expressed ff+ co x I 2 d dn=ff dxdy= A (9) We have seen that Io (the intensity at the focal point) was equal to A 2 /X 2 f2.

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  • If A' be the area over which the intensity must be Io in order to give the actual total intensity in accordance with A'102 =ff + 12d4dn, the relation between A and A' is AA' = X 2 f 2 .

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  • When, as in the application to rectangular or circular apertures, the form is symmetrical with respect to the axes both of x and y, S = o, and C reduces to C = ff cos px cos gy dx dy,.

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  • The extreme discrepancy is that between the waves which travel through the outermost parts of the object-glass at L and L'; so that if we adopt the above standard of resolution, the question is where must P be situated in order that the relative retardation of the rays PL and PL' may on their arrival at B amount to a wave-length (X).

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  • In the above argument the whole space between the object and the lens is supposed to be occupied by matter of one refractive index, and X represents the wave-length in this medium of the kind of light employed.

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  • The extreme value possible for a is a right angle, so that for the microscopic limit we have Z X o/µ (2).

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  • In general, we may say that aberration is unimportant when it nowhere (or at any rate over a relatively small area only) exceeds a small fraction of the wavelength (X).

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  • No terms in x or x 2 need be considered.

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  • The distance f i, which the actual focal length must exceed, is given by d (f1 2 R2) x; so that f1 = 2 R2/X (1) Thus, if X = p j, R= i ?, we find f1= 800 inches.

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  • On either side of any one of them the illumination is distributed according to the same law as for the central image (m = o), vanishing, for example, when the retardation amounts to (mn t 1)X.

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  • If BQ be the direction for the first minimum (the darkness between the central and first lateral band), the relative retardation of the extreme rays is (mn+1)X.

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  • The aperture of the unretarded beam may thus be taken to be limited by x = - h, x = o, y= - 1, y= +1; and that of the beam retarded by R to be given by x =o, x =h, y = - 1, y = +l.

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  • For the retarded stream the only difference is that we must subtract R from at, and that the limits of x are o and +h.

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  • When a, b, X are regarded as constant, the first factor may be omitted, - as indeed should be done for consistency's sake, inasmuch as other factors of the same nature have been omitted already.

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  • Let x, y, z be the co-ordinates of any particle of the medium in its natural state, and, 7 7, the displacements of the same particle at the end of time t, measured in the directions of the three axes respectively.

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  • According to this notation, the three equations of motion are dt2 = b2v2E + (a2 - b2) d.s dt =b2v2rj+(a2 - b2) dy d2 CIF - b2p2+(a2_b2)dz It is to be observed that denotes the dilatation of volume of the element situated at (x, y, z).

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  • Since the dimensions of T are supposed to be very small in com d parison with X, the factor dy (--) is sensibly constant; so that, if Z stand for the mean value of Z over the volume T, we may write TZ y d e T ?

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  • We will now apply (18) to the investigation of a law of secondary disturbance, when a primary wave = sin (nt - kx) (19) is supposed to be broken up in passing the plane x = o.

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  • Note that these phagocytic cells are pushing out protoplasmic processes (pseudopodia) by which they grasp their victims. (X woo diam.) FIG.

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  • These vesicles are filled with the colloid material (x 90 diam.) J FIG.

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  • Brussels was again the headquarters in 1741, by which time Voltaire had finished the best and the second X XVIII.

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  • It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).

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  • The beaches which had been selected were, enumerating from right to left, " S " in Morto Bay, " V " and " W " on either side of Cape Helles at the south-western end, and " X " and " Y " on the outer shore; " V " and " W " were regarded as of primary importance, as those two beaches offered suitable landing places from the point of view of subsequent operations.

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  • The attacks at " S " and " Y " were intended to be subsidiary; but great importance was attached to that at " X " owing to the vicinity of this point to " W."

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  • As it turned out, the actual disembarkations at " S," " X " and " Y " were carried out without any very great difficulty; but the troops detailed for " W " beach only gained a footing after incurring very heavy losses and by a display of indomitable resolution, while at " V " the operation went very near to failing altogether.

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  • But the forces which had landed at " W " and " X " beaches had joined hands, the one battalion detailed for " S " beach had secured a good position, and during the night the troops still left aboard the " River Clyde " contrived to disembark.

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  • Additional infantry was got ashore at " W " and " X " beaches, the first elements of the French division began disembarking at " V " beach in the afternoon, and before evening touch had been gained with the battalion that had made good at " S " beach.

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  • These were "lost sheep of the house of Israel"; but Christ's freedom from Jewish exclusiveness is also brought out (I) as regards Samaritans, by the rebuke administered to the disciples at ix.52 sqq., the parable in x.

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  • In the second of these passages the disciples are exhorted to choose a life of voluntary poverty; the nearest parallel is the ideal set before the rich young man at Mark x.

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  • The cartesian equation referred to the axis and directrix is y=c cosh (x/c) or y = Zc(e x / c +e x / c); other forms are s = c sinh (x/c) and y 2 =c 2 -1-s 2, being the arc measured from the vertex; the intrinsic equation is s = c tan The radius of curvature and normal are each equal to c sec t '.

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  • Thus water being about Boo times denser than air and mercury 13.6 times denser than water, k/h = 6,/p = 800 X 13.6 = Io,880; (2) and with an average barometer height of 30 in.

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  • Ignoring temperature effect, and taking the density as a function of the pressure, surfaces of equal pressure are also of equal density, and the fluid is stratified by surfaces orthogonal to the lines of force; n ap, dy, P d z, or X, Y, Z (4) are the partial differential coefficients of some function P, =fdplp, of x, y, z; so that X, Y, Z must be the partial differential coefficients of a potential -V, such that the force in any direction is the downward gradient of V; and then dP dV (5) ax + Tr=0, or P+V =constant, in which P may be called the hydrostatic head and V the head of potential.

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  • Thus if the plane is normal to Or, the resultant thrust R =f fpdxdy, (r) and the co-ordinates x, y of the C.P. are given by xR = f f xpdxdy, yR = f f ypdxdy.

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  • As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.

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  • Taking the axis of x for an instant in the normal through a point on the surface H = constant, this makes u = o, = o; and in steady motion the equations reduce to dH/dv=2q-2wn = 2gco sin e, (4) where B is the angle between the stream line and vortex line; and this holds for their projection on any plane to which dv is drawn perpendicular.

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  • In the equations of uniplanar motion = dx - du = dx + dy = -v 2 ?, suppose, so that in steady motion dx I +v24 ' x = ?'

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  • When the cylinder r =a is moved with velocity U and r =b with velocity U 1 along Ox, = U b e - a,1 r +0 cos 0 - U ib2 - 2 a, (r +Q 2 ') cos 0, = - U be a2 a2 (b 2 - r) sin 0 - Uib2 b1)a, (r - ¢2 sin 0; b and similarly, with velocity components V and V 1 along Oy a 2 b2 ?= Vb,_a,(r+r) sin g -Vi b, b2 a, (r+ 2) sin 0, (17) = V b, a2 a, (b2 r) cos 0+Vi b, b, a, (r- ¢ 2) cos h; (18) and then for the resultant motion z 2zz w= (U 2 + V2)b2a a2U+Vi +b a b a2 U z Vi -(U12+V12) b2 z a2b2 Ui +VIi b 2 - a 2 U1 +Vii b 2 - a 2 z The resultant impulse of the liquid on the cylinder is given by the component, over r=a (§ 36), X =f p4 cos 0.ad0 =7rpa 2 (U b z 2 + a 2 Uib.2bz a2); (20) and over r =b Xi= fp?

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  • Then, if the outside cylinder is free to move - 2a2 2 X 1 = 0, T T = b2 a2, 7rpa 2 Ub 2+ a 2.

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  • Taking two planes x = =b, and considering the increase of momentum in the liquid between them, due to the entry and exit of liquid momentum, the increase across dy in the direction Oy, due to elements at P and P' at opposite ends of the diameter PP', is pdy (U - Ua 2 r2 cos 20 +mr i sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0+mr 1 cos 0) + pdy (- U+Ua 2 r 2 cos 2 0 +mr1 sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0 -mr 1 cos 0) =2pdymUr '(cos 0 -a 2 r 2 cos 30), (8) and with b tan r =b sec this is 2pmUdo(i -a 2 b2 cos 30 cos 0), (9) and integrating between the limits 0 = 27r, the resultant, as before, is 27rpmU.

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  • For the liquid filling the interior of a rotating elliptic cylinder of cross section x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1, /(4) = m l (x 2 / a2 - - y2 /b 2) (5) with V21G1' =-2R =-2 m 1 (I / a2 + 21b2), 214 = m l (x2 / a2 + y2 / b2) - IR(x2+y2) = I R (x2 - y2) (a 2 - b2)/(a2+b2), cp 1 = Rxy (a 2 - b2)/(a2 +b2), w1 = cb1 +% Pli = - IiR(x +yi)2(a2b2)/(a2+b2).

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  • The polar equation of the cross-section being rI cos 19 =al, or r + x = 2a, (3) the conditions are satisfied by = Ur sin g -2Uairi sin IB = 2Uri sin 10(14 cos 18a'), (4) 1J/ =2Uairi sin IO = -U1/ [2a(r-x)], (5) w =-2Uaiz1, (6) and the resistance of the liquid is 2lrpaV2/2g.

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  • A relative stream line, along which 1/,' = Uc, is the quartic curve y-c=?![2a(r-x)], x = 4a2y2-(y g)4, r- 4a2y2 +(y c) 4, 7) 4 a (y-c) 4a(y and in the absolute space curve given by 1', dy= (y- c)2, x= 2ac_ 2a log (y -c) (8) 2ay y - c 34.

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  • Similarly, with the function (19) (2n+ I) 3 ch (2n+ I) ITrb/a' (2) Changing to polar coordinates, x =r cos 0, y = r sin 0, the equation (2) becomes, with cos 0 =µ, r'd + (I -µ 2)-d µ = 2 ?-r3 sin 0, (8) of which a solution, when = o, is = (Ar'+) _(Ari_1+) y2,, ?

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  • The components of velocity of the moving origin are denoted by U, V, W, and the components of angular velocity of the frame of reference by P, Q, R; and then if u, v, w denote the components of fluid velocity in space, and u', v', w' the components relative to the axes at a point (x, y, z) fixed to the frame of reference, we have u =U +u' - yR +zQ, v =V +v -zP +xR, w=W +w -xQ +yP.

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  • As an application of moving axes, consider the motion of liquid filling the ellipsoidal case 2 y 2 z2 Ti + b1 +- 2 = I; (1) and first suppose the liquid be frozen, and the ellipsoid l3 (4) (I) (6) (9) (I o) (II) (12) (14) = 2 U ¢ 2, (15) rotating about the centre with components of angular velocity, 7 7, f'; then u= - y i +z'i, v = w = -x7 7 +y (2) Now suppose the liquid to be melted, and additional components of angular velocity S21, 522, S23 communicated to the ellipsoidal case; the additional velocity communicated to the liquid will be due to a velocity-function 2224_ - S2 b c 6 a 5 x b2xy, as may be verified by considering one term at a time.

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  • If there are more B corners than one, either on xA or x'A', the expression for i is the product of corresponding factors, such as in (5) Restricting the attention to a single corner B, a = n(cos no +i sin 110) _ (b-a'.0-a) +1!

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  • Ja - u  ?I a -a b -u' sh nS2=sh log (Q)=?a - b a - a' b - u' At x where = co, u = o, and q= go, (O n b - a ' a + a -b a' cio) - ?a-a'?b a-a' q In crossing to the line of flow x'A'P'J', b changes from o to m, so that with q = Q across JJ', while across xx the velocity is qo, so that i n = go.

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  • Generally, by making a' = -oo, the line x'A' may be taken as a straight stream line of infinite length, forming an axis of symmetry; and then by duplica tion the result can be ob A tained, with assigned n, a, and b, of the efflux from a symmetrical converging FIG.

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  • For a cavity filled with liquid in the interior of the body, since the liquid inside moves bodily for a motion of translation only, 41 = - x, 42 = -, 43 = - z; (2) but a rotation will stir up the liquid in the cavity, so that the'x's depend on the shape of the surface.

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  • Over the ellipsoid, p denoting the length of the perpendicular from the centre on a tangent plane, px _ pv _ _ pz 1= a2+X' b +A' n c2+A p2x2 + p2y2 p2z2 I (a2 - + X)2 (b 2 +x)2 + (0+X)2, p 2 = (a2+A)12+(b2+X)m2+(c2+X)n2, = a 2 1 2 +b 2 m 2 +c 2 n 2 +X, 2p d = ds; (8) Thence d?

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  • The continuity is secured if the liquid between two ellipsoids X and X 11 moving with the velocity U and 15 1 of equation (II), is squeezed out or sucked in across the plane x=o at a rate equal to the integral flow of the velocity I across the annular area a l.

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  • When the liquid is bounded externally by the fixed ellipsoid A = A I, a slight extension will give the velocity function 4 of the liquid in the interspace as the ellipsoid A=o is passing with velocity U through the confocal position; 4 must now take the formx(1'+N), and will satisfy the conditions in the shape CM abcdX ¢ = Ux - Ux a b x 2+X)P Bo+CoB I - C 1 (A 1 abcdX, I a1b1cl - J o (a2+ A)P and any'confocal ellipsoid defined by A, internal or external to A=A 1, may be supposed to swim with the liquid for an instant, without distortion or rotation, with velocity along Ox BA+CA-B 1 -C1 W'.

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  • Between two concentric spheres, with a 2 +A = r 2, a2+A1=a12, A=B =C =a3/3r3, a 3 a 3 a3 _ a3 Cb _1U x r 3 a13 Y'=2 Uy2 r3 3 a13 .

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  • The extension to the case where the liquid is bounded externally by a fixed ellipsoid X= X is made in a similar manner, by putting 4 = x y (x+ 11), (io) and the ratio of the effective angular inertia in (9) is changed to 2 (B0-A0) (B 1A1) +.a12 - a 2 +b 2 a b1c1 a -b -b12 abc (Bo-Ao)+(B1-A1) a 2 + b 2 a1 2 + b1 2 alblcl Make c= CO for confocal elliptic cylinders; and then _, 2 A? ?

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  • The determination of the O's and x's is a kinematical problem, solved as yet only for a few cases, such as those discussed above.

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  • Conversely, if the kinetic energy T is expressed as a quadratic function of x, x x3, y1, y2, y3, the components of momentum, the partial differential coefficient with respect to a momentum component will give the component of velocity to correspond.

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  • Thus if T is expressed as a quadratic function of U, V, W, P, Q, R, the components of momentum corresponding are dT dT dT (I) = dU + x2=dV, x3 =dW, dT dT dT Yi dp' dQ' y3=dR; but when it is expressed as a quadratic function of xi, 'x2, x3, yi, Y2, Y3, U = d, V= dx, ' w= ax dT Q_ dT dT dy 1 dy2 dy The second system of expression was chosen by Clebsch and adopted by Halphen in his Fonctions elliptiques; and thence the dynamical equations follow X = dt x2 dy +x3 d Y = ..., Z ..., (3) = dt1 -y2?y - '2dx3+x3 ' M =..

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  • When no external force acts, the case which we shall consider, there are three integrals of the equations of motion (i.) T =constant, x 2 +x 2 +x 2 =F 2, a constant, (iii.) x1y1 +x2y2+x3y3 =n = GF, a constant; and the dynamical equations in (3) express the fact that x, x, xs.

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  • If p denotes the density of the air or medium W' = sird 3 xp, (23) W' I p __ W I -1 3 k12 I k22 x2 ±i a 2= 101-1 3 '111 2= 2 tan g S = Q (l - a) x 2+ I (26) in which a/p may be replaced by 800 times the S.G.

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  • Table of Rifling for Stability of an Elongated Projectile, x Calibres long, giving S the Angle of Rifling, and n the Pitch of Rifling in Calibres.

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  • The components of force, X, Y, and N, acting on the liquid at 0, and reacting on the body, are then X=It.

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  • The Book of Noah is mentioned in Jubilees x.

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  • As for the author, he was no Essene, for he recognizes animal sacrifices and cherishes the Messianic hope; he was not a Sadducee, for he looks forward to the establishment of the Messianic kingdom (x.); nor a Zealot, for the quietistic ideal is upheld (ix.), and the kingdom is established by God Himself (x.).

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  • B, Archigetes sieboldi; X 60 (from Leuckart).

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  • B, head showing the suckers, proboscides and excretory canals; X 25.

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  • The uterus (X in figure C) begins in all cases at the shell gland (c, d) and may exhibit a swelling (R S) for the retention of the spermatozoa..

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  • C, invaginated head of Cysticercus cellulosae, showing the bent neck and receptacle r; X 30.

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  • Zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3, occurs in nature as the mineral calamine (q.v.), but has never been prepared artificially, basic carbonates, ZnCO 3 .xZn(OH) 2, where x is variable, being obtained by precipitating a solution of the sulphate or chloride with sodium carbonate.

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  • A queen of this people (the " Queen of Sheba ") is said (1 Kings x.) to have visited Solomon about 950 B.C. There is, however, no mention of such a queen in the inscriptions.

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  • Addai was supposed to be one of the Seventy of Luke x.

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  • This functionary is first formally mentioned under Leo X.(1513-1521) in the proceedings in connexion with the canonization of St Lorenzo Giustiniani.

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  • A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.

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  • The central nervous system (x) is highly developed, and in Loxosoma bears a pair o` eyes.

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  • In its modern form the theorem, which is true for all values of n, is written as (x +a) n -1+ I.

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  • Now in order to [do] this, it appeared that in all the series the first term was x; that the second terms R- x 3 3x 3, 3x 3, &c., were in arithmetical progression; and consequently that the first two terms of all the series to be interpolated would be x-- 3, x- `3, x-- 3, &c.

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  • I enquired therefore how, in these series, the rest of the terms may be derived from the first two being given; and I found that by putting m for the second figure or term, the rest should be produced by the continued multiplication of the terms of this seriesI X m 2 I X m - 2 This rule I therefore applied to the series to be interpolated.

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  • The hyperbolic or Gudermannian amplitude of the quantity x is ta n (sinh x).

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  • Hence the density v is given by 47rabc (x2/a4+y2/b4-I-z2/c4), and the potential at the centre of the ellipsoid, and therefore its potential as a whole is given by the expression, adS Q dS V f r 47rabc r' (x2/a4-I-y2/b4+z2/c4) Accordingly the capacity C of the ellipsoid is given by the equation 1 I J dS C 47rabc Y (x 2 +y 2 + z2) V (x2/a4+y2/b4+z2/c4) (5) It has been shown by Professor Chrystal that the above integral may also be presented in the form,' foo C 2 J o J { (a2 + X) (b +X) (c 2 + X) } (6).

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  • It has been shown above that the potential due to a charge of q units placed on a very small sphere, commonly called a point-charge, at any distance x is q/x.

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  • The mathematical importance of this function called the potential is that it is a scalar quantity, and the potential at any point due to any number of point charges ql, q2, q3, &c., distributed in any manner, is the sum of them separately, or qi/xl+q2/x2+q3/x3+&c. =F (q/x) =V (17), where xi, x2, x 3, &c., are the distances of the respective point charges from the point in question at which the total potential is required.

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  • Then the electric force due to the point s' charge q at distance x is q/x, and the resolved part normal to the element of surface dS is q cos0/x 2.

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  • Let us apply the above theorem to the case of a small parallelepipedon or rectangular prism having sides dx, dy, dz respectively, its centre having co-ordinates (x, y, z).

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  • Its angular points have then co-ordinates (x t Zdx, y t Zdy, z * zdz).

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  • Let V be the potential at the centre of the prism, then the normal forces on the two faces of area dy.dx are respectively RI dx2 d xl and (dx 2 d x), dV d2 and similar expressions for the normal forces to the other pairs of faces dx.dy, dz.dx.

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  • See La Fondation de la regence d'Alger, histoire des Barberousse, chronique arabe du X VI siecle published by Sander Rang and Ferdinand Denis, Paris, 1837 - for a curious Moslem version of their story.

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  • I, 4), the modern Citta di Castello, he set up a temple at his own expense and adorned it with statues of Nerva and Trajan (x.

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  • The width of each of the portions aghc and acfe cut away from the lens was made slightly greater than the focal length of lens X tangent of sun's greatest diameter.

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  • Here, in order to fulfil the purposes of the previous models, the distance of the centres of the lenses from each other should only slightly exceed the tangent of sun's diameter X focal length of lenses.

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  • To this the original author added as an appendix x.

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  • Thirdly, the vials source from the time of Pompey (circa 63),- x.

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  • The author wrote x.

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  • In it the prophet receives a new commission, x.

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  • Buchanan found a mean of 20 experiments made by piezometers sunk in great depths on board the " Challenger " give a coefficient of compressibility K=491 X 107; but six of these experiments made at depths of from 2740 to 3125 fathoms gave K=480Xio 7.

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  • Feuillet des Conches Louis X VI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, lettres et documents inedits (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries.

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  • X a.

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  • The radial distance x is at any instant proportional to the force acting through the spring.

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  • It appears tolerably safe to conclude that, whatever errors 'may have affected the determination, the diameter or distance of the particles of water is between the two thousand and the ten thousand millionth of an inch " (= between 125 X I o 8 and 025 X 10 -8 cms.).

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  • Thus the contribution to the total impulsive pressure exerted on the area dS in time dt from this cause is mu X udtdS X (11 3 m 3 /,r 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2 )dudvdw (I o) The total pressure exerted in bringing the centres of gravity of all the colliding molecules to rest normally to the boundary is obtained by first integrating this expression with respect to u, v, w, the limits being all values for which collisions are possible (namely from - co too for u, and from - oo to + oo for v and w), and then summing for all kinds of molecules in the gas.

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  • T =273, we obtain R =1.35 X Io -16 and this enables us to determine the mean velocities produced by heat motion in molecules of any given mass.

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  • Plato (Rep. x.) embodies the idea in one of his finest myths.

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  • The formula for length of scale is, length = sighting radius X tangent of the angle of elevation.

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  • The finest of these apartments, containing beautiful arabesque x XVII.

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  • Take any base X'X, and draw lines at right angles to this base through all the angular points of the figure.

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  • Then, if we take ordinates Kb, Lg, Mc, Nd, Pf, equal to B'B, GG', C'C, D'D, FF', the figure abgcdfe will be the equivalent trapezoid, and any ordinate drawn from the base to the a LM N P e X top of this trapezoid will be equal to the portion of this ordinate (produced) which falls within the original figure.

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  • Volume =height X area of end =length of edge X area of cross-section; the " height " being the perpendicular distance between the two ends.

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  • B where x = the distance between the two lines = N /No.

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  • These formulae also hold for converting moments of a solid figure with regard to a plane into moments with regard to a parallel plane through the centroid; x being the distance between the two planes.

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  • Then we may, ignoring the units G and H, speak of ON and NP as being equal to x and u respectively.

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  • Let KA and LB be the positions of NP corresponding to the extreme values of x.

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  • To illustrate the importance of the mensuration of graphs, suppose that we require the average value of u with regard to x.

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  • It arises mainly in statistics, when the ordinate of the trapezette represents the relative frequency of occurrence of the magnitude represented by the abscissa x; the magnitude of the abscissa corresponding to the median ordinate is then the " median value of x."

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  • If there are m of these strips, and if the breadth of each is h, so that H =mh, it is convenient to write x in the form xo+Oh, and to denote it by x 0, the corresponding value of u being ue.

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  • In the case of the briquette the position of the foot of the ordinate u is expressed by co-ordinates x, y, referred to a pair of axes parallel to a pair of sides of the base of the briquette.

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  • If the planes of one set divide it into m slabs of thickness h, and those of the other into n slabs of thickness k, so that H =mh, K = nk, then the values of x and of y for any ordinate may be denoted by xo+Oh and yo+Ok, and the length of the ordinate by uo, 0.

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  • The area of the trapezette, measured from the lower bounding ordinate up to the ordinate corresponding to any value of x, is some function of x.

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  • In the notation of the integral calculus, this area is equal to f x o udx; but the notation is inconvenient, since it implies a division into infinitesimal elements, which is not essential to the idea of an area.

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  • In the same way the volume of a briquette between the planes x = xo, y = yo, x= a, y = b may be denoted by [[Vx,y ]y=yo] u 'x' =xo.

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  • The statement that the ordinate u of a trapezette is a function of the abscissa x, or that u=f(x), must be distinguished from u =f(x) as the equation to the top of the trapezette.

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  • If this is done for every possible value of x, there will be a series of ordinates tracing out a trapezette with base along OX.

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  • Hence the volume of each element of the solid figure is to be found by multiplying the area of the corresponding element of the trapezette by 1, and therefore the total volume is 1 X area of trapezette.

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  • The simplest case is that in which u is constant or is a linear function of x, i.e.

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  • The next case is that in which u is a quadratic function of x, i.e.

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  • Generally, if the area of a trapezette for which u is an algebraical function of x of degree 2n is given correctly by an expression which is a linear function of values of u representing ordinates placed symmetrically about the mid-ordinate of the trapezette (with or without this mid-ordinate), the same expression will give the area of a trapezette for which u is an algebraical function of x of degree 2n + 1.

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  • This will be seen by taking the mid-ordinate as the ordinate for which x = o, and noticing that the odd powers of x introduce positive and negative terms which balance one another when the whole area is taken into account.

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  • When u is of degree 4 or 5 in x, we require at least five ordinates.

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  • Writing m = 2p, and grouping the coefficients of the successive differences, we shall find area = 2ph up+ 2 652up + 3 p4365p2 84up 3p,6 - 21p4 28p2 15120 If u is of degree 2f or 2f + i in x, we require to go up to b 2f u p, so that m must be not less than 2f.

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  • The general formulae of § 54 (p being replaced (i) by 2m) may in the same way be applied to obtain formulae giving the area of the trapezette in terms of the mid-ordinates of the strips, the series being taken up to b 2f ul m or /th 2J ug m at least, where u is of degree 2f or 2f + I in x.

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  • In the case of the sphere, for instance, whose radius is R, the area of the section at distance x from the centre is lr(R 2 -x 2), which is a quadratic function of x; the values of So, Si, and S2 are respectively o, 7rR 2, and o, and the volume is therefore s.

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  • In the case of a pyramid, of height h, the area of the section by a plane parallel to the base and at distance x from the vertex is clearly x 2 /h 2 X area of base.

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  • Let the distance between the parallel planes through AB and CD be h, and let a plane at distance x from the plane through AB cut the edges AC, up -f- .

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  • By drawing Ac and Ad parallel to BC and BD, so as to meet the plane through CD in c and d, and producing QP and RS to meet Ac and Ad in q and r, we see that the area of Pqrs is (x/h - x 2 /h 2) X area of cCDd; this also is a quadratic function of x.

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  • In the case of the parabolic trapezette, for instance, xu is of degree 3 in x, and therefore the first moment is lh(xouo+4xlui-+x2u2).

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  • In the case, therefore, of any solid whose cross-section at distance x from one end is a quadratic function of x, the position of the crosssection through the centroid is to be found by determining the position of the centre of gravity of particles of masses proportional to So, S2, and 4S 1, placed at the extremities and the middle of a line drawn from one end of the solid to the other.

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  • If u is an algebraical function of x of degree not exceeding p, and if the area of a trapezette, for which the ordinate v is of degree not exceeding p+q, may be expressed by a formula Aovo-1--yivi+..

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  • To extend these methods to a briquette, where the ordinate u is an algebraical function of x and y, the axes of x and of y being parallel to the sides of the base, we consider that the area of a section at distance x from the plane x = o is expressed in terms of the ordinates in which it intersects the series of planes, parallel to y=o, through the given ordinates of the briquette (§ 44); and that the area of the section is then represented by the ordinate of a trapezette.

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  • This ordinate will be an algebraical function of x, and we can again apply a suitable formula.

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  • Suppose, for instance, that u is of degree not exceeding 3 in x, and of degree not exceeding 3 in y, that it contains terms in x3y3, x 3 y 2, x2y3, &c.; and suppose that the edges parallel to which x and y are measured are of lengths 2h and 3k, the briquette being divided into six elements by the plane x=xo+h and the planes y = yo+k, y = yo+2k, and that the 12 ordinates forming the edges of these six elements are given.

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  • The area of the section by a plane at distance x from the edge 0 is a function of x whose degree is the same as that of u.

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  • The volume of the briquette for which u is a function of x and y is found by the operation of double integration, consisting of two successive operations, one being with regard to x, and the other with regard to y; and these operations may (in the cases with which we are concerned) be performed in either order.

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  • The first, which is the best known but is of limited application, consists in replacing each successive portion of the figure by another figure whose ordinate is an algebraical function of x or of x and y, and expressing the area or volume of this latter figure (exactly or approximately) in terms of the given ordinates.

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  • This means that, if the minor trapezette consists of k strips, v will be of degree k or k - I in x, according as the data are the bounding ordinates or the mid-ordinates.

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  • P2 = x2 I A I + x 2 I A I +.

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  • The position of the central ordinate is given by x = v 1 /po, and therefore is given approximately by pl/po.

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  • These results may be extended to the calculation of an expression of the form fxo u4(x)dx, where 0(x) is a definite function of x, and the conditions with regard to u are the same as in § 82.

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  • The formulae can be adapted to the case in which cp(x) is tabulated for xl,.

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  • The expressions in square brackets are in each case to be taken as relating to the extreme values x =xo and x=xm, as in §§ 75 and 76.

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  • The formulae of § 82 can be extended to the case of a briquette whose top has close contact with the base all along its boundary; the data being the volumes of the minor briquettes formed by the planes x =x0, x = x i,

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  • If the data of the briquette are, as in § 86, the volumes of the minor briquettes, but the condition as to close contact is not satisfied, we have y "`x P u dx dy = K + L + R - X111010-0,0 f xo yo i'?

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  • Either or both of the expressions K and L will have to be calculated by means of the formula of § 84; if this is applied to both expressions, we have a formula which may be written in a more general form f f 4 u4(x, y) dx dy = u dx dy.

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  • It is also clearly impossible to express u as an algebraical function of x and y if some value of du/dx or duldy is to be infinite.

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  • One method is to construct a table for interpolation of x in terms of u, and from this table to calculate values of x corresponding to values of u, proceeding by equal intervals; a quadrature-formula can then be applied.

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  • Even where u is an explicit function of x, so that f x udx may be expressed in terms of x, it is often more convenient, for construction of a table of values of such an integral, to use finite-difference formulae.

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  • Each of the above formulae involves an arbitrary constant; but this disappears when we start the additions from 'a known value of X udx.

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  • The formulae may be used for extending the accuracy of tables, in cases where, if v represents the quantity tabulated, hdv/dx or h 2 d 2 v /dx 2 can be conveniently expressed in terms of v and x to a greater degree of accuracy than it could be found from the table.

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  • As Johnson thought it unsafe to pursue the routed army his victory had no other effect than the erection here of the useless defences of Fort William Henry, but as it was the only success in a year of gloom parliament rewarded him with a grant of X 5000 and the title of a baronet.

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  • Both narratives are doubtless based upon actual occurrences - the cures narrated in Mark ii., iii., viii., x.

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  • Mary and Martha are admittedly identical with the sisters in Luke x.

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  • Thus a push or a compression of the X air is transmitted onwards in the direction OX.

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