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wrought-iron

wrought-iron

wrought-iron Sentence Examples

  • A wide porch stretched the length of the building, and above it were two balconies with black wrought iron banisters that curved out gracefully.

  • Maybe because it had the same theme of wrought iron and ivory as the hacienda - and maybe they had been visiting too long.

  • That was something she had trouble imagining, but the wrought iron design was open and graceful.

  • There are capacious docks on the river, which is crossed by a wrought-iron bridge, 1000 ft.

  • With wrought iron pipes bends may be arranged, as shown in fig.

  • Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.

  • A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.

  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

  • There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.

  • Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.

  • wrought-iron drive-pipe, terminating in a steel shoe, which is driven to the bed-rock, and a 71-in.

  • The gas is distributed to the consumer from the wells in wrought-iron pipes, ranging in diameter from 20 in.

  • Riveted wrought-iron pipes 3 ft.

  • In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.

  • American stills of the former type are constructed of wrought-iron or steel, and are about 30 ft.

  • The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.

  • high, is usually of brick, red brick on the outside, firebrick on the inside; sometimes it is made of wrought iron waterjackets.

  • This has an oblong, dish-shaped hearth of acid or basic fire-brick built into a wrought-iron pan, which rests on transverse rails supported by longitudinal walls.

  • Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.

  • A very pure form of iron, which from the method of its manufacture is called " steel," is now extensively used for the construction of dynamo magnets; this metal sometimes contains not more than 0.3% of foreign substances, including carbon, and is magnetically superior to the best commercial wrought iron.

  • A A, called the " yoke," is a block of annealed wrought iron about 18 in.

  • The results, nevertheless, agree very well with those for annealed wrought iron obtained by other methods.

  • The annexed table gives the saturation values of I for the particular metals examined by Ewing and Low: Wrought iron .

  • Hence the changes of volume undergone by a given sample of wrought iron under increasing magnetization must depend largely upon the state of the metal as regards hardness; there may be always contraction, or always expansion, or first one and then the other.

  • Tinning wrought iron is effected by immersion.

  • The water-tight lining may be either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack screws as the borehole advances, or cast iron tubbing put together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to the old plan of building them up of segments.

  • The fan has eight arms, framed together of wrought iron bars, with diagonal struts, so as to obtain rigidity with comparative lightness, carrying flat close-boarded blades at their extremities.

  • by numerous guide blades, dividing it up into a series of rectangular tubes of diminishing section, attached to a horizontal axle by cast iron bosses and wrought iron arms. The tubes at their smallest part are connected to a cast iron ring, io ft.

  • of one or more platforms connected by an open framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached.

  • This is an upright frame, usually made in wrought iron or steel strutted by diagonal thrust beams against the engine-house wall or other solid abutments, the height to the bearings of the guide pulleys being from 80 to 1 00 ft.

  • Then late in the 18th century wrought iron began to be used, at first in combination with timber or cast iron.

  • The great girder bridges over the Menai Strait and at Saltash near Plymouth, erected in the middle of the i 9th century, were entirely of wrought iron, and subsequently wrought iron girder bridges were extensively used on railways.

  • The use of wrought iron and later of mild steel has made the construction of such bridges very convenient and economical.

  • From 1840, trusses, chiefly of timber but with wrought-iron tensionrods and cast-iron shoes, were adopted in America.

  • There are three chains on each side, of one and two links alternately, and these support wrought iron stiffening girders.

  • There are wrought iron saddles and steel rollers on the piers.

  • were used, and in some cases these were trussed with wrought iron.

  • But the theory of such a combined structure could not be formulated at that time, and it was proved, partly by experiment, that a simple tubular girder of wrought iron was strong enough to carry the railway.

  • Barton, " On the economic distribution of material in the sides of wrought iron beams " (Proc. Inst.

  • The top boom of each girder is an elliptical wrought iron tube 17 ft.

  • deep. The lower boom is a pair of chains, of wrought-iron links, 14 in each chain, of 7 in.

  • In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.

  • The lower flange and ties were flat wrought iron links.

  • 20 shows a Fink truss, a characteristic early American type, with cast iron compression and wrought iron tension members.

  • 28 shows one of the wrought iron arches of a bridge over the Rhine at Coblenz.

  • Each span has four steel double ribs of steel tubes butted and clasped by wrought iron couplings.

  • Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or cast or wrought iron.

  • In metal bridges wrought iron has been replaced by mild steel - a stronger, tougher and better material.

  • Then w2'/w2 = (1 +4p7p) w2'/7.vl = 1 1 0 [l2/ll + (12/11) 2] (1 +4P1p) A partially rational approximate formula for the weight of main girders is the following (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs, 1869, p. 4 0) :- Let w=total live load per ft.

  • It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.

  • For flexible suspension bridges with wrought iron link chains, and dip = Ath of the span, the limiting span is 2800 ft.

  • Other buildings of interest are the guildhall, a 15th-century structure of brick; Shodfriars Hall, a half-timbered house adjacent to slight remains of a Dominican priory; the free grammar school, founded in 1554, with a fine gateway of wrought iron of the 17th century brought from St Botolph's church; and the Hussey Tower of brick, part of a mansion of the 16th century.

  • The last column in the Range Table giving the inches of penetration into wrought iron is calculated from the remaining velocity by an empirical formula, as explained in the article Armour Plates.

  • The drum weirs erected across shallow, regulating passes on the river Marne in1857-1867comprise a series of upper and under wrought-iron paddles, which can make a quarter of a revolution round a central axis laid along the sill of the weir.

  • The individual and collective influence of the several impurities which occur in the product of the Heroult cell is still to seek, and the importance of this inquiry will be seen when we consider that if cast iron, wrought iron and steel, the three totally distinct metals included in the generic name of "iron" - which are only distinguished one from another chemically by minute differences in the proportion of certain non-metallic ingredients - had only been in use for a comparatively few years, attempts might occasionally be made to forge cast iron, or to employ wrought iron in the manufacture of edge-tools.

  • The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.

  • Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.

  • This name did not please those interested in the new product, because existing wrought iron was a low-priced material.

  • The history of iron may for convenience be divided into three periods: a first in which only the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore was practised; a second which added to this primitive art the extraction of iron in the form of carburized or cast iron, to be used either as such or for conversion into wrought iron; and a third in which the iron worker used a temperature high enough to melt wrought iron, which he then called molten steel.

  • Where iron ore was found, the local smith, the Waldschmied, converted it with the charcoal of the surrounding forest into the wrought iron which he worked up. Many farmers had their own little forges or smithies to supply the iron for their tools.

  • In time the smith learnt how to convert this unwelcome product into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge, exposing it to the blast in such a way as to burn out most of its carbon.

  • With the second period began, in the 14th century, the gradual displacement of the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore by the intentional and regular use of this indirect method of first carburizing the metal and thus turning it into cast iron, and then converting it into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge.

  • In 1611 Simon Sturtevant patented the use of mineral coal for iron-smelting, and in 1619 Dud Dudley made with this coal both cast and wrought iron with technical success, but through the opposition of the charcoal iron-makers all of his many attempts were defeated.

  • The third period has for its great distinction the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which are like Huntsman's crucible process in that their essence is their freeing wrought iron and low carbon steel from mechanically entangled cinder, by developing the hitherto unattainable temperature, rising to above 1500° C., needed for melting these relatively infusible products.

  • Knowing this, and having in the Siemens regenerative gas furnace an independent means of generating this temperature, the Martin brothers of Sireuil in France in 1864 developed the open-hearth process of making steel of any desired carbon-content by melting together in this furnace cast and wrought iron.

  • It is the common, very magnetic form of iron, in itself ductile but relatively soft and weak, as we know it in wrought iron and mild or low-carbon steel.

  • Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.

  • These are made of alternate layers of soft wrought iron and chrome steel hardened by sudden cooling.

  • The hardness of the hardened chrome steel resists the burglar's drill, and the ductility of the wrought iron the blows of his sledge.

  • 6, and then cast into castings of cast iron, or converted into wrought iron or steel by purifying it, following path 2.

  • If the pig iron is to follow path 2, the purification which converts it into wrought iron or steel consists chiefly in oxidizing and thereby removing its carbon, phosphorus and other impurities, while it is molten, either by means of the oxygen of atmospheric air blown through it as in the Bessemer process, or by the oxygen of iron ore stirred into it as in the puddling and Bell-Krupp processes, or by both together as in the open hearth process.

  • The shaping processes include the mechanical ones, such as rolling, forging and wire-drawing, and the remelting ones such as the crucible process of melting wrought iron or steel in crucibles and casting it in ingots for the manufacture of the best kinds of tool steel.

  • This action is of great importance whether the metal is to be used as cast iron or is to be converted into wrought iron or steel.

  • Direct Processes for making Wrought Iron and Steel.

  • As the essential difference between cast iron on one hand and wrought iron and steel on the other is that the former contains necessarily much more carbon, usually more silicon, and often more phosphorus that are suitable or indeed permissible in the latter two, the chief work of all these conversion processes is to remove the excess of these several foreign elements by oxidizing them to carbonic oxide CO, silica S102, and phosphoric acid P 2 0 5, respectively.

  • Till Huntsman developed the crucible process in 1740, the only kinds of steel of commercial importance were blister steel made by carburizing wrought iron without fusion, and others which like it were greatly injured by the presence of particles of slag.

  • - When Bessemer discovered that by simply blowing air through molten cast iron rapidly he could make low-carbon steel, which is essentially wrought iron greatly improved by being freed from its essential defect, its necessarily weakening and embrittling slag, the very expensive and exhausting puddling process seemed doomed, unable to survive the time when men should have familiarized themselves with the use of Bessemer steel, and should have developed the evident possibilities of cheapness of the Bessemer process.

  • Nevertheless the use of wrought iron actually continued to increase.

  • The first of the United States decennial censuses to show a decrease in the production of wrought iron was that in 1890, 35 years after the invention of the Bessemer process.

  • Heating Furnaces are used in iron manufacture chiefly for bringing masses of steel or wrought iron to a temperature proper for rolling or forging.

  • second-hand wrought iron rails.

  • The price of wrought iron in Philadelphia reached $ 1 55 (£3 2, os.

  • Of the combined wrought iron and steel of the United States, steel formed only 2% in 1865, but 37% in 1880, 85% in 1899 and 91% in 1907.

  • We may note with interest that the three great iron producers so closely related by blood-Great Britain, the United States and Germany and Luxemburg-made in 1907 81% of the world's pig iron and 83% of its steel; and that the four great processes by which nearly all steel and wrought iron are made-the puddling, crucible and both the acid and basic varieties of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, as well as the steam-hammer and grooved rolls for rolling iron and steel-were invented by Britons, though in the case of the openhearth process Great Britain must share with France the credit of the invention.

  • The large employment of cast iron is comparatively modern, in England at least only dating from the i 6th century; it is not, however, incapable of artistic treatment if due regard be paid to the necessities of casting, and if no attempt is made to imitate the fine-drawn lightness to which wrought iron so readily lends itself.

  • At this period wrought iron came into general use in the form of screens for chapels and tombs, and grills for windows.

  • The bronze and wrought-iron screens - rejas, mostly of the 15th and 16th centuries - to be found in almost every important church in Spain are very fine examples of metal-work.

  • - Wrought-iron Candle Pricket; late 15th-century.

  • In the 13th century the English workers in wrought iron were especially skilful.

  • In wrought iron the German smiths, especially during the 15th century, greatly excelled.

  • Almost peculiar to Germany is the use of wrought iron for grave-crosses and sepulchral monuments, of which the Nuremberg and other cemeteries contain fine examples.

  • Though the demand for good domestic wrought-iron work has enormously increased, adaptations from the beautiful work of the 17th and 18th centuries have been found so suited to their architectural surroundings, that new departures have been relatively uncommon.

  • It is bad taste to imitate the tracery of the ductile wrought iron in cast designs, the foliations of ancient wrought-iron grilles and screens in heavy cast iron.

  • In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.

  • Chester has a large shipbuilding industry, and manufactories of cotton and worsted goods, iron and steel, the steel-casting industry being especially important, and large quantities of wrought iron and steel pipes being manufactured.

  • As an industry, however, the production both of pig, iron and of wrought iron and steel is increasingly prosperous.

  • It consists of a solid shaft of wrought iron some 16 in.

  • At each line of flooror roofbeams, lateral connexion between the ends of the beams and girders shall be made by passing wrought-iron or steel straps across or through the cast-iron column, in such a manner as to rigidly connect the beams and girders with each other on the direction of their length.

  • These straps shall be made of wrought-iron or steel, and shall be riveted or bolted to the flanges or to the webs of the beams or girders.

  • It is used in preference to wrought iron on account of its lesser cost.

  • Pulleys are also built up of wrought iron and steel, and can then be constructed entirely free from internal stress; they are thus much lighter and stronger, and are not liable to fly to pieces like cast iron if they break.

  • 1 shows a built-up pulley having a cast-iron nave A, straight wrought-iron arms B, screwed therein and connected to a steel plate-rim C by riveted ends, and also by screwed flanges D riveted on each side to the rim.

  • The gas enters in the centre, and to make its escape again it has to pass into long wrought iron inverted troughs through perforations one-twentieth of an inch in diameter.

  • Such producers, frequently strengthened by a wrought iron casing, are even now used to a great extent.

  • The metal so obtained invariably contains a certain amount of carbon, free or combined, and the proportion and condition regulate the properties of the metal, giving origin to the three important varieties: cast iron, steel, and wrought iron.

  • It may be obtained electrolytically from solutions of ferrous and magnesium sulphates and sodium bicarbonate, a wrought iron anode and a rotating cathode of copper, thinly silvered and iodized, being employed (S.

  • 35 or wrought iron nails free from oxide; from which we have the preparation Vinum ferri, iron wine, iron digested in sherry wine for thirty days.

  • Puddling furnaces are usually entirely cased with iron plates, and blast furnaces with hoops round each course of the stack, or in those of thinner constructions the firebrick work is entirely enclosed in a wrought iron casing or jacket.

  • Owing to the conditions of the work, which require the maintenance of a sensibly reducing atmosphere, they contain a very notable proportion of carbonic oxide, and are drawn off by large wrought iron tubes near the top of the furnace and conveyed by branch pipes to the different boilers and air-heating apparatus, which are now entirely heated by the combustion of such gases, or mixed with air and exploded in gas engines.

  • A wide porch stretched the length of the building, and above it were two balconies with black wrought iron banisters that curved out gracefully.

  • Maybe because it had the same theme of wrought iron and ivory as the hacienda - and maybe they had been visiting too long.

  • That was something she had trouble imagining, but the wrought iron design was open and graceful.

  • arch of voussoirs, now fitted with a pair of modern wrought iron gates.

  • rusticated granite ashlar and wrought iron Gothic style gates.

  • Straight ahead is a bright room with a wrought iron balcony overlooking the front garden and the road.

  • balcony brackets support projecting balconies with ornate wrought-iron balustrades.

  • Staircase with wrought iron balustrade to first floor level.

  • Stairs to First Floor with decorative wrought iron balustrade.

  • Master suite The Master suite is furnished with a king sized bed and wrought iron bedstead with four poster ivory canopy.

  • All other rooms have antique brass, wrought iron or period wooden bedsteads - one with a canopy over.

  • Notice the wrought iron railing which was constructed by Phil Johnson, a Scottish artist blacksmith.

  • Some of the fittings of the house were on a luxurious scale too, a particularly striking example being an elegant wrought iron candlestick.

  • Upstairs, in the dining area, huge wrought iron chandeliers hang from the three story high ceiling.

  • The Barron Bell Trust have also donated £ 2000 so that the all of the bells can now have wrought iron clappers.

  • From the High Street the entrance is rather deceptive - there is a wrought iron sign indicating the entrance to an alley.

  • Gardens; The Lilies is approached through wrought iron double gates to gravel driveway with parking for several vehicles.

  • The garden is enclosed by walling with wrought iron embellishment to the front boundary wall.

  • Attach a narrow wrought iron curtain rod with decorative finials to the wall.

  • A wrought iron cross finial from the east end now lies alongside the south wall of the nave.

  • Exposed feature timber roof trusses and beams. black wrought iron style ceiling light fitment.

  • There is a large flagstone across the rear of the property with a lovely view through a wrought iron gate to a bordered pathway.

  • OUTSIDE To the front there is a small paved front forecourt enclosed by wrought iron balustrading.

  • Outside: The property can be entered through either a wrought iron pedestrian gate or through the Castle entrance.

  • Elsewhere there are carved stone gateposts, the original gates probably having been of wrought iron or timber.

  • Later, wrought-iron box girders gave way to plate girders.

  • Instead they have a red hot wrought iron griddle with manacles awaiting them in the firey place.

  • Beneath the dovecote a weighty wooden door with wrought iron steel grille leads into the lobby.

  • A new wrought iron handrail crafted locally was fitted to the double spiral staircase, completing the restoration.

  • Ensure wrought iron or steel gates can not easily be climbed.

  • The range is finished in warm tones of a light and medium brown sheen and completed with wrought iron handles and portculis ironwork.

  • At the east end of the north aisle is a chapel separated from it by wrought iron altar rails.

  • Do you have a section of old wrought iron railing that once graced your front porch?

  • Connected to top floor by a wrought-iron spiral staircase.

  • surmounted by a wrought iron weathervane.

  • The viaduct itself is a unique example of a warren truss supported on wrought iron trestles.

  • wisteria covered terrace which is furnished with a wrought iron table and chairs.

  • There are capacious docks on the river, which is crossed by a wrought-iron bridge, 1000 ft.

  • The whole system is constructed of wrought iron pipe of small diameter, strong enough to resist a testing pressure of z000 to 2500 lb per sq.

  • With wrought iron pipes bends may be arranged, as shown in fig.

  • Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.

  • A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.

  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

  • There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.

  • Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.

  • wrought-iron drive-pipe, terminating in a steel shoe, which is driven to the bed-rock, and a 71-in.

  • The gas is distributed to the consumer from the wells in wrought-iron pipes, ranging in diameter from 20 in.

  • Riveted wrought-iron pipes 3 ft.

  • In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.

  • American stills of the former type are constructed of wrought-iron or steel, and are about 30 ft.

  • The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.

  • high, is usually of brick, red brick on the outside, firebrick on the inside; sometimes it is made of wrought iron waterjackets.

  • This has an oblong, dish-shaped hearth of acid or basic fire-brick built into a wrought-iron pan, which rests on transverse rails supported by longitudinal walls.

  • Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.

  • A very pure form of iron, which from the method of its manufacture is called " steel," is now extensively used for the construction of dynamo magnets; this metal sometimes contains not more than 0.3% of foreign substances, including carbon, and is magnetically superior to the best commercial wrought iron.

  • A A, called the " yoke," is a block of annealed wrought iron about 18 in.

  • The results, nevertheless, agree very well with those for annealed wrought iron obtained by other methods.

  • The annexed table gives the saturation values of I for the particular metals examined by Ewing and Low: Wrought iron .

  • Hence the changes of volume undergone by a given sample of wrought iron under increasing magnetization must depend largely upon the state of the metal as regards hardness; there may be always contraction, or always expansion, or first one and then the other.

  • Tinning wrought iron is effected by immersion.

  • Iron and fireclay are the materials commonly employed; wrought iron is used in the manufacture of wood-spirit, fireclay for coal-gas (see GAS: Manufacture), phosphorus, zinc, &c. The vertical type, however, is employed in the manufacture of acetone and of iodine.

  • The water-tight lining may be either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack screws as the borehole advances, or cast iron tubbing put together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to the old plan of building them up of segments.

  • The fan has eight arms, framed together of wrought iron bars, with diagonal struts, so as to obtain rigidity with comparative lightness, carrying flat close-boarded blades at their extremities.

  • by numerous guide blades, dividing it up into a series of rectangular tubes of diminishing section, attached to a horizontal axle by cast iron bosses and wrought iron arms. The tubes at their smallest part are connected to a cast iron ring, io ft.

  • of one or more platforms connected by an open framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached.

  • This is an upright frame, usually made in wrought iron or steel strutted by diagonal thrust beams against the engine-house wall or other solid abutments, the height to the bearings of the guide pulleys being from 80 to 1 00 ft.

  • in diameter to diminish the effect of bending strains in the rope by change in direction, have channelled cast iron rims with wrought iron arms, a form combining rigidity with strength, in order to keep down their weight.

  • Then late in the 18th century wrought iron began to be used, at first in combination with timber or cast iron.

  • The great girder bridges over the Menai Strait and at Saltash near Plymouth, erected in the middle of the i 9th century, were entirely of wrought iron, and subsequently wrought iron girder bridges were extensively used on railways.

  • Since the introduction of mild steel of greater tenacity and toughness than wrought iron (i.e.

  • The use of wrought iron and later of mild steel has made the construction of such bridges very convenient and economical.

  • From 1840, trusses, chiefly of timber but with wrought-iron tensionrods and cast-iron shoes, were adopted in America.

  • There are three chains on each side, of one and two links alternately, and these support wrought iron stiffening girders.

  • There are wrought iron saddles and steel rollers on the piers.

  • were used, and in some cases these were trussed with wrought iron.

  • But the theory of such a combined structure could not be formulated at that time, and it was proved, partly by experiment, that a simple tubular girder of wrought iron was strong enough to carry the railway.

  • Barton, " On the economic distribution of material in the sides of wrought iron beams " (Proc. Inst.

  • The top boom of each girder is an elliptical wrought iron tube 17 ft.

  • deep. The lower boom is a pair of chains, of wrought-iron links, 14 in each chain, of 7 in.

  • In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.

  • The lower flange and ties were flat wrought iron links.

  • 20 shows a Fink truss, a characteristic early American type, with cast iron compression and wrought iron tension members.

  • 28 shows one of the wrought iron arches of a bridge over the Rhine at Coblenz.

  • Each span has four steel double ribs of steel tubes butted and clasped by wrought iron couplings.

  • Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or cast or wrought iron.

  • In metal bridges wrought iron has been replaced by mild steel - a stronger, tougher and better material.

  • Structural wrought iron has a tenacity of 20 to 222 tons per sq.

  • Then w2'/w2 = (1 +4p7p) w2'/7.vl = 1 1 0 [l2/ll + (12/11) 2] (1 +4P1p) A partially rational approximate formula for the weight of main girders is the following (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs, 1869, p. 4 0) :- Let w=total live load per ft.

  • It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.

  • For flexible suspension bridges with wrought iron link chains, and dip = Ath of the span, the limiting span is 2800 ft.

  • Other buildings of interest are the guildhall, a 15th-century structure of brick; Shodfriars Hall, a half-timbered house adjacent to slight remains of a Dominican priory; the free grammar school, founded in 1554, with a fine gateway of wrought iron of the 17th century brought from St Botolph's church; and the Hussey Tower of brick, part of a mansion of the 16th century.

  • The last column in the Range Table giving the inches of penetration into wrought iron is calculated from the remaining velocity by an empirical formula, as explained in the article Armour Plates.

  • The drum weirs erected across shallow, regulating passes on the river Marne in1857-1867comprise a series of upper and under wrought-iron paddles, which can make a quarter of a revolution round a central axis laid along the sill of the weir.

  • The individual and collective influence of the several impurities which occur in the product of the Heroult cell is still to seek, and the importance of this inquiry will be seen when we consider that if cast iron, wrought iron and steel, the three totally distinct metals included in the generic name of "iron" - which are only distinguished one from another chemically by minute differences in the proportion of certain non-metallic ingredients - had only been in use for a comparatively few years, attempts might occasionally be made to forge cast iron, or to employ wrought iron in the manufacture of edge-tools.

  • The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.

  • Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.

  • This name did not please those interested in the new product, because existing wrought iron was a low-priced material.

  • The history of iron may for convenience be divided into three periods: a first in which only the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore was practised; a second which added to this primitive art the extraction of iron in the form of carburized or cast iron, to be used either as such or for conversion into wrought iron; and a third in which the iron worker used a temperature high enough to melt wrought iron, which he then called molten steel.

  • Where iron ore was found, the local smith, the Waldschmied, converted it with the charcoal of the surrounding forest into the wrought iron which he worked up. Many farmers had their own little forges or smithies to supply the iron for their tools.

  • The fuel, wood or charcoal, which served both to heat and to deoxidize the ore, has so strong a carburizing action that it would turn some of the resultant metal into " natural steel," which differs from wrought iron only in containing so much carbon that it is relatively hard and brittle in its natural state, and that it becomes intensely hard when quenched from a red heat in water.

  • In time the smith learnt how to convert this unwelcome product into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge, exposing it to the blast in such a way as to burn out most of its carbon.

  • With the second period began, in the 14th century, the gradual displacement of the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore by the intentional and regular use of this indirect method of first carburizing the metal and thus turning it into cast iron, and then converting it into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge.

  • In 1611 Simon Sturtevant patented the use of mineral coal for iron-smelting, and in 1619 Dud Dudley made with this coal both cast and wrought iron with technical success, but through the opposition of the charcoal iron-makers all of his many attempts were defeated.

  • Meanwhile Henry Cort had in 1784 very greatly simplified the conversion of cast iron into wrought iron.

  • The third period has for its great distinction the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which are like Huntsman's crucible process in that their essence is their freeing wrought iron and low carbon steel from mechanically entangled cinder, by developing the hitherto unattainable temperature, rising to above 1500° C., needed for melting these relatively infusible products.

  • Knowing this, and having in the Siemens regenerative gas furnace an independent means of generating this temperature, the Martin brothers of Sireuil in France in 1864 developed the open-hearth process of making steel of any desired carbon-content by melting together in this furnace cast and wrought iron.

  • It is the common, very magnetic form of iron, in itself ductile but relatively soft and weak, as we know it in wrought iron and mild or low-carbon steel.

  • Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.

  • These are made of alternate layers of soft wrought iron and chrome steel hardened by sudden cooling.

  • The hardness of the hardened chrome steel resists the burglar's drill, and the ductility of the wrought iron the blows of his sledge.

  • 6, and then cast into castings of cast iron, or converted into wrought iron or steel by purifying it, following path 2.

  • If the pig iron is to follow path 2, the purification which converts it into wrought iron or steel consists chiefly in oxidizing and thereby removing its carbon, phosphorus and other impurities, while it is molten, either by means of the oxygen of atmospheric air blown through it as in the Bessemer process, or by the oxygen of iron ore stirred into it as in the puddling and Bell-Krupp processes, or by both together as in the open hearth process.

  • carburizing wrought iron by long heating in contact with charcoal (cementation), or the proximate composition or constitution, as in the hardening, tempering and annealing of steel already described (§§ 28, 29), or both, as in the process of making malleable cast iron (§ 31).

  • The shaping processes include the mechanical ones, such as rolling, forging and wire-drawing, and the remelting ones such as the crucible process of melting wrought iron or steel in crucibles and casting it in ingots for the manufacture of the best kinds of tool steel.

  • This action is of great importance whether the metal is to be used as cast iron or is to be converted into wrought iron or steel.

  • Direct Processes for making Wrought Iron and Steel.

  • As the essential difference between cast iron on one hand and wrought iron and steel on the other is that the former contains necessarily much more carbon, usually more silicon, and often more phosphorus that are suitable or indeed permissible in the latter two, the chief work of all these conversion processes is to remove the excess of these several foreign elements by oxidizing them to carbonic oxide CO, silica S102, and phosphoric acid P 2 0 5, respectively.

  • In the cementation process bars of wrought iron about 1 in.

  • Till Huntsman developed the crucible process in 1740, the only kinds of steel of commercial importance were blister steel made by carburizing wrought iron without fusion, and others which like it were greatly injured by the presence of particles of slag.

  • - When Bessemer discovered that by simply blowing air through molten cast iron rapidly he could make low-carbon steel, which is essentially wrought iron greatly improved by being freed from its essential defect, its necessarily weakening and embrittling slag, the very expensive and exhausting puddling process seemed doomed, unable to survive the time when men should have familiarized themselves with the use of Bessemer steel, and should have developed the evident possibilities of cheapness of the Bessemer process.

  • Nevertheless the use of wrought iron actually continued to increase.

  • The first of the United States decennial censuses to show a decrease in the production of wrought iron was that in 1890, 35 years after the invention of the Bessemer process.

  • Heating Furnaces are used in iron manufacture chiefly for bringing masses of steel or wrought iron to a temperature proper for rolling or forging.

  • second-hand wrought iron rails.

  • The price of wrought iron in Philadelphia reached $ 1 55 (£3 2, os.

  • Of the combined wrought iron and steel of the United States, steel formed only 2% in 1865, but 37% in 1880, 85% in 1899 and 91% in 1907.

  • We may note with interest that the three great iron producers so closely related by blood-Great Britain, the United States and Germany and Luxemburg-made in 1907 81% of the world's pig iron and 83% of its steel; and that the four great processes by which nearly all steel and wrought iron are made-the puddling, crucible and both the acid and basic varieties of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, as well as the steam-hammer and grooved rolls for rolling iron and steel-were invented by Britons, though in the case of the openhearth process Great Britain must share with France the credit of the invention.

  • The large employment of cast iron is comparatively modern, in England at least only dating from the i 6th century; it is not, however, incapable of artistic treatment if due regard be paid to the necessities of casting, and if no attempt is made to imitate the fine-drawn lightness to which wrought iron so readily lends itself.

  • At this period wrought iron came into general use in the form of screens for chapels and tombs, and grills for windows.

  • Niccolo Grossi, who worked in wrought iron under the patronage of Lorenzo dei Medici, produced some wonderful specimens of metal-work, such as the candlesticks, lanterns, and rings fixed at intervals round the outside of the great palaces (see fig.

  • The bronze and wrought-iron screens - rejas, mostly of the 15th and 16th centuries - to be found in almost every important church in Spain are very fine examples of metal-work.

  • - Wrought-iron Candle Pricket; late 15th-century.

  • In the 13th century the English workers in wrought iron were especially skilful.

  • The screen to Bishop West's chapel at Ely, and that round Edward VI.'s tomb at Windsor, both made towards the end of the i 5th century, are the most magnificent English examples of wrought iron; and much wrought-iron work of great beauty was produced at the beginning of the 18th century, especially under the superintendence of Sir Christopher Wren (see Ebbetts, Iron Work of 17th and 18th Centuries, 1880).

  • In wrought iron the German smiths, especially during the 15th century, greatly excelled.

  • Almost peculiar to Germany is the use of wrought iron for grave-crosses and sepulchral monuments, of which the Nuremberg and other cemeteries contain fine examples.

  • Though the demand for good domestic wrought-iron work has enormously increased, adaptations from the beautiful work of the 17th and 18th centuries have been found so suited to their architectural surroundings, that new departures have been relatively uncommon.

  • It is bad taste to imitate the tracery of the ductile wrought iron in cast designs, the foliations of ancient wrought-iron grilles and screens in heavy cast iron.

  • In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.

  • Chester has a large shipbuilding industry, and manufactories of cotton and worsted goods, iron and steel, the steel-casting industry being especially important, and large quantities of wrought iron and steel pipes being manufactured.

  • As an industry, however, the production both of pig, iron and of wrought iron and steel is increasingly prosperous.

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