Wrought Sentence Examples
Her days were long but peaceful, wrought with duty and rest.
That was something she had trouble imagining, but the wrought iron design was open and graceful.
I tried to force from my memory the mayhem and violence Grasso had wrought across the country.
The Apostolic miracles, to which the New Testament bears evidence, were wrought in the power of Christ, and were evidences to His church and to the world of His continued presence.
A wide porch stretched the length of the building, and above it were two balconies with black wrought iron banisters that curved out gracefully.Advertisement
Maybe because it had the same theme of wrought iron and ivory as the hacienda - and maybe they had been visiting too long.
With wrought iron pipes bends may be arranged, as shown in fig.
The vine has been attacked by the Oidium Tuckeri, the Phylloxera vastatrix and the Peronospora viticola, which in rapid succession wrought great havoc in Italian vineyards.
He published, with a touching dedication to his wife, the treatise on Liberty, which they had wrought out together.
The bodies (or so much of them as ever existed, as only the fore parts remained) were hammered and wrought, like the bodies of the Egyptian figures.Advertisement
That wrought by man in destroying forests and cultivating the land will be no less effective, and already specimens in our herbaria alone represent species no longer to be found in a living state.
The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.
The Mongol invasion, in the latter part of that century, wrought their ruin, however, and from that time to the present there has been a steady decline in the commercial importance of the Euphrates route, and consequently also of the towns along its course, until at the present time it is only an avenue of ruins.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
The king, Charles IV., looked on helplessly at the ruin wrought by the subservience of his kingdom to France since 1796, and he was seemingly blind to the criminal intrigues between his queen and the prime minister Godoy.Advertisement
I wanted to remind this troubled soul of the good he'd wrought but thoughts of Betsy prevented my saying the words.
Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.
The evil was wrought, not by the regular armies of the cross who were inspired by noble ideals, but by the undisciplined mobs which, for the sake of plunder, associated themselves with the genuine enthusiasts.
As in his active career he had wrought organic changes in the ordering, direction and control of fleets, so by his historic studies, pursued after his retirement, he helped greatly to effect, if he did not exclusively initiate, an equally momentous change in the popular, and even the professional, way of regarding sea-power and its conditions.
The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit.Advertisement
The 8th duke of Argyll (Reign of Law) maintains that " miracles may be wrought by the selection and use of laws of which man knows and can know nothing, and which, if he did know, he could not employ."
There are wrought iron saddles and steel rollers on the piers.
Surely there are hearts and hands ever ready to make it possible for generous intentions to be wrought into noble deeds.
These two conquests, wrought in the great island of the Ocean and in the great island of the Mediterranean, were the main works of the Normans after they had fully put on the character of a Christian and French-speaking people, in other words, after they had changed from Northmen into Normans.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.Advertisement
Israel) the corn, the new wine and the oil, and have bestowed on her silver and gold in abundance which they have wrought into a Baal image " (Hos.
Some idea of the enormous damage wrought by the collective attacks of individually small and weak animals may be gathered from the fact that a conservative estimate places the loss due to insect attacks on cotton in the United States at the astounding figure of $60,000,000 (£12,000,000) annually.
The sudden fall of Crispi wrought a great change in the character of Italian relations with foreign powers.
Within a short time his shrine at Canterbury became the resort of innumerable pilgrims. Plenary indulgences were given for a visit to the shrine, and an official register was kept to record the miracles wrought by the relics of the saint.
I have wrought in these mines for the last 4 years.
He tells us that, at this time, God wrought with him as a master with a schoolboy whom he teaches.
Here the Grail is wrought of gold richly set with precious stones; it is carried in solemn procession, and the light issuing from it extinguishes that of the candles.
In 1656 a great fire completed the ruin wrought by the religious wars.
Mr. Hopkirk wrought extensively the coal which abounds in Dalbeth.
The great redemption had not yet been fully wrought out into ultimate fact.
Table lamps can be made of brass, wood, brushed aluminum, wrought iron, ceramic and even glass.
Tuscan villas often have wrought iron rails and even furniture.
The finishes can range from a burnished finish to a black wrought iron finish.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria.
His great work, the forcing into common law of the principles of civil law, was unaccomplished; but Story says "he seemed about to accomplish [it]; for his arguments before the Supreme Court were crowded with the principles of the Roman Law, wrought into the texture of the Common Law with great success."
It was the religious expression of the unity of Israel which the life and death struggle with the Philistines had gradually wrought out.
Pope John, who had excommunicated Bruce, was addressed by the parliament of Arbroath in April 1320 in a letter which compared Bruce to a Joshua or Judas Maccabaeus, who had wrought the salvation of his people, and declared they fought "not for glory, truth or honour, but for that liberty which no virtuous man will survive."
There are three chains on each side, of one and two links alternately, and these support wrought iron stiffening girders.
So strong is the effect of carbon that the use to which the metal is put, and indeed its division into its two great classes, the malleable one, comprising steel and wrought iron, with less than 2.20% of carbon, and the unmalleable one, cast iron, with more than this quantity, are based on carbon-content.
The shaping processes include the mechanical ones, such as rolling, forging and wire-drawing, and the remelting ones such as the crucible process of melting wrought iron or steel in crucibles and casting it in ingots for the manufacture of the best kinds of tool steel.
This action is of great importance whether the metal is to be used as cast iron or is to be converted into wrought iron or steel.
Direct Processes for making Wrought Iron and Steel.
As present way of getting the iron of the ore into the form of wrought` iron and steel by first making cast iron and then purifying it,, i.e.
As the essential difference between cast iron on one hand and wrought iron and steel on the other is that the former contains necessarily much more carbon, usually more silicon, and often more phosphorus that are suitable or indeed permissible in the latter two, the chief work of all these conversion processes is to remove the excess of these several foreign elements by oxidizing them to carbonic oxide CO, silica S102, and phosphoric acid P 2 0 5, respectively.
In the puddling process molten cast iron is converted into wrought iron, i.e.
Where the carbon, in thus diffusing inwards, meets particles of the slag, a basic ferrous silicate which is always present in wrought iron, it forms carbonic oxide, FeO+ C = Fe+CO, which puffs the pliant metal up and forms blisters.
In the United States the charge usually consists chiefly of wrought iron, and in melting in the crucible it is carburized by mixing with it either charcoal or " washed metal," a very pure cast iron made by the Bell-Krupp process (§ 107).
Till Huntsman developed the crucible process in 1740, the only kinds of steel of commercial importance were blister steel made by carburizing wrought iron without fusion, and others which like it were greatly injured by the presence of particles of slag.
Nevertheless the use of wrought iron actually continued to increase.
The first of the United States decennial censuses to show a decrease in the production of wrought iron was that in 1890, 35 years after the invention of the Bessemer process.
Heating Furnaces are used in iron manufacture chiefly for bringing masses of steel or wrought iron to a temperature proper for rolling or forging.
Of the combined wrought iron and steel of the United States, steel formed only 2% in 1865, but 37% in 1880, 85% in 1899 and 91% in 1907.
It deserves mention here that Garrison was then in utter ignorance of the change previously wrought in the opinions of English abolitionists by Elizabeth Heyrick's pamphlet in favour of immediate, in distinction from gradual emancipation.
The Dutsides of the vases were entirely wrought by handwork, with the polishing lines crossing diagonally.
The same king also wrought granite with inscriptions in.
Metal-Work.Copper was wrought into pins, a couple of inches long, with loop heads, as early as the oldest prehistoric graves, before the use of weaving, and while pottery was scarcely developed.
To the ruin of learning and education wrought by the Danes, and the practical extinction of the knowledge of Latin even among the clergy, the preface to Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care bears eloquent testimony.
Pestilences and conflagrations were its ruin; the plague of 1566 wrought great havoc among its inhabitants, and that of 1600 destroyed 15,000.
Independently of the illustration of written or printed books, for which purpose woodcuts were almost exclusively used, separate engravings or sets of engravings in both kinds were produced, the more finely wrought and more expensive, appealing especially to the more educated classes, on copper, the bolder, simpler and cheaper on wood; and both kinds found a ready sale at all the markets, fairs and church festivals of the land.
Thus the "Nemesis," belonging probably to 1503, is a marvellously wrought piece of quite unflinching realism in the rendering of a common type of mature, muscular, unshapely German womanhood.
The decoration consists, as a rule, of stiff, conventional foliage, Arabic inscriptions, and geometrical patterns wrought into arabesques of almost incredible intricacy and ingenuity.
Almaden, the Sisapon of the Romans, is celebrated for its mercury mines, which were extensively wrought by the Romans and Moors, and are still productive, the ore increasing in richness with the depth of the descent.
The best raw materials for the preparation of thallium are the flue-dusts produced industrially in the roasting of thalliferous pyrites and the "chamber muds" accumulating in vitriol-chambers wrought with such pyrites; in both it is frequently associated with selenium.
Near the end of the 9th century, however, the plundering expeditions which emanated from these three sources became so incessant and so widespread that we can signalize no part of west France as free from them, at the same time that the vikings wrought immense mischief in the Rhine country and in Burgundy.
For this reason the book is at once the most brilliant and the most difficult of Hegel's works - the most brilliant because it is to some degree an autobiography of Hegel's mind - not the abstract record of a logical evolution, but the real history of an intellectual growth; the most difficult because, instead of treating the rise of intelligence (from its first appearance in contrast with the real world to its final recognition of its presence in, and rule over, all things) as a purely subjective process, it exhibits this rise as wrought out in historical epochs, national characteristics, forms of culture and faith, and philosophical systems. The theme is identical with the introduction to the Encyklopddie; but it is treated in a very different style.
In the 13th century the English workers in wrought iron were especially skilful.
In 1812 great destruction was wrought by an earthquake that affected all the southern part of the state; in 1865 the region about San Francisco was violently disturbed; in 1872 the whole Sierra and the state of Nevada were violently shaken; and in 1906 San Francisco (q.v.) was in large part destroyed by a shock that caused great damage elsewhere in the state.
It was generally believed that miracles were wrought at his tomb in Chichester cathedral, which was long a popular place of pilgrimage, and in 1262 he was canonized at Viterbo by Pope Urban IV.
This society - the Brothers of Purity or Sincerity (Ikhwan us Safa ` i) - divided into four orders, wrought in the interests of religion no less than of science; and though its attempt to compile an encyclopaedia of existing knowledge may have been premature, it yet contributed to spread abroad a desire for further information.
The deed suddenly wrought in the heat of excitement acted as a warning to multitudes who were preparing to make the same apostasy... .
There is a large flagstone across the rear of the property with a lovely view through a wrought iron gate to a bordered pathway.
Elsewhere there are carved stone gateposts, the original gates probably having been of wrought iron or timber.
He lived to see the triumph of his principles; and no Frenchman of that age did so much to repair the mischief wrought by fanatics and autocrats.
Nautical improvements, and the discovery that the southwest monsoon (Hippalus) gave sure navigation at certain seasons, increased the connexion of the West with South Arabia, but also wrought such a change in the trade as involved a revolution in the state of that country.
Structural wrought iron has a tenacity of 20 to 222 tons per sq.
These are not the words of a man who is following a complete and authoritative poem; judging from the context of the other references to Bleheris he was rather a collector and versifier of short episodic tales, and it seems far more natural to understand Thomas as having wrought into one complete and consecutive form the various poems with which the name of Breri was associated, than to hold that that, or a similar, work had already been achieved by another.
The fuel, wood or charcoal, which served both to heat and to deoxidize the ore, has so strong a carburizing action that it would turn some of the resultant metal into " natural steel," which differs from wrought iron only in containing so much carbon that it is relatively hard and brittle in its natural state, and that it becomes intensely hard when quenched from a red heat in water.
Meanwhile Henry Cort had in 1784 very greatly simplified the conversion of cast iron into wrought iron.
The saints lives are full of puerile legend, and in not a few cases contain accounts of 13thcentury miracles wrought at special places, particularly with reference to the Dominicans.
Meanwhile a great change had been wrought in his circum P lo- stances.
Shipbuilding is carried on at Las Palmas; and the minor industries include the manufacture of cloth, drawn-linen (calado) work, silk, baskets, hats, &c. A group of Indian merchants, who employ coolie labour, produce silken, jute and cotton goods, Oriental embroideries, wrought silver, brass-ware, porcelain, carved sandal-wood, &c. The United Kingdom heads the import trade in coal, textiles, hardware, iron, soap, candles and colonial products.
The most elaborate specimen of this wrought work is the screen to the Rinuccini chapel in Santa Croce, Florence, of 1371, in which moulded pillars and window-like tracery have been wrought and modelled by the hammer with extraordinary skill (see Wyatt, Metal-Work of Middle Ages).
The screen to Bishop West's chapel at Ely, and that round Edward VI.'s tomb at Windsor, both made towards the end of the i 5th century, are the most magnificent English examples of wrought iron; and much wrought-iron work of great beauty was produced at the beginning of the 18th century, especially under the superintendence of Sir Christopher Wren (see Ebbetts, Iron Work of 17th and 18th Centuries, 1880).
The greed and tyranny of several of the commissioners, and the bigotry and mismanagement of well-meaning fanatics such as Cradock and Powell, soon wrought dire confusion throughout the whole Principality, so that a monster petition, signed alike by moderate Puritans and by High Churchmen, was prepared for presentation to parliament in 1652 by Colonel Edward Freeman, attorney-general for South Wales.
The gonfalionere Soderini offered him in vain, to do with it what he would, the huge half-spoiled block of marble out of which Michelangelo three years later wrought his "David."
All portions of the frame are united by hot rivets of mild steel or wrought iron, care being taken that the sum of the sectional areas of rivets affords in each case a sufficient amount of metal for the safe transfer of the stresses.
Rivets are either of wrought iron or of extra soft steel, with an ultimate tensile strength of 55,000 lb per sq.
Comes in a brown dipped finish with wrought iron side panels & slatted roof.
On the front of the Museum the wrought iron balcony that originally adorned the stationmasters house at Bromsgrove can be seen.
The bellcote has a pitched roof surmounted by a wrought iron weathervane.
Doors from the kitchen and dining room lead out onto the wisteria covered terrace which is furnished with a wrought iron table and chairs.
A plowman and his great plow, now standing idle in the furrow, had in a day wrought a terrible havoc.
The following day 's concert wrought the miracle which was trailered in the opening paragraph of this account.
By postulating the concept of a mechanical universe he wrought immense changes in European man 's conception of the heavens.
At Letham Hill nearby, the Errol Hut Smithy and woodwork shop produces excellent wrought ironwork, and fine furniture and wood turning.
Surrounding the front garden were eighteenth century black wrought iron railings, tipped with gold paint.
We are suffering under the effects of caged competition, already wrought up to agony.
The establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission was hailed as a first step toward ending the devastation wrought by rate wars.
The unit 's occupier is the maker of wrought iron styled gates and other similar items.
Old world Europe featured rich pottery, classic wrought iron, brilliant ceramic dishes and tiles, and pewter and copper pieces.
Mixed with knotty pine and early American antiques, wrought iron enhances an Americana design.
If you prefer the popular French Country style, then look for wrought iron with a rooster motif.
For a Southwestern feel, pair wrought iron with wood furniture, terracotta walls and brightly painted pottery.
No matter what your taste, add depth, texture and interest to your home with wrought iron.
A country garden usually includes some wrought iron or wicker seating.
If you have old (or new) wrought iron and/or wicker chairs, settees, tables, rockers, etc., that you've typically used outside, bring them in!
Well-worn rugs, faded fabrics, distressed armoires, vintage coverlets, wicker, and wrought iron are just some of the many items associated with country cottage decorating.
You can go with a wrought iron look or a dark wood with heavily ornate appearance.
Hang wrought iron wall hangings, add iron backed tables or glass tables with metal legs to your sitting areas.
Wrought iron curtain rods are a perfect way to add rustic charm to any window treatment.
Wrought iron is an iron alloy type of metal that has a very low carbon content compared to steel and has fibers inclusions known as slag.
These fibers inclusions give wrought iron a grain similar to wood which is visible when bent to the point of failure.
Wrought iron was a commercially produced construction material until more effective methods of steel making were invented.
Wrought iron is soft and easy to shape when heated until it is red-hot.
Wrought iron decor is well-known for intricate designs.
Curtain rods made from wrought iron and the hardware accessories that go with them are very ornate and decorative in their design.
Wrought iron finials can also be different on each end of the curtain rod.
When the work of conquest had been achieved, it could not be expected that a radical alteration should be suddenly wrought either in the social system which was in harmony with it, or even in the general ideas which had grown up under its influence.
The season was soon after Easter; the year may be safely deduced from the fact that the first nine canons are intended to repair havoc wrought in the church by persecution, which ceased after the overthrow of Maximinus in 313.
Even in Alcuin's time miracles were reported to be still wrought at his tomb.
He dissuaded the Romans, disheartened by the devastation wrought by the Gauls, from migrating to Veii, and induced them to rebuild the city.
Fleming, it 47r requires about 18 foot-pounds of work to make a complete mag netic cycle in a cubic foot of wrought iron, strongly magnetized first one way and then the other, the work so expended taking the form of heat in the mass.
Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.
A very pure form of iron, which from the method of its manufacture is called " steel," is now extensively used for the construction of dynamo magnets; this metal sometimes contains not more than 0.3% of foreign substances, including carbon, and is magnetically superior to the best commercial wrought iron.
A A, called the " yoke," is a block of annealed wrought iron about 18 in.
The results, nevertheless, agree very well with those for annealed wrought iron obtained by other methods.
Hence the changes of volume undergone by a given sample of wrought iron under increasing magnetization must depend largely upon the state of the metal as regards hardness; there may be always contraction, or always expansion, or first one and then the other.
In 1852 great destruction was wrought in the town by the bursting of a reservoir in the vicinity.
On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.
A Chinese garrison is stationed here, and copper and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood by exiled Chinese criminals.
Tinning wrought iron is effected by immersion.
It retained much of its Greek character and many of its finest public buildings, even after the havoc wrought by Marcellus.
A conspicuous example of the incalculable evil wrought by lack of integration is well seen in the radical divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the most mischievous legacies of the middle ages - one whose mischief is scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deeply rooted in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to be hard to obliterate.
It is also recorded that pierced silver disks were suspended by chains and supported glass lamps " wrought by fire."
In the north-east corner of the city is the Nestorian church which was noted by Marco Polo, the façade being " elaborately carved and the gates covered with elegantly wrought iron."
Small, of Berwickshire, brought out a plough in which beam and handle were of wrought iron, the mould-board of cast iron.
In Germany, where it wrought havoc and misery, it increased the already bitter resentment against the priests.
Day by day his impassioned words, filled with the spirit of the Old Testament, wrought upon the minds of the Florentines and strung them to a pitch of pious emotion never before - and never since - attained by them.
He bided his time, and the transformation of sceptical Florence into an austerely Christian republic claiming the Saviour as its head only increased his resolve to crush the man who had wrought this marvel.
The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."
All the architectural and decorative details, all the carvings and colors, all the accessories everything was wrought in silk, and each of the 1500 figures forming the procession wore exactly appropriate costume.
Gregory of Nyssa's untrustworthy panegyric represents him as having wrought miracles of a very startling description; but nothing related by him comes near the astounding narratives given in the Martyrologies, or even in the Breviarium Romanum, in connexion with his name.
Coal and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood.
Yet the horrors which it wrought hardly checked the magnificent revels of Edward's court, and neither the plague nor the truce stayed the course of the French war, though what fighting there was was indecisive and on a small scale.
From the point of view implied by such words as these, it is only necessary to recall the mental attitude of our grandfathers to appreciate in some measure the revolution in thought that has been wrought in this field within the last half-century, largely through the instrumentality of Oriental archaeology.
Gregory of Tours gives a list of 206 miracles wrought by him after his death; Sidonius Apollinaris composed a metrical biography of him.
This ecclesiastic related wonderful stories of the shrine of St Thomas in India, and of the miracles wrought there by the body of the apostle, including (fn1) the distribution of the sacramental wafer by his hand.
Within them was found the Fountain of Youth; the pebbles which give light, restore sight, and render the possessor invisible; the Sea of Sand was there, stored with fish of wondrous savour; and the River of Stones was there also; besides a subterranean stream whose sands were of gems. His territory produced the worm called "salamander," which lived in fire, and which wrought itself an incombustible envelope from which were manufactured robes for the presbyter, which were washed in flaming fire.
Cannel is more compact and duller than ordinary coal, and can be wrought in the lathe and polished.
The shaft is lined with a cylinder of wrought iron, within which a tubular chamber, provided with doors above and below, known as an P g air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly sinkin packed so as to close the top of the shaft air-tight.
The water-tight lining may be either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack screws as the borehole advances, or cast iron tubbing put together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to the old plan of building them up of segments.
The fan has eight arms, framed together of wrought iron bars, with diagonal struts, so as to obtain rigidity with comparative lightness, carrying flat close-boarded blades at their extremities.
The cage is guided by shoes of wrought iron, a few inches long and bellmouthed at the ends, attached to the horizontal bars of the framing, which pass loosely over the guides on three sides, but in most new pits rail guides of heavy section are used.
This is an upright frame, usually made in wrought iron or steel strutted by diagonal thrust beams against the engine-house wall or other solid abutments, the height to the bearings of the guide pulleys being from 80 to 1 00 ft.
A great change had been wrought in Uganda during the Mutesa latter years of his reign.
Loom-weaving in its simplest form began with the Chilkats of Alaska, who hung the warp over a long pole, and wrought mythological figures into their gorgeous blankets by a process resembling tapestry work.
The materials on the coast were clay and gravel wrought into concrete, sun-dried bricks and pise, or rammed work, cut stalks of plants formed with clay a kind of staff, and lintels were made by burying stems of cana brava (Gynerium saccharoides) in blocks of pise.
It suffered also from the fact that large parts of the country had not recovered from the ruin wrought by four years of civil war.
Again it is here that we can most readily trace the important changes which he wrought in melodic idiom.
The top boom of each girder is an elliptical wrought iron tube 17 ft.
In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.
The lower flange and ties were flat wrought iron links.
The cross girders, stringers and wind-bracing are wrought iron, the rest of mild steel.
Each span has four steel double ribs of steel tubes butted and clasped by wrought iron couplings.
Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or cast or wrought iron.
In metal bridges wrought iron has been replaced by mild steel - a stronger, tougher and better material.
It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.
For flexible suspension bridges with wrought iron link chains, and dip = Ath of the span, the limiting span is 2800 ft.
Other buildings of interest are the guildhall, a 15th-century structure of brick; Shodfriars Hall, a half-timbered house adjacent to slight remains of a Dominican priory; the free grammar school, founded in 1554, with a fine gateway of wrought iron of the 17th century brought from St Botolph's church; and the Hussey Tower of brick, part of a mansion of the 16th century.
The last column in the Range Table giving the inches of penetration into wrought iron is calculated from the remaining velocity by an empirical formula, as explained in the article Armour Plates.
This mixture is now wrought mainly in two ways.
There are but few buildings wrought on this foot in Asia Minor, Greece or Roman remains.
In this philosophy the mystical properties of numbers are a leading feature; absurd and mechanical notions are glossed over with the sheen of sacramental mystery; myths are explained by pious fancies and fine-sounding pietistic reflections; miracles, even the most ridiculous, are believed in, and miracles are wrought.
Under these heads it discusses respectively the sin and misery of men, the redemption wrought by Christ (here are included the Creed and the Sacraments), and the grateful service of the new life (the Decalogue).
Coal is extensively wrought in the vicinity.
A severe illness wrought a change; he married his mistress, Claude Desnoz, and joined the church of Calvin at Geneva (October 1548).
For seven of these years he wrought among the Visigoths beyond the Danube, till the success which attended his labours drew down the persecution of the still pagan chief of the tribe.
Gunpowder, the compass, the Arabic numerals and paper, are nowhere spoken of as discoveries, and yet they must have wrought a total change in war, in navigation, in science, and in education.
In 1867 Napoleon made himself once more guardian of the Holy See; but the wonders wrought by the new French.
Eight hundred houses were burnt down, and over two millions sterling of damage was wrought in the town on that occasion.
The nest is always on the ground, and is a rather deep hollow wrought in a tuft of herbage and lined with dry grass-leaves.
In the pre-exilic prophets the judgment of God is "primarily on Israel, although it also embraces the nations"; during the Exile and at the Restoration the judgment is represented as falling on the nations while redemption is being wrought for God's people; after the Restoration the people of God is again threatened, but still the warning of judgment is mainly directed towards the nations and deliverance is promised to Israel.
The individual and collective influence of the several impurities which occur in the product of the Heroult cell is still to seek, and the importance of this inquiry will be seen when we consider that if cast iron, wrought iron and steel, the three totally distinct metals included in the generic name of "iron" - which are only distinguished one from another chemically by minute differences in the proportion of certain non-metallic ingredients - had only been in use for a comparatively few years, attempts might occasionally be made to forge cast iron, or to employ wrought iron in the manufacture of edge-tools.
The great changes that have been wrought in India, politically, commercially, intellectually and religiously, by the combined action of the British government and the Christian missions, are evidenced among other tokens by the growth of such societies as the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj.
The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.
Beyond this, wrought iron, and certain classes of steel which then were important, necessarily contained much slag or " cinder," because they were made by welding together pasty particles of metal in a bath of slag, without subsequent fusion.
Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.
Logically it was wrought iron, the essence of which was that it was (I) " iron " as distinguished from steel, and XIV.
This name did not please those interested in the new product, because existing wrought iron was a low-priced material.
The old varieties of wrought iron, steel and cast iron preserve their old names; the new class is called steel by main force.
Wrought iron is slag-bearing malleable iron, containing so little carbon (0.30% or less), or its equivalent, that it does not harden greatly when cooled suddenly.
For brevity we may call these the periods of wrought iron, of cast iron, and of molten steel, recognizing that in the second and third the earlier processes continued in use.
Where iron ore was found, the local smith, the Waldschmied, converted it with the charcoal of the surrounding forest into the wrought iron which he worked up. Many farmers had their own little forges or smithies to supply the iron for their tools.
In time the smith learnt how to convert this unwelcome product into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge, exposing it to the blast in such a way as to burn out most of its carbon.
With the second period began, in the 14th century, the gradual displacement of the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore by the intentional and regular use of this indirect method of first carburizing the metal and thus turning it into cast iron, and then converting it into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge.
In 1611 Simon Sturtevant patented the use of mineral coal for iron-smelting, and in 1619 Dud Dudley made with this coal both cast and wrought iron with technical success, but through the opposition of the charcoal iron-makers all of his many attempts were defeated.
About 1740 Benjamin Huntsman introduced the " crucible process " of melting steel in small crucibles, and thus freeing it from the slag, or rich iron silicate, with which it, like wrought iron, was mechanically mixed, whether it was made in the old forge or in the puddling furnace.
Knowing this, and having in the Siemens regenerative gas furnace an independent means of generating this temperature, the Martin brothers of Sireuil in France in 1864 developed the open-hearth process of making steel of any desired carbon-content by melting together in this furnace cast and wrought iron.
It is the common, very magnetic form of iron, in itself ductile but relatively soft and weak, as we know it in wrought iron and mild or low-carbon steel.
Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.
These are made of alternate layers of soft wrought iron and chrome steel hardened by sudden cooling.
The hardness of the hardened chrome steel resists the burglar's drill, and the ductility of the wrought iron the blows of his sledge.
If the pig iron is to follow path 2, the purification which converts it into wrought iron or steel consists chiefly in oxidizing and thereby removing its carbon, phosphorus and other impurities, while it is molten, either by means of the oxygen of atmospheric air blown through it as in the Bessemer process, or by the oxygen of iron ore stirred into it as in the puddling and Bell-Krupp processes, or by both together as in the open hearth process.
We do not, however, hear of any damage wrought by fire, save in the case of Sallust's palace, which was situated close to the gate by which the Goths had made their entrance; nor is there any reason to attribute any extensive destruction of the buildings of the city to Alaric and his followers.
Sulphur is wrought in the district of Pinczow; the deposits, which contain 25% of sulphur, reach a thickness of 7 to 70 ft.
On each visit to Rome it was his delight to collect relics for his native land; and to his favourite basilica at Ripon he gave a bookcase wrought in gold and precious stones, besides a splendid copy of the Gospels.
From all these circumstances it curiously happened that the sovereign who did more than almost any other to raise the royal power, was also the sovereign who, more than any other, wrought its decay.
Many miracles were wrought at his shrine, and, in view of an expected canonization, an office was drawn up giving an account of his life and the legends connected with it.
Parallel to the Stradone, on the north, is the Prijeki, a long, very narrow street, flanked by tall houses with overhanging balconies, and greatly resembling a Venetian alley, Despite the havoc wrought by earthquake in 1667, the whole city is rich in antiquarian interest.
In the fight at Gdow (February 2 6th), where Benedek laid the foundations of the military reputation that was to end so tragically at KOniggratz, flail and scythe wrought more havoc in the rebel ranks than the Austrian musketry.
His tomb in his college chapel of St Salvator's at St Andrews,; Ids college and his bridge over the river Eden, have survived as monuments of a good and great man; they passed unscathed through the ruin wrought by the reformers.
He pointed to the changes wrought on domesticated organisms by the artificial selection of similar variations, and drew the inference that there must be parallel occurrences under wild nature.
St Augustine observes that, though Africa was full of martyrs' tombs, no miracle had been wrought at them so far as his knowledge extended.
The Acts of St John, attributed to Prochorus, narrates the miracles wrought by the apostle during his stay on the island, but, strangely enough, while describing how the Gospel was revealed to him in Patmos, it does not so much as mention the Apocalypse.
The caution of Gelasius was not long preserved; Gregory of Tours, for example, asserts that the saint's relics actually existed in the French village of Le Maine, where many miracles were wrought by means of them; and Bede, while still explaining that the Gesta Georgii are reckoned apocryphal, commits himself to the statement that the martyr was beheaded under Dacian, king of Persia, whose wife Alexandra, however, adhered to the Christian faith.
Two notable cures were wrought on the western side of the lake - the healing of the woman with the issue and the raising of Jairus's daughter.
In both the patient was withdrawn from the multitude and the cure was wrought with the accompaniment of symbolic actions.
The large employment of cast iron is comparatively modern, in England at least only dating from the i 6th century; it is not, however, incapable of artistic treatment if due regard be paid to the necessities of casting, and if no attempt is made to imitate the fine-drawn lightness to which wrought iron so readily lends itself.
Among the Assyrians, Egyptians and Greeks the use of iron, either cast or wrought, was very limited, bronze being the favourite metal almost for all purposes.
From Byzantium the special skill in this art was transmitted in the 9th and 10th centuries to the Rhenish provinces of Germany and to Italy, and thence to the whole of western Europe; in this way the 18th century smith who wrought the Hampton Court iron gates was the heir to the mechanical skill of the ancient metalworkers of Phoenicia and Greece.
At this period wrought iron came into general use in the form of screens for chapels and tombs, and grills for windows.
The Strozzi palace in Florence and the Palazzo del Magnifico at Siena have fine specimens of these - the former of wrought iron, the latter in cast bronze.
In wrought iron the German smiths, especially during the 15th century, greatly excelled.
Almost peculiar to Germany is the use of wrought iron for grave-crosses and sepulchral monuments, of which the Nuremberg and other cemeteries contain fine examples.
Many elaborate well-canopies were made in wrought iron, and gave FIG.
If a circular disk is wrought into a hemisphere and the attempt is made to hammer the edges round, crumpling must occur.
Wrought or malleable iron has less of carbon and other elements in its composition than has cast iron.
A piece of wrought iron, or mild steel or copper, if torn asunder shows long lustrous fibres, resembling a bundle of threads in appearance.
Wrought iron and mild steel may be made to show a short and crystalline fracture by a sudden application of stress, while if drawn asunder slowly they develop the silky, fibrous appearance.
It is bad taste to imitate the tracery of the ductile wrought iron in cast designs, the foliations of ancient wrought-iron grilles and screens in heavy cast iron.
Few minerals are wrought in Afghanistan, though Abdur Rahman claims in his autobiography that the country is rich minerals.
At Bombay itself large quantities of imported copper are wrought up by native braziers.
In all cases the bricks have been made, the stone quarried and dressed, the timber sawn, the iron cast, forged and wrought by the prisoners.
At the main entrance is a beautiful gateway (of elaborately wrought brown stone), 142 ft.
The Civil War wrought a havoc from which a full recovery was hardly reached before 1890.
Amongst them are homilies "on the burden of Babylon in Isaiah"; three books "on spiritual friendship"; a life of Edward the Confessor; an account of miracles wrought at Hexham, and the tract called Relatio de Standardo.
But the original nucleus and parts of the incidents may be the work of a single great poet, and yet other episodes may be of different authorship, wrought into the structure of the poem in later times.
He concludes that the aged Ulysses belongs to the " continuation " (the change wrought by Athena's wand being a device to reconcile the two views), and hence that the continuation is the work of a different author.
In the fields of science and philosophy humanism wrought similar important changes.
There he settled in a three-roomed cottage for the rest of his life - twenty-seven years, in which he wrought out the perfect story of that peasant life of which he alone has given a "complete impression."
Either wrought, pig, iron sponge or iron bars are employed, and it is important to notice that the form in which the copper is precipitated, and also the time taken for the separation, largely depend upon the condition in which the iron is applied.
Chester has a large shipbuilding industry, and manufactories of cotton and worsted goods, iron and steel, the steel-casting industry being especially important, and large quantities of wrought iron and steel pipes being manufactured.
The emperor Theodosius II., hearing what had happened, hastened to the spot in time to hear from their lips that God had wrought this wonder to confirm his faith in the resurrection of the dead.
As an industry, however, the production both of pig, iron and of wrought iron and steel is increasingly prosperous.
The Kaffirs wrought great havoc, and Sir Benjamin D'Urban, the governor, in order to secure peace, extended the boundary of the colony to the Kei river.
At the end of 1898 the feelings of the Uitlanders were wrought up to fever pitch.
The Analogy was written to counteract the practical mischief which he considered wrought by deists and other freethinkers, and the Sermons lay a good deal of stress on everyday Christian duties.
Although Butler's work is peculiarly one of those which ought not to be exhibited in outline, for its strength lies in the organic completeness with which the details are wrought into the whole argument, yet a summary of his results will throw more light on the method than any description can.
No work upon earth is wrought apart from thee, lord, nor through the divine ethereal sphere, nor upon the sea; save only whatsoever deeds wicked men do in their own foolishness.
The damage by earthquake to buildings in San Francisco was, however, small in comparison to that wrought by the fire which began soon after the principal shock on the morning of the 18th.
Next we get incidental but not unimportant references to the destruction of roads and property wrought by the Goths, to the state of the havens at the mouths of the Tiber, and the general decay of nearly all the old commercial ports on the coast..
But he showed how loosely he held the views he did not go out of his way to attack, and made it plain how little weight the letter of Scripture had for himself; and, writing with much greater power than any of the deists, he was held to have done more than any one of them to forward the cause for which they wrought.
It consists of a solid shaft of wrought iron some 16 in.
The port has three jetties of wrought iron, respectively 1162, 1152 and 1462 ft.
In 1563 was issued from the press of John Day the first English edition of the Actes and Monuments of these latter and perillous Dayes, touching matters of the Church, wherein are comprehended and described the great Persecution and horrible Troubles that have been wrought and practised by the Romishe Prelates, speciallye in this Realme of England and Scotland, from the yeare of our Lorde a thousande to the time now present.
Other thinkers were moving in the same direction; he led the movement in New England, and wrought out a great deliverance.
The first attempt which the city of Amsterdam made to overcome the evils wrought to its trade by the slow formation of the Pampus sandbank at the entrance to the Y from the Zuider Zee, was the construction of the North Holland canal to the Helder in 1825.
A small and charming strip of an oblong "Annunciation" at the Louvre is generally accepted as his work, done soon after 1470; a very highly wrought drawing at the Uffizi, corresponding on a larger scale to the head of the Virgin in the same picture, seems rather to be a copy by a later hand.
It is used in preference to wrought iron on account of its lesser cost.
The splendid recumbent effigies in bronze, of Italian workmanship, rest upon a tomb of black marble, and the whole is enclosed in a magnificent shrine of wrought brass.
Thus a great change was wrought towards the end of the 18th and in the first half of the 10th century in the whole current of Rumanian literature.
But the Latin or Transylvanian movement wrought great havoc in Rumanian literature and caused the greatest confusion in the language.
He therefore insisted that England should be required not merely to pay damages for the havoc wrought by the " Alabama " and other cruisers fitted out for Confederate service in her ports, but that, for " that other damage, immense and infinite, caused by the prolongation of the war," the withdrawal of the British flag from this hemisphere could " not be abandoned as a condition or preliminary of such a settlement as is now proposed."
The cultivation of the turnip and other root crops, which require the soil to be wrought to a deep and free tilth, either becomes altdgether impracticable and must be abandoned for the safe but costly bare fallow, or is carried out with great labour and hazard; and the crop, when grown, can neither be removed from the ground, nor consumed upon it by sheep without damage by "poaching."
Pulleys are also built up of wrought iron and steel, and can then be constructed entirely free from internal stress; they are thus much lighter and stronger, and are not liable to fly to pieces like cast iron if they break.
In the earlier part of his life he and his relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces, and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosopher's tincture.
In 1139 Stephen had wrought himself fatal damage by quarrelling with the ecclesiastical bureaucrats, the kinsmen and allies of Roger of Salisbury, who had been among his earliest adherents.
England has bad many worse kings, but never one who wrought her more harm.
And yet Burke is among the greatest of those who have wrought marvels in the prose of our English tongue.
They glow with passion, and yet with all their rapidity is such steadfastness, the fervour of imagination is so skilfully tempered by close and plausible reasoning, and the whole is wrought with such strength and fire, that we hardly know where else to look either in Burke's own writings or elsewhere for such an exhibition of the rhetorical resources of our language.
The gas enters in the centre, and to make its escape again it has to pass into long wrought iron inverted troughs through perforations one-twentieth of an inch in diameter.
Such producers, frequently strengthened by a wrought iron casing, are even now used to a great extent.
Any type of highly wrought feeling may make a man religious, whether it be theistic or pantheistic; indeed, as a child of Romanticism, Schleiermacher puts a peculiarly high estimate upon the pantheistic type.
In 1896 Dr Sven Hedin discovered in the desert not far from the town of Khotan, in a locality known as Borasan, objects in terra-cotta, bronze images of Buddha, engraved gems, coins and MSS.; the objects, which display artistic skill, give indications of having been wrought by craftsmen who laboured to reproduce Graeco-Indian ideals in the service of the cult of Buddha, and consequently date presumably from the 3rd century B.C., when the successors of Alexander the Great were founding their kingdoms in Persia, Khwarezm (Khiva), Merv, Bactria (Afghanistan) and northern India, and from that date to the 4th or 5th century A.D.
Mr Earle gave the same assurances to the writer of these lines, and did so with hints and half-confidences (quite intelligible, however) as to the persuasions that wrought upon his chief.
Those who wanted a more thorough revolution wrought up the crowd and even respectable citizens wished to have the Removal king among them and amenable to their opinion.
False analogies drawn between ethics and mathematics or between morality and the perception of beauty have wrought much mischief in modern and to some degree even in ancient ethics.
Specimens of skilfully wrought ornaments of gold and silver, artistically made pottery, and finely woven fabrics of cotton and wool (alpaca), have been found in their huacas, or burial-places.
Wherever the noblest expressions of her mind are honoured, wherever the large conceptions of Pericles command the admiration of statesmen, wherever the architect and the sculptor love to dwell on the masterpieces of Ictinus and Pheidias, wherever the spell of ideal beauty or of lofty contemplation is exercised by the creations of Sophocles or of Plato, there it will be remembered that the spirit which wrought in all these would have passed sooner from among men, if it had not been recalled from a trance, which others were content to mistake for the last sleep, by the passionate breath of Demosthenes.
The principal exports include metals and other minerals; wine, sugar, fruit and other alimentary substances, cotton and its manufactures; animals and their products, including wool and hair; timber and wrought wood.
While on his guard against his northern foes, Gedymin from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Russian principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all.
His memory began to fail, and a large work at which he wrought night and day, on the connexion between physics and metaphysics, was found to be only a repetition of his already published doctrines.
Puddling furnaces are usually entirely cased with iron plates, and blast furnaces with hoops round each course of the stack, or in those of thinner constructions the firebrick work is entirely enclosed in a wrought iron casing or jacket.
Owing to the conditions of the work, which require the maintenance of a sensibly reducing atmosphere, they contain a very notable proportion of carbonic oxide, and are drawn off by large wrought iron tubes near the top of the furnace and conveyed by branch pipes to the different boilers and air-heating apparatus, which are now entirely heated by the combustion of such gases, or mixed with air and exploded in gas engines.
These German AMC's had wrought considerable angst across the Seven Seas whilst they lasted.
Straight ahead is a bright room with a wrought iron balcony overlooking the front garden and the road.
Master suite The Master suite is furnished with a king sized bed and wrought iron bedstead with four poster ivory canopy.
All other rooms have antique brass, wrought iron or period wooden bedsteads - one with a canopy over.
Notice the wrought iron railing which was constructed by Phil Johnson, a Scottish artist blacksmith.
Some of the fittings of the house were on a luxurious scale too, a particularly striking example being an elegant wrought iron candlestick.
Upstairs, in the dining area, huge wrought iron chandeliers hang from the three story high ceiling.
The Barron Bell Trust have also donated £ 2000 so that the all of the bells can now have wrought iron clappers.
From the High Street the entrance is rather deceptive - there is a wrought iron sign indicating the entrance to an alley.
Gardens; The Lilies is approached through wrought iron double gates to gravel driveway with parking for several vehicles.
The garden is enclosed by walling with wrought iron embellishment to the front boundary wall.
We were all a shocked by the ferocity of the unseasonal deluge and the damage wrought on fields and crops.
Attach a narrow wrought iron curtain rod with decorative finials to the wall.
A wrought iron cross finial from the east end now lies alongside the south wall of the nave.
Instead they have a red hot wrought iron griddle with manacles awaiting them in the firey place.
Beneath the dovecote a weighty wooden door with wrought iron steel grille leads into the lobby.
Mony a sair daurk we twa hae wrought, An ' wi ' the weary warl ' fought!
A new wrought iron handrail crafted locally was fitted to the double spiral staircase, completing the restoration.
Only Herman Goering wrought more havoc with the national rail timetable.
In his younger days the Admiral had seen service in the China Seas where two powerful pirate fleets wrought havoc among shipping.
Ensure wrought iron or steel gates can not easily be climbed.
Outside there's also seating under the covered arcade, from where you can admire the market's wrought ironwork.
Among them was John WHITE, who set up his own business making hand wrought ornamental ironwork in 1922.
The range is finished in warm tones of a light and medium brown sheen and completed with wrought iron handles and portculis ironwork.
Despite changes being wrought by global warming, experts believe the deep permafrost will be reliably cool for at least the next 100 years.
At the east end of the north aisle is a chapel separated from it by wrought iron altar rails.
Do you have a section of old wrought iron railing that once graced your front porch?
It contained 101 skilfully wrought lyrics - including many sonnets.
The viaduct itself is a unique example of a warren truss supported on wrought iron trestles.
Nobody wants to turn on their TV on a daily basis and see havoc wrought by terrorists.
It was curiously wrought with gold and purple, and fastened to the ephod with chains of gold.
Each of his understated, finely wrought novels has been published to international acclaim.
He presents a succession of many scenes, exquisitely wrought, of Johnson amid widely various settings of Eighteenth-Century England.
What follows is an acute and emotionally wrought portrait of a man and his brood consumed with guilt and despair.
Copper was formerly wrought here, but the mine eventually became unremunerative, and the working was discontinued.
The whole system is constructed of wrought iron pipe of small diameter, strong enough to resist a testing pressure of z000 to 2500 lb per sq.
Among the marvellous changes wrought in Argentina by the advent of European civilization, is the creation of a new flora by the introduction of useful trees and plants from every part of the world.
But the ministry never had any real hold over the country or parliament, and the dissatisfaction caused by the modus vivendi with Spain, which would have wrought much injury to the Italian wine-growers, led to demonstrations and riots, and a hostile vote in the Chamber produced a cabinet crisis (December 17, 1905); Signor Fortis, however, reconstructed the ministry, inducing the marquis di San Giuliano to accept the portfolio of foreign affairs.
It may confidently be asserted that, of insects which directly or indirectly affect the welfare of man, Diptera form the vast majority, and it is a moot point whether the good effected by many species in the rapid clearing away of animal and vegetable impurities, and in keeping other insect enemies in check, counterbalances the evil and annoyance wrought by a large section of the Order.
Owing to the havoc wrought during repeated insurrections, the impoverishment of the peasants, the desolation of the districts formerly inhabited by the Moslem agricultural population, and the drain of gold resulting from the sale of Moslem lands and emigration of the former proprietors, together with other causes, the financial situation has been unsatisfactory.