It is a little speech that I have written for him.
Disappointment was written in his face.
His uncle had written her a letter saying:
They have also written to Mr. Hitz about her.
Surprise was written on Dean's face.
Had Alex written off marriage completely?
I hope I have written my letter nicely, but it is very difficult to write on this paper and teacher is not here to give me better.
Had she written a suicide note then?
There were three sets of numbers written in green ink on his palm.
Jennifer asked, caution written on her words.
Before leaving, Jennifer Radisson explained that Josh had learned of Edith's new address in California—perhaps through some common friend—and had written his teenage sweetheart.
Maybe it was written before she married.
He had written many stories which people at that time liked to read.
"Nicholas is going away in a week's time, his... papers... have come... he told me himself... but still I should not cry," and she showed a paper she held in her hand--with the verses Nicholas had written, "still, I should not cry, but you can't... no one can understand... what a soul he has!"
Not only did it seem to him (as to all administrators) that he controlled the external actions of Moscow's inhabitants, but he also thought he controlled their mental attitude by means of his broadsheets and posters, written in a coarse tone which the people despise in their own class and do not understand from those in authority.
"I can tell you more," continued Prince Vasili, seizing her hand, "that letter was written, though it was not sent, and the Emperor knew of it.
Except that, on his body, it was her name written in black.
The suicide note was written in blue ink.
The check was written with an old fashioned fountain pen.
Great poetry, whether written in Greek or in English, needs no other interpreter than a responsive heart.
Couldn't the CBI guys over in their Denver lab tell the suicide note was written years before?
I did not study nor analyze them--I did not know whether they were well written or not; I never thought about style or authorship.
I asked her what she had written to Frank.
They was written to her.
It is Annie's diary, written when she first met Rev. Martin!
While we have deciphered the genome in that we have written it all down, we aren't at all sure which parts do what, as noted before.
It is undated, but must have been written two or three months before it was published.
Cora had spotted a car, a black Buick this time, but had not written down the license plate number.
"Linda says you can call her whenever you want," Lon said, handing Sofia a tissue with a phone number and smiley face written on it.
Gabe strode to the lectern and watched the words of the Present being written across the pages.
She pulled out the piece of paper Jule had written on.
Even people who know her fairly well have written in the magazines about Miss Sullivan's "mysterious telegraphic communications" with her pupil.
Corday stared at Dean as if he were something on his shoe, utter disgust written on his unshaven face.
In 1958, an American economist named Leonard Read wrote an essay called "I, Pencil," written from the pencil's point of view, about how no one on the planet knows how to make a pencil.
Mrs. Hutton had already written to mother, asking her to telegraph if she was willing for me to have other advisers besides herself and Teacher.
She didn't expect to be so suddenly written off by everyone.
The town of Ouray, while only a century and a quarter old, was rich in history and Fred O'Connor, together with a cadre of widows with similar interests, spent many hours reading Ouray's old newspapers and written accounts.
On it, written in block letters, was Donnie Ryland.
Dean detailed what he'd learned from speaking with Cynthia Byrne and meeting with Byrne's boss in Philadelphia and gave the detective a written copy of his interviews.
Damian, Sofia, Adrian were written beneath it, and Darian grinned, wondering when Sofi had picked a name for her son.
The town of Ouray, while only a century and a quarter old, was rich in history and Fred O'Connor, together with a cadre of widows with similar interests, spent many hours reading Ouray's old newspapers and written accounts.
She turned to the sheet music and saw it had been written in pencil.
Alex had written the Game and Fish Commissions in several western states, hoping for a chance at a mountain goat or sheep.
He was beginning to like this girl who had hurt written all over her.
At other times, in the midst of a paragraph I was writing, I said to myself, "Suppose it should be found that all this was written by some one long ago!"
My favourite poet has written some lines about England which I love very much.
An analysis of the case has been made elsewhere, and Miss Keller has written her account of it.
I have written to her that when Maud learns to read, I shall have many stories to send her.
Many of those written before 1892 were published in the reports of the Perkins Institution for the Blind.
This letter, written three months later, shows how well she remembered her first lesson in history.
A little girl had written: I have a new dress.
A written word is the choicest of relics.
The letters written from Boston are answering correspondence Annie presumably wrote to her sister.
It must be written down so that people in other places and in other times may hear it read and sung.
The system will also look for anything they've written publicly about this place (Yelp, Facebook, personal blog) and which superlatives they used to describe it.
From the way I have written this, it is clear where my sympathies lie.
Mr. Gilman spelled to me what I had written, and I made such changes as I thought necessary, and he inserted them.
It would be nice to see what he had written this morning.
"Carmen at the fair," was written on the back of it.
Today he ordered such and such papers to be written to Vienna, to Berlin, and to Petersburg; tomorrow such and such decrees and orders to the army, the fleet, the commissariat, and so on and so on--millions of commands, which formed a whole series corresponding to a series of events which brought the French armies into Russia.
Dean looked over his shoulder, expecting to see a local postmark but read, written in block letters, Rollins, Kansas.
Dean looked over his shoulder, expecting to see a local postmark but read, written in block letters, Rollins, Kansas.
For this report Miss Sullivan wrote the fullest and largest account she has ever written; and in this report appeared the "Frost King," which is discussed fully in a later chapter.
This, the first of Helen's letters to Dr. Holmes, written soon after a visit to him, he published in "Over the Teacups." [Atlantic Monthly, May, 1890]
You could not read Braille; for it is written in dots, not at all like ordinary letters.
The next two letters were written just after the death of Mr. John P. Spaulding.
I cannot make out anything written in my hand, so you see, Ragnhild has got ahead of me in some things.
Of all the emotions running through her mind, the one that hurt the most was knowing that everyone outside Hell had already written her off as a goner.
He circled the small, blonde woman and stopped behind her, gaze on Gabriel's name, which was written across her back, along with the Immortal mating script.
While Gabriel was written at the center of the geometric designs on Deidre's shoulders, the tattoo on the woman before her bore the name Rhyn.
He was puzzled by the question given that she had written most of the plans.
The names of her mate and her daughter were written beside hers.
The names of her mate and her daughter were written beside hers.
After you have written three or four words, you can put them together, can you not?
Before the half hour was ended he had written a very neat composition on his slate.
That explained the note, but why was it written in Spanish?
They had not learned the nobler dialects of Greece and Rome, but the very materials on which they were written were waste paper to them, and they prized instead a cheap contemporary literature.
All her invitations without exception, written in French, and delivered by a scarlet-liveried footman that morning, ran as follows:
A gentleman in Philadelphia has just written to my teacher about a deaf and blind child in Paris, whose parents are Poles.
It was written out of my heart, and perhaps that is why it met a sympathetic response in other hearts.
But it is to be remembered that Miss Keller has written many things in her autobiography for the fun of writing them, and the disillusion, which the writer of the editorial took seriously, is in great part humorous.
A comparative experience drawn from written descriptions and from her teacher's words has kept her free from errors in her use of terms of sound and vision.
Indeed, I am heartily glad that I don't know all that is being said and written about Helen and myself.
These letters were written to Mrs. Sophia C. Hopkins, the only person to whom Miss Sullivan ever wrote freely.
She learned it gladly when she discovered that she could herself read what she had written; and this still affords her constant pleasure.
A letter written to her mother in the course of the following week gave an account of her impression in her own words:
Some of them would be found written in our literature and dear to the hearts of many, while others would be wholly unknown to most of my readers.
This letter was written to some gentlemen in Gardiner, Maine, who named a lumber vessel after her.
It is irksome because the process is so slow, and they cannot read what they have written or correct their mistakes.
In a letter written soon afterward she says:
And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
It is not enough even to be able to speak the language of that nation by which they are written, for there is a memorable interval between the spoken and the written language, the language heard and the language read.
I sometimes found the name of his native parish handsomely written in the snow by the highway, with the proper French accent, and knew that he had passed.
She has written to you.
Where it is written how we are to make a child?
Quinn had written a random series of thirty numbers and letters which Howie repeated in a bored voice.
I turned to Martha and grabbed her written notes.
He needed a written map to perform simple chores like finding a grocery store or getting around Boston.
Each letter, written in excellent penmanship, began Dear Annie but there were no accompanying envelopes and no addresses.
In the top seam, faded but legible, was written Annie in very small print.
So someone else doesn't know what's written in it.
We said the writing in the notebook matched the Annie written in the underclothes.
It was on plain white notepaper, lined and firmly creased, written somewhat shakily with an ink pen, in the dainty script of a woman.
She made a choking, gagging motion at her throat in answer to Donnie's written question.
He could figure the gas he'd have used and written his own receipt when he filled up the motor home, stopping after filling the tank part way.
The message was signed by Arthur Atherton but it read as if written by a ten-year-old.
In the top seam, faded but legible, was written Annie in very small print.
The next day, every pupil except one had written a composition.
Each book was written with a pen or a brush.
The poet Whittier has written a poem about him, which you will like to hear.
At Radcliffe no one reads the papers to me after they are written, and I have no opportunity to correct errors unless I finish before the time is up.
Mr. Gilman sent my written work to the examiners with a certificate that I, candidate No. 233, had written the papers.
He explained each time what I did not understand in the previous lesson, assigned new work, and took home with him the Greek exercises which I had written during the week on my typewriter, corrected them fully, and returned them to me.
This one was written by someone in the human realm.
Is this Code written down anywhere?
He studied what she had written.
The Civil War was over thirty-odd years before this was written.
How long had her name been written?
Would the name of his own son or daughter ever be written beside his and Jenn's name on the monument?
Her name was written on the obelisk.
Some part of him had known long before he saw her name written.
Every emotion she experienced used to be written on her face.
In his other: the sticky note on which she'd written her hasty resignation.
Xander was everywhere, from posters on the wall, stacks of books he'd allegedly written, even a red carpet entrance flanked by adoring female fans and photographers.
As deputy he had no vote, and he naturally took little share in the debates, but it was part of his duty to send written reports of the proceedings to his patron, since the government, with a well-grounded fear of all that might stir popular feeling, refused to allow any published reports.
Some of his poems are said to have been written in ecstasies.
In 467 the emperor Anthemius rewarded him for the panegyric which he had written in honour of him by raising him to the post of prefect of Rome, and afterwards to the dignity of a patrician and senator.
Articles written in common soon led to a complete literary partnership, and 1831 there appeared in the Revue de Paris a joint novel entitled Prima Donna and signed Jules Sand.
Her first independent novel, Indiana, was written.
In a preface to a later edition she tells us how the novel came to be written, and, though it anticipates events, this revelation of herself may best be given here.
In the former woman appears as the serpent whose trail is over all; in the latter, written twenty-five years after the event, she is the guardian angel abused and maltreated by men.
was written shortly after his death by' Paolo Giovio, bishop of Nocera, who had known him intimately.
This has come down to us through a Latin version of an Arabic manuscript; it cannot, however, have been written by Archimedes in its present form, as his name is quoted in it more than once.
The poem runs to over goo lines and is written in eight-lined stanzas.
The subjects and styles of these prologues show great variety: some appear to be literary exercises with little or no connexion with the books which they introduce, and were perhaps written earlier and for other purposes.
Follen was the author of several celebrated patriotic songs written in the interests of liberty.
13 (11) was written, i.e.
It was written by Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst and Thomas Norton in collaboration.
He had a long correspondence with the Eastern authorities, his last letters on the subject being written in 1725.
In 1890 appeared The Development of Theology since Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1825, which was written for publication in England.
An able paper written by him to the king in support of these principles, on the ground especially of their advantage to trade, has been preserved.
NISH (also written Nisch and NIS), the capital of the Nish department of Servia, lying in a plain among the southern mountains, on the left shore of the Nishava, a tributary of the Morava.
The attention of the reader was distracted, and his good taste annoyed, by the incessant use of puns, of which Hood had written in his own vindication: "However critics may take offence, A double meaning has double sense."
The earliest written record of the introduction of domesticated cats into Great Britain dates from about A.D.
An essay on the passions of the mind (Passions de l'dme), which had been written originally for the princess Elizabeth, in development of some ethical views suggested by the De vita beata of Seneca, was enclosed at the same time for Chanut.
Especially he had written to Pere Mesland, one of the order, to show how the Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with his theories of matter.
The name is often in popular literature written Cambalu, and is by Longfellow accented in verse Cambeilic. But this spelling originates in an accidental error in Ramusio's Italian version, which was the chief channel through which Marco Polo's book was popularly known.
The romance of Alexander is found written in the languages of nearly all peoples from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, but all these versions are derived, mediately or immediately, from the Greek original which circulated under the false name of Callisthenes.
It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.
The French feudal romance, Li Romans d'Alexandre, was written in the 12th century by [[hero, making him especially the type of lavish generosity.
There are two considerable fragments of an English alliterative romance on the subject written in the west midland dialect, and dating from the second half of the 14th century.
It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent.
Neilson (John Barbour, Poet and Translator, London, 1900) that Barbour was the author, although the colophon states that it was written in 1438.
The Halberstadt organ, about which so much has been written, was, according to Praetorius (Syntagma musicum, Wolffenbi ttel, 1618), built in 1361, and repaired or rebuilt 1495.
Larissa, written Larisa on ancient coins and inscriptions, is near the site of the Homeric Argissa.
For this patron several of his treatises were written; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine also dates from his stay in Hyrcania.
The principal towns are Scutari (Albanian Shkoder, with the definite article Shkodr-a), the capital of the vilayet of that name, pop. 32,000; Prizren, 30,000; Iannina (often incorrectly written Ioannina), capital of the southern vilayet, 22,000; Jakova, 12,000; Dibra, 15,000; Prishtina, 11,000; Ipek (Sla y.
The Tosks generally use the Greek language for written communications.
The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.
The work in question, which is rare, was printed at Paris, and has the date 1636 on the title-page, but the royal privilege which secured it to the author is dated in October 1635, and it may have been written several years earlier.
Though written before the Descriptio it had not been prepared for press at the time of his death, but was published by his son Robert in 1619 under the title Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio.
2 In this treatise (which was written before Napier had invented the name logarithm) logarithms are called "artificial numbers."
Like Kepler and all his contemporaries he believed in astrology, and he certainly also had some faith in the power of magic, for there is extant a deed written in his own handwriting containing a contract between himself and Robert Logan of Restalrig, a turbulent baron of desperate character, by which Napier undertakes "to serche and sik out, and be al craft and ingyne that he dow, to tempt, trye, and find out" some buried treasure supposed to be hidden in Logan's fortress at Fastcastle, in consideration of receiving one-third part of the treasure found by his aid.
Fortunately, however, Robert Napier had transcribed his father's manuscript De Arte Logistica, and the copy escaped the fate of the originals in the manner explained in the following note, written in the volume containing them by Francis, seventh Lord Napier: "John Napier of Merchiston, inventor of the logarithms, left his manuscripts to his son Robert, who appears to have caused the following pages to have been written out fair from his father's notes, for Mr Briggs, professor of geometry at Oxford.
The title, which is written on the first leaf, and is also in Robert Napier's writing, runs thus: "The Baron of Merchiston his booke of Arithmeticke and Algebra.
In the top squares of the slips the ten digits are written, and each slip contains in its nine squares the first nine multiples of the digit which appears in the top square.
With the exception of the top squares, every square is divided into two parts by a diagonal, the units being written on one side and the tens on the other, so that when a multiple consists of two figures they are separated by the diagonal.
the figures as written down are 12510 6255 14595 1534560 Napier's rods or bones consist of ten oblong pieces of wood or other material with square ends.
Briggs seems to have used the notation all his life, but in writing it, as appears from manuscripts of his, he added also a small vertical line just high enough to fix distinctly which two figures it was intended to separate: thus he might have written 63 0957379.
His usual signature was "Jhone Neper," but in a letter written in 1608, and in all deeds signed after that date, he wrote "Jhone Nepair."
The essays which should have accompanied the translation of Thucydides were never written.
Deacons, in addition to having charge of the poor and sick, might catechize, and occasionally offer public prayer or read a written sermon.
The proceedings are, with but few exceptions, written, and the procedure is a survival of the antiquated Spanish system.
In 1803 he produced El BarOn in its present form; originally written (1791) as a zarzuela, it was shamelessly plagiarized by Andres de Mendoza, but the recast, a far more brilliant work, still keeps the stage.
It was followed in 1804 by La Mogigata, written between 1797 and 1803.
His early mathematical and physical papers, written under the name of J.
Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among which was the memoir written upon the Suez Canal, according to Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Lapere, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
In 1529 he produced a free version (Klagbrief der armen Diirftigen in England) of the famous Supplycacyon of the Beggers, written abroad (1528 ?) by Simon Fish.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.
His journals, which were written for his family and intimate friends, give a singularly interesting and vivid picture of life in Paris in the time of the directory.
This, the latest of his works in the domain of church history (it was written after 451), is a source of great though not of primary importance for 'the history of the old heresies.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
The edition of Sirmond (Paris, 1642) was afterwards completed by Garnier (1684), who has also written dissertations on the author's works.
It contains over 40,000 articles written by over 1,500 authors within their various fields of expertise.
What was particularly remarkable was that many of the entries were written by the most famous people of the age.
Nothing else is known of his life except that he was the author of a Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis, or Chronicon Hierosolymitanum de bello sacro, a work in twelve books, written between 1125 and 1150.
The new comedy of Greece was probably limited for the most part to scenes written in the metres of dialogue; it remained for Plautus, as Leo has shown, to enliven his plays with cantica modelled on the contemporary lyric verse of Greece or Magna Graecia, which was in its turn a development of the dramatic lyrics of Euripides.
Ben Jonson produced a skilful amalgamation of the Aulularia and the Captivi in his early play The Case is Altered (written before 1599).
Some of his finest tragedies were written for her, but her repertoire was not confined to them, and many an indifferent play - like Thomas Corneille's Ariane and Comte d'Essex - owed its success to "her natural manner of acting, and her pathetic rendering of the hapless heroine."
1 They are particularly important in that they counteracted the popular and interestingly written books of Max Muller: for instance, Muller, like Renan and Wilhelm von Humboldt, regarded language as an innate faculty and Whitney considered it the product of experience and outward circumstance.
The biography of St Francis de Sales was written immediately after his death by the celebrated P. de La Riviere and Dom John de St Francois (Goulu), as well as by two other authors of less importance.
Heinrich Schiitz's Lamentatio Davidi is written for a bass voice accompanied by four trombones and organ.
There seems no good reason why in modern performances the pianoforte should not be used for the purpose; if only accompanists can be trained to acquire the necessary delicacy of touch, and can be made to understand that, if they cannot extemporize the necessary polyphony, and so have to play something definitely written for them, it is not a mass of interesting detail which they are to bring to the public ear.
The date of this famous letter was 1767, but after Alceste Gluck was still able to use material from earlier work; and the overture to Armide is adapted from that of Telemacco, written in the year of Bach's death (1750).
In the treatment of the orchestra volumes might be written about Haydn's and Mozart's sense of fitness, as shown in Haydn's experiments and Mozart's settled methods.
Haydn's numerous examples of independent violoncello melodies are almost all either marked solo or written for such small orchestras that they would be played as solos.
numbers, and that passages may with impunity be written for thirty-two violins which no single player can execute clearly.
By a bull of 1264 Urban made the festival, hitherto practically confined to the diocese of Liege, obligatory on the whole Church,' and a new office for the festival was written by Thomas Aquinas himself.
anonymous love-tokens, written or otherwise - on St Valentine's day was fairly general.
The universal habit of writing and perpetual recourse to written contract even more modified primitive custom and ancient precedent.
Payment through a banker or by written draft against deposit was frequent.
But great stress was laid on the production of written evidence.
Etymologically the word implies that the messages are written, but its earliest use was of appliances that depended on visual signals, such as the semaphore or optical telegraph of Claude Chappe.
The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.
This operation occupies about twelve seconds, giving a message written in column form ready for delivery.
Instruments such as the telautograph and telewriter are apparatus for transmitting a facsimile of handwriting inscribed on a paper at one end of a line, the reproduction being made automatically at the other end of the line at the same time that the message is being written.
(3) The change of d between vowels to a sound akin to r, written by a special symbol 9 (d) in Umbrian alphabet and by RS in Latin alphabet, e.g.
(7) The decay of all diphthongs; ai, oi, ei all become a monophthong variously written e and i (rarely ei), as in the dat.
a is written) consists of the following signs, the writing being always from right to Ieft: A a, 8 b, 9 d (:.e.
iii., were written later than the rest.
Its intricacy lies in the character of the documents before us - religious formularies consisting partly of matter established in usage long before they were written down in their present shape, partly of additions made at the time of writing.
(ii.) For an upper limit of date, in default of definite evidence, it seems imprudent to go back beyond the 5th]century B.C., since neither in Rome nor Campania have we any evidence of public written documents of any earlier century.
The absence of all mention of either Gauls or Romans seems to prove that this time was at least earlier than 400 B.C.; and the curse may have been composed long before it was written down.
All limitations of areas were removed and licensees were allowed to open public call offices but not to receive or deliver written messages, and they were allowed to erect trunk wires.
Sabatier's theory as to the nature of these documents was, in brief, that the Speculum perfectionis was the first of all the Lives of the saint, written in 1227 by Br.
Leo, his favourite and most intimate disciple, and that the Legenda 3 Soc. is what it claims to be - the handiwork of Leo and the two other most intimate companions of Francis, compiled in 1246; these are the most authentic and the only true accounts, Thomas of Celano's Lives being written precisely in opposition to them, in the interests of the majority of the order that favoured mitigations of the Rule especially in regard to poverty.
Leo; on the other hand, Thomas of Celano's two Lives are free from the "tendencies" ascribed to them by Sabatier, and that of 1248 was written with the collaboration of Leo and the other companions; thus the best sources of information are those portions of the Speculum that can with certainty be carried back to Br.
Jovinianum, Libri II.), written at Bethlehem in 393, and without any personal acquaintance with the man assailed.
The Venetian version of the quarrel with the pope was written by Sarpi (subsequently translated into English, London, 1626); see also Cornet, Paolo V.
Of the above the first is the best general sketch and is rich in notes; the second somewhat chauvinistic but excellently written; the third the best work for scholars; the seventh; eighth and eleventh are valuable as being by contemporaries.
Money order cards are very convenient and cheap (up to 10 lire for bc. short private message can be written on them.
No written agreement, however, was signed.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.
On the 4th of June 1887 the official Vatican organ, the Osservatore Romano, published a letter written by Tosti to the pope conditionally retracting the views expressed in the pamphlet.
The letter had been written at the popes request, on the understanding that it should not be published.
Sisenna also translated the tales of Aristides of Miletus, and is supposed by some to have written a commentary on Plautus.
He obtained a seat in parliament; and in spite of Danby's endeavour to seize his papers by an order in council, on the 10th of December 1678 caused two of the incriminating letters written by Danby to him to be read aloud to the House of Commons by the Speaker.
In his written defence he now pleaded the king's pardon, but on the 5th of May 1679 it was pronounced illegal by the Commons.
UZHITSE (also written Uzice and Ushitsa), the capital of the Uzhitse department of Servia.
He was to draw up a written treatise, stating the course he proposed, and defending it by arguments from scripture, the fathers and the decrees of general councils.
The immediate occasion of his imprisonment was a strongly worded declaration he had written a few days previously against the mass, the celebration of which, he heard, had been re-established at Canterbury.
What the Three Sermons sought to find written small within - a law of inflexible justice or righteousness - part i.
He is best known for his famous supplements to Quintus Curtius and Livy, containing the missing books written by himself.
Both were written evidently in a less hurried fashion than those in the British Museum, and the one at Lincoln was regarded as the most perfect by the commissioners who were responsible for the appearance of the Statutes of the Realm in 1810.
Considering that this book was written before the time of Haller, or Bonnet, or Linnaeus, or Hutton, it surely deserves more respectful consideration than it usually receives.
In the preface, Lamarck says that the work was written in 1776, and presented to the Academy in 1780; but it was not published before 2794, and at that time it presumably expressed Lamarck's mature views.
At p. 66 of the Gandha Vamsa, a modern catalogue of Pali books and authors, written in Pali, there is given a list of ten authors who wrote Pali books in India, probably southern India.
No work written in Pali in Ceylon at a date older than this has been discovered yet.
It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.
written in Siam.
The Pali books written in Ceylon, Burma and Siam will be our best and oldest, and in many respects our only, authorities for the sociology and politics, the literature and the religion, of their respective countries.
The Meditations were written, it is evident, as occasion offered - in the midst of public business, and on the eve of battles on which the fate of the empire depended - hence their fragmentary appearance, but hence also much of their practical value and even of their charm.
The original prescription is kept by the pharmacist for either three or ten years, according to the country, and a certified copy given to the patient, written on white paper if for internal use, or on coloured paper (usually orange yellow) if for external use.
According to Suetonius (Caesar, 56), many authorities considered Oppius to have written the histories of the Spanish, African and Alexandrian wars which are printed among the works of Caesar.
As travelling companies never visited Guadalcanal, and as ladies took no part in the representations, these three plays were written for men only.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
Amongst his contemporaries were Istakhri, who travelled through all the Mahommedan countries and wrote his Book of Climates in 950, and Ibn Haukal, whose Book of Roads and Kingdoms, based on the work of Istakhri, was written in 976.
The first detailed account of the west coast of South America was written by a keenly observant old soldier, Pedro de Cieza de Leon, who was travelling in South America from 1533 to 1550, and published his story at Seville in 1553.
The most valuable work on Africa about this time is, however, that written by the Moor Leo Africanus in the early part of the 16th century.
In 1541 Francisco de Orellana discovered the whole course of the Amazon from its source in the Andes to the Atlantic. A second voyage on the Amazon was made in 1561 by the mad pirate Lope de Aguirre; but it was not until 1639 that a full account was written of the great river by Father Cristoval de Acufia, who ascended it from its mouth and reached the city of Quito.
The chief result of this early intercourse between Great Britain and Japan was the interesting series of letters written by William Adams from 1611 to 1617.
His monument bore an inscription written by himself, to the effect that he had always fully repaid the kindnesses of his friends and the wrongs done him by his enemies.
and authorities; Les Affaires du comte de Boduel (written January 1568, publ.
These views were expressed with extraordinary vigour and incisiveness in his Letter from Sydney (1829), published while he was still in prison, but composed with such graphic power that it has been continually quoted as if written on the spot.
Czacki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1854); Letters written during Emigration, 1792-1794 (Pol.) (Posen, 1872).
Delbri ck began in 1883 to edit the Preussische Jahrbilcher, in which he has written many articles, including one on "General Wolseley fiber Napoleon, Wellington and Gneisenau," and he has contributed to the Europeiischer Geschichtskalender of H.
Alfred Langdon Elwyn has edited Letters by Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Others, Written During and After the Revolution, to John Langdon of New Hampshire (Philadelphia, 1880), a book of great interest and value.
Full materials for his life are found in his Memoirs, written by himself (translated into English by Leyden and Erskine (London, 1826); abridged in Caldecott, Life of Baber (London, 1844).
His Life was written by Dean Stanley (1845).
Not to speak of earlier periods, a great deal has been written concerning Mantegna of late years.
Properly speaking, "Hebrew Literature" denotes all works written in the Hebrew language.
In catalogues and bibliographies, however, the expression is now generally used, conveniently if incorrectly, as synonymous with Jewish literature, including all works written by Jews in Hebrew characters, whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic or even some vernacular not related to Hebrew.
A few years later (about 600) the two Pentateuchal documents J and E were woven together, the books of Kings were compiled, the book of Habakkuk and parts of the Proverbs were written.
The translation was no doubt originally extemporary, and varied with the individual translators, but its form gradually became fixed and was ultimately written down.
i) Moses received on Mount Sinai not only the written Law as set down in the Pentateuch, but also the Oral Law, which he communicated personally to the 70 elders and through them by a "chain of tradition" to succeeding ages.
The halakhah was by no means inferior in prestige to the written Law.
It was not independent of the written Law, still less could it be in opposition to it.
As observed above, it was the duty of the teachers to show the connexion of practical rules with the written Law, the more so since the Sadducees rejected the authority of the oral law as such.
The material thus accumulated, both halakhic and agadic, forming a commentary on and amplification of the Mishnah, was eventually written down under the name of Gemara (from gemar, to learn completely), the two together forming the Talmud (properly "instruction").
It is probable that notes or selections were from time to time written down to help in teaching and learning the immense mass of material, in spite of the fact that even in Sherira's time (11th century) such aids to memory were not officially recognized.
As being a constant object of study numerous commentaries have been written on the Talmud from the earliest times till the present.
Much of it in later times was written in a curious Tatar dialect.
Mention need only be made further of Isaac of Troki, whose anti-Christian polemic (1593) was translated into English by Moses Mocatta under the title of Faith Strengthened (1851); Solomon of Troki, whose Appiryon, an account of Karaism, was written at the request of Pufendorf (about 1700); and Abraham Firkovich, who, in spite of his impostures, did much for the literature of his people about the middle of the 19th century.
His treatises on the verbs, written in Arabic, were translated into Hebrew by Moses Giqatilla (11th century), himself a considerable grammarian and commentator, and by Ibn Ezra.
about 1180), in philosophy an Aristotelian (through Avicenna) and the precursor of Maimonides, is chiefly known for his Sepher haqabbalah, written as a polemic against Karaism, but valuable for the history of tradition.
Passing over the less important, these are the Moreh Nebhukhim (so the Hebrew translation of the Arabic original), an endeavour to show philosophically the reasonableness of the faith, parts of which, translated into Latin, were studied by the Christian schoolmen, and the Mishneh Torah, also called Yad hahazagah (1 ' =14, the number of the parts), a classified compendium of the Law, written in Hebrew 4 See M.
1226), author of a philosophical treatise in Arabic and of a commentary on the Song of Solomon, found so much difficulty in the new views that the Moreh Nebhukhim was written in order to convince him.
1305), who, however, drew his material in part from earlier written or traditional sources, such as the Sepher Yezirah.
The fact that many of the most important works were written in Arabic, the vernacular of the Spanish Jews under the Moors, which was not understood in France, gave rise to a number of translations into Hebrew, chiefly by the family of Ibn Tibbon (or Tabbon).
The three epistles mentioned are written to men rather than churches, and to men appointed to certain pastoral work.
" stores of instruction for the ignorant"), or chronicles, which were carefully written up from time to time.
Amongst his works are - Doctrine de Saint-Simon (written in conjunction with several of his followers), published in 1830, and several times republished; Economie politique et politique Saint-Simonienne (1831); Correspondance politique (1835-1840); Corresp. philos.
The last name is commonly written Boethius, from the idea that it is connected with the Greek (30rtOos; but the best manuscripts agree in reading Boetius.
It is not impossible, however, that Boetius may have been brought up a Christian, and that in his early years he may have written some Christian books.
The treatise was therefore written before the birth of Boetius, if it be not a forgery; but there is no reason to suppose that the treatise was not a genuine production of the time to which it professes to belong.
The works may really have been written by one Boetius, a bishop of Africa, as Jourdain supposes, or by some Saint Severinus, as Nitzsch conjectures, and the similarity of name may have aided the transference of them to the heathen or neutral Boetius.
While they had no written language, a considerable oral literature of songs, legends and traditions existed.
Justice is administered from a written civil and criminal code.
The sacred literature of the Balinese is written in the ancient Javanese or Kawi language, which appears to be better understood here than it is in Java.
He is also said to have written, at dates unknown, The London Merchant (which, however, was an earlier name for Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle) and The Royal Combat; a tragedy by him, Beauty in a Trance, was entered in the Stationers' Register in 1653, but never printed.
Of the other plays written by Ford alone, only The Chronicle Historie of Perkin Warbeck.
jurisdiction over the clergy which they have lost elsewhere in Europe; and in them the old secret written procedure survives.
In these courts the ordinary written law had little to say; the decisions of the volost courts were based on the local customary law, which alone the peasants, and the peasants alone, understand.
In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.
About education a great deal was spoken and written, and a certain amount of progress was effected.
In 1773 a Don Cossack called Pugachev, who was so uneducated that he could not even sign the manifestoes written for him, declared himself to be Peter III., and announced that he was going to St Petersburg to punish his faithless wife and place his son Paul on the throne.
Dubrovin, president of the Union of the Russian People and organizer of pogroms, having written a letter of congratulation to the tsar on the occasion of the coup d'etat, received a gracious reply; the hideous reign of terror of the " Black Hundred " in Odessa did not prevent the Grand-duke Constantine from accepting the badge of membership of the Union.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
The expression for the indicated horse-power may be written I.H.P. =pay/550 (27) where v is the average piston speed in feet per second.
This story is open to grave suspicion, as, apart from the miracles recorded, there are wide discrepancies between the secular Portuguese histories and the narratives written or inspired by Jesuit chroniclers of the 17th century.
The report, however, would be of greater value if the names of the medium and of the working members of the committee were given - we only know that of Serjeant Cox - and if they had written independent accounts of what they witnessed.
The history of it has yet to be written.
of Western rituals indicate the importance which was attached to this part of the liturgy by the fact of its being written in a much more ornate way than the other parts, e.g.
He took priests' orders and appears to have held the chaplaincy of St Matthews, Dundee, but in March 1539 he was accused of heresy, apparently for having, in conjunction with his brothers, written some anti-Catholic ballads.
Gregory the Great sent to Mellitus, bishop of London, a written rite of sacrificing bulls for use in the English church of the early 7th century.
of it in 1900, with the written consent of the native chiefs, appointed a naval governor.
ARSACES, a Persian name, which occurs on a Persian seal, where it is written in cuneiform characters.
The documents underlying the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, represented by the ciphers J, E, D and P, are assumed to have been drawn up in the chronological order in which those ciphers are here set down, and the period of their composition extends from the 9th century B.C., in which the earlier portions of J were written, to the 5th century B.C., in which P finally took shape.
The subsequent discovery of a document written in Babylonian cuneiform at Lachish (Tell el Hesy), and more recently still of another in the excavations at Ta`annek, have established the fact beyond all dispute.
Now when the Hebrew religion was reduced to written form it began to be a book-religion, and since the book consisted of fixed rules and enactments, religion began to acquire a stereotyped character.
- These may be briefly referred to under the following aspects: (a) Codified law and the written record of the patriarchal history, as well as the life and work of the lawgiver Moses (to whom the entire body of law came to be ascribed), assumed an ever greater importance.
There were various causes which combined to enhance the importance of the written Torah (the " instruction " par excellence communicated by God through Moses).
On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June 1836, when the concluding note was written.
His Life was written by George Ticknor (1864; revised 1875).
Certayne Ecloges of Alexander Barclay, Priest, written in his youth, were probably printed as early as 1513, although the earliest extant edition is that in John Cawood's reprint (1570) of the Ship of Fools.
12) were numerous both in prose and in verse: besides the /1XXot, he is said to have written epic poems, tragedies, comedies and satyric dramas.
All Cyprian's literary works were written in connexion with his episcopal office; almost all his treatises and many of his letters have the character of pastoral epistles, and their form occasionally betrays the fact that they were intended as addresses.
Of the eighty-two letters in the present collection, sixty-six were written by Cyprian.
In the editions of the works .of Cyprian a number of treatises are printed which, certainly or probably, were not written by him, and have therefore usually been described as pseudo-Cyprianic. Several of them, e.g.
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
Partly owing to its being written in French, partly to its character, the Essai excited more attention abroad than at home.
The fourth volume, partly written in 1782, was completed in June 1784; the preparation of the fifth volume occupied less than two years; while the sixth and last, begun 18th May 1786, was finished in thirteen months.
For some months he found amusement in the preparation of the delightful Memoirs (1789) from which most of our knowledge of his personal history is derived; but his letters to friends in England, written between 1788 and 1793 occasionally betray a slight but unmistakable tone of ennui.
For instance, Mirabeau wrote thus to Sir Samuel Romilly: " I have never been able to read the work of Mr Gibbon without being astounded that it should ever have been written in English; or without being tempted to turn to the author and say, ` You an Englishman ?
He had previously written his commentaries on the epistles to the Galatians (1865), Philippians (1868) and Colossians (1875), the notes to which were distinguished by sound judgment and enriched from his large store of patristic and classical learning.
The exemption can be claimed by the husband, wife, or other head of the family, by a written declaration duly acknowledged and recorded in the manner prescribed for conveyances; and the homestead can then be mortgaged or alienated by a husband only with the wife's consent, if the wife is at the time a resident of the state.
Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).
- In the IVth Dynasty there might be four of the latter: (1) identifying him with the royal god Horus; the name is commonly written in a frame Ijllll representing the façade of a building, perhaps a palace or tomb, on which the falcon stands.
Before the first consulship of Julius Caesar (59 B.C.), minutes of the proceedings of the senate were written and occasionally published, but unofficially; Caesar, desiring to tear away the veil of mystery which gave an unreal importance to the senate's deliberations, first ordered them to be recorded and issued authoritatively.
Although his making religion the sole factor of this evolution was a perversion of the historical facts, the book was so consistent throughout, so full of ingenious ideas, and written in so striking a style, that it ranks as one of the masterpieces of the French language in the 19th century.
He was a diligent seeker after the truth, and was perfectly sincere when he informed a critic of the exact number of "truths" he had discovered, and when he remarked to one of his pupils a few days before his death, "Rest assured that what I have written in my book is the truth."
CURTEA DE ARGESH (Rumanian, Curtea de Arges; also written Curtea d'Argesh, Curtea d'Ardges, Argish and Ardjish), the capital of the department of Argesh, Rumania; situated on the right bank of the river Argesh, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians; and on the railway from Pitesci to the Rothenthurm Pass.
It comprises seven large volumes and a geographical appendix; but the seventh volume, the history of the sultan Husain (1438-1505), together with a short account of some later events down to 1523, cannot have been written by Mirkhond himself, who died in 1498.
1856), who has also written the Life and Times of Cardinal Wiseman; and Ten Personal Studies (1908).
Of this monarch, known as Murkertagh MacNeill (Niall), and sometimes by reference to his mother as Murkertagh Mac Erca, the story is told, illustrating an ancient Celtic custom, that in making a league with a tribe in Meath he emphasized the inviolability of the treaty by having it written with the blood of both clans mixed in one vessel.
The term is also sometimes applied to the written minutes of a meeting or assembly.
The writer claims to have treated his subject impartially, and though written from the narrow point of view of one to whom Monophysite "orthodoxy" was all-important, it is evidently a faithful reproduction of events as they occurred.
The above equation may consequently be written, if x is the heat of formation of methane, -x+0 = -94300-(2 X 68300) +213800 x =17000 cal.
GUDRUN (KuDxuN), a Middle High German epic, written probably in the early years of the 13th century, not long after the Nibelungenlied, the influence of which may be traced upon it.
Some appear written for the first time in the book of Jubilees, in " the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs " (both perhaps 2nd century B.C.) and in later sources; and although in Genesis the stories are now in a post-exilic setting (a stage earlier than Jubilees), the older portions may well belong to the 7th or 6th cent.
Biblical criticism is concerned with a composite (Judaean) history based upon other histories (partly of non-Judaean origin), and the relation between native written sources and external contemporary evidence (monumental and.
Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
The account of Josiah's work, like that of Hezekiah, is written by one of the Deuteronomic school: that is to say, the writer describes the promulgation of the teaching under which he lives.
2 - The course of events from the middle of the 6th century B.C. to the close of the Persian period is lamentably obscure, although much indirect evidence indicates that this age holds the key to the growth of written biblical history.
the history of the northern monarchy), it is obvious that, apart from indigenous Judaean tradition, the southern groups which were ultimately enrolled in Judah would possess their own stock of oral and written lore.
No doubt there is much that is purely artificial and untrustworthy in the late (post-exilic) representations of these divisions, but it is almost incredible that the historical foundation for their early career is severed from the written sources by centuries of warfare, immigration and other disturbing factors.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
External research constantly justifies the cautious attitude which has its logical basis in the internal conflicting character of the written traditions or in their divergence from ascertained facts; at the same time it has clearly shown that the internal study of the Old Testament has its limits.
The differences between the form of the written history and the conditions which prevailed have impressed themselves variously upon modern writers, and efforts have been made to recover from the Old Testament earlier forms more in accordance with the external evidence.
Some of his prologues and epilogues were written for the London theatres.
'QUEZAL, or Quesal, the Spanish-American name for one of the most beautiful of birds, abbreviated from the Aztec or Maya Quetzal-tototl, the last part of the compound word meaning fowl, and the first, also written Cuetzal, the long feathers of rich green with which it is adorned.'
In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
On the 7th of August Baillie had written that he had heard that Henderson was dying " most of heartbreak."
Pierre d'Ailly's written works are numerous.
Bibliography.-Sir Thomas Urquhart's Discovery of a most excellent jewel (1652; reprinted in the Maitland Club's edition of Urquhart's Works in 1834) is written with the express purpose of glorifying Scotland.
Under the revised code (1905) a wife may hold property which she had acquired before marriage free from any obligation of her husband, but in general she is not permitted to make contracts affecting either her personal or real estate without the written consent of her husband.
Cornelia P. Spencer, First Steps in North Carolina History (6th ed., Raleigh, 1893), is a brief elementary book written for use in the public schools.
Fayetteville, N.C., 1857-1858), written from the established church point of view, the best and fullest treatment of the proprietary period (1663-1729); and W.
barcaruola, a boat-song), properly a musical term for the songs sung by the Venetian gondoliers, and hence for an instrumental or vocal composition, generally in 6-8 time, written in imitation of their characteristic rhythm.
His life was written by Philistus, but the work is not extant.
viii., 1896) have written on the classification of the Formicidae.
They are written from left to right, exception being made of Urdu or Hindostani, the mixed language of the Mahommedan conquerors of northern India, the character used for writing which is the Persian.
Through the whole of this tract the letters are used which are common to Persian, Arabic and Turkish, written from right to left.
(iv.) The Siamese or Thai, who speak a monosyllabic language of the Chinese type, but written in an Indian alphabet, represent a late invasion from southern China, whence they descended about the 13th century.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
There are two collections of writings on the subject: Marie Therese de France, compiled (1852) by the marquis de Pastoret, and comprising beside the memoir written by Marie Therese herself, articles by M.
It is indeed easy to understand that the romantic incidents of this period were much in the mouths of the people - to whom David was a popular hero - and in course of time were written down in various forms which were not combined into perfect harmony by later editors, who gave excerpts from several sources rather than a new and independent history.
Apart from this, it is possible that the words have been written to shift from Solomon's shoulders the bloodshed incurred in establishing his throne.
The Judas legend, however, never really became popular, whereas that of Oedipus was handed down both orally and in written national tales (Albanian, Finnish, Cypriote).
The character of true monarchy is well defined in the well-known lines of Cowper (Verses supposed to be written by Alexander Selkirk): " I am monarch of all I survey, My right there is none to dispute."
Romilly was introduced to Mirabeau by Sir Francis D'Ivernois (1757-1842), and readily undertook to translate into English the Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus, which Mirabeau had written in 1785.
This luminous judgment, it must be noted, was written by a man of acknowledged purity of life, who admired Mirabeau in early life not when he was a statesman, but when he was only a struggling literary man.
Written annals carry the record of its kings back to about A.D.
The Supreme Court so held; its opinion, written by Chief Justice Marshall, being little else than a recital of Webster's argument.
Curtis, Life of Daniel Webster (2 vols., New York, 1870) is the most complete biography, but it is written wholly from an admirer's point of view.
The familiar charge, repeated in Shakespeare, of having written Ego et meus rex, while true in fact, is false in intention, because no Latin scholar could put the words in any other order; but it reflects faithfully enough Wolsey's mental attitude.
On the other hand, unexpurgated copies were made in Matthew's lifetime; though the offending passages are duly omitted or softened in his abridgment of his longer work, the Historia Anglorum (written about 125 3), the real sentiments of the author must have been an open secret.
At the instigation of Theophilus of Alexandria, Anastasius (pope 398-402) summoned Rufinus from Aquileia to Rome to vindicate his orthodoxy; but he excused himself from a personal attendance in a written Apologia pro fide sua.
The Logic, an eminently practical work, written from the point of view of Locke, is in five parts, dealing with (1) the nature of the human mind, its faculties and operations; (2) ideas and their kinds; (3) the true and the false, and the various degrees of knowledge; (4) reasoning and argumentation; (5) method and the ordering of our thoughts.
Getarum, and was also written in 551.
This laudation, both of the Goths and of their Byzantine conquerors, may perhaps help us to understand the motive with which the Getica was written.
The best MS. is the Heidelberg MS., written in Germany, probably in the 8th century; but this perished in the fire at Mommsen's house.
Broughton, Letters written in a Mahratta Camp (1813); G.
His life has been written by John Wheeldon (1793), H.
Garnet's Ghost was published as a broadside in 1679, but the other Satires on the Jesuits, although written at the same time, were not printed until 1681.
Indeed his work, written in a diffuse and inelegant style, passed almost unnoticed.
He has only one symbol (written somewhat like a final sigma) for an unknown quantity, which he calls apc0µ6s (defined as "an undefined number of units"); the symbol may be a contraction of the initial letters ap, as A Y, K Y, D Y O, &c., are for the powers of the unknown (Suvaµcs, square; icu(30s, cube; Svva,uo& va i ccs, fourth power, &c.).
The first sign we have of his interest in economics is a letter (1749) on paper money, written to his fellow student the abbe de Cice, refuting the abbe Terrasson's defence of Law's system.
Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.
Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
Written in 1766, it appeared in 1769-1770 in Dupont's journal, the Ephemerides du citoyen, and was published separately in 1776.
Thus, for instance, was the Rationale of Judicial Evidence written out by J.
In its rotunda is Jean Antoine Houdon's full-length marble statue of Washington, provided for by the Virginia General Assembly in 1784, and erected in 1796; its base bears a fine inscription written by James Madison.
But of Laodice, Comma, Stilico and some other pieces, Pierre Corneille himself said that "he wished he had written them," and he was not wont to speak lightly.
His life has been written by Daniel, a monk belonging to the monastery of Raithu, on the Red Sea.
It is written in a simple and popular style.
He was the author of two text-books on them - one an Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (1867), written with the advice of Hamilton, though not published till after his death, and the other an Introduction to Quaternions (1873), in which he was aided by Professor Philip Kelland (1808-1879), who had been one of his teachers at Edinburgh.
1523), commonly ascribed to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, a judge of the Common Pleas in the reign of Henry VIII., but more probably written by his elder brother John.
This was written in February 1694.
The first Awe work, written by James Donaldson, was printed in culture in 1697, under the title of Husbandry Anatomized; or, Scotland an Inquiry into the Present Manner of Tilling and in the 18th Manuring the Ground in Scotland.
The next work on the husbandry of Scotland is The Countryman's Rudiments, or an Advice to the Farmers in East Lothian, how to labour and improve their Grounds, said to have been written by John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven about the time of the Union, and reprinted in 1723.
The letters written by Sir James Caird to The Times during 1850, and republished in 1852 under the title English Agriculture in 1850-1851, give a general review of English agriculture at the time.
The same thought appears in a review of Herschel's Natural Philosophy, written about the same time.
These essays were worked out and written many years before, and show Mill in his first stage as a political economist.
That originality and independence became more conspicuous when he reached his second stage as a political economist, struggling forward towards the standpoint from which his systematic work was written.
(On these points see Mary Taylor, Mrs Mill's grand-daughter, in Elliott's edition of the Letters.) closely reasoned and characteristic works, the Liberty, the Utilitarianism, the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and the Subjection of Women, besides his posthumously published essays on Nature and on the Utility of Religion, were thought out and partly written in collaboration with his wife.
His delight in scenery frequently appears in letters written to his friends during his summer and autumn tours.
The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.
One of his first tasks was to send his treatise on the Subjection of Women (written 1861, published 1869, many editions) through the press.
The essay on Theism was written soon after.
In many works, such as those of a statistical or historical character, there are frequently to be found passages which could have been written in no other period, but are only of the nature of ejaculations and do not affect the argument.
It is true that at present very little work of this kind has been done in England, but innumerable books, many of them about England, have been written by thoroughly competent economists, in French, German and other languages.
A biographical sketch written from a different point of view was published by W.
That national poet collected in the earliest Scottish poem, written in the reign of Bruce's grandson, the copious traditions which clustered round his memory.
The nature of the work, the materials from which it was composed, and the circumstances under which it was written are, however, in themselves exceptional, and necessarily tended to this result.
A different but essential side of his character is seen in his poems and humorous pieces, such as the Vergleichende Anatomie der Engel (1825), written under the pseudonym of "Dr Mises."
She also provoked a dangerous enemy in John Knox by her expressed contempt for a letter which he had written to her, but the first revolt against her authority arose from an attempt to establish a standing army.
"Which of us," asks Jerome, "can read all that he has written ?"
The Hexapla was probably never fully written out, but excerpts were made from it by various scholars at Caesarea in the 4th century; and thus large sections of it have been saved.'
The principal apologetic work of Origen is his book Kara KeXuov (eight books), written at Caesarea in the time of Philip the Arabian.
The first was written during the persecution of Maximinus Thrax, and was dedicated to his friends Ambrosius and Protoctetus.
Many of the notes and essays written by him at Auxonne bear witness to his indomitable resolve to master all the details of his profession and the chief facts relating to peoples who had struggled successfully to achieve their liberation.
A letter written by the Prussian statesman, Baron vom Stein, had fallen into the hands of the French and revealed to the emperor the ferment produced in Germany by news of the French reverses in Spain.
Warden's Letters written on Board H.M.S.
In May and June 1789 he had written La France libre, which, to his chagrin, his publisher refused to print.
He obtained enough to enable him to forecast the discovery of written characters, till then not suspected in Aegean civilization.
(7) Written documents, e.g.
clay tablets and discs (so far in Crete only), but nothing of more perishable nature, such as skin, papyrus, &c.; engraved gems and gem impressions; legends written with pigment on pottery (rare); characters incised on stone or pottery.
The Aegean written documents have not yet proved (by being found outside the area) epistolary correspondence with other lands.
History of an inferential and summary sort only can be derived from monuments in the absence of written records.
They have developed a more convenient and expressive written character by stages of which one is best represented by the tablets of Hagia Triada.
1 They speak the languages of the localities in which they are settled (Arabic or Persian), but the language of their sacred books is an Aramaic dialect, which has its closest affinities with that of the Babylonian Talmud, written in a peculiar character suggestive of the old Palmyrene.
His name is permanently associated with a posthumous publication, written in 1568.
It consists of seventy-five Theses, followed by a Confarmatio in six books, and an appendix of letters to Erastus by Bullinger and Gualther, showing that his Theses, written in 1568, had been circulated in manuscript.
Although it is written in the form of annals, mistakes are not wanting, and several glaring anachronisms have been pointed out by M.
It has often been asserted that the Philobiblon itself was not written by Richard de Bury at all, but by Robert Holkot.
On the 8th of June he was appointed on a committee with Jefferson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman to draft a Declaration of Independence; and although that document was by the request of the committee written by Thomas Jefferson, it was John Adams who occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption.
She was a woman of much ability, and her letters, written in an excellent English style, are of great value to students of the period in which she lived.
The "Luck of Eden Hall," which has been celebrated in a ballad by the duke of Wharton, and in a second ballad written by Uhland, the German poet, and translated by Longfellow, is an enamelled goblet, kept in a leathern case dating from the times of Henry IV.
Though birds make a not unimportant appearance in the earliest written records of the human race, the painter's brush has preserved their counterfeit presentment for a still longer period.
of England, and probably written soon after 1121, as printed by the late Mr Thomas Wright, in his Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages (London, 1841).
Hence his work, written in French, contains a far greater amount of original matter; and his personal observations made in many countries, from England to Egypt, enabled him to avoid most of the puerilities which disfigure other works of his own or of a preceding age.
' After Klein's death his Prodromus, written in Latin, had the unwonted fortune of two distinct translations into German, published in the same year 1760, the one at Leipzig and Lubeck by Behn, the other at Danzig by Reyger - each of whom added more or less to the original.
It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
Heysham added to Hutchins's Cumberland a list of birds of that county, whilst in the same year began Thomas Lord's valueless Entire New System of Ornithology, the text of which was written or corrected by Dr Dupree, and in 1794 Donovan began a History of British Birds which was only finished in 1819 - the earlier portion being reissued about the same time.
Observations on birds form the principal though by no means the whole theme of this book, which may be safely said to have done more to promote a love of ornithology in England than any other work that has been written, nay more than all the other works (except one next to be mentioned) put together.
In estimating the letterpress, which was avowedly held to be of secondary importance to the plates, we must bear in mind that, to ensure the success of his works, it had to be written to suit a very peculiarly composed body of subscribers.
Some of the most eminent of them have written scarcely a line on the birds of their own country, as Cabanis (editor since 1853 of the Journal fiir Ornithologie), Finsch, Hartlaub, Prince Max of Wied, A.
6 Andreas Wagner, in his report on the progress of 2 A short essay by Nitzsch on the general structure of the Passerines, written, it is said, in 1836, was published in 1862 (Zeitschr.
The volume on birds was written by Dr L.
KRALYEVO (sometimes written Kraljevo or Kralievo), a city of Servia, and capital of a department bearing the same name.
The Apology - it is more correct to speak of one Apology than of two, for the second is only a continuation of the first, and dependent upon it--was written in Rome about 150.
Smith (ed.), The St Clair Papers: Life and Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1882); Jacob Burnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory (Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E.
Leland said that it is easier to collect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works written by Roger Bacon; and though the labour has been somewhat lightened by the publications of Brewer and Charles, referred to below, it is no easy matter even now to form an accurate idea of his actual productions.
It is known that before the Opus Majus Bacon had already written some tracts, among which an unpublished work, Computus Naturalium, on chronology, belongs probably to the year 1263; while, if the dedication of the De Secretis Operibus be authentic, that short treatise must have been composed before 1249.
The series of native inscriptions, written in Aramaic, begins a few years after; the earliest bears the date 304 of the Seleucid era, i.e.
The bulk of the population was of Arab race, and though Aramaic was used as the written language, in common intercourse Arabic had by no means disappeared.
In the very early rock inscriptions of Thera (700-600 B.C.), written from right to left, it appears in a form resembling the ordinary Greek X; this form apparently arose from writing the Semitic symbol upside down.
Under these acts a right of reentry or forfeiture is not to be enforceable unless and until the lessor has served on the lessee a written notice specifying the breach of covenant or condition complained of, and requiring him to remedy it or make compensation, and this demand has not within a reasonable time been complied with; and when a lessor is proceeding to enforce such a right the court may, if it think fit, grant relief to the lessee.
The letting may be either written or verbal.
1 737) - if at that period the lessee remains and is left in possession, there is, in the case of written leases, a tacit renewal (tacite reconduction) of the lease as a verbal lease (Arts.
The earliest work of Orosius, Consultatio sive commonitorium ad Augustinum de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum, explains its object by its title; it was written soon after his arrival in Africa, and is usually printed in the works of Augustine along with the reply of the latter, Contra Priscillianistas et Origenistas liber [ad Orosium.
His next treatise, Liber apologeticus de arbitrii libertate, was written during his stay in Palestine, and in connexion with the controversy which engaged him there.
He is said to have written the history of his consulship and the Cimbrian War after the manner of Xenophon; two epigrams by him have been preserved, one on Roscius the celebrated actor (Cicero, De Nat.
All instruction was communicated orally, but for ordinary purposes they had a written language in which they used the Greek characters.
Much has been written on the subject in Dutch and German; in English, S.
It is very probable that the versions of this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than that of the Turks.
If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a jus consuetudinarium under Baldwin III., quo regnum regebatur), then the "Letters of the Sepulchre" are a myth - or rather, if they ever existed, they existed not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs, like the Sicilian Defetarii.
They preferred an unwritten law, as Prutz suggests, partly because it suited the barristers (who often belonged to the baronage, for the Frankish nobles were "great pleaders in court and out of court"), and partly because the high court was left unbound so long as there was no written code.
In the 13th century it became necessary for the legists to codify, as it were, the unwritten law, because the upheavals of the times necessitated the fixing of some rules in writing, and especially because it was necessary to oppose a definite custom of the kingdom to Frederick II., who sought, as king of Jerusalem, to take advantage of the want of a written law, to substitute his own conceptions of law in the teeth of the high court.
had the name of the emperor written above his own.
- In one vital respect the result of the Crusades may be written down as failure.
It has already been noticed how military reconnaissances of the routes to Egypt came to be made; but more important were the guide-books, of which a great number were written to guide the pilgrims from one sacred spot of Bible history to another.
His book might almost be called the "Visions of Peter Bartholomew and others," and it is written in the plain matter-of-fact manner of Defoe's narratives.
He knew Greek and Arabic; and he was well acquainted with the affairs of Constantinople, to which he went at least twice on political business, and with the history of the Mahommedan powers, on which he had written a work (now lost) at the command of Amalric. It was Amalric also who set him to write the history of the Crusades which we still possess (in twenty-two books, with a fragment of a twentythird) - the Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum.
His history of the Atabegs was written about 1200, and it presents in a light favourable to Zengi and Nureddin, but unfavourable to Saladin (who thrust Nureddin's descendants aside), the history of the great Mahommedan power which finally crushed the kingdom of J erusalem.'
Side by side with Beha-ud-din's life of Saladin, Ibn Athir's work is the most considerable historical record written by the Arabs.
Generally speaking the Arabic writings are late in point of date, and cold and jejune in style; while it must also be remembered that they are set religious works written to defend Islam.
On the other hand they are generally written by men of affairs - governors, secretaries or ambassadors; and a fatalistic temper leads their authors to a certain impartial recording of everything, good or evil, which seems of moment.
This is an octosyllabic poem in French verse, written by Ambroise, a Norman trouvere who followed Richard I.
For the Fourth Crusade the primary authority is Villehardouin's La Conquete de Constantinople, an official apology for the diversion of the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana under an appearance of frank naïveté.
The Chronicle of the Morea (as this work is generally called) is written from the Frankish point of view, in spite of its Greek verse; and the Byzantine point of view must be sought in Nicetas.'
The Secreta fidelium Crucis of Marino Sanudo, a history of the Crusades written by a Venetian noble between 1306 and 1321, is also of value, particularly for the Crusade of Frederick II.
Several works were written on the capture of Acre in 1291, especially the Excidium urbis Acconensis, a treatise which emerges to throw light, after many years of darkness, on the last hours of the kingdom.
Schlumberger has written on the coins and seals of the Latin East in various publications; while Rey has written an Etude sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire (Paris, 1871).
In a barbarous Latin poem, written in celebration of the conquest of Almeria by Alphonso VII.
The Poema del Cid, written in the latter half of the 12th century, has scarcely any trace of a historical character.
The Poem of the Cid is but a fragment of 3744 lines, written in a barbarous style, in rugged assonant rhymes, and a rude Alexandrine measure, but it glows with the pure fire of poetry, and is full of a noble simplicity and a true epical grandeur, invaluable as a living picture of the age.
Duran believes the greater part of them to have been written in the 16th century.
The chief sources from which the story of the Cid is to be gathered are, first, the Latin chronicle discovered by Risco in the convent of San Isidro at Leon, proved by internal evidence to have been written before 1258; the Cronica General, composed by Alphonso X.
Poggio's History of Florence, written in avowed imitation of Livy's manner, requires separate mention, since it exemplifies by its defects the weakness of that merely stylistic treatment which deprived so much of Bruni's, Carlo Aretino's and Bembo's work of historical weight.
One of these, the Dialogue against Hypocrites, was aimed in a spirit of vindictive hatred at the vices of ecclesiastics; another, written at the request of Nicholas V., covered the anti-pope Felix with scurrilous abuse.
Appointed superintendent of the cathedral school of his native city, he taught with such success as to attract pupils from all parts of France, and powerfully contributed to diffuse an interest in the study of logic and metaphysics, and to introduce that dialectic development of theology which is designated the scholastic. The earliest of his writings of which we have any record is an Exhortatory Discourse to the hermits of his district, written at their own request and for their spiritual edification.
The opinions of Berengar are to be ascertained from the works written in refutation of them by Adelmann, Lanfranc, Guitmund, &c. from the fragments of the De sacr.
as written by the king himself.
Possibly this is in reply to objections that had been made to what he had written.
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