Maximilian was also a writer of books, and his writings display his inordinate vanity.
Howie continued to tell all of us exactly what we did, relating our deeds and writings with absolute perfection.
I knew Quinn kept cryptic notes of machine settings and results but I was sure the majority of his writings remained in Keene.
She walked into the chamber, awed by the drawings and writings on the walls.
Dean too was curious about Annie Quincy's writings but decided not to join the pair.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau both climbed the peak multiple times and praised it in their writings.
Why would a woman hide her writings from her husband?
"How is the decoding coming?" he asked, glancing over her shoulder at her writings.
I sure wish this young lady wrote a date on her writings.
My Donnie's been showing me her writings.
These different tasks, which philosophy had to fulfil, mark pretty accurately the aims of Lotze's writings, and the order in which they were published.
The object of those writings was to establish the all-pervading rule of mechanism.
Appended to this volume is a complete list of Lotze's writings, compiled by Professor Rehnisch of Gottingen.
To understand this series of Lotze's writings, it is necessary to begin with his definition of philosophy.
Much in this direction is said by Lotze in various passages of his writings; anything complete, however, on the subject is wanting.
But this formal agreement includes material differences, and the spirit which breathes in Lotze's writings is more akin to the objects and aspirations of the idealistic school than to the cold formalism of Herbart.
TUMULUS, a Latin word meaning a heap or mound, also used in classical writings in the secondary sense of a grave.
Vico's writings suffer through their author's not having followed a regular course of studies, and his style is very involved.
President Garfield's writings, edited by Burke A.
By his writings he maintained his hold on his numerous followers in Holland and Friesland.
These monotonous writings, all in Dutch, flowed in a continual stream from 1524 (though none is extant before 1529) and amounted to over 200 in number.
If I could have foreseen what a stir my writings would make, I think I should have jealously guarded the privacy of this sanctuary where, till then, I perhaps was the only soul who had fed the artist's visions and the poet's dreams. But I had no such anticipation; I never gave it a thought.
The Everard of the Lettres introduces us to a new and for the time a dominant influence on the life and writings.
Between them they rendered into Hebrew all the chief Jewish writings of the middle ages.
- The number of important writings on the Thysanoptera is not large.
Indeed all the extant writings by which he has earned his place as a poet and translator belong to this period.
The murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and from this time he tended, under the influence of the writings of Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last he ended, in a mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction.
The view (traceable no doubt to the Aristotelian definition) that equity mitigates the hardships of the law where the law errs through being framed in universals, is to be found in some of the earlier writings.
The writings of Propertius are noted for their difficulty and their disorder.
A just appreciation of the genius and the writings of Propertius is made sensibly more difficult by the condition in which his works have come down to us.
sem.; and the discussions, &c., in the writings of Clermont-Ganneau (Rec. d'archeol.
A full list of Collier's writings is given by the Rev. Wm.
Artisans came from a great distance to view and honour the image of the popular writer whose best efforts had been dedicated to the cause and the sufferings of the workers of the world; and literary men of all opinions gathered round the grave of one of their brethren whose writings were at once the delight of every boy and the instruction of every man who read them.
12 He had several writings in hand during the early years of his residence in Holland, but the main work of this period was a physical doctrine of the universe which he termed The World.
Besides the last two parts of the Principles of Philosophy, the physical writings of Descartes include the Dioptrics and Meteors, as well as passages in the letters.
At Leiden, Utrecht, Groningen, Franeker, Breda, Nimeguen, Harderwyk, Duisburg and Herborn, and at the Catholic university of Louvain, Cartesianism was warmly expounded and defended in seats of learning, of which many are now left desolate, and by adherents whose writings have for the most part long lost interest for any but the antiquary.
In1859-1860Foucher de Careil published in two parts some unedited writings of Descartes from copies taken by Leibnitz from the original papers.
The writings of Thomas are of great importance for philosophy as well as for theology, for by nature and education he is the spirit of scholasticism incarnate.
The conception will be made clearer when it is remembered that Aquinas, taught by the mysterious author of the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius, who so marvellously influenced medieval writers, sometimes spoke of a natural revelation, or of reason as a source of truths in themselves mysterious, and was always accustomed to say that reason as well as revelation contained two kinds of knowledge.
All the many writings of Thomas are preparatory to his great work the Summa Theologiae, and show us the progress of his mind training for this his life work.
There is no hint in Ezekiel's writings of the grandiose conception of Isa.
The relations between the writings of Ezekiel and those of Jeremiah is not clear.
The growth of legends and traditional identifications can be traced in the writings of the pilgrims who have visited the town from Jerome's time till our own.
He was specially devoted to the Virgin Mary, and wrote an Officium Beatae Virginis, in addition to many letters, sermons, and other writings.
HAGGAI, in the Bible, the tenth in order of the "minor prophets," whose writings are preserved in the Old Testament.
increased and her vigilance was relaxed, and might receive from Babylon and other lands both refugees and some account at least of the writings of Ezekiel and the Second Isaiah.
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
Amongst the writings of that period he was most impressed by those of F.
There seems to be evidence of this in the later writings of the New Testament.
He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.
See Johann Franz Encke, sein Leben and Wirken, von Dr C. Bruhns (Leipzig, 1869), to which a list of his writings is appended.
His later writings were nearly all upon the theory of navigation..
The writings of Josephus give a good idea of the fortifications and buildings of Jerusalem at the time of the siege, and his accurate personal knowledge makes his account worthy of the most careful perusal.
Many of his numerous writings are collected in Poverty and Un-British Rule in India (Igor).
He violently attacked Politian (Poliziano), whose Miscellanea (a collection of notes on classical authors) were declared by Merula to be either plagiarized from his own writings or, when original, to be entirely incorrect.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
First (a), in the earlier biblical writings which describe the state of affairs under the Hebrew monarchy there is not this fundamental distinction among the Levites, and, although a list of Aaronite high-priests is preserved in a late source, internal details and the evidence of the historical books render its value extremely doubtful (1 Chron.
Phinehas, Eli's son, becomes in later writings the name of a prominent Aaronite priest in the days of the exodus from Egypt.
The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the Israelite priesthood.
The three subjects to which Smith's writings relate are theory of numbers, elliptic functions and modern geometry; but in all that he wrote an "arithmetical" made of thought is apparent, his methods and processes being arithmetical as distinguished from algebraic. He had the most intense admiration of Gauss.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
The first hint to reach Europe concerning the existence of habitable lands to the eastward of the Ganges is to be found in the writings of Pomponius Mela
He still defended the Bohemian national movement, and in one of his writings laid down the principle that nationality was one of the interests outside the control of the state.
See Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone by himself, continued by his son, with his political writings, edited by W.
For the East it has had the same importance as the similar writings of Jerome, Sulpicius Severus and Cassian for the West.
However, someone may come along and edit the material to for example, combine the writings of two or more individuals into a single piece.
His writings include: Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices (1892); Elements of Geometry (with A.
The most important of his comprehensive writings are: System der Ethik (1850-1853), Anthropologie (1856, 3rd ed.
In 1796 he published, in answer to Thomas Paine, an Apology for the Bible, perhaps the best known of his numerous writings.
Thus Joseph Henry (Scientific Writings, vol.
He compiled the history and did an analysis of the writings of all the ecclesiastical writers of the first thirteen centuries.
moral degradation, as expressed in the writings of bonarl.
This latter definition seems on the whole the more probable one, and it certainly would fit exactly the character of the writings to which the term relates.
Now, in considering the body of writings connected with this Veda, we are at once confronted by the fact that there are two different schools, an older and a younger one, in which the traditional body of ritualistic matter has been treated in a very different way.
C. Fraser's Gifford Lectures, or in earlier times in the writings of Christian Wolff, whose sciences, according to the slightly different nomenclature which Kant imposed on them, were " rational psychology," " rational cosmology," and " rational theology."
One may regard him as an idealist, though Scottish intuitionalism - especially in the writings of Professor John Veitch - has claimed him for its own; and indeed Descartes's two substances of active mind and passive extended matter are very much akin to " Natural Dualism."
But once again in his political writings he breaks away from empiricism in appealing to natural law - an intuitionalist or conceivably an idealist tradition.
- In the speculative writings of the middle ages, including those of the schoolmen, we find no progress towards a more accurate and scientific view of nature.
A similar doctrine of emanation is to be found in the writings of Bernhard of Chartres, who conceives the process of the unfolding of the world as a movement in a circle from the most general to the individual, and from this back to the most general.
The influence of an advancing study of nature, which was stimulated if not guided by Bacon's writings, is seen in the more careful doctrines of materialism worked out almost simultaneously by Hobbes and Gassendi.
In the earlier writings of Schelling, containing the philosophy of identity, existence is represented as a becoming, or process of evolution.
In fact, while holding firmly by the former, Bonnet more or less modified the latter in his later writings, and, at length, he admits that a " germ " need not be an actual miniature of the organism, hut that it may be merely an " original preformation " capable of producing the latter.4 But, thus defined, the germ is neither more nor less than the "particula genitalis" of Aristotle, or the "primordium vegetale" or " ovum " of Harvey; and the " evolution " of such a germ would not be distinguishable from " epigenesis."
writings of Spencer embody the spirit of Descartes in the knowledge of our own day, and may be regarded as the Principes de la philosophic of the 19th century; while, whatever hesitation may not unfrequently be felt by less daring minds in following Haeckel in many of his speculations, his attempt to systematize the doctrine of evolution and to exhibit its influence as the central thought of modern biology, cannot fail to have a far-reaching influence on the progress of science.
A closer scrutiny of the writers of all ages who preceded Charles Darwin, and, in particular, the light thrown back from Darwin on the earlier writings of Herbert Spencer, have made plain that without Darwin the world by this time might have come to a.
Reumont's numerous writings deal mainly with Italy, in which country he passed many years of his life.
At the age of sixty, having become widely known by his writings on philosophy, he was called to the chair of logic and metaphysics in the university of Naples, which he held till his death in November 1846.
The establishment of The Atlantic Monthly in 1857 gave her a constant vehicle for her writings, as did also The Independent of New York, and later The Christian Union, of each of which papers successively her brother, Henry Ward Beecher, was one of the editors.
She published also a small volume of religious poems, and towards the end of her career gave some public readings from her writings.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.
The question of Pali becomes therefore threefold: Pali before the canon, the canon, and the writings subsequent the canon.
In Burma, on the other hand, where Pali was probably introduced from Ceylon, no writings in Pali can be dated before the nth century of our era.
Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber.
In his later writings he deals with modern society, its vices, ideals and perils; yet in many essentials he is a manifest disciple of Calderon.
The abstruse nature of his studies, the mystical character of his writings, and the general indifference of the Romans to such subjects, caused his works to be soon forgotten.
A large number of writings in the tone of the Orphic religion were ascribed to Orpheus.
Of more modern writings on Orpheus and Orphism the following may be consulted.
The whole of the writings of this time are dominated by a preoccupation with the functions of the different tissues, in itself an excellent standpoint for investigation, but frequently leading in the case of these early investigators to one-sided and distorted views of the facts of structure.
His Cours de belles lettres (1765) was afterwards included with some minor writings in the large treatise, Principes de la litterature (1774).
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).
The word geography did not appear before Aristotle, Aristotle's the first use of it being in the llepi Kovp.wv, which is one of the writings doubtfully ascribed to him, and H.
150) concentrated in his writings the final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Ptolemy.
The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.
It was, however, in the reigns of Severus and his immediate successors that Roman intercourse with India was at its height, and from the writings of Pausanias (c. 174) it appears that direct communication between Rome and China had already taken place.
Delbriick's writings are chiefly concerned with the history of the art of war, his most ambitious work being his Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte (first section, Das Altertum, 1900; second, Reiner and Germanen, 1902; third, Das Mittelalter, 1907).
In the narrower sense thus indicated the "fathers" of the Church are the great bishops and other eminent Christian teachers of the earlier centuries, who were conspicuous for soundness of judgment and sanctity of life; and whose writings remained as a court of appeal for their successors.
Migne, following the example of the editors of bibliothecae patrum who preceded him, swept into his great collection all the Christian writings which fell within his period; but he is careful to state upon his title-page that his patrologies include the ecclesiastical writers as well as the fathers and doctors of the Church.
In these products of the 2nd and 3rd centuries there is much which in its own way was not surpassed by any of the later patristic writings.
Their writings, like those of the apostles, are epistolary; but editions of the apostolic fathers now usually admit also the early Church order known as the Didache, the allegory entitled the Shepherd, and a short anonymous apology addressed to one Diognetus.
In this place it is enough to consider the general influence of the patristic writings upon Christian doctrine and biblical interpretation.
revolt against some of its fundamental principles which was led by the Puritan reaction.5 Now that the smoke of these controversies has passed away, it is possible to form a clearer judgment upon the merits of the patristic writings.
The authors he most carefully studied at this period were Thucydides and Aristotle, and for their writings he formed an attachment which remained to the close of his life, and exerted a powerful influence upon his mode of thought and opinions, as well as upon his literary occupations in subsequent years.
These writings, mainly collections of articles and lectures intended for the general public, display enlightened views and wide information.
See The Writings of Hugh Swinton Legare (2 vols., Charleston, S.C., 1846), edited by his sister, Mrs Mary Bullen, who contributed a biographical sketch; and two articles by B.
Airy's writings during this time are divided between mathematical FIG.
Of his astronomical writings during this period the most important are his investigation of the mass of Jupiter, his report to the British Association on the progress of astronomy during the 19th century, and his memoir On an Inequality of Long Period in the Motions of the Earth and Venus.
To judge, however, from the insignificant remains of his writings, and from the opinions of Cicero and Horace, he can have had no pretension either to original genius or to artistic accomplishment.
They were thus contrasted with the Homologoumena, or universally .:acknowledged writings.
The first contains prolegomena on the life and writings of Boetius, on his religion and philosophy, and on the manuscripts and editions, a critical apparatus, and notes.
the Pugio Fidei of Raymond Martini (c. 1 280), 1 While these writings are of great historical value, they do not, of course, represent the Christian argument as conceived to-day.
Scholarly and apologetic discussion on the gospels and life of Jesus is further represented by the writings of W.
The best account of the life and writings of Alembert is contained in Condorcet's Eloge, presented to the Academy and published in 1784.
In addition to this there are certain writings by his son Isidorus H€pc irpoaOuous, liuxiis; EO iy17ruca on the prophet Parchor (HapXci p); 'HBcrca.
r i, repeatedly quoted in early Christian writings, e.g.
This" communion of the body and blood of Christ,"which in early writings is clearly distinguished from the thankoffering which preceded it, and which furnished the materials for it, gradually came to supersede the thank-offering in importance, and to exercise a reflex influence upon it.
In the writings of the pre-exilian period we have frequent references to supernatural personalities good and bad.
His writings (Diogenes Laertius, ix.
These writings bear the mark of a clear mind and a moderate and gentle spirit.
Indeed, as one of the acutest and most sympathetic of his critics has remarked, the deep and settled grudge he has betrayed towards every form of Christian belief, in all the writings of his maturity, may be taken as evidence that he had at one time experienced in his own person at least some of the painful workings of a positive faith.
Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works, with Memoirs of his Life and Writings, composed by himself; illustrated from his Letters, with occasional Notes and Narrative, published by Lord Sheffield in two volumes in 1796, has been often reprinted.
Without any marked originality, his writings are distinguished by lucidity of exposition and genuine philosophic spirit.
In the later Hebrew writings the name sometimes has a feminine form, Aiath (Is.
Morse, The Federalist Party in Massachusetts (Princeton, N.J., 1909); and the biographies and writings of George Cabot, Fisher Ames, Gouverneur Morris, John Jay, Rufus King, Timothy Pickering, Theodore Sedgwick, C. C. Pinckney and J.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
The writings of Tauler and Luther so impressed him, that in 1522 he visited Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Andreas Carlstadt and Thomas Miinzer.
Letters and writings of his own (1527-1528) proved him to hold strongly anti-Lutheran heresies, and both Catholics and Lutherans urged the duke of Liegnitz to dismiss him.
Schwenkfeld, whose gentle birth and courtly manners won him many friends in high circles, left behind him a sect (who were called subsequently by others Schwenkfeldians, but who called themselves "Confessors of the Glory of Christ") and numerous writings to perpetuate his ideas.
His writings were partially collected in four folio volumes, the first of which was published in the year 1564, containing his principal theological works.
Erbkam states that his unprinted writings would make more than another four folios.
Part of his writings consist of commentaries on the portions of Aristotle then known, or rather of commentaries on the commentaries of Averroes.
A selection from his statistical writings was published in 1885 under the editorship of Mr Noel Humphreys.
At an age when - on literary-critical grounds - the Old Testament writings were assuming their present form, it was possible to divide the immediately preceding centuries into three distinct periods.
The writings are the result of a continued literary process, and the Israelite national history has come down to us through Judaean hands, with the result that much of it has been coloured by late Judaean feeling.
Collections of laws are found in Deuteronomy and in exilic and post-exilic writings; groups of a relatively earlier type are preserved in Exod.
A development of ideals and a growth of spirituality can be traced which render the biblical writings with their series of prophecies a unique 1 This is philosophically handled by the Arabian historian Ibn Khaldun, whose Prolegomena is well worthy of attention; see De Slane, Not.
A recollection of the manifold forms which religious life and thought have taken in Christendom or in Islam, and the passions which are so easily engendered among opposing sects, will prevent a one-sided estimate of the religious standpoints which the writings betray; and to the recognition that they represent lofty ideals it must be added that the great prophets, like all great thinkers, were in advance of their age.
Their writings are to be understood in the light of their age and of the conditions which gave birth to them.
The situation is illustrated in the writings of Hosea (q.v.).
This is conclusively shown by the writings of Jeremiah (xxv.
3), had entered into a reciprocal covenant with a people who, as Micah's writings would indicate, had suffered grievous oppression and misery.'
From this point of view, the desire to intensify the denudation of Palestine and the fate of its remnant, and to look to the Babylonian exiles for the future, can probably be recognized in the writings attributed to contemporary prophets.'
It is a gratuitous assumption that the history of (north) Israel ceased with the fall of Samaria or that Judah then took over Israelite literature and inherited the old Israelite spirit: the question of the preservation of earlier writings is of historical importance.
On the other hand, from the independent writings ascribed to these prophets, it appears that no considerable body of exiles could have returned - it is still an event of the future (Zech.
Greater weight must be laid upon the independent evidence of the prophetical writings, and the objection that Palestine could not have produced the religious fervency of Haggai or Zechariah without an initial impulse from Babylonia begs the question.
There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'
Upon the characteristics of the post-exilic priestly writings we need not dwell.'
3 The various tendencies which can be observed in the later pseudepigraphical and apocalyptical writings are of considerable value in any consideration of the development of thought illustrated in the Old Testament itself.
Although the light thrown upon ancient conditions of life and thought has destroyed much that sometimes seems vital for the Old Testament, it has brought into relief a more permanent and indisputable appreciation of its significance, and it is gradually dispelling that pseudo-scientific literalism which would fetter the greatest of ancient Oriental writings with an insistence upon the verity of historical facts.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
The preface to his Ever Green is a protest against "imported trimming" and "foreign embroidery in our writings," and a plea for a return to simple Scottish tradition.
Among his writings are Die Jacobiner in Ungarn (Leipzig, 1851) and Eletem es Korom (Pest, 1880), and many treatises on Hungarian questions in the publications of the Academy of Pest.
There is no indication of the observance of the Easter festival in the New Testament, or in the writings of the apostolic Fathers.
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
In 1492 he again travelled in Italy, studying in Florence, Rome and Venice, making himself familiar with the writings of Aristotle, though greatly influenced by the Platonic philosophy.
Of most value for the history are the writings of P. J.
The bitterness which he felt appeared in his writings.
This position he held for thirteen years, during which period the highest efficiency of his men was reached, and outside the regiment he did good service to his arm by his writings.
the influence of the pseudo-Dionysian writings were transmitted to the West in the 9th century by Erigena, in whose speculative spirit both the scholasticism and the mysticism of the middle ages have their rise.
1207); but, while the movements just mentioned were reformatory without being heretical, this is very far from being the case with the mystical pantheism derived by Amalric from the writings of Erigena.
He possesses the cool temperament of the man of science rather than the fervid Godward aspiration of the mystic proper; and the speculative impulse which lies at the root of this form of thought is almost entirely absent from his writings.
By his writings, as much as by his explorations, Rockhill has made his name great in the annals of Asiatic research.
It is only of recent years that the writings of Schopenhauer and the researches of many distinguished orientalists have awakened some interest in Asiatic philosophy.
There are two collections of writings on the subject: Marie Therese de France, compiled (1852) by the marquis de Pastoret, and comprising beside the memoir written by Marie Therese herself, articles by M.
His philosophical influence was exerted largely through the writings of Dugald Stewart and Sir William Hamilton.
In several passages of his writings he expressly dates his philosophical awakening from the appearance of the Treatise of Human Nature.
His vanity was certainly excessive; but I have no doubt that, in his public conduct as well as in his writings, he was desirous of doing good, that his ambition was of the noblest kind, anti that he proposed to himself the noblest ends.
One of the functions of this official was to subsidize political pamphleteers, and Mirabeau had hoped to be so employed, but he ruined his chances by a series of writings on financial questions.
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
His writings show a deep love of nature, art and humanity, and are marked by vigour of thought, sincerity of feeling, and grace and finish of style.
McIntyre (ed.), Writings and Speeches of Daniel Webster (18 vols., Boston, 1903); Fletcher Webster (ed.), Daniel Webster's Private Correspondence (2 vols., Boston, 1857); H.
1259), English monk and chronicler known to us only through his voluminous writings.
He quotes, as if he were familiarly acquainted with their writings, a number of Greek and Roman writers, of whom it is almost certain that he had not read more than one or two.
He was an idealist, his enemies would say a doctrinaire, and certainly the terms "natural rights," "natural law," &c., frequently occur in his writings.
For the history of institutions which, thanks largely to the writings of Sir Henry Maine, has become a new and interesting branch of science, Bentham cared nothing.
His writings have been and remain a storehouse of instruction for statesmen, an armoury for legal reformers.
See farther on the life and writings of Bentham: J.
This with his other publications, A Journey to the Land of Eden and A Progress to the Mines, was published at Petersburg, Va., in 1841, and again (New York, 1901) as The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, edited by John S.
Traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings; it is mentioned in the oldest Greek writings, and was cultivated by the Romans.
The writings of Arthur Young, secretary to the Board of Agriculture, describe the transition from the old to the new agriculture.
Mill's work at the India House, which was henceforth his livelihood, did, not come before the public; hence some have scouted his political writings as the work of an abstract philosopher, entirely unacquainted with affairs.
His own writings and those of his successors (e.g.
Reference to the articles on Logic, Metaphysics, &c., will show that subsequent criticism, however much it has owed by way of stimulus to Mill's strenuous rationalism, has been able to point to much that is inconsistent, inadequate and even superficial in his writings.
His writings, consisting of short poems, philosophical essays, grammatical notes and letters, were published after his death by his pupil Jacob Faber.
Among the early writings, besides the book of Curtis, there may also be mentioned a still useful little publication by Pohl and Kollar, entitled Insects Injurious to Gardeners, Foresters and Farmers, published in 1837, and Taschenberg's Praktische Insecktenkunde.
American literature began as far back as 1788, when a report on the Hessian fly was issued by Sir Joseph Banks; in 1817 Say began his writings; while in 1856 Asa Fitch started his report on the " Noxious Insects of New York."
The chief writings of J.
Another author whose writings rank high on this subject is M.
We might assume that criticism and analysis had separated the wheat from the chaff in their writings, that everything of permanent value had probably been preserved and incorporated in the works of later economists.
We have more in the Latin translation of Rufinus; but this translation in by no means trustworthy, since Rufinus, assuming that Origen's writings had been tampered with by the heretics, considered himself at liberty to omit or amend heterodox statements.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
On this method the sacred writings are regarded as an inexhaustible mine of philosophical and dogmatic wisdom; in reality the exegete reads his own ideas into any passage he chooses.
And this is true not only of the dogmatic parties; solitary monks and ambitious priests, hard-headed critical exegetes,' allegorists, mystics, all found something congenial in his writings.
Nevertheless his writings were much read, especially in Palestine.
Towards the 6th century the legend of the woman with the issue of blood became merged in the legend of Pilate, as is shown in the writings known in the middle ages as Cura sanitatis Tiberii and Vindicta Salvatoris.
The folly of the monarchs of the Holy Alliance in Europe gained for the writings of Montholon and Las Cases (that of Gourgaud was not published till 1899) a ready reception, with the result that Napoleon reappeared in the literature of the ensuing decades wielding an influence scarcely less potent than that of the grey-coated figure into whose arms France flung herself on his return from Elba.
Of Herrera's writings, the most valuable is his Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas y tierra firme del Mar Oceano (Madrid, 1601-1615, 4 vols.), a work which relates the history of the Spanish-American colonies from 1492 to 1554.
His writings, which include some Latin poems, prove him a man of learning, and he appears to have been acquainted not only with the Latin classics, but also with Greek, and even Hebrew.
References to the older classical writings on the Hexapoda are given in the article on Entomology.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
Aristotle was the first serious author on ornithology with whose writings we are acquainted, but even he had, as he tells us, predecessors; and, looking to that portion of his works on animals which has come down to us, one Early s.
collections formed by a certain nobleman who had travelled in Eastern Europe, Western Asia and Egypt - possible Breidenbach, an account of whose travels in the Levant was printed at Mentz in 1486 - it is really a medical treatise, and its zoological portion is mainly an abbreviation of the writings of Albertus Magnus, with a few interpolations from Isidorus of Seville (who flourished in the beginning of the 7th century, and was the author of many works highly esteemed in the middle ages) and a work known as Physiologus.
Willughby, the younger of the two, and at first the other's pupil, seems to have gradually become the master; but, he dying before the promise of his life was fulfilled, his writings were given to the world by his friend Ray, who, adding to them from his own stores, published the Ornithologia in Latin in 1676, and in English with many emendations in 1678.
His principal writings are Micrographia (1664); Lectiones Cutlerianae (1674-1679); and Posthumous Works, containing a sketch of his "Philosophical Algebra," published by R.
He also displays in this work a considerable knowledge of the Rabbinical writings and a skilful polemical method which was surpassed by none of the later anti-Jewish writers.
His works are also of great value for the history of the New Testament writings.
no fixed and inclusive collection of the apostolic writings.
His sources for the teachings of Jesus are the "Memoirs of the Apostles," by which are probably to be understood the Synoptic Gospels (without the Gospel according to St John), which, according to his account, were read along with the prophetic writings at the public services.
From his writings we derive the impression of an amiable personality, who is honestly at pains to arrive at an understanding with his opponents.
There are not many traces of any particular literary influence of his writings upon the Christian Church, and this need not surprise us.
ii.) the following writings: Speech to the Greeks (Oratio); Address to the Greeks (Cohortatio): On the Monarchy of God; Epistle to Diognetus; Fragments on the Resurrection and other Fragments; Exposition of the True Faith; Epistle to Zenas and Serenus; Refutation of certain Doctrines of Aristotle; Questions and Answers to the Orthodox; Questions of Christians to Pagans; Questions of Pagans to Christians.
None of these writings, not even the Cohortatio, which former critics ascribed to Justin, can be attributed to him.
On the critical questions raised by the spurious writings consult W.
His writings show sound scholarship and high literary power, while they helped to shape the thought of the Puritan party in England.
The writings of Erskine, especially his published letters, are distinguished by a graceful style, and possess originality and interest.
Sudenhorst's principal writings are Dorfleben im 18 Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1877); Hans Ulrich, Fiirst von Eggenberg (Vienna, 1880); Die Politik der Republic Venedig wdhrend des dreissigjdhrigen Krieges (Stuttgart, 1882-85); Venedig als Weltmacht and Weltstadt (Bielefeld, 1899 and 1906); Kriegsbilder aus der Zeit der Landsknechte (Stuttgart, 1883); Die bfentliche Meinung in Deutschland im Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV.
The general American doctrine is that where the contract is contained in separate writings they must connect themselves by reference, and that parol evidence is not admissible to connect them.
The writings of Darwin himself and of A.
Finally settling at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, he lived there for nearly ten years, until on the 6th of February 1804, after clearly and audibly dictating a few changes he wished made in some of his writings, he quietly expired.
Priestley was a most voluminous writer, and his works (excluding his scientific writings) as collected and edited by his friend J.
But his theological writings are forgotten, and he is chiefly remembered as a scientific investigator who contributed especially to the chemistry of gases.
induced to summon at his capital in June 415 a synod at which Orosius communicated the decisions of Carthage and read such of Augustine's writings against Pelagius as had at that time appeared.
Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D.
Ranke's other writings include Zur deutschen Geschichte.
Vom Religionsfrieden bis zum 30 jdhrigen Kriege (Leipzig, 1868); Geschichte Wallensteins (Leipzig, 1869; 5th ed., 1896); Abhandlungen and Versuche (Leipzig, 1877; a new collection of these writings was edited by A.
It is very probable that the versions of this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than that of the Turks.
The First Crusade, far more than any other, became the theme of a multitude of writings, whose different degrees of value it is allimportant to distinguish.
Generally speaking the Arabic writings are late in point of date, and cold and jejune in style; while it must also be remembered that they are set religious works written to defend Islam.
Fragments of his ethical and metaphysical writings are quoted by Stobaeus, Simplicius and others.
This he considered the most important of his writings.
Appointed superintendent of the cathedral school of his native city, he taught with such success as to attract pupils from all parts of France, and powerfully contributed to diffuse an interest in the study of logic and metaphysics, and to introduce that dialectic development of theology which is designated the scholastic. The earliest of his writings of which we have any record is an Exhortatory Discourse to the hermits of his district, written at their own request and for their spiritual edification.
We find the records of it in the second volume of Marsden's Select Pleas in the Court of Admiralty, and in Lord Coke's writings: Reports, part xiii.
The camp-meetings went steadily on, and their influence is reflected in the writings of George Eliot, George Borrow and William Howitt.
Skeat's Malay Magic (London, 1900) is a compilation of all the writings on the subject of Malay superstitions by the best authorities and contains considerable original matter.
The Malays cannot, strictly speaking, be said to possess a literature, for none of their writings can boast any literary beauty or value.
Their most characteristic literature is to be found, not in their writings, but in the folk-tales which are trans mitted orally from generation to generation, and repeated by the wandering minstrels called by the people Peng-lipor Lara, i.
He goes so far as to say that "the writings of ancient men, who were the founders of the sect" referred to by Philo, may very well have been the Gospels and Epistles (which were not yet written).
Some support for this view is gained from study of the alchemistical writings of the period.
The earliest Greek alchemistical writings abound with references to Oriental authorities and traditions.
The practices of the Persian adepts also are appealed to in the writings of the pseudo-Democritus,.
A considerable body of Greek chemical writings is contained in MSS.
Among Drew's lesser writings are a Life of Dr Thomas Coke (1817), and a work on the deity of Christ (1813).
Occupied with his writings Basin then passed some years at Trier, and afterwards transferred his residence to Utrecht, where he died on the 3rd of December 1491.
The first edition of these two sources, and of Lanfranc's writings, is that of L.
The temper of the times, a vague discontent with the established order of things, and some political enthusiasm imbibed from the writings of Rousseau, are the best reasons which can now be assigned for Gallatin's desertion of home and friends.
The Writings of Albert Gallatin, edited by Henry Adams, were published at Philadelphia, in three volumes, in 1879.
The modern theological position of Oberlin college is reflected in the writings of President King and of Dean Edward I.
Tartaglia's writings on gunnery were translated into English by Lucar in 1588, and into French by Rieffel in 1845.
Diogenes says that he left no writings, and the Eretrian school disappeared after a short and unobtrusive existence.
Schmidt gives a full bibliography of the numerous writings of Menius, who translated several of Luther's biblical commentaries into German.
The writings of Gildas have come down to us under the title of Gildae Sapientis de excidio Britanniae liber querulus.
See Kate Mason Rowland, Life and Writings of George Mason (2 vols., New York, 1892).
Some alchemists honestly laboured to effect the transmutation and to discover the " philosopher's stone," and in many cases believed that they had achieved success, if we may rely upon writings assigned to them.
It is really not extraordinary that Isaac Hollandus was able to indicate the method of the preparation of the " philosopher's stone " from " adamic " or " virgin " earth, and its action when medicinally employed; that in the writings assigned to Roger Bacon, Raimon Lull, Basil Valentine and others are to be found the exact quantities of it to be used in transmutation; and that George Ripley, in the 15th century, had grounds for regarding its action as similar to that of a ferment.
The germs of analytical chemistry are to be found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the iatrochemical period.
If we wish to know what Wagner means, we must fight our way through his drama to his music; and we must not expect to find that each phrase in the mouth of the actor corresponds word for note with the music. That sort of correspondence Wagner leaves to his imitators; and his views on " Leit-motifhunting," as expressed in his prose writings and conversation, are contemptuously tolerant.
Eckhart appears, however, to have made a conditional recantation - that is, he professed to disavow whatever in his writings could be shown to be erroneous.
Of his writings, several of which are enumerated by Trithemius, there remain only the sermons and a few tractates.
He was a thorough Aristotelian, but by preference appears to have been drawn towards the mystical writings of the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius.
Ephesians has been called "the crown of St Paul's writings," and whether it be measured by its theological or its literary interest and importance, it can fairly dispute with Romans the claim to be his greatest epistle.
It is to be seen in many of the prominent ideas of the two writings, especially in the developed view of the central position of Christ in the whole universe; in the conception of the Church as Christ's body, of which He is the head; in the thought of the great Mystery, once secret, now revealed.
His other writings include the Gesta abbatum monasterii S.
So early as the year '70, a church party in Asia Minor - the so-called Alogi - rejected the whole body of apocalyptic writings and denounced the book of Revelation as a book of fables.
Now, however, a more logical and scholarly aspect was given to their literature by the writings of Barclay, especially his Apology for the True Christian Divinity published in Latin (1676) and in English (1678), and by the works of Penn, amongst which No Cross No Crown and the Maxims or Fruits of Solitude are the best known.
Joseph John Gurney of Norwich, a brother of Elizabeth Fry, by means of his high social position and his various writings (some published before 1835), was the most prominent actor in this movement.
- The writings of the early Friends are very numerous: the most noteworthy are the Journals of George Fox and of Thomas Ellwood, both autobiographies, the Apology and other works of Robert Barclay, and the works of Penn and Penington.
His writings, said to have numbered four hundred and fifty-three, were in the style of Aristotle, and dealt with philosophy, ethics and music. The empirical tendency of his thought is shown in his theory that the soul is related to the body as harmony to the parts of a musical.
Welsh's Account of the Life and Writings, &c. (1825); M'Cosh's Scottish Philosophy, pp. 317-337.
His writings, which are chiefly theological and controversial, are largely formed of charges to his clergy, and sermons on different topics; but, though valuable and full of thought, they lose some of their force by the cumbrous German structure of the sentences, and by certain orthographical peculiarities in which the author indulged.
Baker, the writings of Livingstone, and the biographies of Gordon may be consulted, besides the many documents on these subjects published by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.
The authorship of the writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.
He reached the conclusion that the religious friend who directed Wesley's attention to the writings of Thomas a Kempis and Jeremy Taylor, in 1725, was Miss Betty Kirkham, whose father was rector of Stanton in Gloucestershire.
Wesley's writings did much to open the eyes of candid men to his motives and his methods.
Sir Leslie Stephen pays high praise to Wesley's writings, which went "straight to the mark without one superfluous flourish."
He ultimately became a devout believer in demoniacal and spiritual possession; and his later writings are all strongly impregnated with the lower supernaturalism.
Anecdotes have been preserved which illustrate his piety both in early and in later years; of his studies the best monument is to be found in his writings.
The third or theological class of writings consists mainly of commentaries, or of works which, if not commentaries in name, are so in fact.
It had been the dream of this man's whole life to supersede both forms of Christianity by a semi-pagan theosophy deduced from the writings of the later Pythagoreans and Platonists.
It is very probable that these "libelli" are the writings entitled Concordia Evangeliorum, Contra Judaeos, De articulis fidei, Confessio fidei and De unitate Trinitatis.
In 1260 a council held at Arles condemned Joachim's writings and his supporters, who were very numerous in that region.
in an age of violent polemics, distinguished himself by the virulence of his writings against the Protestants.
Schoppe, as the long list -of his writings shows, knew also something of grammar and philosophy, and had an excellent acquaintance with Latin.
For a fuller list of his writings see J.
It cannot be denied that in the later Avesta, and still more in writings of more recent date, he is presented in a legendary light and endowed with superhuman powers.
Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable light upon the condition of religion in Judah in the time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the history of the king's measures.
These writings, however, corresponded to but one phase of Rankine's immense energy and many-sided character.
Mirandola so convinced Pope Sixtus of the paramount importance of the Kabbalah as an auxiliary to Christianity that his holiness exerted himself to have Kabbalistic writings translated into Latin for the use of divinity students.
WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
12) that occur in late prophetical writings (Amos ix.
Like the prophetical writings before Ezekiel, the Wisdom books, while they recognize the sacrificial ritual as an existing custom, attach little importance to it as an element of religious life (the fullest mention of it is in Ecclus.
Their broad culture (reinforced, perhaps, by the political conditions of the time) made them comparatively indifferent to Messianic hopes and to that conception of a final judgment of the nations that was closely connected with these hopes: a Messiah is not mentioned in their writings (not in Prov.
The writings of the sages are all anonymous.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
The standard editions of his works are The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, Riverside edition (II vols., Boston, 18 941895), and Manuscript edition (12 vols., ibid., 1907).
His controversial writings have not received due recognition, partly because they were opposed to the drift of his times, partly because of his success in other fields.
From his earliest years he had been deeply impressed with the piety, beauty and thoughtfulness of the writings of the Christian mystics, but it was not till after his accidental meeting with the works of Boehme, about 1734, that pronounced mysticism appeared in his works.
In the political writings of Reshid and `Akif Pashas we have the first clear note of change; but the man to whom more than to any other the new departure owes its success is Shinasi Effendi, who employed it (1859) for poetry as well as for prose.
Procopius's theological writings consist of commentaries on the Octateuch, the books of Kings and Chronicles, Isaiah, the Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.
In the Stromateis, while attempting to show that the Jewish Scriptures were older than any writings of the Greeks, he invariably brings down his dates to the death of Commodus, a circumstance which at once suggests that he wrote in the reign of the emperor Severus, from 193 to 211 A.D.
And in all cases it is plain that he not merely read but thought deeply on the questions which the civilization of the Greeks and the various writings of poets, philosophers and heretics raised.
He quotes all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth and the Song of Solomon, and amongst the sacred writings of the Old Testament he evidently included the book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.
The remaining years of Bayle's life were devoted to miscellaneous writings, arising in many instances out of criticisms made upon his Dictionary.
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has been cultivated there from time immemorial; it has entered into the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by a distinct name, "to" or "tao," a word found in the writings of Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings dating from the 10th century before the Christian era.
He also produced a strong impression by his political writings, the Briefwechsel, 10 vols.
But it is not certain that the two belong to the same cycle of tradition; Kirjath-jearim and Baal-Judah are identified only in later writings, and the behaviour of Saul's daughter (2 Sam.
He wrote a biographical memoir for an edition of his father's writings, which was published in 187 r.
The Works of John Home were collected and published by Henry Mackenzie in 1822 with "An Account of the Life and Writings of Mr John Home," which also appeared separately in the same year, but several of his smaller poems seem to have escaped the editor's observation.
White, "The Writings of St Patrick" (critical edition) in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1904).
He published his first volume of Poems in 1827, and in 1833 appeared his Poems and Prose Writings, republished in 1850 in two volumes, in which were included practically all of his poems and of his prose contributions to periodical literature.
Although the bulk of his published writings was not large, his influence on American literature during the first half of the 19th century was surpassed by that of few of his contemporaries.
Nietzsche's writings must be understood in their relation to these circumstances of his life, and as the outcome of a violent revolt against them on the part of an intensely emotional and nervous temperament.
Other influences which may be traced in his writings are those of modern naturalism and of a somewhat misinterpreted Darwinism ("strength" is generally interpreted as physical endowment, but it has sometimes to be reluctantly acknowledged that the physically feeble, by their combination and cunning, prove stronger than the "strong").
His voluminous writings are classified in the Jewish Encyclopedia, v.
As the theological doctrine of the Logos which bulks so largely in the writings of the apologists of the 2nd century came to the front, the trinitarian problem became acute.
The writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia had become well known in the West, especially since the strife over the "three chapters" (544-553), and the opposition of Islam also partly determined the form of men's views on the doctrine of Christ's person.
References For The Theory Of Determinants.-T.Muir's "List of Writings on Determinants," Quarterly Journal of Mathematics.
At the end of March Loisy published Quelques Lettres (December 1903-February 1908), which conclude: "At bottom I have remained in my last writings on the same line as in the earlier ones.
Paulsen is almost better known for his educational writings than as a pure philosopher.
The first volume (in two parts) is a detailed biography of the great astronomer; the second includes some of his minor writings and correspondence, family records, and historical documents of local interest.
His writings have been edited with notes by Sir E.
His writings include a letter to Innocent IV.
Delaunay's Etude sur Alain Chartier (1876), with considerable extracts from his writings.
His linguistic work indeed was always hampered by the lack of manuscript material, which is felt in his philological writings, e.g.
In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.
And much more of the same kind, which, as Gilbert says, had come down " even to [his] own day through the writings of a host of men, who, to fill out their volumes to a proper bulk, write and copy out pages upon pages on this, that and the other subject, of which they know almost nothing for certain of their own experience."
The word most generally denotes writings which claimed to be, or were by certain sects regarded as, sacred scriptures although excluded from the canonical scriptures.
For writings that stood wholly without the pale of sacred books such as the books of heretics or Samaritans they used the designation Hisonim, Sanh.
They insisted on an allegorical interpretation of the apostolic writings: they alleged themselves to be the guardians of a secret apostolic tradition and laid claim to prophetic inspiration.
22-27): true inspiration was limited to the apostolic age, and universal acceptance by the church was required as a proof of apostolic authorship. Under the action of such principles apocryphal books tended to pass into the class of spurious and heretical writings.
(2) But the word was applied to writings that were kept from public circulation not because of their transcendent, but of their secondary or questionable value.
Thus Origen distinguishes between writings which were read by the churches and apocryphal writings: ypai?j q5Ep0,LLiv77 /2 V iv Togs Kolvocs KaL 6E6771.400-LEvybiotS (3L XLocs EIKOs S' On iv euroKpiiy50ts cbEpoµ4, 77 (Origen's Comm.
the Westminster, a decided judgment is passed on them, that, they are not " to be any otherwise approved or made use of than other human writings," a milder verdict is expressed regarding them in many other quarters, e.g.
- Writings dealing with this subject are extant in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic. They go back undoubtedly to a Jewish basis, but in some of the forms in which they appear at present they are christianized throughout.
This work is found also in Armenian, and has been published by the Mechitharist community in Venice in their Collection of Uncanonical Writings of the Old Testament, and translated by Conybeare (Jewish Quarterly Review, vii.
(vi.) Armenian books on the Death of Adam (Uncanonical Writings of O.T.
71 sqq.) are mainly later writings from Christian hands.
New Testament Apocryphal Literature: (a) Gospels: - Uncanonical sayings of the Lord in Christian and Jewish writings.
Some of his brilliant rival's most conspicuous discoveries were implicitly contained in his writings, and wanted but one step for completion.
In the writings of the alchemists we find the words misy, sory, chalcanthum applied to alum as well as to iron sulphate; and the name atramentum sutorium, which ought to belong, one would suppose, exclusively to green vitriol, applied indifferently to both.
- The sources of present knowledge regarding Mithraism consist of the Vedas, the Avesta, the Pahlevi writings, Greek and Latin literature and inscriptions,.
There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.
Another Brazilian historian of recognized merit is Joao Manoel Pereira da Silva, whose historical writings cover the first years of the empire, from its foundation to 1840.
The writings of Leroux have no permanent significance in the history of thought.
Of these by far the most remarkable is the Scott monument in East Princes Street Gardens, designed by George Meikle Kemp (1795-1844); it is in the form of a spiral Gothic cross with a central canopy beneath which is a seated statue of Scott with his dog " Maida " at his side, by Sir John Steell, the niches being occupied by characters in Sir Walter's writings.
In 1771 he published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed to him.
For A List Of His Scattered Writings See Querard, La France Littiraire.
Grave as most of his writings are, they include a short description of a crossing from Jersey to Granville, in which he satirizes English character and customs, and reveals an unexpected sense of humour.
are arranged so that one may easily find any reference in the patristic writings.
With characteristic versatility, he adopted the serious tone of the new age, and busied himself for the next twenty years with historical, philosophical and statistical writings.
The bibliography of Lebeuf's writings is, partly, in various numbers of the Bibliotheque des ecrivains de Bourgogne (1716-1741).
Their chief works are in the shape of commentaries upon the writings of "the philosopher."' Their problems and solutions alike spring from the master's dicta - from the need of reconciling these with one another and with the conclusions of Christian theology.
Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.
At all events, while Erigena's Realism is pronounced, the Platonic and Aristotelian forms of the doctrine are not distinguished in his writings.
Taken strictly his words state the position of extreme Nominalism; but even if we were not forbidden to do so by other passages, in which the doctrine of moderate Realism is adopted (under cover of the current distinction between the singular as felt and the pure universal as understood), it would still be unfair to press any passage in the writings of this period.
His position is ordinarily designated by the name Conceptualism (q.v.), though there is very little talk of concepts in Abelard's own writings.
In the course of the 12th century the writings of these men were introduced into France by the Jews of Andalusia, of Marseilles and Montpellier.
" These writings contained," says Haureau, " the text of the Organon, the Physics, the Metaphysics, the Ethics, the De anima, the Parva naturalia and a large number of other treatises of Aristotle, accompanied by continuous commentaries.
Both of them, however, besides their philosophical writings, are the authors of works of religious edification and mystical piety.
Aiming, both in his sermons and ascetical writings, at development of the religious view, the danger of the times as he saw it was not so much in the Protestant reformation, which was an outside influence, but in the direction that religion had taken among the masses.
See The Writings of James Monroe (7 vols., New York, 1898-1903), edited by S.
The most important of the essays have been collected under the title Historische and politische Aufscitze (4 vols., Leipzig, 1896); a selection from his more controversial writings was made under the title Zehn Jahre deutscher Kampfe; in 1896 a new volume appeared, called Deutsche Kampfe, neue Folge.
Among the Protestants who exerted themselves in theological and controversial writings were Nemeti, Alvinczy, Alexander Felvinczy, Martonfalvi and Melotai, who was attached to the court of Bethlen Gabor.
A too frequent allusion to Greek mythological names is a defect sometimes observable in his writings.
Izidore Guzmics, the translator of Theocritus into Magyar hexameters, is chiefly noted for his prose writings on ecclesiastical and philosophical subjects.
To this list we must add the short but incomparable feuilletons (tdrezalevelek) of Dr Adolf Agai (writing under the nom de plume of Porz6), whose influence on the formation of modern Hungarian literary prose is hardly less important than the unique esprit and charm of his writings.
In these and other dramatic writings, more remarkable perhaps for poetic than for stage effects, Doczi still maintains his brilliancy of diction and the delicacy of his poetic touch.
Peter Bihari and Maurice Kai-man have in various writings spread the ideas of Herbart.
On subjects of politics, amongst the more important works are the various monographs of Gustavus Beksics on the Dualism of AustriaHungary, on the " New Foundations of Magyar Politics " (A magyar politika uj alapjai, 1899), on the Rumanian question, &c.; the writings of Emericus Balint, Akos Beothy, Victor Concha (systematic politics), L.
Far more serious blame attaches to his all but total suppression in the body of the work - and the fault pervades the whole of his writings - of the names of his predecessors and contemporaries.
The memory of these tergiversations is perpetuated in his writings.
Richelieu was anxious for literary fame, and his writings are not unworthy of him.
Notwithstanding the prolixity of writers and the number of the writings, all attempts at extracting an algebraic analysis from their geometrical theorems and problems have been fruitless, and it is generally conceded that their analysis was geometrical and had little or no affinity to algebra.
Investigation of the writings of Indian mathematicians has exhibited a fundamental distinction between the Greek and Indian mind, the former being pre-eminently geometrical and speculative, the latter arithmetical and mainly practical.
Moritz Cantor has suggested that at one time there existed two schools, one in sympathy with the Greeks, the other with the Hindus; and that, although the writings of the latter were first studied, they were rapidly discarded for the more perspicuous Grecian methods, so that, among the later Arabian writers, the Indian methods were practically forgotten and their mathematics became essentially Greek in character.
Michael Stifel and Johann Scheubelius (Scheybl) (1494-1570) flourished in Germany, and although unacquainted with the work of Cardan and Tartalea, their writings are noteworthy for their perspicuity and the introduction of a more complete symbolism for quantities and operations.
GANDHARVA, in Hindu mythology, the term used to denote (I) in the Rig-Veda usually a minor deity; (2) in later writings a class of divine beings.
Ivan Gundulic and the brilliant group of poets that gathered round him at Ragusa in the early 17th century, reflected in their writings the little Slav Republic's intimate connexion with its kinsmen of Serbia and Bosnia.
- General conceptions with regard to the relations of living things (especially animals) to the universe, to man, and to the Creator, their origin and significance: exemplified in the writings of the philosophers of classical antiquity, and of Linnaeus, Goethe, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, H.
Another important development of Darwin's conclusions deserves special notice here, as it is the most distinct advance in the department of bionomics since Darwin's own writings, and at the same time touches questions of fundamental interest.
The new attitude which has been taken since Darwin's writings on this question is to ask for evidence of the asserted transmission of acquired characters.
Lord Rayleigh has recorded that he was himself convinced by Fraunhofer's reasoning at a date antecedent to the writings of Helmholtz and Abbe.
These remarkable researches of Fraunhofer, carried out in the years 1817-1823, are republished in his Collected Writings (Munich, 1888).
The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
The work contains accounts of John the Baptist and Jesus, which may account for the fact that Josephus' writings were rescued from oblivion by the Christians.
Except as regards philosophical and religious speculation, his writings show a range of interest and knowledge quite unparalleled in that generation.
There is hardly a trace to be found in his writings of any acquaintance with Greek.
All the writings of Gerbert are collected in the edition of A.
Elected deputy in 1860 he became celebrated by the biting wit of his speeches, while, as journalist, the acrimony of his polemical writings made him a redoubtable adversary.
It is difficult to determine the influence which the writings of Theodoric had on his successors; his works were apparently unknown until they were discovered by G.
And as all the writings bear the marks of a single authorship it has been assumed, especially by Denifle, that "the Friend of God" is a literary creation of Merswin and that the whole collection of literature is the work of Merswin (and his school), tendencyliterature designed to set forth the ideals of the movement to which he had given his life.
A third hypothesis is that advanced by Karl Rieder (Der Gottesfreund von Oberland, Innsbruck, 1905), who thinks that not even Merswin himself wrote any of the literature, but that his secretary and associate Nicholas of Lowen, head of the House of St John at Griinenworth, the retreat founded by Merswin for the circle, worked over all the writings which emanated from different members of the group but bore no author's names, and to glorify the founder of the house attached Merswin's name to some of them and out of his imagination created "the Friend of God from the Oberland," whom he named as the writer of the others.
From Pliny's writings it appears that the Romans in his time did not realize the distinction between tin and lead: the former was called plumbum album or candidum to distinguish it from plumbum nigrum (lead proper).
This was notably the case with some of the Aristotelian writings, so that in this field, as in some others, the Syriac writers handed on the torch of Greek thought to the Arabs, by whom it was in turn transmitted to medieval Europe.
It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.
The life and writings of Bardaisan, " the last of the gnostics," and in some sense the father of Syriac literature and especially of Syriac poetry, have been treated in a separate article.
4 On the ground of his writings he was condemned and deposed by the " robber synod " of Ephesus (449), but was restored by the Council of Chalcedon (451), after he had anathematized Nestorius.
His writings seem to have been chiefly liturgical: he gave the first set of statutes to the school of Nisibis, which was founded during his bishopric.
c. 550-570) who translated into Syriac some of the writings of Cyril, and Peter of Callinicus, Jacobite patriarch of Antioch 578-591, who wrote a huge controversial treatise in 4 books, each of 25 chapters, against Damian, patriarch of Alexandria, as well as other less important works.
His translation, which was edited by Bickell with an introduction by Benfey, must be distinguished from the much later Syriac translation made from the secondary Arabic version and edited by Wright in 1884.2 Ilannana of I.Iedhaiyabh, who nearly produced a disruption of the Nestorian Church by his attempt to bridge over the interval which separated the Nestorians from Catholic orthodoxy, was the author of many commentaries and other writings, in some of which he attacked the teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia.
chiefly spent at Winchester; but his writings for the patrons of Come!, and the fact that he wrote in 998 his Canons' as a pastoral letter for Wulfsige, the bishop of Sherborne, the diocese in which the abbey was situated, afford presumption of continued residence there.
for 1855 and 1856, Gotha), which have formed the basis of all subsequent writings on the subject.
pp. 8-61 of his edition of the Lives of the Saints, already cited, which gives a full account of the MSS., and a discussion of f lfric's sources, with further bibliographical references; and Alfric, a New Study of his Life and Writings, by Miss C. L.
" His published writings have had with posterity a very indifferent success; his literary reputation rests on a volume of letters never designed to appear in print.
The writings and tenets of Mani were widely diffused there.
Quintilian applies to his writings the word elegantissima.
Among his historical writings the following deserve mention: - De//e artiglierie dal 1300 al 170.9 (Turin, 1847); Origini.
We find a distinct and organized profession; we find a system of treatment, especially in regard to injuries, which it must have been the work of long experience to frame; we meet with a nomenclature of parts of the body substantially the same (according to Daremberg) as that employed long afterwards in the writings of Hippocrates; in short, we find a science and an organization which, however imperfect as compared with those of later times, are yet very far from being in their beginning.
The justification of this statement is found in the literary collection of writings known by his name.
Though none of Aristotle's writings are strictly medical, he has by his researches in anatomy and physiology contributed greatly to the progress of medicine.
Among his encyclopaedic writings were some on medical subjects, of which fragments only have been preserved.
The reputation of Herophilus is attested by the fact that four considerable physicians wrote works about him and his writings, and he is further spoken of with the highest respect by Galen and Celsus.
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
The work of Celsus is thus for us only second in importance to the Hippocratic writings and the works of Galen; but it is valuable rather as a part of the history of medicine than as the subject of that history.
An abridgment of one of his writings, with the title of Aurelius, became the most popular of all Latin medical works.
Certain writings of Joannitius, translated into Latin, were popular in the middle ages in Europe, and were printed in the 16th century.
His chief work, Al-Teysir (facilitatio), is thought to show more practical experience than the writings of Avicenna, and to be less based upon dialectical subtleties.
His friend and pupil AvERROES of Cordova (q.v.), so well known for his philosophical writings, was also an author in medical subjects, and as such widely read in Latin.
The medical writings of Arnald de Villanova (c. 1235-1313) (if the Breviarium practicae be rightly ascribed to him) rise above the rank of compilations.
It is often assumed that the writings and influence of Bacon did much towards introducing a more scientific method into medicine and physiology.
But, without discussing the general philosophical position or historical importance of Bacon, it may safely be said that his direct influence can be little traced in medical writings of the first half of the r 7th century.
In France, however, the influence of Brown's theories is very clearly seen in the writings of Francois J.
The love-sick mood and romantic temperament of the young Irishman found congenial soil in the wild surroundings of unexplored Canadian forests, and the enthusiasm thus engendered for the "natural" life of savagery may have been already fortified by study of Rousseau's writings, for which at a later period Lord Edward expressed his admiration.
Foremost among these were the writings of Epicurus; but he had also an intimate knowledge of the philosophical poem of Empedocles, and at least an acquaintance with the works of Democritus, Anaxagoras, Heraclitus, Plato and the Stoical writers.
Archbishop Benson left numerous writings, including a valuable essay on The Cathedral (London, 1878), and various charges and volumes of sermons and addresses.
But, as usual, Voltaire's extraordinary literary industry was shown rather in a vast amount of fugitive writings than in substantive works, though for the whole space of his Cirey residence he was engaged in writing, adding to, and altering the Pucelle.
Between fifty and sixty different pieces (including a few which exist only in fragments or sketches) are included in his writings, and they cover his literary life.
Almost all his more substantive works, whether in verse or prose, are preceded by prefaces of one sort or another, which are models of his own light pungent causerie; and in a vast variety of nondescript pamphlets and writings he shows himself a perfect journalist.
While it was being mixed, holy writings were read to those engaged in the operation.
Graunt and Petty's Essays are reprinted in Economic Writings of Sir W.
Exclusive of his controversial writings, he left behind him a very voluminous series of practical evangelical books, which have long remained the fireside favourites of the peasantry of French Protestantism.
His writings are numerous, alike in exegetical, polemical, dogmatic and practical theology.
Of a controversial character are the Confessio Catholica, (1633-1637), an extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the Loci communes theologici (1610-1622), his principal contribution.
Further, it is certain that Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic, of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st century B.C. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's date are (1) the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that the 1st century A.D.
His other writings are chiefly archaeological.
A full list of his writings will be found in L.
96 cannot be assigned if it is held that his writings show acquaintance with the Antiquities of the Jewish People by Josephus.
It is, indeed, the very impartiality and objectivity of his attitude that make the writings of Gentz such illuminating documents for the period of history which they cover.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
See C. Cuissard, Theodulphe eveque d'Orleans, sa vie et ses oeuvres, (Orleans, 1892); and a critical study of the writings by M.
He abrogated caste distinctions, and taught in opposition to ancient writings that every man had the eternal right of searching for divine knowledge and worshipping his Creator.
Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors (6 vols., 1909), and two lectures before the United Service Institution of India on "The Sikh Religion and its Advantages to the State" and "How the Sikhs became a Militant Race."
23.3), and naturally attributed to him the celebrated writings of the pseudo-Areopagite.
His contemporaries, with the exception of Hume, regarded his writings as of great importance; in point of fact they are superficial.
See Life and Writings of Wilbur Fisk (New York, 1842), edited by Joseph Holdich, and the biography by George Prentice (Boston, 1890), in the American Religious Leaders Series; also a sketch in Memoirs of Teachers and Educators (New York, 1861), edited by Henry Barnard.
This is the most important of all the apocryphal writings for the history of religious thought.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
We must, therefore, assume a number of independent sources put together by an editor or else that the book is on the whole the work of one author who made use of independent writings but failed to blend them into one harmonious whole.
- In the latter half of the 2nd century this book enjoyed a respect bordering on that paid to the writings of the New Testament.
He was a great admirer of Galen; and in his writings he protests emphatically against quackery and the superstitious remedies of the astrologers.
From his writings it would appear that the offices of physician, surgeon and apothecary were already considered as distinct professions.
Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series," and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879).
Among his writings are: Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878); Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (1892); a biography of his father, Charles Francis Adams (1900); Lee at Appomattox and Other Papers (1902); Theodore Lyman and Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr., Two Memoirs (1906); and Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses (1907).
His writings include: The Emancipation of Massachusetts (1887); The Law of Civilization and Decay (1895); America's Economic Supremacy (1900); and The New Empire (1902).
A native of Apamea in Syria and a pupil of Panaetius, he spent after his teacher's death many years in travel and scientific researches in Spain (particularly at Gades), Africa, Italy, Gaul, Liguria, Sicily and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. When he settled as a teacher at Rhodes (hence his surname "the Rhodian") his fame attracted numerous scholars; next to Panaetius he did most, by writings and personal intercourse, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world, and he became well known to many leading men, such as Marius, Rutilius Rufus, Pompey and Cicero.
Cicero, who submitted to his criticism the memoirs which he had written in Greek of his consulship, made use of writings of Posidonius in De natura deorum, bk.
His writings on this subject have been collected in a volume entitled Pagine sulla guerra (Naples, 1919).
The philosophers from whom Croce learned most are Vico, the author of the Scienza nuova, and Hegel, but the thought of all other thinkers flows in his writings, in conformity with its historical character, and for this reason may, for instance, be found in it traces of some of Hegel's most active opponents, such as Herbart.
His writings have been the basis of all Roman Catholic histories of the English Reformation.
259-261 where a complete list of Sanders's writings is given.
The walnut is mentioned in the earliest British botanical writings, and is supposed to have been introduced by the Romans.
His chief writings were: An essay in Lux Mundi on "The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma" (1889); a paper, Belief in a Personal God (1891); Reason and Religion (1896), a protest against the limitation of the reason to the understanding; Ministerial Priesthood (1897); and Atonement and Personality (1901).
Very valuable also are the writings of Mr J.
That the author of the Heliand was, so to speak, another Ca dmon - an unlearned man who turned into poetry what was read to him from the sacred writings - is impossible, because in many passages the text of the sources is so closely followed that it is clear that the poet wrote with the Latin books before him.
Here it is followed by the Shepherd of Hernias, while in an 11th-century MS., which contains also the Didache, it is followed by two writings which themselves form an appendix to the New Testament in the Codex Alexandrinus.
These articles attracted much attention, and were distinguished by those qualities of solid learning, thorough investigation and candour of judgment which characterized all his writings.
1232) is known by his writings about Egypt (trans.
1274 or 1286) is famous for his histories, but still more for his geographical writings.
Chemistry proper was not understood, but Arabian writings on alchemy led Europe to it later.
Their theological teaching is misty and perplexing; their earliest writings contain no error, and the hymns of their great St Ephrem, still sung in their services, are positively antagonistic to "Nestorianism"; their theology dating from the schism is not so satisfactory.
His numerous writings, from 1823 onwards, were the reservoirs in which the entire energy of a life was stored.
Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria about 930, included "Nubi" among the six kinds of writing which he mentions as current among the Hamitic peoples, and "Nubi" also appears among a list of six writings mentioned in an ancient manuscript now in the Berlin Museum.
The name does not occur in writings of the first two centuries A.D.
explanation, however, not only because it has occupied so large a space in the writings of some great British thinkers, but also because the main question for which it stands is still matter of eager debate.
Other writings which on very doubtful authority have been attributed to Baudry are Acta S.
Todd, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Walton (London, 1821), in 2 vols., of which the second contains a reprint of Walton's answer to Owen.
For a bibliography of Walafrid's historical works, and of writings dealing with them, see Potthast, Bibliotheca hist.
Hoffmann the earliest mention of destillatio per descensum occurs in the writings of Aetius, a Greek physician who flourished at about the end of the 5th century.
One remarkable feature of the Speculum Historiale is Vincent's constant habit of devoting several chapters to selections from the writings of each great author, whether secular or profane, as he mentions him in the course of his work.
The extracts from Cicero and Ovid, Origen and St John, Chrysostom, Augustine and Jerome are but specimens of a useful custom which reaches its culminating paint in book xxviii., which is devoted entirely to the writings of St Bernard.
Catherine of Siena lived on not only in her writings but in her disciples.
The prayers (twenty-six in all) are mostly mystical outpourings repeating the aspirations found in her other writings.
Many critics ascribe it to an unknown Lucius Caecilius; there are certainly serious differences of grammar, style and temper between it and the writings already mentioned.
The extant writings of Paulinus consist of some fifty Epistolae, addressed to Sulpicius Severus, Delphinus, Augustine, Jerome and others; thirty-two Carmina in a great variety of metre, including a series of hexameter "natales," begun about 393 and continued annually in honour of the festival of St Felix, metrical epistles to Ausonius and Gestidius, and paraphrases of three psalms; and a Passio S.
Savonarola's writings may be classed in three categories: - (I) numerous sermons, collected mainly by Lorenzo Violi, one of his most enthusiastic hearers; (2) an immense number of devotional and moral essays and some theological works, of which Il Trionfo della Croce is the chief; (3) a few short poems and a political treatise on the government of Florence.
Of his writings, which comprised treatises on a great variety of subjects, only the titles and a few fragments survive.
- vii.) consist, in whole or in greater part, of writings belonging to a later period.
1 The other writings of Rabbi Jonah, so far as extant, have appeared in an edition of the Arabic original accompanied by a French translation (Opuscules et traites d'Abou'l Walid, ed.
Even if there were no such unmistakable expressions as these, the most cursory glance into Saint-Simon's writings is enough to reveal the thread of connexion between the ingenious visionary and the systematic thinker.
In 1881 The Cup and in 1882 The Promise of May, two little plays, were produced without substantial success in London theatres: the second of these is perhaps the least successful of all the poet's longer writings, but its failure annoyed him unreasonably.
Among the numerous books on the subject of his life and writings may be mentioned: A Commentary on Tennyson's In Memoriam (1901), by Prof. A.
His first published writings were occasional poems and reviews contributed to the Konigsbergische Zeitung.
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