He collaborated with his father in the great edition of Saadia and the edition of Abu-1Walid, and also produced a number of important editions of other Arabic writers.
Having devoted much time to the study of the Latin writers, historians, orators and poets, and filled his mind with stories of the glories and the power of ancient Rome, he turned his thoughts to the task of restoring his native city to its pristine greatness, his zeal for this work being quickened by the desire to avenge his brother, who had been killed by a noble, a member of the ruling class.
Some writers, even of good reputation, have held that the blue is the true body colour of the air, or of some ingredient in it such as ozone.
By early writers the word was generally given as an equivalent of the Linnaean Loxia, but that genus has been found to include many forms not now placed in the same family.
It is represented in the south-west of North America by other forms that by some writers are deemed species, and in the northern parts of South America by the C. phoeniceus, which would really seem entitled to distinction.
- The principles of equity as set out by the following writers may be consulted: J.
But, as Teuffel has said, his debt to these writers is chiefly a formal one.
We can trace obligations to Meleager, Theocritus, Apollonius Rhodius and other Alexandrines, and amongst earlier writers to Homer, Pindar, Aeschylus and others.
There is hardly a page of Ovid which does not show obligations to his poems, while other writers made a more sparing use of his stories.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about writers.
Of all these temples the oldest is probably that of Heracles, while the best preserved are those of Hera and Concordia, which are very similar in dimensions; the latter, indeed, a Some writers place Kamikos, the city of the mythical Sican Kokalos, on the site of Acragas or its acropolis; but it appears to have lain to the north-west, possiblyat Caltabellotta,lom.
The curious customs, too, of which older writers tell us, are gradually dying out.
They may make certain concessions or privileges once given without any corresponding obligation; they constitute for a given country a special ecclesiastical law; and it is thus that writers have sometimes spoken of concordats as privileges.
From about 1550 onwards the Zimbabwe generally referred to by Portuguese writers was at a spot a little north of the Afur district, not far from the Zambezi.
He is also the father of dangerous winds (typhoons), and by later writers is identified with the Egyptian Seth.
It should be added that the aiXovpos of the Greeks, frequently translated by the older writers as "cat," really refers to the marten-cat, which appears to have been partially domesticated by the ancients and employed for mousing.
The conception will be made clearer when it is remembered that Aquinas, taught by the mysterious author of the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius, who so marvellously influenced medieval writers, sometimes spoke of a natural revelation, or of reason as a source of truths in themselves mysterious, and was always accustomed to say that reason as well as revelation contained two kinds of knowledge.
His policy in encouraging the drama has already been mentioned: among his friends he could count three of the greatest Greek writers - the poet Sophocles and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.
Of these cognate races, which are described by the Greek writers as barbarous or non-Hellenic, the Illyrians and Epirots, he thinks, were respectively the progenitors of the Ghegs, or northern, and the Tosks, or southern, Albanians.
While the heroism of the Montenegrins has been lauded by writers of all countries, the Albanians - if we except Byron's eulogy of the Suloits - still remain unsung.
IDUMAEA ('160v saia), the Greek equivalent of Edom (aip), a territory which, in the works of the Biblical writers, is considered to lie S.E.
His contributions to the press, and his Addresses to the Lord Mayor and other political pamphlets made him one of the most popular writers in Ireland of his time, although he was anticatholic in his prejudices, and although, as Lecky observes,.
Lake Chad is supposed to have been known by report to Ptolemy, and is identified by some writers with the Kura lake of the middle ages.
In it we find the principles of a general interpretation, formed without the assistance of any particular philosophy, but consisting of observations and rules which, though already enunciated, and applied in the criticism of the profane writers, had never rigorously been employed in biblical exegesis.
No date is assigned by Herodotus for this "old feud"; recent writers, e.g.
Some writers place it north of the Temple on the site afterwards occupied by the fortress of Antonia, but such a position is not in accord with the descriptions either in Josephus or in the books of the Maccabees, which are quite consistent with each other.
Other writers again have placed the Acra on the eastern side of the hill upon which the church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands, but as this point was probably quite outside the city at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and is at too great a distance from the Temple, it can hardly be accepted.
Some writers have considered that it extended a considerable distance farther to the north, but of this there is no proof, and no remains have as yet been found which would support the opinion.
According to some writers, this devastation was even more complete than after the siege by Titus.
Ctesias must certainly have known of it, and it is possible that he may have named it simply IIEpvac, after the people, as is undoubtedly done by certain writers of a somewhat later date.'
We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E.
par l'Academie de Bruxelles (58 vols., 1868-1870); among later writers, J.
Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as the national enemy.
Mopsvestia 1 Roman Catholic writers vary greatly in their estimate of Theodoret's christology and of his general orthodoxy.
the Himyarites, in the south of Arabia, were styled by Syrian writers Cushaeans and Ethiopians.
He compiled the history and did an analysis of the writings of all the ecclesiastical writers of the first thirteen centuries.
Such is the Lago di Bolsena, near the city of the same name, which is an extensive sheet of water, as well as the much smaller Lago di Vico (the Ciminian lake of ancient writers) and the Lago di Bracciano, nearer Rome, while to the south of Rome the well known lakes of Albano and Nemi have a similar origin.
Ancient writers are agreed as to the composite character of the population of Italy, and the diversity of races that were found within the limits of the peninsula.
These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
Writers on the ethnology of Italy have been hitherto content with the first, namely, the broad distinction.
We have seen that the name of Italy was originally applied only to the southernmost part of the peninsula, and was only gradually extended so as to comprise the central regions, such as Latium and Campania, which were designated by writers as late as Thucydides and Aristotle as in Opicia.
Thus we already find Polybius repeatedly applying it in this wider signification to the whole country, as far as the fOot of the Alps; and it is evident from many passages in the Latin writers that this was the familiar use of the term in the days of Cicero and Caesar.
Fr8nkislj After them followed ten sovereigns, some of whom have been misnamed Italians by writers too eager to catch at any resemblance of national glory for a ~ people passive in the hands of foreign masters.
annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
12.53), comparing these writers with the old Ionic logographers, says that they paid no attention to ornament, and considered the only merits of a writer to be intelligibility and conciseness.
Among the principal writers of this class who succeeded Cato, the following may be mentioned.
For instance, he asserts the number of the Sabine virgins to have been exactly 527; again, in a certain year when no Greek or Latin writers mention any important campaign, Antias speaks of a big battle with enormous casualties.
The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; some of the annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter periods.
He was regarded as the most careful writer on the war with Hannibal, and one who did not allow himself to be blinded by partiality in considering the evidence of other writers (Cicero, De Oratore, ii.
Thus, as employed by most writers, " Natural Religion " connotes neutrality or even friendliness towards Christianity; just as is the case with theism in sense (2), or with Natural Theology.
Rhys Davids (American Lectures, p. 37) sums up that, when the name of an earlier deity is 4 See (with writers already mentioned) Sir H.
Again, these contrasted philosophies throw light upon the meaning of a posteriori and a priori in Kant and subsequent writers.
The distinguished after writers, whom we have to regard as repeating in essence pre-Kantian theories, generally know Kant, and frequently show traces of him in detail.
The theistic writers are usually intuitionalists; but it has been urged above that a fruitful study of theism must in each case inquire what is the writer's philosophical basis.
This statement was believed by subsequent writers until the time of Blackstone, who was the first to discover the mistake.
In addition to Blackstone, Coke and these later writers, the following works may also be consulted: John Reeves, History of English Law (1783-1784); L.
It is vain, therefore, to look for clearly defined and systematic presentations of the idea among ancient writers.
The course of human history is regarded by those writers who are most concerned to refute Judaism as a progressive divine education.
In certain writers, however, there appears a more elaborate transformation of the doctrine of creation into a system of emanation.
- Before leaving the 17th century we must just refer to the writers who laid the foundations of the essentially modern conception of human history as a gradual upward progress.
Let us now pass to the French writers of the 18th century.
von Barenbach's Herder als Vorgdnger Darwins, a work which tends to exaggerate the proximity of the two writers.
Nevertheless, though the conceptions originally denoted by " evolution " and " development " were shown to be untenable, the words retained their application to the process by which the embryos of living beings gradually make their appearance; and the terms" development," " Entwickelung,"and " evolutio " are now indiscriminately used for the series of genetic changes exhibited by living beings, by writers who would emphatically deny that " development " or " Entwickelung " or " evolutio," in the sense in which these words were usually employed by Bonnet or Haller, ever occurs.
Writers on biological subjects no longer have to waste space in weighing evolution against this or that philosophical theory or religious tradition; philosophical writers have frankly accepted it, and the supporters of religious tradition have made broad their phylacteries to write on them the new words.
A closer scrutiny of the writers of all ages who preceded Charles Darwin, and, in particular, the light thrown back from Darwin on the earlier writings of Herbert Spencer, have made plain that without Darwin the world by this time might have come to a.
It must not be supposed that earlier writers all neglected this method, or still less that all writers now employ it, but merely that formerly it was frequently overlooked by the best writers, and now is neglected only by the worst.
The conception is necessarily somewhat hazy, but the words bathmism and bathmic Evolution have been employed by a number of writers for some such conception.
Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
Modern writers have perpetuated the error that the Cassiterides were definite spots, and have made many attempts to identify them.
Other ancient writers, however, speak of his visit to the underworld; according to Plato, the infernal gods only " presented an apparition" of Eurydice to him.
81) to the latest modern writers.
The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
This surface layer in the typically subaerial shoot of the sporophyte in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams is known as the epidermis, though the name is restricted by some writers, on account of developmental differences, to the surface layer of the shoot of Angiosperms, and by others extended to the surface layer of the whole plant in both these groups.
The early histological researches of botanists led them to the recognition of the vegetable cell, and the leading writers in the middle of the ~9th century pointed out the probable identity of Von Mohls protopiarm with the sarcode of zoologists.
They have emphasized the statements of Von Mohl, Cohn, and other writers alluded to, that the protoplasm is here also the dominant factor of the body, and that all the peculiarities of the cell-wall can only be interpreted in the light of the needs of the living substance.
Many writers in recent years, among whom may be named especially Heliriegel and Wilfarth, Lawes and Gilbert, and Schlcesing and Laurent, have shown that the Leguminosae as a group form conspicuous exceptions to this rule.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
~oriTI1 TEMPERATE REGI0N.Many writers on the distribution of animals prefer to separate this into two regions of primary rank:
The geography of Ptolemy was also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers.
This slender distinction was made much of by most subsequent writers until Nathanael Carpenter in 1625 pointed out that the difference between geography and chorography was simply one of degree, not of kind.
A little-known book which appears to have escaped the attention of most writers on the history of modern geography was published at Oxford in 1625 by Nathanael Carpenter, fellow of Exeter College, with the title Geographie delineated forth Carpenter.
During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
The western emporium known in the scriptures as Tarshish was probably situated in the south of Spain, possibly at Cadiz, although some writers contend that it was Carthage in North Africa.
Mackinder in British Association Report (Ipswich), 18 95, p. 73 8, for a summary of German opinion, which has been expressed by many writers in a somewhat voluminous literature.
Although the term has since been limited by some writers to one particular part of the subject, it seems best to maintain the original and literal meaning.
The whole question of the regime of rivers and lakes is sometimes treated under the name hydrography, a name used by some writers in the sense of marine surveying, and by others as synonymous with oceanography.
I, &c.) and other writers would limit it to the mountainous district to the east of Babylonia, lying between the Oroatis and the Tigris, and stretching from India to the Persian Gulf.
He grouped around him all the leading writers, publicists and progressive young men of the day; declaimed against prejudices; stimulated the timid; inspired the lukewarm with enthusiasm; and never rested till the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791 had been carried through.
Apiarium or apiary, a beehouse or hive, is used figuratively by old writers for a place of industry, e.g.
Meanwhile the custom was growing up of appealing to eminent Church writers of a past generation under this name.
Are all the Christian writers of a given period to be included among the "fathers," or those only who wrote on religious subjects, and of whose orthodoxy there is no doubt ?
Migne, following the example of the editors of bibliothecae patrum who preceded him, swept into his great collection all the Christian writings which fell within his period; but he is careful to state upon his title-page that his patrologies include the ecclesiastical writers as well as the fathers and doctors of the Church.
For a comprehensive use of the term "ecclesiastical writers" he has the authority of Jerome, who enumerates among them 4 such heresiarchs or leaders of schism as Tatian, Bardaisan, Novatus, Donatus, Photinus and Eunomius.
It is often difficult, if not impracticable, to draw the line between orthodox writers and heterodox; on which side, it might be asked, is Origen to be placed ?
Moreover, the great Christological controversies of the age tended to encourage in Christian writers and preachers an intellectual acuteness and an accuracy of thought and expression of which the earlier centuries had not felt the need.
the Church writers who flourished toward the end of the apostolic age and during the half century that followed it, including Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp of Smyrna and the author known as "Barnabas."
A second group, known as the "Greek Apologists," embraces Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras and Theophilus; and a third consists of the early polemical writers, Irenaeus and 4 In his book De viris illustribus.
Even the stormy days of the last persecution yielded some considerable writers, such as Methodius in the East and Lactantius in the West.
This list is far from complete; the principal collections of the anteNicene fathers include not a few minor and anonymous writers, and the fragments of many others whose works as a whole have perished.
Can any authority be claimed for their teaching or their exegesis, other than that which belongs to the best writers of every age.
Roman Catholic writers, 4 however, have explained the prohibition to apply to matters of faith only, and in that case the Tridentine decree is little else than another form of the Vincentian canon which has been widely accepted in the Anglican communion: curandum est ut id teneamus quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est.
- The earliest writer on patristics was Jerome, whose book De viris illustribus gives a brief account of one hundred and thirty-five Church writers, beginning with St Peter and ending with himself.
The contents of the volumes of Migne's patrologies are given in the Catalogue general des livres de l'abbe Migne, and a useful list in alphabetical order of the writers in the Greek Patrologia has been compiled by Dr J.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
Later on, Jacob 3 I Hebrew vi, from the initial letters of Rabbi Shelomoh Yizbagi, a convenient method used by Jewish writers in referring to well-known authors.
All these writers, however, are entirely eclipsed by the commanding personality of the most famous of the Geonim, Seadiah ben Joseph (q.v.) of Sura, often called al-Fayyumi (of the Fayum in Egypt), one of the greatest representatives of Jewish learning of all times, who died in 942.
Other writers are Aaron (the elder) ben Joseph, 13th century, who wrote the commentary Sepher ha-mibhhar; Aaron (the younger) of Nicomedia (14th century), author of `E Ilayyim, on philosophy, Gan `Eden, on law, and the commentary Kether Torah; in the 15th century Elijah Bashyazi, on law (Addereth Eliyahu), and Caleb Efendipoulo, poet and theologian; in the 16th century Moses Bashyazi, theologian.
One of the most remarkable writers of the new Hebrew was Mendelssohn's friend N.
One consequence of the Mendelssohn movement was that many writers used their vernacular language besides or instead of Hebrew, or translated from one to the other.
This ancient system of canalization was inherited from the Persians (who, in turn, inherited it from their predecessors), by the Arabs, who long maintained it in working order, and the astonishing fertility and consequent prosperity of the country watered by the Euphrates, its tributaries and its canals, is noticed by all ancient writers.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world.
Zeisig and Zeising), long known in England as a cage-bird called by dealers the Aberdevine or Abadavine, names of unknown origin, the Fringilla spines of Linnaeus, and Carduelis spines of modern writers, belongs to the Passerine family Fringillidae.
Later writers add nothing to our knowledge, and are chiefly interested in the tarandus, an animal which dwelt in the woods of the Budini and seems to have been the reindeer (Aristotle ap. Aelian, Hist.
The Roman case is often misunderstood, because the later Roman writers did not fully understand the case themselves.
Two or three centuries after the death of Boetius writers began to view his death as a martyrdom.
The idea laid hold of him of reviving the spirit of his countrymen by imbuing them with the thoughts of the great Greek writers.
But Boetius belonged to the school of musical writers who based their science on the method of Pythagoras.
It is still very valuable as a help in ascertaining the principles of ancient music, and gives us the opinions of some of the best ancient writers on the art.
Not to dwell upon earlier continental " Deists " (mentioned by Viret as quoted first in Bayle's Dictionary and again in the introduction to Leland's View of the Deistical Writers), Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Veritate, 1624; De Religione Gentilium,.
(Whether one calls the unknowable a revealed mystery or an unexplained and inexplicable fact makes little difference.) William Paley (1743-1805) borrows from many writers; he borrows Lardner's learning and Butler's " particular evidence for Christianity," viz.
(b) Personal immortality is affirmed as philosophically certain by the Church of Rome and many Protestant writers.
The philosophical, Platonist, or Idealist line of Christian defence is represented among recent writers by J.
Ganglbauer (1892) divides the whole order into two sub-orders only, the Caraboidea (the Adephaga of Sharp and the older writers) and the Cantharidoidea (including all other beetles), since the larvae of Caraboidea have five-segmented, two-clawed legs, while those of all other beetles have legs with four segments and a single claw.
Among the large number of systematic writers on the order generally, or on special families, may be mentioned D.
There remain two other dramatic works, of very different kinds, in which Ford co-operated with other writers, the mask of The Sun's Darling (acted 1624, printed 1657), hardly to be placed in the first rank of early compositions, and The Witch of Edmonton (printed 1658, but probably acted about 1621), in which we see Ford as a joint writer with Dekker and Rowley of one of the most powerful domestic dramas of the English or any other stage.
See Sienkiewicz, Recueil de documents relatifs a la Russie, 1502-1842 (1852); Soloviev, Russian Historical Writers (Pisateli russkoe ist.
Of the numerous books on the Russian revolutionary movement, besides those of " Stepniak," Kropotkin, and other revolutionary writers, the following may be mentioned: C. A.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers.
SPIRITUALISM, a term used by philosophical writers to denote the opposite of materialism, and also used in a narrower sense to describe the belief that the spiritual world manifests itself by producing in the physical world effects inexplicable by the known laws of nature.
Whether or not further study of the scripts of these writers confirms this hypothesis, it cannot fail to throw light on the nature of the intelligence involved.
The scripts contain some matter unknown to the writers.
The points in relation to this offering which are clearly demonstrable from the Christian writers of the first two centuries, but which subsequent theories have tended to confuse, are these.
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
In fact, while Robertson Smith (in Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, as well as his Religion of the Semites, followed by Stade and Benzinger) strongly advocated the view that clear traces of totemism can be found in early Israel, later writers, such as Marti, Gesch.
This tendency, however, he, unlike the earlier conservative writers, rightly considers to have emerged out of polytheism.
of England, daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, afterwards earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, and of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, afterwards duke of Norfolk, was born, according to Camden, in 1507, but her birth has been ascribed, though not conclusively, to an earlier date (to 1502 or 1501) by some later writers.'
Much as he admired these writers, Hume and Robertson were still greater favourites, as well from their subject as for their style.
Her character and these incidents of her life presented an attractive subject to the Greek tragic poets, especially Sophocles in the Antigone and Oedipus at Colonus, and Euripides, whose Antigone, though now lost, is partly known from extracts incidentally preserved in later writers, and from passages in his Phoenissae.
Theological writers were not in the least prepared to question the worth of the marvellous descriptions of creatures that were current in the schools on the faith of authorities vaguely known as "the history of animals," "the naturalists," and "the naturalist" in the singular number (Ouo-coMyos).
The town occupies the site of the ancient Atria, which gave its name to the Adriatic. Its origin is variously ascribed by ancient writers, but it was probably a Venetian, i.e.
By other writers Proboscidea and Eproboscidea are treated as primary divisions of the Cyclorrhapha.
With many writers it is customary to treat the fleas as a suborder of Diptera, under the title Aphaniptera or Siphonaptera.
In the approaching disruption writers saw the punishment for the king's apostasy, and they condemn the sanctuaries in Jerusalem which he erected to the gods of his heathen wives.
From the flourishing days of the later monarchy and onwards, different writers handled the early history of their land from different standpoints.
Meanwhile the Israelite army was again besieging the Philistines at Gibbethon, and the recurrence of these conflicts points to a critical situation in a Danite locality in which Judah itself (although ignored by the writers), must have been vitally concerned.
The change from the dynasty of Omri to that of Jehu has been treated by several hands, and the writers, in their recognition of the introduction of a new tendency, have obscured the fact that the cult of Yahweh had flourished even under such a king as Ahab.
Nomadic life is recognized by Arabian writers themselves as possessing a relative superiority, and its characteristic purity of manner and its reaction against corruption and luxury are not incompatible with a warlike spirit.
In the long reign of his son Manasseh later writers saw the deathblow to the Judaean kingdom.
But the history which the Judaean writers have handed down is influenced by the later hostility between Judah and Samaria.
He did not fulfil the detailed predictions, and the events did not reach the ideals of Hebrew writers; but these anticipations may have influenced the form which the Jewish traditions subsequently took.
The interest of the writers is as usual in the religious history; they were indifferent to, or perhaps rather ignorant of, the strict order of events.
What political aspirations were revived, what other writers were inspired by these momentous events are questions of inference.
Weighty reasons are brought also by conservative writers against the theory that Deuteronomy dates from or about the age of Josiah, and their objections to the " discovery " of a new law-roll apply equally to the " re-discovery " and promulgation of an old and authentic code.
The former tendency has many supporters; see, among recent writers, N.
To a certain extent it would seem that even as Chronicles (q.v.) has passed through the hands of one who was keenly interested in the Temple service, so the other historical books have been shaped not only by the late priestly writers (symbolized in literary criticism by P), but also by rather earlier writers, also of priestly sympathies, but of " southern " or half-Edomite affinity.
Maintaining that the position of the Pentateuch alone explains the books which follow, conservative writers concede that it is composite, has had some literary history, and has suffered some revision in the post-exilic age.
The arguments of conservative writers involve concessions which, though often overlooked by their readers, are very detrimental to the position they endeavour to support, and the objections they bring against the theory of the introduction of new law-books (under a Josiah or an Ezra) apply with equal force to the promulgation of Mosaic teaching which had been admittedly ignored or forgotten.
The importance which the biblical writers attach to the return from Babylon in the reign of Artaxerxes forms a starting-point for several interesting inquiries.
To this age we may ascribe the literature of the Priestly writers (symbolized by P), which differs markedly from the other sources.
Yet it is clear from the book of Genesis alone that in the age of Priestly writers and compilers there were other phases of thought.
The complexity of modern knowledge and the interrelation of its different branches are often insufficiently realized, and that by writers who differ widely in the application of such material as they use to their particular views of the manifold problems of the Old Testament.
The differences between the form of the written history and the conditions which prevailed have impressed themselves variously upon modern writers, and efforts have been made to recover from the Old Testament earlier forms more in accordance with the external evidence.
Early Christian writers assert that he proceeded to search out and to execute all descendants of David who might conceivably come forward as claimants of the vacant throne.
In Spain Jewish life had participated in the general life, but the expulsion - while it dispersed 1 On the writers mentioned below see articles s.v.
These Cretan institutions were much extolled by some writers of antiquity, but receive only qualified praise from the judicious criticisms of Aristotle (Polit.
The "correctness" of his attitude on all public questions won for him the commendation of Catholic writers; he is not included in Nicol Burne's list of "periurit apostatis"; but his policy and influence were misliked by James VI., who, when the Assembly had elected Arbuthnot to the charge of the church of St Andrews, ordered him to return to his duties at King's College.
Its main centres were at Edessa and Nisibis, but it was the literary language of practically all the Christian writers in the region east of Antioch, as well as of the Christian subjects of the Persian empire.
as have been adduced for this view are, however, based on the fallacy of reading into words (mitra, infula, &c.) used by early writers a special meaning which they only acquired later.
We now have categories for Dutch writers, Dutch historians, Journalism (linked to Industry and business), Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (linked to agriculture and agriculture was linked to economics and biology).
I also posted this earlier on the writers talk page.
Can we change English writers and Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers and other categories into this;
Note: When writers, wrote in latin they automatically become part of the writers geographic region of birth.
Very often, if not most frequently, it cannot be doubted that the occult religious significance depends on an artificial exegesis; but there are also poems of Hafiz, Saadi, and other writers, religious in their first intentions.
It has been customary for Protestant writers to represent the mystics of Germany and Holland as precursors of the Reformation.
Among recent American writers on habit may be mentioned W.
Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.
The tales told by the royalist writers of the barbarous cruelty inflicted by Simon and his wife on the child are not proven.
That there was fraud, and complicated fraud, in the guardians of the dauphin may be taken as proved by a succession of writers from 1850 onwards, and more recently by Frederic Barbey, who wisely attempts no ultimate solution.
Such, at least, was the thought of later writers, who have given effect to the belief in chap. viii.
His great sin in the matter of Uriah would have been forgotten but for his repentance: the things at which modern ideas are most offended are not always those that would have given umbrage to early writers.
The latter became particularly attached to him, and really understood his character; and it is strange that his remarks upon Mirabeau in the fragment of autobiography which he left, and Mirabeau's letters to him, should have been neglected by French writers.
He considered that he had not been properly supported in America, and was embittered both by the supersession of himself and his brother as peace commissioners, and by attacks made on him by the ministerial writers in the press.
He quotes, as if he were familiarly acquainted with their writings, a number of Greek and Roman writers, of whom it is almost certain that he had not read more than one or two.
And thus the hasty pamphlet of a half-educated Gothic monk has been forced into prominence, almost into rivalry with the finished productions of the great writers of classical antiquity.
More recent writers are Lohmeier, Geschichte Ostand Westpreussens (Gotha, 1880), and Prutz, Geschichte Preussens (Stuttgart, 1900).
The phrase may, however, be found in writers of an earlier date than these, e.g.
Some writers reckon Alexander V.
Roman writers on agriculture (see Geoponici) are more numerous than those of Greece.
London street and stable dung was carried to a distance by water, and appears from later writers to have been got for the trouble of removing.
Among the other writers previous to the Revolution mention must be made of John Ray the botanist and of John Evelyn, both men of great talent and research, whose works are still in high estimation.
Of the writers of this period, therefore, it is necessary to notice only such as describe some improvement in the modes of culture, or some extension of the practices that were formerly little known.
Among other things, he made a more thorough study of socialist writers, with the result that, though he was not converted to any of their schemes as being immediately practicable, he began to look upon some more equal distribution of the produce of labour as a practicability of the remote future, and to dwell upon the prospect of such changes in human character as might render a stable society possible without the institution of private property.
Bain, and many leading French and German writers and politicians.
From the close of the middle ages until the middle of the 18th century thousands of pamphlets and other works on economic questions were published, but the vast majority of the writers have little or no scientific importance.
This was inevitable in the absence of trustworthy information on an adequate scale, and from the immediately practical aims of the writers.
Of what possible use are the works of the so-called classical writers, except in relation to the history of economics and the practical influence of theory in past times ?
Of the great army of writers who flourished in the first half of the 19th century some were closely identified with the utilitarian school, and the majority were influenced in a greater or less degree by the prevailing ideas of that school.
In stating the position of economics during this time we cannot ignore all writers, except those who belonged to one group, however eminent that group may have been, simply because they did not represent the dominant ideas of the period, and exercised no immediate and direct influence on the movement of economic thought.
Suppose, now, we ignore the writers who were inaugurating neit methods, investigating special problems or laboriously collecting facts, and concentrate attention on the dominant school, with its long series of writers from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill.
It is the work of these writers which people have in mind when they speak of the " old Political Economy."
It must be clear to every observer that the economists of the classical period, with the one exception of Adam Smith, will speedily share the fate of nearly all scientific writers.
If by the " old Political Economy " we mean the methods and conclusions of certain great writers, who stood head and shoulders above their contemporaries and determined the general character of economic science, we are still under no obligation to define the attitude of the present generation with regard to them.
In the history of economics or the biography of Ricardo it is of interest to show that he anticipated later writers, or that his analysis bears the test of modern criticism; but no economist is under any obligation to defend Ricardo's reputation, nor is the fact that a doctrine is included in his works to be taken as a demonstration of its truth.
On the principles we have explained, therefore, the Ricardian economics should supply just that body of general theory which is required in the investigation of modern economic problems, and the reputation of at any rate the leading writers should be as great as ever.
The assumptions, the definitions, the reasoning, the conclusions of the classical writers have been ruthlessly overhauled.
It is useless to suppose that this destructive criticism from within can be neutralized by generously sprinkling the pages of the classical writers with interpretation clauses.
We think that the decay of interest in these writers involves a real loss, and that students of modern problems may do worse than read Ricardo and his school.
It is much more likely than not that some principle which for the moment seems new, some distinction which we may flatter ourselves has not been observed before, has been pointed out over and over again by previous writers, although, owing to special circumstances, it may not have received the notice it deserved.
Economics is therefore, on the whole, an intensely conservative science, in which new truths are cautiously admitted or incorporated merely as extensions or qualifications of those enunciated by previous writers.
The extensions, the changes or the qualifications, of old doctrines, which at any rate in the works of responsible writers are rarely made without good if not always sufficient reason, have modified very considerably the whole science, and weakened the confidence of ordinary educated men in its conclusions.
The " economic man " of the earlier writers, with his aversion from labour and his desire of the present enjoyment of costly indulgences, has been abandoned by their successors, with the result that in the opinion of many good people altruistic sentiment may be allowed to run wild over the whole domain of economics.
The earlier writers generally assumed perfect mobility of labour and capital.
The same may be said of another subject, too frequently neglected by earlier writers, to which due significance has been given in the best recent work, namely, time in relation to value.
TREATIES; TRUSTS; MONEY; FINANCE; &c. The bibliography of economics as a whole would include a history of all the writers on the subject, and .is beyond our scope here; see the numerous articles on economic subjects throughout this work.
- The chief contemporary authorities for the life of Bruce are coloured to some extent by the nationality of the writers.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
This tree appears to have been the true "Abies" of the Latin writers - the "pulcherrima abies" of Virgil.
The author's official position gave him access to the state papers and to other authentic sources not attainable by other writers, while he did not scruple to borrow largely from other MSS., especially from that of Bartolome de Las Casas.
It is not necessary to regard Cuchulinn as a form of the solar hero, as some writers have done.
The true oryx of classical writers was probably the East and North-east African beisa-oryx (Oryx beisa), which is replaced in South Africa by the gemsbuck (oryx gazella).
In this work he ably combated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of the state governments.
The term nymph is applied by many writers on the Hexapoda to all young forms of insects that are not sufficiently unlike their parents to be called larvae.
Subsequent writers have, for the most part, increased the number of recognized orders; and during the last few years several schemes of classification have been published, in the most revolutionary of which - that of A.
Relationships And Phylogeny The Hexapoda form a very clearly defined class of the Arthropoda, and many recent writers have suggested that they must have arisen independently of other Arthropods from annelid worms, and that the Arthropoda must, therefore, be regarded as an " unnatural," polyphyletic assemblage.
Besides this, Belon disposed the birds known to him according to a definite system, which (rude as we now know it to be) formed a foundation on which several of his successors were content to build, and even to this day traces of its influence may still be discerned in the arrangement followed by writers who have faintly appreciated the principles on which modern taxonomers rest the outline of their schemes.
2 The Seventh of Wotton's De differentiis animalium Libri Decem, published at Paris in 1552, treats of birds; but his work is merely a compilation from Aristotle and Pliny, with references to other classical writers who have more or less incidentally mentioned birds and other animals.
An enlarged edition of the latter, under the title of Exercitationes, &c., was published in 1677; but neither of these writers is of much authority.
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
He would not tolerate any of the " barbarous " generic terms adopted by other writers, though some had been in use for many years.
Among contem p orary writers in a more popular style are John Burroughs; Herbert K.
It is, however, only noticed here on account of the numerous references made to it by succeeding writers, for neither in this nor in the author's second volume (not published until 1814) did he propound any systematic arrangement of the Class.
Notwithstanding this, to Gloger seems to belong the credit of being the first author to avail himself in a book intended for practical ornithologists of the new light that had already been shed on Systematic Ornithology; and accordingly we have the second order of his arrangement, the A y es Passerinae, divided into two suborders: singing passerines (melodusae), and passerines without an apparatus of song-muscles (anomalae) - the latter including what some later writers called Picariae.
For the rest his classification demands no particular remark; but that in a work of this kind he had the courage to recognize, for instance, such a fact as the essential difference between swallows and swifts lifts him considerably above the crowd of other ornithological writers of his time.
long before, and by many writers on the anatomy of Yarnell birds.
Nicholson in 1889, and had a considerable influence on later writers, especially in the arrangement of the smaller groups.
We only know of Andrew through references in other writers: see especially William of Rubruquis in Recueil de voyages, iv.
This many-named and enigmatical tribe was of considerable importance in the history of India and Persia in the 5th and 6th centuries, and was known to the Byzantine writers, who call them 'E40aXiroL, Ei)Owytroi, NecbOaAtroc or 'A(3b€Xoi.
Greek writers give a more flattering account of the Ephthalites, which may perhaps be due to the fact that they were useful to the East Roman empire as enemies of Persia and also not dangerously near.
The Chinese writers say that their customs were like those of the Turks; that they had no cities, lived in felt tents, were ignorant of writing and practised polyandry.
He also displays in this work a considerable knowledge of the Rabbinical writings and a skilful polemical method which was surpassed by none of the later anti-Jewish writers.
The scientific training which Bacon had received, mainly from the study of the Arab writers, showed him the manifold defects in the systems reared by these doctors.
This was the part of his work on which Bacon most prided himself, and in it, we may add, he seems to owe most to the Arab writers Kindi and Alhazen.
Certain writers have even spoken of the "honour" of ostracism.
Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and important colony of writers and artists.
The great English writers of Queen Anne's reign seem to have been but little known in the colony, and the local literature, though changed somewhat in character, showed but scant improvement.
The modern Nezib or Nasibin consists of some 4000 inhabitants, largely Jews, who pay tribute to the Shammar Bedouins., The neighbourhood, we are informed by Arab writers, was at one time richly wooded, but is now somewhat marshy and unhealthy.
For nearly 2000 years the few writers who dealt with zoological subjects followed Aristotle's leading.
The freshness, the air of leisure, the enthusiasm of discovery that mark the work of these old writers have lessons for the modern professional zoologist, who at times feels burdened with the accumulated knowledge of a century and a half.
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