Beyond the introduction of the spider line it is unnecessary to mention the various steps by which the Gascoigne micrometer assumed the modern forms now in use, or to describe in detail the suggestions of Hooke, 4 Wren, Smeaton, Cassini, Bradley, Maskelyne, Herschel, Arago, Pearson, Bessel, Struve, Dawes, &c., or the successive productions of the great artists Ramsden, Troughton, Fraunhofer, Ertel, Simms, Cooke, Grubb, Clarke and Repsold.
from Inigo Jones's designs, and in that of Queen Anne from designs by Sir Christopher Wren; and behind these buildings are on the west those of King William and on the east those of Queen Mary, both from Wren's designs.
SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723), English architect, the son of a clergyman, was born at East Knoyle, Wiltshire, on the 10th of October 1632; he entered at Wadham College, Oxford, in 1646, took his degree in 1650, and in 1653 was made a fellow of All Souls.
While at Oxford Wren distinguished himself in geometry and applied mathematics, and Newton, in his Principia, p. 19 (ed.
In May 1666 Wren submitted his report and designs (in the All Souls collection), for this work; the old cathedral was in a very ruinous state, and Wren proposed to remodel the greater part, as he said, "after a good Roman manner," and not, "to follow the Gothick Rudeness of the old Design."
From 1668 to 1670 attempts were being made by the chapter to restore the ruined building; but Dean Sancroft was anxious to have it wholly rebuilt, and in 1668 he had asked Wren to prepare a design for a wholly new church.
This first design, the model for which is preserved in the South Kensington Museum, is very inferior to what Wren afterwards devised.
Thus, in spite of its having been approved by the king, this design was happily abandoned - much to Wren's disgust; and he prepared another scheme with a similar treatment of a dome crowned by a spire, which in 1675 was ordered to be carried out.
Wren apparently did not himself approve of this second design, for he got the king to give him permission to alter it as much as he liked, without showing models or drawings to any one, and the actual building bears little resemblance to the approved design, to which it is very superior in almost every possible point.
Wren's earlier designs have the exterior of the church arranged with one order of columns; the division of the whole height into two orders was an immense gain in increasing the apparent scale of the whole, and makes the exterior of St Paul's very superior to that of St Peter's in Rome, which is utterly dwarfed by the colossal size of the columns and pilasters of its single order.
As a scientific engineer and practical architect Wren was perhaps more remarkable than as an artistic designer.
Wren also designed a colonnade to enclose a large piazza forming a clear space round the church, somewhat after the fashion of Bernini's colonnade in front of St Peter's, but space in the city was too valuable to admit of this.
Wren was an enthusiastic admirer of Bernini's designs, and visited Paris in 1665 in order to see him and his proposed scheme for the rebuilding of the Louvre.
Bernini showed his design to Wren, but would not let him copy it, though, as he said, he "would have given his skin" to be allowed to do so.
In the design of spires Wren showed much taste and wonderful power of invention.
The other buildings designed by Wren were very numerous.
Only a few of the principal ones can be mentioned: - the Custom House, the Royal Exchange, Marlborough House, Buckingham House, and the Hall of the College of Physicians - now destroyed; others which exist are - at Oxford, the Sheldonian theatre, the Ashmolean museum, the Tom Tower of Christ Church, and Queen's College chapel; at Cambridge, the library of Trinity College and the chapel of Pembroke, the latter at the cost of Bishop Matthew Wren, his uncle.
The western towers of Westminster Abbey are usually attributed to Wren, but they were not carried out till 1735-1745, many years after Wren's death, and there is no reason to think that his design was used.
For further information the reader should consult the Parentalia, published by Wren's grandson in 1750, an account of the Wren family and especially of Sir Christopher and his works; also the two biographies of Wren by Elmes and Miss Phillimore; Milman, Annals of St Paul's (1868); and Longman, Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul in London (1873), pp. 77 seq.
See also Clayton, Churches of Sir C. Wren (1848-1849); Taylor, Towers and Steeples of Wren (London, 1881); Niven, City Churches (London, 1887), illustrated with fine etchings; A.
Mackmurdo, Wren's City Churches (1883); A.
Stratton, The Life, Work and Influence of Sir Christopher Wren (1897); Lena Milman, Sir Christopher Wren (1908).
In the library of All Souls at Oxford are preserved a large number of drawings by Wren, including the designs for almost all his chief works, and a fine series showing his various schemes for St Paul's Cathedral.
Madeira has also its peculiar golden-crested wren (Regulus maderensis), and its peculiar pigeon (Columba trocaz), while two allied forms of the latter (C. laurivora and C. bollii) are found only in the Canaries.
Among the song-birds are the mocking-bird, the Carolina wren and the cardinal grosbeak (or red bird); there are plenty of quail or " bob white " (called partridge in the South).
It is by Wren, but there are traces of the previous Gothic edifice in the tower.
After the Great Fire of 1666 he constructed a model for the rebuilding of the city, which was highly approved, although the design of Sir C. Wren was preferred.
Although these conclusions were arrived at independently, and, as it would seem, several years previous to their publication, they were in great measure anticipated by the communications on the same subject of John Wallis and Christopher Wren, made respectively in November and December 1668.
The architect to whom, after the great fire of 1666, the opportunity fell of leaving the marks of his influence upon London was Sir Christopher Wren.
The cathedral is Wren's crowning work.
Of Wren's other churches it is to be noted that the necessity of economy usually led him to pay special attention to a single feature.
Wren occasionally followed the Gothic model, as in St Antholin.
Marlborough House, adjacent to the palace, was built by the first duke of Marlborough in 1710 from the designs of Wren, came into possession of the Crown in 1817, and has been occupied since 1863 by the prince of Wales.
The Monument (1677), Fish Street Hill, City, erected from the designs of Wren in commemoration of the great fire of 1666, is a Doric column surmounted by a gilt representation of a flaming urn.
As to the Temple of Diana, Sir Christopher Wren formed an opinion strongly adverse to the old tradition of its existence (Parentalia, p. 266).
After the Restoration a fence was erected on the inside of the great north door to hinder a concourse of rude people, and when the cathedral was being rebuilt Sir Christopher Wren made a strict order against any profanation of the sacred building.
Within a few days of the fire three several plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher Wren, John Evelyn and Robert Hooke.
Evelyn's plan differed from Wren's chiefly in proposing a street from the church of St Dunstan's in the East to the cathedral, and in having no quay or terrace along the river.
But though the plans of Wren and Hooke were not adopted, it was to these two fellows of the Royal Society that the labour of rebuilding London was committed.
Wren's great work was the erection of the cathedral of St Paul's, and the many churches ranged round it as satellites.
Although the spiritual wants of the city were amply provided for by the churches built by Wren, the large districts outside the city and its liberties had been greatly neglected.
Blackbirds and thrushes are not found, nor any species of parrot, but on the other hand, we have the hoopoe (yatsugashira), the red-breast (komadori), the bluebird (run), the wren (miso-sazai), the golden-crested wren (itadaki), the golden-eagle (inu-washi), the finch (hiwa), the longtailed rosefinch (benimashiko), the ouzelbrown (akahara), dusky (tsugumi) and water (kawa-garasu)the kingfisher (kawasems), the crake (kuina) and the tomtit (kara).
He then removed to Bury St Edmunds, where he acted as lecturer for ten years, retiring when his bishop (Wren) insisted on the observance of certain ceremonial articles.
There are many insectivorous birds; among the song birds are the hermit thrush, the wood thrush, the Wilson's thrush, the brown thrasher, the bobolink, the catbird, the oven bird, the house wren, the song sparrow, the fox sparrow, the vesper sparrow, the white-throated sparrow (Peabody bird), the goldfinch and the robin.
Sir Christopher Wren added certain staircases and a doorway.
The hermit thrush, veery, song sparrow, red-eyed vireo, bunting, warbler and wren are among the song birds of the forests.
The building, completed in 1684, according to a plan of Sir Christopher Wren, is an oblong, three sides of which are dwellingrooms, connected by covered corridors.
It is the home of the Columbia black-tail deer, western raccoon, Oregon spotted skunk, Douglas red squirrel, Townsends chipmunk, tailless sewellel (Haplodcn rufus), peculiar species of pocket gophers and voles, Pacific coast forms of the great-horned, spotted, screech and pigmy owls, sooty grouse, Oregon ruffed grouse, Stellers jay, chestnutbacked chickadee and Pacific winter wren.
Some of its characteristic mammals and birds are the long-eared desert fox, four-toed kangaroo rats, Sonoran pocket mice, big-eared and tiny white-haired bats, road runner, cactus wren, canyon wren, desert thrashers, hooded oriole, black-throated desert sparrow, Texas night-hawk and Gambels quail.
The extensive additions and alterations made by Wren according to the taste of the King resulted in a severely plain edifice of brick; the orangery, added in Queen Anne's time, is a better example of the same architect's work.
The true order of discovery, however, was as follows: (a) Sir Christo p her Wren made many experiments before the Royal Society, which were afterwards repeated in a corrected form by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia, experimentally proving that bodies of ascertained comparative weights, when suspended and impelled against one another, forced one another back by impressing on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights and therefore masses; that is, by impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum.
This result is easily deducible also from Wren's discovery.
(c) Wren and Huygens further proved that the law of equal action and reaction, already experimentally established by the former, is deducible from the conservation of the velocity of the common centre of gravity, which is the same as the common velocity of the bodies, that is, deducible from the fact that their common centre of gravity does not change its state of motion or rest by the actions of the bodies between themselves; and they further extended the law to bodies, qua elastic.
(e) Newton in the Principia, repeating and correcting Wren's experiments on collision, and adding further instances from attractive forces of magnetism and gravity, induced the third law of motion as a general law of all forces.
from the experiments of Wren on bodies of ascertained comparative weights or masses, which are not material points or mass-points.
The woodcock, partridge, hawk, water-ousel, magpie, jay, raven, various kinds of owls, wood-pigeon, golden-crested wren, tufted lark and titmouse are among the birds which breed here.
Solutions were furnished by Wallis, Huygens, Wren and others; and Pascal published his own in the form of letters from Amos Dettonville (his assumed name as challenger) to Pierre de Carcavy.
Having reached so far as to perceive that the central force of the solar system must decrease inversely as the square of the distance, and applied vainly to Wren and Hooke for further elucidation, he made in August 1684 that journey to Cambridge for the purpose of consulting Newton, which resulted in the publication of the Principia.
Noteworthy in the animal life of the lower Sonoran and tropic region are a variety of snakes and lizards, desert rats and mice; and, among birds, the cactus wren, desert thrasher, desert sparrow, Texas night-hawk, mocking-bird and ground cuckoo or road runner (Geococcyx Californianus).
Red-headed and red-bellied woodpeckers, orchard orioles, yellowwinged sparrows, the cardinal, the blue grosbeak, the Carolina wren and the mocking-bird are characteristic of the lower elevations.
The picturesque building by Wren stands in extensive grounds, which include the former Ranelagh Gardens.
Sir Christopher Wren, the famous architect, determined the length of the arc and its centre of gravity, and Pierre Fermat deduced the surface of the spindle generated by its revolution.
From this point (considered as a building merely) it appears only as a secondary unit in a magnificent group. Seen from the west, however, it is the dominant unit, but here it is impossible to overlook the imperfect conception of the "Gothic humour" (as he himself termed it) manifested by Wren, from whose designs the western towers were completed in 1740.
In January 1684 Sir Christopher Wren, Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity, and, although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square, yet this truth was not looked upon as established.
It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of .a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance; but Halley, finding, after a delay of some months, that Hooke " had not been so good as his word " in showing his solution to Wren, started in the month of August 1684 for Cambridge to consult Newton on the subject.
He knew indeed that before Newton had announced the inverse law Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it, and therefore justice demanded that, though none of them had given a demonstration of the law, Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration.
Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit; and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it.
This scholium was- " The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions, as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren, Hooke and Halley."
The song birds and insectivorous birds include the cardinal grosbeak, scarlet and summer tanagers, meadow lark, song sparrow, catbird, brown thrasher, wood thrush, house wren, robin, blue bird, goldfinch, red-headed woodpecker, flicker (golden-winged woodpecker), and several species of warblers.
The fire-bringer in Brittany is the golden or fire-crested wren.
It was the only parish church by Wren to have an apse, which was joined to the main body by a quadrant bay.
bamboo thickets below Machu Picchu are home to the fabulous Inca Wren (an endemic first described in 1985 ).
In a chestnut wood we added some more familiar birds: European Robin, Winter Wren, Song Thrush and Eurasian bullfinch.
ceremonial procession through the grand squares of Sir Christopher Wren's baroque masterpiece on the banks of the Thames.
There are several Robins perching at intervals along the towpath hedge, a Wren and a few fieldfares.
jenny wren, whose nest I mentioned in my previous letter, has now hatched out her family.
DI Michael joined a ceremonial procession through the grand squares of Sir Christopher Wren's baroque masterpiece on the banks of the Thames.
Wren is most famous as an architect but he was also a distinguished mathematician.
Just a single Winter Wren, a couple of American Robins and 3 common mergansers on the nearby lake.
DI Michael joined a ceremonial procession through the grand squares of Sir Christopher Wren's baroque masterpiece on the banks of the Thames.
All other information will be securely retained and used by Wren Laboratories Ltd. for analysis, product development, quality assurance and marketing purposes.
The adjoining Little Gate with its iron scrollwork is also attributed to the pencil of Wren.
Wren officers came and Purbright danced, drank beer and talked shop with several old shipmates of his wife.
other songsters included BLACKBIRD, GREENFINCH, WREN and ROBIN.
Perhaps the most notable land bird is St Kilda's own distinctive subspecies of wren, 2 - 3g heavier than mainland birds.
A young WREN was calling somewhere amidst the thick tangle of BRAMBLES.
Reference to downy woundwort was subsequently removed from Wren (1988 ).
Lets go and hunt the wren, I say.
Hunting of the wren It is unlucky to kill a wren on any day apart from Boxing Day.
I even spotted a jenny wren on the compost heap.
On February 24 I watched a wren seeking food in my garden.
He who shall hurt the little wren Shall never be beloved by men.
Another morning a tiny wren actually came in to my room and flew about for some time before finding its way back to freedom.
The first species to be seen by European settlers was aptly called the superb blue wren!
wren media communication skills courses have helped hundreds of speakers to find their voice.
wren funding contributed toward the cast items of the bridge.
wren singing, tho we didn't know it at the time, as we hadn't yet found a tape.
wren numbers in the UK were greatly depleted by the cold winter of 1962/63 (Marchant et al.
The little jenny wren, whose nest I mentioned in my previous letter, has now hatched out her family.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.