The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
and Catherine of Aragon, but gradually withdrawing into the background he resigned the office of lord chancellor in 1515, and was succeeded by Wolsey, whom he had consecrated as bishop of Lincoln in the previous year.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
In 1529 he was Wolsey's chaplain, and he was with the cardinal at Cawood at the time of his arrest.
According to Strype, he was invited about this time to become a fellow of the college founded by Cardinal Wolsey at Oxford; but Dean Hook shows that there is some reason to doubt this.
It was the course that would readily suggest itself to a man of timid nature who wished to secure himself against such a fate as Wolsey's.
of the 16th of August 1527, 2 during the absence in France of Wolsey, who, not blinded by passion like Henry, naturally opposed the undesirable alliance, and was negotiating a marriage with Renee, daughter of Louis XII.
and "Der Sturz des Cardinals Wolsey," by W.
Wyat (1817); The Negotiations of Thomas Wolsey, by Sir W.
THOMAS WOLSEY (c. 1475-1530), English cardinal and statesman, born at Ipswich about 1475, was son of Robert Wolsey (or Wuley, as his name was always spelt) by his wife Joan.
Dorset's beneficent intentions for his sons' pedagogue probably suggested Wolsey's ordination as priest at Marlborough on March ro, 1498, and on October io, r50o, he was instituted, on Dorset's presentation, to the rectory of Limington in Somerset.
in 1510; and the college appears to have derived no advantage from Wolsey's subsequent greatness.
At Limington he came into conflict with law and order as represented by the sheriff, Sir Amias Paulet, who is said by Cavendish to have placed Wolsey in the stocks; Wolsey retaliated long afterwards by confining Paulet to his chambers in the Temple for five or six years.
Dorset died in 1501, but Wolsey found other patrons in his pursuit of wealth and fame.
Deane, however, died in 1503, and Wolsey became chaplain to Sir Richard Nanfan, deputy of Calais, who apparently recommended him to Henry VII.
Nanfan died in 1507, but the king made Wolsey his chaplain and employed him in diplomatic work.
made Wolsey his almoner immediately on his accession, and the receipt of some half-dozen further ecclesiastical preferments in the first two years of the reign marks his growth in royal favour.
But it was not till towards the end of 1511 that Wolsey became a privy councillor and secured a controlling voice in the government.
Hitherto pacific counsels had on the whole prevailed; but Wolsey, who was nothing if not turbulent, turned the balance in favour of war, and his marvellous administrative energy first found full scope in the preparations for the English expedition to Biscay in 1512, and for the campaign in northern France in 1513.
and won the battle of Marignano, Wolsey took the lead in assisting the emperor Maximilian to oppose him; and this revival of warlike designs was resented by Fox and Warham, who retired from the government, leaving Wolsey supreme.
Maximilian proved a broken reed, and in 2528 Wolsey brought about a general pacification, securing at the same time his appointment as legate a latere in England.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
to a head, and Wolsey was mainly responsible for the attitude adopted by the English government.
Both monarchs were eager for England's alliance, and their suit enabled Wolsey to appear for the moment as the arbiter of Europe.
But, although a gorgeous show of friendship with France was kept up at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, it had been determined before the conference of Calais in 1521, at which Wolsey pretended to adjudicate on the merits of the dispute, to side actively with Charles V.
Wolsey had vested interests in such a policy.
He had, moreover, received assurances from the emperor that he would further Wolsey's candidature for the papacy; and although he protested to Henry VIII.
cared only for England; Wolsey's object was to play a great part on the European stage.
Wolsey's assistance helped Charles V.
in which Wolsey involved England in 1528.
1529 between the two rivals without England being consulted, and her influence at Wolsey's fall was less than it had been at his accession to power.
This failure reacted upon Wolsey's position at home.
But the inevitable opposition of the nobility to this policy was not mitigated by the fact that it was carried out by a churchman; the result was to embitter the antagonism of the secular party to the church and to concentrate it upon Wolsey's head.
The control of the papacy by Charles V., moreover, made it impossible for Wolsey to succeed in his efforts to obtain from Clement VII.
The appeal to Rome was a natural course to be advocated by Wolsey, whose despotism over the English church depended upon an authority derived from Rome; but it was probably a mistake.
Wolsey clearly foresaw his own fall, the consequent attack on the church and the triumph of the secular party.
The completeness of Wolsey's fall enhanced his former appearance of greatness, and, indeed, he is one of the outstanding figures in English history.
The familiar charge, repeated in Shakespeare, of having written Ego et meus rex, while true in fact, is false in intention, because no Latin scholar could put the words in any other order; but it reflects faithfully enough Wolsey's mental attitude.
Giustiniani explains that he had to make proposals to the cardinal before he broached them to Henry, lest Wolsey "should resent the precedence conceded to the king."
Wolsey must be judged by his deeds and not by doubtful intentions.
i.-iv., supplemented by the Spanish and Venetian Calendars, contain almost all that is known of Wolsey's public career, though additional light on the divorce has been thrown by Stephen Ehses' Romische Dokumente (1893).
Brewer, in his elaborate prefaces to the Letters and Papers (reissued as his History of the Reign of Henry VIII.), originated modern admiration for Wolsey; and his views are reflected in Creighton's Wolsey in the "Twelve English Statesmen" series, and in Dr Gairdner's careful articles in the Dict.
in 1528, and was one of the Cambridge scholars whom Wolsey wished to transplant to his newly founded Cardinal College at Oxford.
and Wolsey to watch the English ports.
Like Wolsey he identified himself with the military aspirations of his sovereign.
Of several interesting mansions in the vicinity one, the Great House, belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, and a former Pengelly House was the residence of Richard Cromwell the Protector after his resignation.
Thomas Wolsey, 1514-1530.
Of the mansion-house founded by William of Waynflete, bishop of Winchester (c. 1450), in which Cardinal Wolsey resided for three or four weeks after his sudden fall from power in 1529, only the gatehouse remains.
It is known as Wolsey's Tower, but is apparently part of Waynflete's foundation.
In 1515 Wolsey sent him to urge the Swiss to attack France, and in 1519 he went to Germany to discuss with the electors the impending election to the imperial throne.
He was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and in 1521 he went to Venice with the object of winning the support of the republic for Wolsey, who was anxious at this time to become pope.
St Peter's church, a Perpendicular building, is said to have been the scene of the ordination of Cardinal Wolsey in 1498.
After the meeting of the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520) he was engaged in unsuccessful negotiations with Wolsey.
Henry's next move was to bring a monstrous charge against the clergy, accusing them of having violated the ancient laws of praemunire in submitting to the authority of papal legates (although he himself had ratified the appoint m ent of Wolsey as legate a latere).
The first two volumes of his History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada appeared in 1856, and the work was completed in 1870.
His powerful friends, the pope, Wolsey, Henry VIII., the emperor, called upon him to declare against Luther.
and after died miserablie in exile," which is the work of Thomas Chaloner, but "Shore's Wife," his most popular poem, appeared in the 1563 edition of the same work, and to that of 1587 he contributed the "Tragedie of Thomas Wolsey."
In 1526, he was brought before the vice-chancellor for preaching a heterodox sermon, and was subsequently examined by Wolsey and four other bishops.
and Wolsey, warning them to stop the importation of the work at the English seaports.
(Official Returns of the Board of Trade.) Her most sensational prophecies had to do with Cardinal Wolsey, the duke of Suffolk, Lord Percy and other men prominent at the court of Henry VIII.
Not without reason has he been compared with Cardinal Wolsey.
It was not long before he attracted the attention of the young king and of Wolsey.
He was repeatedly employed on embassies to the Low Countries, and was for a long time stationed at Calais as agent in the shifty negotiations carried on by Wolsey with the court of France.
Sir Thomas More was pitched upon by the court on this occasion in order that his popularity with the Commons might be employed to carry the money grant for which Wolsey asked.
Wolsey made an attempt to get him out of the way by sending him as ambassador to Spain.
Henry, who saw through the artifice, and was already looking round for a more popular successor to Wolsey, made the gracious answer that he would employ More otherwise.
found for Wolsey, More was raised to the chancellorship. The selection was justified by More's high reputation, but it was also significant of the modification which the policy of the court was then undergoing.
Hitherto he had maintained a large establishment, not on the princely scale of Wolsey, but in the patriarchal fashion of having all his sons-in-law, with their families, under his roof.
Wolsey, then engaged in beginning his reform of the English church, procured that he himself should be joined to the legation as senior legate; thus the Italian, who arrived in England on the 23rd of July 1518, held a subordinate position and his special legatine faculties were suspended.
On the 1st of October 1528 he arrived in England as co-legate with Wolsey in the matter of Henry's divorce.
He brought with him a secret document, the Decretal, which defined the law and left the legates to decide the question of fact; but this important letter was to be shown only to Henry and Wolsey.
was far from possessing the qualities which would have enabled him to show a bold front to the ambitious Cardinal Wolsey and the masterful and passionate Henry VIII.
Latimer was prohibited from preaching in the university or in any pulpits of the diocese, and on his occupying the pulpit of the Augustinian monastery, which enjoyed immunity from episcopal control, he was summoned to answer for his opinions before Wolsey, who, however, was so sensible of the value of such discourses that he gave him special licence to preach throughout England.
In 1526 the imprudent zeal of Robert Barnes had resulted in an ignominious recantation, and in 1527 Bilney, Latimer's most trusted coadjutor, incurred the displeasure of Wolsey, and did humiliating penance for his offences.
Daniel Wolsey Voorhees >>
In 1527 he was groom of the chamber, and became a member of Wolsey's household.
The military operations with which the great Civil War opened Having entered the Church he obtained several livings owing Wolsey; 1861 were directed by President Davis and General Lee.
to the favour of Cardinal olsey; after Wolsey's fall he rose in Lee was personally in charge of the unsuccessful West Virginian high in the esteem of Henry VIII.
There is reason to believe that in England a relatively good level was maintained throughout, thanks in great measure to the fact that the kings resolutely refused to allow the introduction of commendation - Wolsey was the first and last commendatory abbot in England.
Bishop Creighton's principal published works are: History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (5 vols., 1882-1897, new ed.); History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome (6 vols., 1897); The Early Renaissance in England (1895); Cardinal Wolsey (1895); Life of Simon de Montfort (1876, new ed.
At Peterborough Abbey, in 1530, Wolsey made "his maund in Our Lady's Chapel, having fifty-nine poor men whose feet he washed and kissed; and after he had wiped them he gave every of the said poor men twelve pence in money, three ells of good canvas to make them shirts, a pair of new shoes, a cast of red herrings and three white herrings."
In 1522 the bishop of Carlisle complained to Cardinal Wolsey, then archbishop of York, that the English thieves committed more thefts than "all the Scots of Scotland," the men of Hexham being worst of all, and appearing loo strong at the markets held in Hexham, so that the men whom they had robbed dared not complain or "say one word to them."
Then Wolsey became supreme, while Henry was immersed in the pursuit of sport and other amusements.
He took, however, the keenest interest from the first in learning and in the navy, and his inborn pride easily led him to support Wolsey's and Ferdinand's war-like designs on France.
Wolsey used this antagonism to make England arbiter between them; and both monarchs sought England's favour in 1520, Francis at the Field of Cloth of Gold and Charles V.
Feeble efforts to challenge his power in Italy provoked the sack of Rome in 1527; and the peace of Cambrai in 1529 was made without any reference to Wolsey or England's interests.
He began to adopt a more critical attitude towards Wolsey's policy, foreign and domestic; and to give ear to the murmurs against the cardinal and his ecclesiastical rule.
Parliament had been kept at arm's length since 1515 lest it should attack the church; but Wolsey's expensive foreign policy rendered recourse to parliamentary subsidies indispensable.
When it met in 1523 it refused Wolsey's demands, and forced loans were the result which increased the cardinal's unpopularity.
Wolsey persuaded him that the necessary divorce could be obtained from Rome, as it had been in the case of Louis XII.
Wolsey fell when Campeggio was recalled, and his fall involved the triumph of the anti-ecclesiastical party in England.
A few further details may be gleaned from such contemporary sources as Hall's Chronicle, Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, W.
In that of Wolsey be undoubtedly acquired a very intimate knowledge of foreign politics, and in 1527 he and Sir Thomas More were named commissioners on the part of England in arranging a treaty with the French ambassadors for the support of an army in Italy against the emperor.
That year he accompanied Wolsey on his important diplomatic mission to France, the splendour and magnificence of which are so graphically described by Cavendish.
Next year Gardiner, still in the service of Wolsey, was sent by him to Italy along with Edward Fox, provost of King's College, Cambridge, to promote the same business with the pope.
He was instructed to procure from the pope a decretal commission, laying down principles of law by which Wolsey and Campeggio might hear and determine the cause without appeal.
This, as Wolsey saw, was quite inadequate for the purpose in view; and he again instructed Gardiner, while thanking the pope for the commission actually granted, to press him once more by very urgent pleas, to send the desired decretal on, even if the latter was only to be shown to the king and himself and then destroyed.
At last the pope - to his own bitter regret afterwards - gave what was desired on the express conditions named, that Campeggio was to show it to the king and Wolsey and no one else, and then destroy it, the two legates holding their court under the general commission.
In November 1531 the king rewarded him for his services with the bishopric of Winchester, vacant by Wolsey's death.
Wolsey's rapid rise in 1511 put an end to Fox's influence.
The pacific policy of the first two years of Henry VIII.'s reign was succeeded by an adventurous foreign policy directed mainly against France; and Fox complained that no one durst do anything in opposition to Wolsey's wishes.
Gradually Warham and Fox retired from the government; the occasion of Fox's resignation of the privy seal was Wolsey's ill-advised attempt to drive Francis I.
Tunstall protested, Wolsey took Warham's place as chancellor, and Fox was succeeded by Ruthal, who, said the Venetian ambassador, "sang treble to Wolsey's bass."
He bore Wolsey no ill-will, and warmly congratulated him two years later when warlike adventures were abandoned at the peace of London.
He expressed himself as being as anxious for the reformation of the clergy as Simeon for the coming of the Messiah; but while he welcomed Wolsey's never-realized promises, he was too old to accomplish much himself in the way of remedying the clerical and especially the monastic depravity, licence and corruption he deplored.
His sight failed during the last ten years of his life, and there is no reason to doubt Matthew Parker's story that Wolsey suggested his retirement from his bishopric on a pension.
Fox replied with some warmth, and Wolsey had to wait until Fox's death before he could add Winchester to his archbishopric of York and his abbey of St Albans, and thus leave Durham vacant as he hoped for the illegitimate son on whom (aged 18) he had already conferred a deanery, four archdeaconries, five prebends and a chancellorship.
Henry Wolsey Bayfield (1795-1885) of the British Navy.
i.) describes Forman as "the Wolsey of Scotland, and a fomenter of the war which ended at Flodden."
After Cardinal Wolsey, with a splendid train had visited the French king, the two monarchs met at the Val Dore, a spot midway between the two places, on the 7th.
The following days were take up with tournaments, in which both kings took part, banquets and other entertainments, and after Wolsey had said mass the two sovereigns separated on the 24th.
He probably took the same view that Wolsey had, viz.
In his accumulation of benefices Wykeham seems to have distanced all his predecessors and successors, except perhaps John Maunsell, the chancellor of Henry III., and Thomas Wolsey, the chancellor of Henry VIII., the latter being a pluralist not in canonries and livings but in bishoprics.
DANIEL WOLSEY VOORHEES (1827-1897), American lawyer and political leader, was born in Butler county, Ohio, on the 26th of September 1827, of Dutch and Irish descent.
Wolsey beautified the mansion and kept high state there, but on his disgrace Henry VIII.
The estate counts among its former owners such famous names as the Botelers; George Neville, archbishop of York; John de Vere, earl of Oxford in Henry VII.'s time; Wolsey in the next reign; Robert Carey, earl of Monmouth, and the duke of Monmouth.
His best book is a Life of Cardinal Wolsey (London, 1724), containing documents which are still valuable for reference; of his other writings the Prefatory Epistle containing some remarks to be published on Homer's Iliad (London, 1714), was occasioned by Pope's proposed translation of the Iliad, and his Theologia speculativa (London, 1718), earned him the degree of D.D.
He was now no longer a boy, but a man of twenty-three, Th with his character fully developed; he had gradually Wolsey.
got rid of his fathers old councillors, and had chosen for himself a minister as ambitious and energetic as himself, the celebrated Thomas Wolsey, whom he had just made archbishop of York, and who obtained the rank of cardinal from the pope in the succeeding year.
Wolsey was the last of the great clerical ministers of the middle ages, and by no means the worst.
It mattered little to Henry that the cardinal was arrogant, tactless and ostentatious; indeed it suited his purpose that Wolsey should be saddled by public opinion with all the blame that ought to have been laid on his own shoulders.
It was believed at the time, and is still sometimes maintained by historians, that Wolsey laid down schemes of policy and persuaded his master to adopt them; but the truth would appear to be that Henry was in no wise dominated by the cardinal, but imposed on him his own wishes, merely leaving matters of detail to be settled by his minister.
It has often been alleged that Henry, under the guidance of Wolsey, followed a consistent scheme for aggrandizing England, by making her the state which kept the balance of power of Europe in her hands.
It is hard to build up a reputation for statecraft for either Henry or Wolsey on the sum total of English political achievement during their collaboration.
made the extraordinary promise that he would get Wolsey made pope, and lend Henry an army to conquer northern France, failed to redeem his word in both respects.
Wolsey did not fall through any opposition to reform; nor was he opposed to the idea of a divorce.
Wolsey desired a French marriage to consummate the breach upon which he was now bent with the emperor; and war, in fact, was precipitated with Spain in 1528.
Wolsey deprecated this procedure, and application was made to Clement VII.
Wolsey relied upon his French and Italian allies to exert the necessary powers of persuasion; and in 1528 a French army crossed the Alps, marched through Italy and threatened to drive Charles V.
Clement was in a position to listen to Henrys prayer; and Campeggio was commissioned with Wolsey to hear the suit and grant the divorce.
In every direction Wolsey had failed, and his failure involved the triumph of the forces which he had opposed.
In October Wolsey was deprived of the great seal, and surrendered many of his ecclesiastical preferments, though he was allowed to retain his archbishopric of York which he now visited for the first time.
The first lay ministry since Edward the Confessors time came into office; Sir Thomas More became lord chancellor, and Anne Boleyns father lord privy seal; the only prominent cleric who remained in office was Stephen Gardiner, who succeeded Wolsey as bishop of Winchester.
The action of Wolsey and monasother bishops before 1529, the report of a commission teries.
In 1155 the manor was granted to the abbey of St John of Colchester, later to Cardinal Wolsey, and on his disgrace, to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, to whom Elizabeth in 1567 granted a market on Saturday.
would not hear of it, and there was no Irish Wolsey partially to supply the king's omissions.
of England, who only needed bribing, and Wolsey, accessibleto flattery, took part in the temporary coalition.
In 1514 he made the Canterbury pilgrimage, and in 1515 preached at Wolsey's installation as cardinal.
Wolsey is one of the oldest textile companies in Europe and renowned for producing quality, classic menswear.
George Cavendish was gentleman usher to the famous Wolsey, and his brother, William, was the founder of the Dukedom of Devonshire.
He was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and assisted Wolsey as assessor during the secret inquiry into the validity of Henry's marriage with Catherine in 1527.
It is only the usual attempt, as in the cases of Whittington, Wolsey and Gresham, to exaggerate the rise of a successful man.
Papal diplomacy in the interests of peace failed, however; Cardinal Wolsey made England, not the pope, the arbiter between France and the Empire; and much of the money collected for the crusade from tithes and indulgences was spent in other ways.
Parliament had in1513-1515showed signs of strong anti-clerical feeling; Wolsey had in the latter year urged its speedy dissolution, and had not called another; and he probably hoped to distract attention from the church by a spirited foreign policy, as Henry V.
Charles, however, paid Wolsey the sincere compliment of thinking that he would not be sufficiently subservient on the papal throne; while he wrote letters in Wolsey's favour, he took care that they should not reach their destination in time; and Wolsey failed to secure election both in 1521 and 1524.
An inscription on a contemporary portrait of Wolsey at Arras calls him the author of the divorce, and Roman Catholic historians from Sanders downwards have generally adopted the view that Wolsey advocated this measure merely as a means to break England's alliance with Spain and confirm its alliance with France.
There is no evidence that Wolsey first suggested the divorce, though when he found that Henry was bent upon it, he pressed for two points: (i.) that an application should be made to Rome, instead of deciding the matter in England, and (ii.) that Henry, when divorced, should marry a French princess.
The concentration of civil and ecclesiastical power by Wolsey in the hands of a churchman provided a precedent for its concentration by Henry VIII.
in the hands of the crown; and the personal example of lavish ostentation and loose morals which the cardinal-archbishop exhibited cannot have been without influence on the king, who grew to maturity under Wolsey's guidance.
A man of strict and simple life, he did not hesitate at the legatine synod of 1517 to censure the clergy, in the presence of the brilliant Wolsey himself, for their greed of gain and love of display; and in the convocation of 1523 he freely opposed the cardinal's demand for a subsidy for the war in Flanders.
In May 1521 Wolsey attended a pompous burning of Lutheran tracts in St Paul's churchyard, where Bishop Fisher preached ardently against the new German heresy.
with the hope of obtaining a divorce from Catherine, the reluctance of the pope to impeach the dispensation of his predecessor Julius II., and at the same time to alienate the English queen's nephew Charles V., the futile policy of Wolsey and his final ruin in 1529 are described elsewhere (see English History; HENRY VIII.; Catherine Of Aragon).
Ireland had been left by Wolsey to wallow in its own disorder; but disorder was anathema to Henry's mind, and in 1 535 Sir William Skeffington was sent to apply English methods and artillery to the government of Ireland.
Ere long his abilities attracted the notice of Cardinal Wolsey, who made him his secretary, and in this capacity he is said to have been with him at More Park in Hertfordshire, when the conclusion of the celebrated treaty of the More brought Henry VIII.
This ingenious pleading, however, did not serve, and he was obliged to be content with a general commission for Campeggio and Wolsey to try the cause in England.
It is in keeping with the somewhat malicious saying about Fox reported by Tyndale that he would sacrifice his father to save his king, which after all is not so damning as Wolsey's dying words.
Moreover, Wolsey, whose fall was to synchronize with the commencement of the reforming movement, was if anything more in sympathy with change than was his master.
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