Against the attendant abuses the Augustinian monk Martin Luther posted (31st October 1517) on the church door at Wittenberg his famous ninety-five theses, which were the signal for widespread revolt against the church.
Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 152 4 became professor of Greek at the university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from 1526.
hand in the so-called First Helvetic Confession (the work of Swiss divines at Basel in January 1536); also in the conferences which urged the Swiss acceptance of the Wittenberg Concord (1536).
At twenty he entered the university of Wittenberg, and studied afterwards at the university of Leipzig.
He passed the remainder of his life at Wittenberg, braving the perils of war and persecution rather than desert the place dear to him as the home of the Reformation.
He escaped to Wittenberg, where with other of his compatriots he received the teaching of the German reformers.
The writings of Tauler and Luther so impressed him, that in 1522 he visited Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Andreas Carlstadt and Thomas Miinzer.
He thought of going to Wittenberg, but his first halt was at Strassburg, where Bucer and Capito received him kindly.
After visiting Luther at Wittenberg, he settled with his amanuensis William Roy in Cologne, where he had made some progress in printing a 4to edition of his New Testament, when the work was discovered by John Cochlaeus, dean at Frankfurt, who not only got the senate of Cologne to interdict further printing, but warned Henry VIII.
After travel in Italy (1521-1522) he was appointed (1523) town's preacher at Wittenberg, but was soon transferred to the charge of Miihlberg, under Erfurt.
He took his part in the theological disputations of the time, at Marburg (1529), the Concordia at Wittenberg (1536), the Convention at Schmalkalden (1537), the discussions at Hagenau and Worms (1540).
He was twice married, and had several sons, of whom Eusebius held a chair of philosophy at Wittenberg, and married Melanchthon's grand-daughter, Anna Sabinus.
After studying at Konigsberg, in 1650 he was appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he afterwards became general superintendent and primarius.
Blucher was reported near Wittenberg, and Schwarzenberg was moving slowly round to the south of Leipzig.
His concentration was effected with his usual sureness and celerity, but whilst the French moved on Wittenberg, Blucher was marching to his right, indifferent to his communications as all Prussia lay behind him.
This move on the 14th brought him into touch with Bernadotte, and now a single march forward of all three armies would have absolutely isolated Napoleon from France; but Bernadotte's nerve failed him, for on hearing of Napoleon's threat against Wittenberg he decided to retreat northward, and not all the persuasions of Blucher and Gneisenau could move him.
The trigonometrical section of the book had been issued as a separate treatise (Wittenberg, 1542) under the care of Rheticus.
Born on the 15th of February 1514, he studied at Tiguri with Oswald Mycone, and afterwards went to Wittenberg where he was appointed professor of mathematics in 1537.
Rheticus now began his great treatise, Opus Palatinum de Triangulis, and continued to work at it while he occupied his old chair at Wittenberg, and indeed up to his death at Cassovia in Hungary, on the 4th of December 1576.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
The Elbe is crossed by numerous bridges, as at KOniggratz, Pardubitz, Kolin, Leitmeritz, Tetschen, Schandau, Pirna, Dresden, Meissen, Torgau, Wittenberg, Rosslau, Barby, Magdeburg, Rathenow, Wittenberge, Ddmitz, Lauenburg, and Hamburg and Harburg.
He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to cast aside the senseless rules of his order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into an hereditary duchy for himself.
He studied with great distinction at Greif swald and at Wittenberg, and having made a special study of languages, theology and history, was appointed professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg in 1692, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Halle in 1693, and in 1705 professor of theology at Jena.
In 1594 he began to give theological lectures at Jena, and in 1596 accepted a call as professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he died on the 23rd of October 1616.
He entered the university of Wittenberg in 1599, and first studied philosophy.
In 1682 he went to the Gymnasium at Gera, and three years later to the university of Wittenberg.
ZACHARIAS URSINUS (1534-1583), German theologian, and one of the authors of the Heidelberg Catechism, was born at Breslau on the 18th of July 1534, and became a disciple of Melanchthon at Wittenberg.
He expressed surprise that a man of such views as Zwingli should wish brotherly relations with the Wittenberg reformers" (Walker, The Reformation, p. 174).
Having made a little money by teaching, he went (1543) to the university of Frankfort-on-Oder; thence (1545) to that of Wittenberg.
As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.
At Bologna he read Melanchthon's Loci communes theologiae and was so impressed by it that in 1549 he went to Wittenberg to see the author, and shortly afterwards became a Protestant.
He made his headquarters at Wittenberg until the death of Melanchthon in 1560, although during that period, as well as throughout the rest of his life, he travelled extensively in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Sweden, and even Finland and Lapland.
The famous theses which Luther nailed to the door of the church at Wittenberg in 1517 cannot be called a confession, but they expressed a protest which could not rest there.
After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.
With Zwingli, who had arrived on the 27th of September, he had several interviews of considerable political importance before the Wittenberg divines made their appearance.
These interviews settled the preliminaries of an alliance; but they rested on the assumption that the theological feud between Wittenberg and Zurich could be removed, or its violence at least abated.
Intrigues engineered against him caused him to resign this position in 1677, and for a time he lectured on chemistry at Annaberg and Wittenberg.
In1804-1806Bretschneider was Privat-docent at the university of Wittenberg, where he lectured on philosophy and theology.
On the advance of the French army under Napoleon into Prussia, he determined to leave Wittenberg and abandon his university career.
With a view to a change he took the degree of doctor of theology in Wittenberg in August 1812.
He was at Helmstadt in 1576; at Wittenberg in 1 577.
At Wittenberg the crypto-Calvinist controversy was then at its height, and he took the side of Melanchthon and the crypto-Calvinists.
In Basel, again, he studied theology under Simon Sulzer (1508-1585), a broadminded divine of Lutheran sympathies, whose aim was to reconcile the churches of the Helvetic and Wittenberg confessions.
In 1585-1586 he returned with Castelnau to Paris, where his anti-Aristotelian views were taken up by the college of Cambrai, but was soon driven from his refuge, and we next find him at Marburg and Wittenberg, the headquarters of Lutheranism.
Several works, chiefly logical, appeared during his stay at Wittenberg (De Lampade combinatoria Lulliana, 1587, and De Progressu et Lampade venatoria logicorum, 1587).
Thus in 1405 he, with other two masters, was commissioned to examine into certain reputed miracles at Wilsnack, near Wittenberg, which had caused that church to be made a resort of pilgrims from all parts of Europe.
He was educated at Leipzig, and then at Wittenberg, where he was one of the first who matriculated (1502) in the recently founded university.
His precocity was extraordinary; at three years of age he was able to read, and in his thirteenth year he composed Greek and Latin orations and delivered them in public. When he was about eighteen he went to the university of Copenhagen and afterwards studied at Rostock and Wittenberg.
Tetzel's preaching and the exaggerated claims that he was reported to be making for the indulgences attracted the attention of an Augustinian friar, Martin Luther, who had for some years been lecturing on theology at the university of Wittenberg.
On returning to Wittenberg, he turned to the canon law, and was shocked to find it so completely at variance with his notions of Christianity.
Hans Sachs, on the other hand, sang the praises of the " Wittenberg Nightingale," and a considerable number of prominent men of letters accepted Luther as their guide - Zell and Bucer, in Strassburg, Eberlin in Ulm, Oecolampadius in Augsburg, Osiander and others in Nuremberg, Pellicanus in NOrdlingen.
Luther's colleague at Wittenberg, Carlstadt, began denouncing the monastic life, the celibacy of the clergy, the veneration of images; and before the end of 1521 we find the first characteristic outward symptoms of Protestantism.
During his absence two priests from parishes near Wittenberg married; while several monks, throwing aside their cowls, left their cloisters.
In January 1522, Carlstadt induced the authorities of Wittenberg to publish the first evangelical church ordinance.
These measures, and the excitement which followed the arrival of the radicals from Zwickau, led Luther to return to Wittenberg in March 1522, where he preached a series of sermons attacking the impatience of the radical party, and setting forth clearly his own views of what the progress of the Reformation should be.
Luther succeeded in quieting the people both in Wittenberg and the neighbouring towns, and in preventing the excesses which had threatened to discredit the whole movement.
Of the four universities founded by the Saxon electors at Leipzig, Jena, Wittenberg, later transferred to Halle, and Erfurt, now extinct, only the first is included in the present kingdom of Saxony.
In i i 80 it was broken up, and the name of Saxony disappeared from the greater part of it, remaining only with the districts around Lauenburg and Wittenberg.
Five centuries later Lauenburg was incorporated with Hanover, and Wittenberg is the nucleus of modern Saxony, the name being thus transferred from the west to the east of Germany.
The title duke of Saxony was given to Bernard, the sixth son of Albert the Bear, together with the small territories of Lauenburg and Wittenberg, which were thus the only portions of the former duchy which now bore the name of Saxony.
Dying in 1212, Bernard was succeeded in Wittenberg by his younger son Albert I., who recovered Lauenburg after the defeat of Waldemar at Bornhoved in 1227.
Albert died in 1260, and soon after his death his two sons divided his territories, when the elder son John took Lauenburg which was sometimes called lower Saxony, and the younger, Albert II., took Wittenberg or upper Saxony.
Both retained the ducal title and claimed the electoral privilege, a claim which the Lauenburg line refused to abandon when it was awarded to the Wittenberg line by the Golden Bull of 1356.
For the second time in the history of the Saxon electorate the younger line secured the higher dignity, for the Wittenberg line was junior to the Lauenburg line.
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
In 1695 the theological faculty of Wittenberg formally laid to his charge 264 errors, and only his death on the 5th of February, 1705, released him from these fierce conflicts.
The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon.
In 1511 he went to Wittenberg, where he took his bachelor's degree in law.
He accompanied Luther to Worms in 1521, and there was appointed by the elector of Saxony professor of canon law at Wittenberg.
During Luther's stay in the Wartburg Jonas was one of the most active of the Wittenberg reformers.
He escaped thence to Antwerp in 1528, and also visited Wittenberg, where he made Luther's acquaintance.
The Saxon Confession of Wittenberg, June 1551, while protesting against the same errors, equally abstains from trying to define narrowly how Christ is present in the sacrament.
He became director of the music-school at Pforten in 1572, was transferred to Leipzig in the same capacity in 1594, and retained this post until his death on the 24th of November 1615, despite the offers successively made to him of mathematical professorships at Frankfort and Wittenberg.
Joannes (Vratislaviensis; 1517-1568), the younger brother of Andreas, was born at Breslau on the 30th of January 1517, and educated at Wittenberg, where he formed a close and lasting friendship with Melanchthon.
He studied at Wittenberg where he heard the lectures of Luther, and afterwards became tutor to Count Mansfeldt.
In the year 1520 could be counted 19,013 in the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg, and 21,483 in the Schlosskirche at Halle in 1521 (Kdstlin, Friedrich der W., and die Schlosskirche zu Wittenberg, p. 58 seq.; Redlich, Cardinal Albrecht and das Neue Stift zu Halle, p. 260).
The Wittenberg Concord (1536) and the Articles of Schmalkalden (1537) reaffirmed them.
From Wittenberg he fled, April 1549, to Magdeburg, making it the headquarters of rigid Lutheranism.
C. Wolf, Historia Bogomitorum (Wittenberg, 1712); "Slovo svyatago Kozmyi na eretiki," in Kukuljevic Sakcinski, Arkiv zapovyestnicu jugoslavensku, vol.
WITTENBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe, 59 m.
Wittenberg is interesting chiefly on account of its close connexion with Luther and the dawn of the Reformation; and several of its buildings are associated with the events of that time.
The present infantry barracks were at one time occupied by the university of Wittenberg, founded in 1502, but merged in the university of Halle in 1815.
In the Wittenberg Concord (1536) the reformers agreed to a settlement of the eucharistic controversy.
Shakespeare makes Hamlet and Horatio study at Wittenberg.
Melanchthon's house and the house of Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553), who was burgomaster of Wittenberg, are also pointed out.
Wittenberg is mentioned as early as i 180.
It was occupied by the French in 1806, and refortified in 1813 by command of Napoleon; but in 1814 it was stormed by the Prussians under Tauentzien, who received the title of "von Wittenberg" as a reward.
Wittenberg continued to be a fortress of the third class until the reorganization of the German defences after the foundation of the new empire led to its being dismantled in 1873.
See Meynert, Geschichte der Stadt Wittenberg (Dessau, 18 45); Stier, Die Schlosskirche zu Wittenberg (Wittenberg, 1860); Zitzlaff, Die Begrabnissstatten Wittenbergs and ihre Denkmciler (Wittenberg, 1897) and Gurlitt, "Die Lutherstadt Wittenberg," in Muther's Die Kunst (Berlin, 1902).
Meanwhile Gustavus Adolphus had landed in Germany, and the elector had refused to allow him to cross the Elbe at Wittenberg, thus hindering his attempt to relieve Magdeburg.
Bose (1710-1761), of Wittenberg, added the prime conductor, an insulated tube or cylinder supported on silk strings, and J.
He went to Wittenberg, and afterwards, towards the end of the year, to Berlin, where his friend Mylius had established himself as a journalist.
At the end of 17 51 he was in Wittenberg again, where he spent about a year engaged in unremitting study and research.
PAUL EBER (1511-1569), German theologian, was born at Kitzingen in Franconia, and was educated at Nuremberg and Wittenberg, where he became the close friend of Philip Melanchthon.
In 1541 he was appointed professor of Latin grammar at Wittenberg, and in 1557 professor of the Old Testament.
He died at Wittenberg on the 10th of December 1569.
About the same time the small duchy of Saxony was divided into two duchies, those of Wittenberg and Lauenburg, the former to the south and the latter to the north of the great mark of Brandenburg, and there were similar divisions in the less important states.
The popular feeling for the first time found expression when Luther, on All Saints day 1517, nailed to a church door in Wittenberg the theses in which he contested the doctrine Luther which lay at the root of the scandalous traffic in indulgences carried on in the popes name by Tetzel and his like.
About the same time (May 1536) an agreement between the Lutherans and the Zwinglians was arranged by Martin Bucer, and was embodied in a document called the Concord of Wittenberg, and for the present the growing dissensions between the heads of the league, John Frederick, elector of Saxony, and Philip of Hesse, were checked.
From 1820 to 1822 he was in the clerical seminary at Wittenberg.
This post he exchanged in 1828 for a professorship in the Wittenberg theological seminary, of which in 1832 he became also second director and ephorus, and hence in 1837 he removed to Heidelberg as professor and director of a new clerical seminary; in 1849 he accepted an invitation to Bonn as professor and university preacher, but in 1854 he returned to Heidelberg as professor of theology, and afterwards became member of the 'Oberkirchenrath, a position he held until his death on the 10th of August 1867.
In Berlin and Wittenberg he came under the influence of Pietism as represented by such men as Rudolf Stier (1800-1862) and Friedrich Tholuck, though Tholuck pronounced him a "very modern Christian."
He thus became out of harmony with the pietistic thought and life of Wittenberg.
His earliest teacher, Wolfgang von Utenhof, who came straight from Wittenberg, and the Lutheran Holsteiner Johann Rantzau, who became his tutor, were both able and zealous reformers.
He took a genuine interest in learning; was a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther and Melanchthon to professorships.
In 1493 he had gone as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, and had been made a knight of the Holy Sepulchre; but, although he remained throughout life an adherent of the older faith, he seems to have been drawn into sympathy with the reformers, probably through his connexion with the university of Wittenberg.
of Wittenberg (1519).
469.) This appointment marked an epoch in German university education; Wittenberg became the school of the nation; the scholastic methods of instruction were set aside, and in a Discourse on Reforming the Studies of Youth Melanchthon gave proof, not only that he had caught the Renaissance spirit, but that he was fitted to become one of its foremost leaders.
Melanchthon felt the spell of Luther's personality and spiritual depth, and seems to have been prepared on his first arrival at Wittenberg to accept the new theology, which as yet existed mainly in subjective form in the person of Luther.
His marriage in 1520 to Catharine Krapp of Wittenberg gave a domestic centre to the Reformation.
He died in his sixty-third year, on the 19th of April 1560, and his body was laid beside that of Martin Luther in the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg.
On the 27th of December 1521 three " prophets " appeared in Wittenberg from Zwickau, Thomas Munzer, Nicolas Storch and Mark Thomas Stubner.
There was confusion in Wittenberg, where schools and university sided with the " prophets " and were closed.
(1848); Justus Menius, Der Wiedertdufer Lehre (Wittenberg, 1 534); Johann Cloppenburg and Fred.
He studied theology, ancient languages, and philosophy at Jena, became Privatdozent in the university of Wittenberg in 1716, and in 1720-21 visited Holland and England.
In January 1759 he accompanied his pupil to the university of Wittenberg, from which he was driven in 1760 by the Prussian cannon.
In 1508 he was sent with some other monks to Wittenberg to assist the small university which had been opened there in 1502 by Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony.
From Wittenberg he was sent by the chiefs of the German Augustinian Eremites to Rome on a mission concerning the organization of the order.
On his return (1512) he was sent by Staupitz, his vicar-general, to Erfurt to take the necessary steps for higher graduation in theology, in order to succeed Staupitz himself as professor of theology in Wittenberg.
He graduated as Doctor of the Holy Scripture, took the Wittenberg doctor's oath to defend the evangelical truth vigorously (viriliter), became a member of the Wittenberg Senate, and three weeks later succeeded Staupitz as professor of theology.
No one attributed any heretical views to the young Wittenberg professor.
Students began to flock to the small obscure university of Wittenberg, and the elector grew proud of the teacher who was making his university famous.
The Red Cross of the Indulgence seller had been set up at Zerbst and at Jizterbogk, and people had gone from Wittenberg to buy the Papal Tickets.
The church of All Saints (the castle church) was closely connected with the university of Wittenberg.
On his return to Wittenberg he began an answer to his opponents.
But the peremptory summons could be construed as an attack on the university of Wittenberg, and both the elector of Saxony and the emperor Maximilian so regarded it.
Eck left Leipzig triumphant, and Luther returned to Wittenberg much depressed.
He posted up a notice inviting the Wittenberg students to witness the burning of the bull (loth of December 1520).
Luther was ordered to leave Worms and to return to Wittenberg.
The revolution began in Wittenberg during Luther's seclusion in the Wartburg.
Andrew Boden of Carlstadt, a colleague of Luther's in the university of Wittenberg, was strongly impressed with the contradiction which he believed to exist between evangelical teaching and the usages of medieval ecclesiastical xvII.
The rescued nuns found places of refuge in the families of Wittenberg burghers.
He consented to a conference, which, as he was too ill to leave home, met at Wittenberg (May - June 1536).
It was agreed in the Wittenberg Concord to leave this an open question.
He repeatedly expressed an admiration for Calvin's writings on the subject of the sacrament; and Melanchthon believed that if the Swiss accepted Calvin's theory of the Supper, the Wittenberg Concord could be extended to include them.
He left Wittenberg in bitterly cold weather on the 23rd of January 1546, and the journey was tedious and hazardous.
The elector of Saxony and Luther's family resolved that he must be buried at Wittenberg, and on the 20th the funeral procession began its long march.
A company of fifty light-armed troops commanded by the young counts of Mansfeld headed the procession and went with it all the way to Wittenberg.
The font at Wittenberg, decorated with reliefs of the apostles, was the work of the elder Vischer, while Peter and his son produced, among other important works, the shrine of St Sebald at Nuremberg, a work of great finish and of astonishing richness of fancy in its design.
He studied at Wittenberg under Reinhard and Jehnichen, at Jena under Reinhold, and at GÃ¶ttingen.
of Wittenberg by rail.
He gave currency, moreover, to the empirical rule known as "Bode's Law," which was actually announced by Johann Daniel Titius of Wittenberg in 1772.
CASPAR AQUILA [KASPAR ADLER] (1488-1560), German reformer, was born at Augsburg on the 7th of August 1488, educated there and at Ulm (1502), in Italy (he met Erasmus in Rome), at Bern (1508), Leipzig (151o) and Wittenberg (1513).
Returning to Wittenberg he met Luther, acted as tutor to the sons of Franz von Sickingen at Ebernburg, taught Hebrew at Wittenberg, and aided Luther in his version of the Old Testament.
The Concord of Wittenberg, made in 1536, was favourable for these schemes, but after five years spent in assiduous preparation war was prevented by the serious illness of the landgrave and the lukewarmness of his allies.
Olaus Petri (1493-1552) and Laurentius Petri (1499-1573) were Carmelite monks who adopted the Lutheran doctrine while studying at Wittenberg, and came back to Sweden in 1518 as the apostles of the new faith.
They sent envoys to the camp of the king who, with his brother Charles, was then besieging Wittenberg.
In May 15 23 Tausen went to Wittenberg, where he studied for a year and a half, when he was recalled to Antvorskov.
Several young men in the town had studied at Wittenberg, and the burghers, in their Lutheran zeal, had already expelled their youthful Bishop Jurgen Friis.
In 1538 he entered the university of Wittenberg, studying as pauper gratis under Melanchthon.
A Greek by birth, adopted son of Jacob Heraklides, despot of Paros, Samos and other Aegean islands, acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, and master of most European languages; appearing alternately as a student of astronomy at Wittenberg, whither he had been invited by Count Mansfeld, as a correspondent of Melanchthon, and as a writer of historical works which he dedicated to Philip II.
Notwithstanding his valour he was wounded and taken prisoner at Muhlberg on the 24th of April 1547, and was condemned to death in order to induce Wittenberg to surrender.
The sentence was not carried out, but by the capitulation of Wittenberg (Ma .y 1547) he renounced the electoral dignity and a part of his lands in favour of Maurice, steadfastly refusing however to make any concessions on religious matters, and remained in captivity until May 1552, when he returned to the Thuringian lands which his sons had been allowed to retain, his return being hailed with wild enthusiasm.
Making his way to Riga, and thence to Wittenberg, he found favour with Luther; his letter of the 22nd of June 1525 appears in a tract by Luther of that year.
Returning to Wittenberg, he was coldly received; he wrote there his exposition of Daniel xii.
He did not, however, identify himself either with Zwinglianism or Lutheranism; he disputed with Zwingli at Zurich in 1522, and then made his way to Eisenach and Wittenberg, where he married in 1523.
his famous theses on the church door at Wittenberg, and since he had testified to his faith before the diet of Worms. All Germany was now convulsed with the first throes of the revolt against the papacy, and the echoes of the new theological disputes were being heard in England.
In 1615, with the idea of studying law, he moved to Wittenberg.
School, Winnebago (1094) under the Wittenberg School and Potawatomi (440) not under an agent.
See Wittenberg, Swinemiinde, Ahlbeck and Heringsdorf (Linz, 1893).
Ultimately in 1518 he found his way to the university of Wittenberg, where he studied theology.
After Luther's death, Alberus was for a time Diakonus in Wittenberg; he became involved, however, in the political conflicts of the time, and was in Magdeburg in 1550-1551, while that town was besieged by Maurice of Saxony.
WILHELM EDUARD WEBER (1804-1891), German physicist, was born at Wittenberg on the 24th of October 1804, and was a younger brother of Ernst Heinrich Weber, the author of Weber's Law (see below).
The brown coal region extends from Oschersleben by Kalbe to Weissenfels; it is also found in the neighbourhood of Aschersleben, Bitterfeld and Wittenberg.
A papal bull of the 15th of June 1520, which condemned forty-one propositions extracted from Luther's teachings, was taken to Germany by Eck in his capacity of apostolic nuncio, published by him and the legates Alexander and Caracciola, and burned by Luther on the 10th of December at Wittenberg.
In June he was at Magdeburg, Halle and Naumburg; the elector of Saxony excluded him from his dominions, but Albrecht's brother, the elector Joachim of Brandenburg, encouraged him at Berlin in the hope of sharing the spoils, and by the connivance of Duke George of Saxony he was permitted to pursue his operations within a few miles of the electoral territory at Wittenberg.
In 1521 he went to Wittenberg, where he formed a close friendship with Luther and Melanchthon, and in 1522 he married.
At this time, in association with the keen humanists Conrad Mutian, Crotus Rubeanus and Eoban Hess, he was of sceptical tendency; moving to Wittenberg in 1519, he became evangelical under the teaching of Melanchthon and the preaching of Luther.
Also an early possession of the Wettins, Gotha fell at the partition of 1485 to the Albertine branch of the family, but was transferred to the Ernestine branch by the capitulation of Wittenberg of 1547.
Outwardly the Reformation would seem to have begun when, on the 10th of December 1520, a professor in the university of Wittenberg invited all the friends of evangelical truth among his students to assemble outside the wall at the ninth hour to witness a pious spectacle the burning of the " godless book of the papal ecclesiastical state of which the bishop of Rome was head.
He accordingly hastily drafted ninety-five propositions relating to indulgences, and posted an invitation to those who wished to attend a disputation in Wittenberg on the matter, under his presidency.
and was forced to sign the capitulation of Wittenberg.
Maurice, who became elector of Saxony in consequence of the capitulation of Wittenberg, was a grandson of Albert, the founder of his line.
was rewarded, as we have already seen, by the capitulation of Wittenberg.
The political history of the parts of Saxony left by the capitulation of Wittenberg to the Ernestine line, which occupy the region now generally styled Thuringia (Thuringen), is mainly a recital of partitions, reunions, redivisions and fresh combinations of territory among the various sons of the successive dukes.
Marching against John Frederick, Charles V., aided by Maurice, gained a decisive victory at Miihlberg in April 1547, after which by the capitulation of Wittenberg John Frederick renounced the electoral dignity in favour of Maurice, who also obtained a large part of his kinsman's lands.
2 In May 152 4 he consequently betook himself to Hamburg, his resolution to carry out his great work never for a moment flagging, and it was probably during his stay in this free city and in Wittenberg, where he may have been stimulated by Luther, that his translation of the New Testament was actually made.
The Capitulation of Wittenberg (1547) is the name given to the treaty by which John Frederick the Magnanimous was compelled to resign the electoral dignity and most of his territory to the Albertine branch of the Saxon family.
By the capitulation of Wittenberg the electorate qf Saxony was transferred to Maurice, and in the mood of a conqueror the emperor met the diet at Augsburg in September 1547.
At Tubingen he lived as student and teacher for six years, until on Reuchlin's advice, the elector of Saxony called him to Wittenberg as professor of Greek in 1518.1 Her character is evidenced by the familiar proverb Wer mehr will verzehren Denn sein Pflug kann erehren, Der muss zuletzt verderben Und vielleicht am Galgen sterben of which Melanchthon said to his students "Didici hoc a mea matre, vos etiam observate."
- (a) For Luther's life as a whole: Melanchthon, "Historia de vita et actis Lutheri" (Wittenberg, 1545), in the Corpus Reformatorum, vi.; Mathesius, Historien von.
He studied at Wittenberg under Reinhard and Jehnichen, at Jena under Reinhold, and at GÃƒ¶ttingen.
Giessen, Altdorf, Helmsta.dt, Jena, Wittenberg), as well as to Upsala in Sweden.
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