Wire Sentence Examples

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  • The coils are wound with copper wire (covered with silk), 10 mils.

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  • It's so much more effective than rope, or wire, or chains.

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  • For a wire exposed under the conditions observed by Elster and Geitel the emanation seems to be almost entirely derived from radium.

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  • The description of that vehicle is plastered at every toll booth, state police barracks and wire service from here to California and back.

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  • Thus, if the star's image is kept in bisection by the wire, both star and wire will appear at rest in the field of view.

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  • It is essential that the paper covering be loose, so as to ensure that each wire is enclosed in a coating not of paper only, but also of air; the wires in fact are really insulated from each other by the dry air, the loose paper acting merely as a separator to prevent them from coming into contact.

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  • Some of the containers had a thin wire running around but most were standing alone.

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  • The radioactivity is denoted by A, and A = signifies that the potential of the dissipation apparatus fell I volt in an hour per metre of wire introduced.

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  • Connexion is made into the office (or to the underground system, as is often the case) from the aerial wire by means of a copper conductor, insulated with gutta-percha, which passes through a " leading in " cup, whereby leakage is prevented between the wire and the pole.

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  • The coated wire is treated in the same way as the copper strand - the die D, or another of the same size, being placed at the back of the cylinder and a larger one substituted at the front.

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  • As in Hopkinson's experiments, ring magnets were employed; these were wound with primary and secondary coils of insulated platinum wire, which would bear a much higher temperature than copper without oxidation or fusion.

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  • But this ultimatum was rendered invalid by a wire from Lansing, protesting against any settlement without the participation of America.

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  • Stringfellow, however, stated that it occasionally left the wire and was sustained by its aeroplanes alone.

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  • Fixity of all the parts was secured by a tubular mast extending upwards and downwards through about the middle of the craft, and from its extremities ran stays of aluminium wire to the tips of the aeroplanes and the end of the tubular backbone.

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  • On the lower Congo transactions are in cash, but on the middle and upper Congo the use of coins in place of barter or the native brass wire currency makes but slow progress.

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  • Coal is brought to the city from the coalfields by boats on the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers as well as by rail, and great fleets of barges carry coal and other heavy freight, such as steel rails, cotton ties, sheet iron, wire and nails, down the Ohio in the winter and spring.

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  • The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.

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  • An alternating current of one ampere is defined to be one which produces the same heat in a second in a wire as the unit continuous current defined as above to be one ampere.

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  • In their simplest form they consist of a wire through which passes the current to be measured, some arrangement being provided for measuring the small expansion produced by the heat generated in the wire.

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  • The expansion of the working wire when it is heated will then increase or create a sag in it owing to its increase in FIG.

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  • In order that this may take place, the heated wire must be flexible and must therefore be a single fine wire or a bundle of fine wires.

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  • In ammeters for small currents it is customary to pass the whole current through the heating wire.

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  • In instruments for larger currents the main current passes through a metallic strip acting as a bye-pass or shunt, and to the ends of this shunt are attached the ends of the working wire.

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  • This shunt is generally a strip of platinoid or constantin, and the working wire itself is of the same metal.

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  • This is done by mounting the working wire on a metal plate made of the same metal as the working wire itself; thus if the working wire is of platinoid it must be mounted on a platinoid bar, the supports which carry the ends of the working wire being insulated from this bar by being bushed with ivory or porcelain.

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  • Then no changes of external temperature can affect the sag of the wire, and the only thing which can alter its length relatively to the supporting bar is the passage of a current through it.

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  • Hot-wire ammeters are, however, liable to a shift of zero, and means are always provided by some adjusting screw for slightly altering the sag of the wire and so adjusting the index needle to the zero of the scale.

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  • In the construction of such an instrument it is essential that the wire should be subjected to a process of preparation or " ageing," which consists in passing through it a fairly strong current, at least the maximum that it will ever have to carry, and starting and stopping this current frequently.

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  • The wire ought to be so treated for many hours before it is placed in the instrument.

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  • It is also necessary to notice that shunt instruments cannot be used for high frequencies, as then the relative inductance of the shunt and wire becomes important and affects the ratio in which the current is divided, whereas for low frequency currents the inductance is unimportant.

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  • In constructing a hot-wire instrument for the measurement of high frequency currents it is necessary to make the working wire of a number of fine wires placed in parallel and slightly separated from one another, and to rpass the whole of the current to be measured through this strand.

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  • If a small alternating current is passed through one wire, it sags down, the mirror is tilted, and the spot of light on the screen is displaced.

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  • It consists of a glass bulb, in which there is a loop of fine wire, and to the bulb is attached a U-tube in which there is some liquid.

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  • When a current is passed through the wire, continuous or alternating, it creates heat, which expands the air in the bulb and forces the liquid up one side of the U-tube to a certain position in which the rate of loss of heat by the air is equal to the rate at which it is gaining heat.

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  • In its simplest form an electromagnetic ammeter consists of a circular coil of wire in which is pivoted eccentrically an index needle carrying at its lower end a small mass of iron.

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  • When a current is passed through the coil the iron tends to move nearer to the coil of the wire where the field is stronger and so displaces the index needle over the scale.

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  • Another type of similar instrument consists of a coil of wire having a fragment of iron wire suspended from one arm of an index needle near the mouth of a coil.

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  • If a coil of insulated wire is suspended so that it is in stable equilibrium when its plane is parallel to the direction of a magnetic field, the transmission of a known electric current through the coil will cause it to be deflected through an angle which is a function of the field intensity.

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  • The effects of tension upon the behaviour of a nickel wire are of a less simple character.

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  • The metal to be tested was prepared in the form of a ring, upon which were wound primary and secondary coils of copper wire insulated with asbestos.

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  • Across the river is Rock Falls (pop. in 1900, 2176), practically a suburb of Sterling, with foundries and machine-shops and manufactories of agricultural implements, barbed wire and bolts and rivets.

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  • There is therefore a certain ratio in which any current passing through the ammeter is divided between the shunt and the working wire.

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  • The reason is that the heat produced in a given time in a wire is proportional to the square of the strength of the current passing through it, and hence the rate at which the heat is produced in the wire, and therefore its temperature, increases much faster than the current itself increases.

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  • When a current is passed through the wire forming the coil, the fragment of iron is drawn more into the aperture of the coil where the field is stronger and so displaces an index needle over a scale.

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  • In those intended for alternating currents, the main current through the movable coil, whether consisting of one turn or more than one turn, is carried by a wire rope, of which each component strand is insulated by silk covering, to prevent the inductive action from altering the distribution of the current across the transverse section of the conductor.

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  • Hold a small portion of the substance moistened with hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion zone' of the Bunsen burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame.

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  • Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present.

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  • Attached to the bulb was a glass rod and then a tube containing iron wire.

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  • They were employed as animated roasting jacks, turning round and round the wire cage in which they were confined, but with the employment of mechanical jacks their use ceased and the race appears to be extinct.

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  • Paper, spirits, wire and nails, leather and tiles are the chief products of the manufactures.

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  • The observatory, which was connected by wire with the post office at Fort William, was provisioned by the Scottish Meteorological Society, to whom it belonged.

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  • More steel wire, wire nails, and bolts and nuts are made here than in any other city in the world (the total value for iron and steel products as classified by the census was, in 1905, $42,930,995, and the value of foundry and machine-shop products in the same year was $18,832,487), and more merchant vessels than in any other American city.

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  • There are also in the city several large grain mills and breweries, a biscuit factory, wire and hemp roperies, fuel works, general foundries and engineering works.

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  • When two metallic conductors are placed in an electrolyte, a current will flow through a wire connecting them provided that a difference of any kind exists between the two conductors in the nature either of the metals or of the portions of the electrolyte which surround them.

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  • When the zinc and copper plates are connected through a wire, a current flows, the conventionally positive electricity passing from copper to zinc in the wire and from zinc to copper in the cell.

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  • It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.

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  • In the evening the milk is strained through a wire sieve and transferred to barrels.

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  • The strength of the current may also be regulated by introducing lengths of German silver or iron wire, carbon rod, or other inferior conductors in the path of the current, and a series of such resistances should always be provided close to the tanks.

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  • Large metallic surfaces (especially external surfaces) are sometimes plated by means of a "doctor," which, in its simplest form, is a brush constantly wetted with the electrolyte, with a wire anode buried amid the hairs or bristles; this brush is painted slowly over the surface of the metal to be coated, which must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical generator.

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  • Others have arranged a means of obtaining high conductivity wire from cathode-copper without fusion, by depositing the metal in the form of a spiral strip on a cylinder, the strip being subsequently drawn down in the usual way; at present, however, the ordinary methods of wire production are found to be cheaper.

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  • A wire carrying an electric current is surrounded by a magnetic field, and if the wire is bent into the form of an elongated coil or spiral, a field having certain very useful qualities is generated in the interior.

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  • If a wire of soft iron is substituted for the suspended magnetic needle, either pole of the bar-magnet will attract either end of the wire indifferently.

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  • The wire will in fact become temporarily magnetized by induction, that end of it which is nearest to the pole of the magnet acquiring opposite polarity, and behaving as if it were the pole of a permanent magnet.

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  • In the internal field of a long coil of wire carrying an electric current, the lines of force are, except near the ends, parallel to the axis of the coil, and it is chiefly for this reason that the field due to a coil is particularly well adapted for inductively magnetizing iron and steel.

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  • Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.

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  • A wire or rod in this condition is said to be circularly magnetized; it may be regarded as consisting of an indefinite number of elementary ring-magnets, having their axes coincident with the axis of the wire and their planes at right angles to it.

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  • The magnetic field due to a long straight wire in which a current of electricity is flowing is at every point at right angles to the plane passing through it and through the wire; its strength at any point distant r centimetres from the wire is H = 21/r, (2) i being the current in C.G.S.

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  • The field strength in the interior of a long uniformly wound coil containing n turns of wire and having a length of 1 centimetres is (except near the ends) H = 41rin/l.

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  • In certain cases, as, for instance, in an iron ring wrapped uniformly round with a coil of wire through which a current is passing, the induction is entirely within the metal; there are, consequently, no free poles, and the ring, though magnetized, constitutes a poleless magnet.

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  • In the middle part of a rod which has a length of 400 or 500 diameters the effect of the ends is insensible; but for many experiments the condition of endlessness may be best secured by giving the metal the shape of a ring of uniform section, the magnetic field being produced by an electric current through a coil of wire evenly wound round the ring.

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  • At a point whose distance from the axis of the wire is r the tangential magnetic force is H = 21r /a 2 (39) it therefore varies directly as the distance from the axis, where it is zero.'

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  • If the wire consists of a ferromagnetic metal, it will become " circularly magnetized by the field, the lines of magnetization being, like the lines of force, concentric circles.

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  • So long as the wire (supposed isotropic) is free from torsional stress, there will be no external evidence of magnetism.

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  • Thus if the magnet is suspended horizontally by a fine wire, which, when the magnetic axis points north and south, is free from torsion, and if 0 is the angle through which the upper end of the wire must be twisted to make the magnet point east and west, then MH = CB, or M = C6/H, where C is the torsional couple for r 0.

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  • A bifilar suspension is sometimes used instead of a single wire.

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  • This extraneous influence may, however, be eliminated by surrounding the rod with a coil of wire carrying a current such as will produce in the interior a magnetic field equal and opposite to the vertical component of the earth's field.

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  • The tube is wound over its whole length with two separate coils of insulated wire, the one being outside the other.

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  • C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.

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  • The wire is supported inside the glass tube A with its upper pole at the same height as the magnetometer needle.

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  • When the length of the wire exceeds 400 diameters, or thereabouts, Ho may generally be considered as equivalent to H, 10.

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  • The effect of the ends of the wire is, as Ewing remarks, to shear the diagram in the horizontal direction through the angle which the sloping line makes with the vertical.

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  • If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.

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  • The sample may have the form of a closed ring, upon which are wound the induction coil and another coil for taking the magnetizing current; or it may consist of a long straight rod or wire which can be slipped into a magnetizing coil such as is used in magnetometric experiments, the induction coil being wound upon the middle of the wire.

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  • In the same circuit is also included the induction coil E, which is used for standardizing the galvanometer; this secondary coil is represented in the diagram by three turns of wire wound over a much longer primary coil.

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  • An experiment by Ewing showed that by the operation of stretching an annealed iron wire beyond the limits of elasticity the permeability under a magnetizing force of about 3 units was reduced by as much as 75%.

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  • The permeability of a soft iron wire, which was tapped while subjected to a very small magnetizing force, rose to the enormous value of about 80,000 (Magnetic Induction, § 85).

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  • A small coil of fine wire, connected in series with a ballistic galvanometer, is placed in the field, with its windings perpendicular to the lines of force, and then suddenly reversed or withdrawn from the field, the integral electromotive force being twice as great in the first case as in the second.

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  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.

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  • An oblong coil about an inch in length is suspended from each end by thin strips of rolled German silver wire, one of which is connected with a spiral spring for regulating the tension, the other being attached to a torsion-head.

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  • Upon the central neck was wound a coil consisting of one or two layers of very fine wire, which was connected with a ballistic galvanometer for measuring the induction in the iron; outside this coil, and separated from it by a small and accurately determined distance, a second coil was wound, serving to measure the induction in the iron, together with that in a small space surrounding it.

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  • Using an unannealed Swedish iron wire, he found that when H was gradually diminished from 0.04 to 0.00004 C.G.S.

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  • It is remarkable that the phenomena of magnetic viscosity are much more evident in a thick rod than in a thin wire, or even in a large bundle of thin wires.

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  • What actually happens when an iron wire is loaded with various weights is clearly shown in Fig.

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  • Knott on magnetic twist, which will be referred to later, led him to form the conclusion that in an iron wire carrying an electric current the magnetic elongation would be increased.

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  • Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

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  • Villari in 1868 that the magnetic susceptibility of an iron wire was increased by stretching when the magnetization was below a certain value, but diminished when that value was exceeded; this phenomenon has been termed by Lord Kelvin, who discovered it independently, the " Villari reversal," the value of the magnetization for which stretching by a given load produces no effect being known as the " Villari critical point " for that load.

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  • When the load on a hardened wire is gradually increased, the maximum value of I is found to correspond with a greater stress than when the load is gradually diminished, this being an effect of hysteresis.

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  • Analogous changes are observed in the residual magnetization which remains after the wire has been subjected to fields of different strength.

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  • Even under so " moderate " a load as 33 kilogrammes per square mm., the induced magnetization of a hard-drawn nickel wire in a field of 60 fell from 386 to 72 units, while the residual was reduced from about 280 to io.

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  • The wire is subject to two superposed magnetizations, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetizations is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist.

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  • Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists.

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  • Further, although iron lengthens in fields of moderate strength, it contracts in strong ones; and if the wire is stretched, contraction occurs with smaller magnetizing forces than if it is unstretched.

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  • Bidwell 2 accordingly found upon trial that the Wiedemann twist of an iron wire vanished when the magnetizing force reached a certain high value, and was reversed when that value was exceeded; he also found that the vanishing point was reached with lower values of the magnetizing force when the wire was stretched by a weight.

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  • Maxwell has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a current passing through it.

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  • If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.

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  • A wire magnetized longitudinally and circularly becomes twisted.

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  • Twisting a circularly magnetized wire produces longitudinal magnetization.

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  • C. Twisting a longitudinally magnetized wire produces circular magnetization.

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  • The pipes are assorted into sizes by passing them through graduated openings in a grilled wire frame, and those of good colour are bleached by the fumes of sulphur.

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  • Observed through this the structure of some wire gauze just disappeared at a distance from the eye equal to 17 in., the gauze containing 46 meshes to the inch.

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  • He constructed gratings up to 340 periods to the inch by straining fine wire over screws.

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  • Fresnel commenced his researches with an examination of the fringes, external and internal, which accompany the shadow of a narrow opaque strip, such as a wire.

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  • The have been identified by Helbig with small spirals of gold wire, such as are found in early Etruscan tombs lying near the head of the skeleton.

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  • Sinking pumps, designed for use in shafts in process of sinking, are suspended by wire ropes so as to be raised before blasting and promptly lowered again to resume pumping.

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  • Still, if the attacking side enjoyed an advantage in this respect, the possible landingplaces were few in number and were therefore well indicated, there had been ample time to protect them with earthworks and barbed wire, and in any disembarkation in face of resistance the tactical conditions favour the defence.

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  • The various varieties of rolled plate-glass are now produced for some purposes with a reinforcement of wire netting which is embedded in the mass of the glass.

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  • The wire gives the glass great advantages in the event of fracture from a blow or from fire, but owing to the difference in thermal expansion between wire and glass, there is a strong tendency for such " wired glass " to crack spontaneously.

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  • This term of course includes as special cases the qualities of "malleability" (capability of being flattened out under the hammer) and "ductility" (capability of being drawn into wire); but these two special qualities do not always go parallel to each other, for this reason amongst others - that ductility in a higher degree than malleability is determined by the tenacity of a metal.

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  • Pure iron, copper, silver and other metals are easily drawn into wire, or rolled into sheet, or flattened under the hammer.

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  • Drawing into Wire.

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  • To give an idea of what can be done in this way, it may be stated that gold can be beaten out to leaf of the thickness of - j g - mm.; and that platinum, by judicious work, can be drawn into wire 2?o o mm.

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  • Thus, for instance, chemically pure iron in the ingot has the specific gravity 7.844; when it is rolled out into thin sheet, the value falls to 7.6; when drawn into thin wire, to 7.75.

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  • Its hardware industries are important, and embrace iron rolling, the manufacture of fine wire, needles, springs and silver ornaments.

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  • The next step is to remove the harvested crop to the drying-shed; primed leaves are placed at once in shallow baskets or boxes, and when under cover are strung on string or on wire and hung up on laths in the barn.

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  • This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.

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  • Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.

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  • In the surface of the metal the workman cuts grooves wider at the base than at the top, and then hammers into them gold or silver wire.

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  • It is, in fact, velvet that has passed through all the usual stages of manufacture except the cutting of the thread along each wire and the withdrawal of the wires.

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  • Machinery, cement, cordage, wire ropes, tobacco, leather, &c. are manufactured.

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  • Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.

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  • It can therefore be employed, instead of that costly metal, in the construction of incandescent lamps where a wire has to be fused into the glass to establish electric connexion between the inside and the outside of the bulb.

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  • Among the manufactures are brass and copper work, wire for electrical uses, foundry and machine-shop products, locomotives, knit goods, tin cans and canned goods (especially vegetables).

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  • If the electrified tray is touched with the sealing-wax or ebonite rod, it will not be discharged, but if touched with a metal wire, the hand, or a damp thread, it is discharged at once.

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  • Then consider a thin annulus thin of the wire of width dx; the charge on it is equal to thin rod.

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  • But the charge is Q = 21rra, and therefore the capacity of the thin wire is given by C =1/2 log e llr (2).

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  • This formula is important in connexion with the capacity of electric cables, which consist of a cylindrical conductor (a wire) enclosed in a conducting sheath.

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  • Kohlrausch called attention to the close analogy between residual charge and the elastic recovery of strained bodies such as twisted wire or glass threads.

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  • It is also extremely ductile; a single grain may be drawn into a wire 500 ft.

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  • Gold is dissipated by sending a powerful charge of electricity through it when in the form of leaf or thin wire.

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  • Gold wire may be drawn of any quality, but it is usual to add 5 to 9 dwts.

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  • Graham showed that a wire of palladium alloyed with from 24 to 25 parts of gold does not exhibit the remarkable retraction which, in pure palladium, attends its loss of occluded hydrogen.

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  • Among its manufactures are foundry and machine-shop products, flour, silk, waggons, shoes, gloves, furniture, wire cloth and cigars.

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  • A loop of plati num wire passed under these tubes serves to suspend the vessel from the balance arm.

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  • The other arm is graduated in ten divisions and carries riders - bent pieces of wire of determined weights - and at its extremity a hook from FIG.

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  • The small interval between the adjacent limbs was then measured with a wire micrometer.

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  • Thin platinum wire was rendered incandescent by a voltaic current; a small incandescent electric lamp would now be found more satisfactory.

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  • Having selected the most suitable one he directs the axis of the finder to the estimated middle point between the comet and the star, turns the finder-micrometer in position angle until the images of comet and star lie symmetrically between the parallel position wires, and then turns the micrometer screw (which moves the distance-wires symmetrically from the centre in opposite directions) till one wire bisects the comet and the other the star.

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  • The disk 32 operates the wire gauze screens for equalizing the brightness of the two stars under observation.

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  • When heated in air the metal burns if in the form of thin wire, and is superficially oxidized if more compact.

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  • Modern surveying ships no longer make use of hempen lines with enormously heavy sinkers, such as were employed on the " Challenger," but they sound instead with steel piano wire not more than 310 to 215 of an inch in diameter and a detachable lead seldom weighing more than 70 lb.

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  • All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is perpendicular throughout its run.

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  • It is improbable, however, that the smooth and slender wire is much influenced by currents, and the best deep-sea soundings may be taken as accurate to within 5 fathoms.

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  • The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, with the amount of work to be done with one fixing of the machinery; where it is likely to be used for a considerable time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over friction rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to prevent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground.

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  • With proper precautions, however, wire guides are perfectly safe for use at the highest travelling speed.

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  • Flat ropes of steel or iron wire were and are still used to a great extent, but round ones are now generally preferred.

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  • In Belgium and the north of France flat ropes of aloe fibre (Manila hemp or plantain fibre) are in high repute, being considered preferable by many colliery managers to wire, in spite of their great weight.

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  • They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them.

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  • The use of steel wire for the construction of guns was one of Armstrong's early ideas.

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  • He perceived that to coil many turns of thin wire round an inner barrel was a logical extension of the large hooped method already mentioned, and in conjunction with I.

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  • In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.

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  • The principal manufactures are cotton goods, carpets and wire goods.

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  • The principle resembles that used in wire drawing.

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  • Schwabach is the chief seat of the needle manufacture in Bavaria; its other industries include gold and silver wire work, brewing and the making of soap and earthenware.

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  • In this case one terminal of the battery is connected to the earth, and the other terminal is connected through the galvanometer with the copper wire, the insulation of which it is desired to test.

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  • To prevent leakage over the surface of the insulating covering of the wire which projects above the surface of the water, it is necessary to employ a " guard wire P, which consists of a piece of fine copper wire, twisted round the extremity of the insulated wire and connected to the battery.

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  • This guard wire prevents any current which leaks over the surface of the insulator from passing through the galvanometer G, and the galvanometer indication is therefore only determined by the amount of current which passes through the insulator, or by its insulation-resistance.

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  • Another illustration is afforded by a long spiral of wire with coils, say 2 in.

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  • A small metal disk was attached to the centre of the membrane and connected to earth by a fine wire.

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  • The pipe was fixed in a horizontal position, and along the top wall ran a platinum wire wetted with sulphuric acid.

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  • When the wire was heated by an electric current a fine line of vapour descended from each drop. The pipe was closed at the centre by a membrane which prevented a through draught, yet permitted the vibrations, as it was at a node.

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  • Subject to a limitation which we shall examine later, the velocity of a longitudinal disturbance along a wire or rod depends only on the material of the rod, and not upon the cross-section.

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  • The velocity of propagation of a torsional disturbance along a wire of circular section may be found by the transfer of momentum method, remembering that we must now replace linear momentum by angular momentum.

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  • But at B there is no torsion, and no torsion couple of one part of the wire on the next.

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  • The mass of matter moving through A per second is pwa 2 U, where a is the radius of the wire and p is its density.

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  • The couple due to the twist of a wire of length 1 through 4 is G= 2nira 4 4/l, and we may put 0/l =d0/dx.

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  • For an iron wire Y is about 10 12 /4, so that for a frequency of 500 in a wire fixed at both ends a length about 5 metres is required.

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  • If the wire is stretched across a room and stroked in the middle with a damp cloth the fundamental is easily obtained, and the first harmonic can be brought out by stroking it at a quarter the length from one end.

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  • Substituting in (33) we get U 2 = n/p. (34) If we now keep the wire at rest the disturbance travels along it with velocity U= d (nip), and it depends on the rigidity and density of the wire and not upon its radius.

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  • The torsional vibrations of a wire are excited when it is bowed.

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  • If small paper rings are put on a monochord wire they rotate through these vibrations when the wire is bowed.

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  • Another form of sensitive jet is very easily made by putting a piece of fine wire gauze 2 or 3 in.

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  • The circuit of the electro-magnet is made and broken by the vibration of the fork in different ways - say, by a wire bridge attached to the lower prong which dips into and lifts out of two mercury cups.

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  • The first rush of the assailants carried them up to the wire and other obstacles, but they were for many hours unable to advance a step farther.

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  • Wire entanglements were disposed in repeated lines in front of the defences, but they were not of a strong type.

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  • In suspension bridges the principal members are in tension, and the introduction of iron link chains about the end of the 18th century, and later of wire ropes of still greater tenacity, permitted the construction of road bridges of this type with spans at that time impossible with any other system of construction.

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  • For erection a suspended platform was constructed on eight wire ropes, on which the chains were laid out and connected.

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  • Another wire rope with a travelling carriage took out the links.

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  • Each wire is taken separately across the river and its length adjusted.

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  • Wire cables were used in the erection, by which the members were lifted from barges and assembled, the operations being conducted from the side piers.

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  • Generally, in addition, wire cables are stretched across the span, from which lifting tackle is suspended.

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  • For stiffened suspension bridges with wire cables, if the dip is 310th of the span the limiting span is 2700 to 3600 ft., and if the dip is *th of the span, 3250 to 4250 ft., according to the factor of safety allowed.

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  • The principal industries are tilework, inlaying with silver wire, and the manufacture of thick-soled yellow slippers, much-esteemed flintlocks, and artistic "towels" used as cape and skirt by Moorish country girls.

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  • The rotation of the mercury is detected and measured by means of a small vane of platinum wire immersed in it, the shaft of this vane being connected by an endless screw with a counting mechanism.

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  • The armature carries on its shaft a commutator made of silver slips, and the current is fed into the armature by means of brushes of silver wire.

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  • In proximity to the upper side of the disk is placed a coil of wire having an iron core, which is a shunt coil, the ends of the coil being connected to the terminals of the supply mains.

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  • A common source of trouble is the short circuiting of the shunt coils owing to the shellaced cotton covering of the wire becoming moist.

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  • On account of their regular form they have been used, threaded on wire, for making ornamental baskets.

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  • Like other towns in this populous region, it is an important manufacturing centre, having coal-mines, iron; wire, glass, chemical and oil works, breweries, &c.

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  • Abandoning therefore all a priori theoretical assumption, Bashforth set to work to measure experimentally the velocity of shot and the resistance of the air by means of equidistant electric screens furnished with vertical threads or wire, and by a chronograph which measured the instants of time at which the screens were cut by a shot flying nearly horizontally.

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  • In simplest form it consists of a long, straight, fine, uniform wire stretched over a divided scale.

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  • The ends of this wire are connected to one or more secondary cells of constant electromotive force, a variable resistance being interposed so as to regulate the current flowing through the fine wire.

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  • To one end of this fine wire is attached one terminal of a sensitive galvanometer.

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  • Sliding contacts can be moved along the fine wire into any position.

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  • The slider is placed so as to touch the fine wire at division No.

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  • The resistance in circuit with the fine wire is then altered until the galvanometer shows no deflexion.

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  • We then know that the fall of potential down the 2000 divisions of the fine wire must be exactly 2 volts.

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  • One terminal of the galvanometer can then be shifted to the junction 6 7 g between any pair of consecutive coils and the slider shifted to any point on the potentiometer wire.

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  • In some cases the potentiometer wire is wholly replaced by a series of coils divided into small subdivisions.

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  • To prepare the cadmium amalgam, one part of pure cadmium is dissolved in six parts of pure mercury, and the product while warm and fluid is placed in one limb of the cell and warmed, to ensure perfect contact with the platinum wire.

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  • The term is generally applied to describe a particular form of electrodynamometer, consisting of a fixed coil of wire and an embracing or neighbouring coil of wire suspended so as to be movable.

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  • Both in the town and neighbourhood there are numerous foundries and works for iron, brass, steel and bronze goods, while other manufactures include wire, needles and pins, fish-hooks, machinery, umbrella-frames, thimbles, bits, furniture, chemicals, coffee-mills, and pinchbeck and britanniametal goods.

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  • The word is particularly used of the cord of a bow, and of the stretched cords of gut and wire upon a musical instrument, the vibration of which.

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  • The brass and bronze industries are carried on at Iserlohn and Altena, those of tin and Britannia metal at Ludenscheid; needles are made at Iserlohn and wire at Altena.

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  • This needle is suspended by a fine platinum silver wire, and its normal position is such that the aluminium paddle blades are just outside the quadrantal-shaped plates.

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  • This movement is resisted by the torsional elasticity of the suspending wire, and hence a fixed indicating needle attached to the movable system can be made to indicate directly on a scale, the difference of potential between the terminals of the instrument in volts.

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  • In other types of electrostatic instruments the movable system rotates round a horizontal axis or rests upon knife edges like a scale beam; in others again the movable system is suspended by a wire.

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  • In these instruments the potential difference between two points is measured by the electric current produced in a wire connecting to two points.

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  • In any case of potential difference measurement it is essential not to disturb the potential difference being measured; hence it follows that in electrokinetic voltmeters the wire connecting the two points of which the potential difference is to be measured must be of very high resistance.

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  • In that known as the Cardew voltmeter, a fine platinum-silver wire, having a resistance of about 300 ohms, is stretched in a tube or upon a frame contained in a tube.

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  • The fine wire is fixed to one end of the tube or frame by an insulated support and the other end is attached to a motionmultiplying gear.

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  • As the frame has the same linear expansion as the wire, external changes of the temperature will not affect their relative length, but if the fine wire is heated by the passage of an electric current, its expansion will move the indicating needle over the scale, the motion being multiplied by the gear.

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  • In the Hartmann and Braun form of hot-wire voltmeter, the fine wire is fixed between two supports, and the expansion produced when a current is passed through it causes the wire to sag down, the sag being multiplied by a gear and made to move an indicating needle over a scale.

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  • In this case, the actual working wire, being short, must be placed in series with an additional high resistance.

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  • Hot wire voltmeters, like electrostatic voltmeters, are suitable for use with alternating currents of any frequency as well as with continuous currents, since their indications depend upon the heating power of the current, which is proportional to the square of the current and therefore to the square of the difference of potential between the terminals.

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  • Electromagnetic voltmeters consist of a coil of fine wire connected to the terminals of the instrument, and the current produced in that wire by a difference of potential between the terminals creates a magnetic field proportional at any point to the strength of the current.

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  • The movable coil has attached to it an index needle moving over a scale, and a fixed coil of high-resistance wire is included in series with the movable coil between the terminals of the instrument.

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  • In this case a highresistance wire is connected between the points of which the potential difference is required, and from some known fraction of this resistance wires are brought to an electrostatic voltmeter, or to a movable coil electromagnetic voltmeter, according as the voltage to be measured is alternating or continuous.

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  • The high-resistance wire should, moreover, be one having a negligible change of resistance with temperature.

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  • Any form of electrokinetic voltmeter which involves the passage of a current through the wire necessitates the expenditure of energy to maintain this current and therefore involves cost of production.

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  • If the wire has a resistance of 300 ohms and is connected to two points differing in potential by 100 volts, the instrument passes a current of one-third of an ampere and takes up 33 watts in power.

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  • The weir is opened by joining the needles of each bay by a chain passed through the eyes at the top and a line of wire through the central rings, so that when released at the top by the tilting of the escape bar by the derrick, they float down as a raft, and are caught by a man in a boat, or, when the cur rent is strong, they are 'mopes ?o drawn to the bank by a rope attached to them previously to their release.

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  • Of these the "acoucryptophone" was one of the most elegant - a light box, shaped like an ancient lyre and suspended by a metallic wire from a piano in the room above.

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  • The kaleidophone, intended to present visibly the movements of a sonorous body, consisted of a vibrating wire or rod carrying a silvered bead reflecting a point of light, the motions of which, by persistence of the successive images on the retina, were thus represented in curves of light.

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  • The adjacent Veira or Wire has a population of 60.

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  • The upper part of this wire is filed flat on one side, for the stem of the hydrometer, with a mark at m, to which it sinks exactly in proof spirits.

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  • In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner, weights being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the weights in the scale.

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  • Most commonly it is used in the form of wire, with a small bend or loop at the end.

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  • It is convenient to place the liquid in a short tube., a platinum wire sealed in at the bottom to convey the current reaching to the level of the open end.

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  • If a short length of platinum wire be inserted vertically into a lighted Bunsen burner the luminous line may be used as a slit and viewed directly through a prism.

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  • The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude, of the place of observation are given.

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  • Ice, cigars, hats, boots and shoes are manufactured, but the characteristic local industry is the production of "Panama chains," ornaments made of thin gold wire.

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  • Faraday was not there at the time, but coming in afterwards he heard the conversation on the expected rotation of the wire.

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  • This led him in the beginning of September to discover the method of producing the continuous rotation of the wire round the magnet, and of the magnet round the wire.

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  • He did not succeed in making the wire or the magnet revolve on its own axis.

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  • Ampere, Wollaston and others, the realization of the continuous rotation of the wire and the magnet round each other was a scientific puzzle requiring no mean ingenuity for its original solution.

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  • For on the one hand the electric current always forms a closed circuit, and on the other the two poles of the magnet have equal but opposite properties, and are inseparably connected, so that whatever tendency there is for one pole to circulate round the current in one direction is opposed by the equal tendency of the other pole to go round the other way, and thus the one pole can neither drag the other round and round the wire nor yet leave it behind.

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  • In December 1824 he had attempted to obtain an electric current by means of a magnet, and on three occasions he had made elaborate but unsuccessful attempts to produce a current in one wire by means of a current in another wire or by a magnet.

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  • Among the products are packed meats, flour, beer, trunks, crackers, candy, paint, ice, paste, cigars, clothing, shoes, mattresses, woven wire beds, furniture and overalls; and there are foundries, iron rolling mills and tanneries.

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  • The other six are connected to each other and to the lowest one by wire cables and pulleys in such a way that when the cable which connects the two lowest tubes is wound in by means of a winch, each of the tubes except the fixed one will rise within the next one through the same distance.

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  • In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.

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  • With the increasing price of copper, it is coming into vogue as an electrical conductor for uncovered mains; it is found that an aluminium wire 0.126 in.

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  • When the price of aluminium is less than double the price of copper aluminium is cheaper than copper per unit of electric current conveyed; but when insulation is necessary, the smaller size of the copper wire renders it more economical.

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  • The Fox river furnishes about 10,000 h.p., which is largely utilized for the manufacture of paper (of which Appleton is one of the largest producers in the United States), wood-pulp, sulphite fibre, machinery, wire screens, woollen goods, knit goods, furniture, dyes and flour.

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  • Gardens of large extent should be encircled by an outer boundary, which is often formed by a sunk wall or ha-ha surrounded by an invisible wire fence to exclude ground game, or consists of a hedge with low wire fence on its inner side.

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  • Standards from which galvanized wire is tightly strained from one end to the other are preferable and very convenient.

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  • The process of rooting these runners should be facilitated by fixing them close down to the soil, which is done by small wooden hooked pegs or by stones; hair-pins, short lengths of bent wire, &c., may also be used.

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  • In other cases they are planted in open baskets of wood or wire, using the porous peat and sphagnum compost.

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  • By crossing the tying material between the wire and the wood, however, and so preventing.

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  • When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall.

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  • It must be remembered that nails spoil a wall sooner or later, whereas a wire trellis is not only much neater, but enables the gardener to tie his trees up much more quickly.

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  • In training greenhouse plants the young branches should be drawn outwards by means of ties fastened to a string or wire FIG.

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  • Next let the balls A' and B' be connected together for a moment by a wire N called a neutralizing conductor which is subsequently removed.

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  • The piece K is parallel to G H, and both of them are furnished at their ends with small pieces of flexible wire that they may touch the pins E, F in certain points of their revolution.

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  • The wire which connects two armature plates for a moment is the neutralizing conductor.

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  • The rotating balls are the carriers, and are connected together for a moment by a wire when in a position to be acted upon inductively by the field plates, thus acquiring charges of opposite sign.

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  • The studs on the armature plate were charged inductively by being connected for a moment by a neutralizing wire as they passed in front of the field plates, and then gave up their charges partly to renew the field charges and partly to collecting combs connected to discharge balls.

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  • Each upright bearing carrying the shafts of the revolving disks also carries a neutralizing conductor or wire ending in a little brush of gilt thread.

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  • The moment, however, a pair of studs on the front plate are charged, they act as field plates to studs on the back plate which are passing at the moment, provided these last are connected by the back neutralizing wire.

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  • The park was presented in 1862 by the widow of Joseph Locke, M.P. The manufacture of iron and steel, and the weaving of linen and other cloth, are the two principal industries; but there are also bleachfields, printfields, dyeworks, sawmills, cornmills and malt-houses; and the manufacture of glass, needles and wire is carried on.

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  • For one kind of meat we could substitute another; wool could be replaced by cotton, silk or fur; were our common silicate glass gone, we could probably perfect and cheapen some other of the transparent solids; but even if the earth could be made to yield any substitute for the forty or fifty million tons of iron which we use each year for rails, wire, machinery, and structural purposes of many kinds, we could not replace either the steel of our cutting tools or the iron of our magnets, the basis of all commercial electricity.

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  • Hence the weakness and the dark-grey fracture of this iron, and hence, by brushing this fracture with a wire brush and so detaching these loosely clinging flakes of graphite, the colour can be changed nearly to the very light-grey of pure iron.

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  • In passing, it may be noted that the cost of the ore itself forms a relatively small part of the cost even of the cruder forms of steel, hardly a quarter of the cost of such simple products as rails, and an insignificant part of the cost of many most important finished objects, such as magnets, cutting tools, springs and wire, for which iron is almost indispensable.

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  • In the Bessemer process, and indeed in most high-temperature processes, to operate on a large scale has, in addition to the usual economies which it offers in other industries, a special one, arising from the fact that from a large hot furnace or hot mass in general a very much smaller proportion of its heat dissipates through radiation and like causes than from a smaller body, just as a thin red-hot wire cools in the air much faster than a thick bar equally hot.

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  • The rolls thus both draw the piece forward like the pincers of a wire die, and themselves are a die which like a river ever renews or rather maintains its fixed shape and position, though its particles themselves are moving constantly forward with " the piece " which is passing between them.

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  • Pieces of very small cross section, like wire, are more conveniently made by drawing through a die than by rolling, essentially because a single draft reduces the cross section of a wire much more than a single pass between rolls can.

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  • This in turn is because the direct pull of the pincers on the protruding end of the wire is much stronger than the forward-drawing pull due to the friction of the cold rolls on the wire, which is necessarily cold because of its small section.

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  • Among Fairfield's manufactures are chemicals, wire and rubber goods.

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  • A recent application of the diamond is for wire drawing; a hole tapering towards the centre is drilled through a diamond, and the metal is drawn through this.

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  • No other tool is so endurable, or gives such uniform thickness of wire.

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  • Both methods depend on the observation of the steady distribution of temperature in a bar or wire heated by an electric current.

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  • It has manufactures of wire, leaden pipes and other metal goods, cement, sugar, &c.

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  • They are then spread out thinly on trays or racks made of bamboo, canvas or wire netting, under cover, for some 18 or 30 hours (according to the temporary weather conditions) to wither, after which they are in a soft, flaccid condition ready for rolling.

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  • Various applications of the same system are in use, but the most popular is to place the leaves on trays of wire network in a high temperature for about twenty minutes, after which they are firm and crisp. Up to this point of the manufacture the leaf has been in the stalk, the leaves and bud being unseparated.

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  • In its most sensitive form r is a steel wire, the upper end of which passes freely through a small hole in a metal plate.

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  • Attached to the pendulum is a coil of fine wire which moves in the field of a pair of magnets.

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  • Thin wire was hammered out, but there is no ancient instance of drawn wire.

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  • Large tiles, a foot in length, were glazed completely all over, and used to line the walls of rooms; they were retained in place by deep dovetails and ties of copper wire.

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  • Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.

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  • In miscellaneous metal trades, embracing tinplate goods, wire workers, makers of stoves, grates, ranges and fire-arms, makers of bolts, nuts, rivets, screws and staples, and those occupied in several subsidiary trades, the number of operatives in 1901 amounted to 13,209.

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  • These in Dortmund more particularly embrace steel railway rails, mining plant, wire ropes, machinery, safes and sewing machines.

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  • In 1905 the iron and steel product had increased in value since 1900 44.9%, to $ 8 7,35 2, 7 61; the foundry and machine shop products 25.2%, to $79,9 61, 4 82; and the wire product showed even greater increase, largely because of a difference of classification in the two censuses, the value in 1905 being $14,099,566, as against $2,879,188 in 1900, showing an increase of nearly 390%.

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  • There are also iron bar, hoop and wire works, tool, soap, glass and chemical works, foundries and cotton mills.

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  • Other manufactures are railway cars, casks, cooperage, saw and planing mill products, furniture, wooden ware, windmills, gas-engines, and mattresses and wire beds.

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  • The durability and the extraordinary ductility and pliancy of gold, its power of being subdivided, drawn out or flattened into wire or leaf of almost infinite fineness, have led to its being used for works where great minuteness and delicacy of execution were required; while its beauty and rarity have, for the most part, limited its use to objects of adornment and luxury, as distinct from those of utility.

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  • A pattern was incised with a graver in iron or steel, and then gold wire was beaten into the sunk lines, the whole surface being then smoothed and polished.

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  • Objects that do not require annealing are produced by dozens per minute, and all the movements of feeding and stamping and removal are often automatic. The ductility of metals and alloys is utilized in wire and tube-drawing through dies on long benches.

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  • The quick-lime is then slaked with the requisite quantity of water; the product is passed through a fine-meshed wire sieve and is spread in layers of 2 or 3 in.

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  • Excluding the Indo European telegraph wire, the whole telegraph system of India forms an imperial charge, administered through a director-general.

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  • Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.

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  • But a floor, however heavy, suspended by three wire ropes and properly balanced over large, well-mounted pulleys, requires an amount of energy to work it which does not exceed that required to operate a platform of moderate dimensions, and there is a freedom, a safety and a facility of working with a complete floor which no partial platform can give.

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  • The body to be tested is placed in a special scale-pan, suspended by a fine wire from the arm of a balance inside an enclosure which can be filled with steam at atmospheric pressure.

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  • The Calorimeter Was Suspended By A Steel Wire, The Torsion Of Which Made The Equilibrium Stable.

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  • The Frictional Generation Of Heat In A Metallic Wire Conveying A Current Can Be Measured In Various Ways, Which Correspond To Slightly Different Methods.

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  • The Resistance R Could Be Deduced From A Knowledge Of The Temperature Of The Calorimeter And The Coefficient Of The Wire.

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  • But In Order To Obtain Trustworthy Results By This Method He Found It Necessary To Employ Very Rapid Stirring (2000 Revolutions Per Minute), And To Insulate The Wire Very Carefully From The Liquid To Prevent Leakage Of The Current.

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  • He Also Made A Special Experiment To Find How Much The Temperature Of The Wire Exceeded That Of The Liquid Under The Conditions Of The Experiment.

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  • The Wire Had A Length Of 760 Cms., And The Potential Difference On Its Terminals Was Nearly 30 Volts.

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  • In The Case Of Water Or Other Liquids It Is Necessary To Employ A Platinum Wire Stretched Along The Tube As Heating Conductor.

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  • The latter are formed of two spirals of wire, sometimes four such spirals being used, whilst there were also brooches in animal forms, one of the latter being found with a bronze sword.

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  • The variation of the horizontal force is obtained by the motion of a magnet which is carried either by a bifilar suspension or by a fairly stiff metal wire or quartz fibre.

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  • The town is flourishing and rapidly increasing, and possesses very extensive wire factories (in connexion with which there are puddling and rolling works), machine works, and manufactories of gloves, baskets, leather, starch, chemicals, varnish, oil and beer.

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  • The wire terminated in a plate or knob outside the vessel.

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  • A further improvement consisted in passing the metal wire to which the gold leaves were attached through a glass tube much wider than the rod, the latter being fixed concentrically in the glass tube by means of solid shellac melted and run in.

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  • The condition is that the tension must not exceed the weight of a certain length A of the wire.

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  • Finally, we may refer to the catenary of uniform strength, where the cross-section of the wire (or cable) is supposed to vary as the tension.

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  • The oouple may be due to the earths magnetism, or to the torsion of a suspending wire, or to a bifilar suspension.

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  • One-third to be deducted off repairs to and renewal of woodwork of hull, masts and spars, furniture, upholstery, crockery, metal and glassware, also sails, rigging, ropes, sheets and hawsers (other than wire and chain), awnings, covers and painting.

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  • One-sixth to be deducted off wire rigging, wire ropes and wire hawsers, chain cables and chains, donkey engines, steam winches and connexions, steam cranes and connexions; other repairs in full.

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  • The apparatus he employed was devised by the Rev. John Michell, though he had the most important parts reconstructed to his own designs; it depended on measuring the attraction exercised on a horizontal bar, suspended by a vertical wire and bearing a small lead ball at each end, by two large masses of lead.

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  • A very sharp pointed wire was fixed at the top of the upright stick of the cross, so as to rise a foot or more above the wood.

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  • We may likewise conclude that this conflict performs circles round the wire, for without this condition it seems impossible that one part of the wire when placed below the magnetic needle should drive its pole to the east, and when placed above it, to the west."

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  • Oersted's important discovery was the fact that when a wire joining the end plates of a voltaic pile is held near a pivoted magnet or compass needle, the latter is deflected and places itself more or less transversely to the wire, the direction depending upon whether the wire is above or below the needle, and on the manner in which the copper or zinc ends of the pile are connected to it.

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  • In 1821 Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who was destined later on to do so much for the science of electricity, discovered electromagnetic rotation, having succeeded in causing a wire conveying a voltaic current to rotate continuously round the pole of a permanent magnet.

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  • Joseph Henry, in the United States, first suggested the construction of what were then called intensity electromagnets, by winding upon a horseshoe-shaped piece of soft iron many superimposed windings of copper wire, insulated by covering it with silk or cotton, and then sending through the coils the current from a voltaic battery.

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  • This, however, was overcome by sending the current out at the centre of the magnet by means of a short length of wire dipping into an annular groove containing mercury.

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  • On that date he had provided himself with an iron ring, over which he had wound two coils of insulated copper wire.

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  • Amongst the memorable achievements of the ten days which Faraday devoted to this investigation was the discovery that a current could be induced in a conducting wire simply by moving it in the neighbourhood of a magnet.

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  • The phenomena connected with the propagation of electric signals by underground insulated wires had already engaged the attention of Faraday in 1854, who pointed out the Leyden-jar-like action of an insulated subterranean wire.

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  • Abandoning the long and somewhat heavy magnetic needles that had been used up to that date in galvanometers, he attached to the back of a very small mirror made of microscopic glass a fragment of magnetized watch-spring, and suspended the mirror and needle by means of a cocoon fibre in the centre of a coil of insulated wire.

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