"I wish we had some of those loose wings," he said.
Words are the mind's wings, are they not?
Flightless, wings transformed into rowing paddles.
His long wings beat the air as he rose, and it took him a short two minutes to soar over the castle.
The chief characteristic of the Diptera is expressed in the name of the Order, since, with the exception of certain aberrant and apterous forms, flies possess but a single pair of membranous wings, which are attached to the meso-thorax.
Zamon's wings turned pink, and she laughed.
Before this crowned Gargoyle had recovered himself Zeb had wound a strap several times around its body, confining its wings and arms so that it could not move.
Seen in front, its white face, striped with black, and broad black gorget attract attention as it sits, often motionless, on the rocks; while in flight the white of the lower part of the back and white band across the wings are no less conspicuous even at a distance.
A blur of wings and darkness caught his attention.
The wings are well developed for flight, and there is a tendency in the group, especially among the males, towards an excessive development of the mandibles or the presence of enormous, horn-like processes on the head or pronotum.
Embarrassed by her words and the tears streaming down her face, she ran past him and up the stairs leading to the second floor, issuing a cry of frustration when she realized she didn't know which of the three wings led to her room.
A hawk made a wide swing across the grassland and then suddenly dived, jerking up at the last second, its great wings straining as it pumped back into the air with added weight.
The wings in Culex have not the same dappled appearance.
Then, with the Wizard's help, he tried to fasten some of the wings to the old cab-horse.
The wings of Coleoptera (including the elytra) are described and discussed by F.
As they had no wings the strangers could not fly away, and if they jumped down from such a height they would surely be killed.
If the Gargoyles can unhook the wings then the power to fly lies in the wings themselves, and not in the wooden bodies of the people who wear them.
So, if we had the wings, and could escape the Gargoyles, we might fly to that rock and be saved.
Eureka quickly followed him, and soon they were all standing together upon the platform, with eight of the much prized wooden wings beside them.
However, the Wizard went once more to his satchel--which seemed to contain a surprising variety of odds and ends--and brought out a spool of strong wire, by means of which they managed to fasten four of the wings to Jim's harness, two near his head and two near his tail.
Her thoughts were interrupted by a cacophony of squawks and wings beating against the chicken coop walls.
The males are very small, free-flying insects with the prothorax, mesothorax and elytra greatly reduced, the latter appearing as little, twisted strips, while the metathorax is relatively large, with its wings broad and capable of longitudinal folding.
The wings in nearly all species have a dappled or speckled appearance, owing to the occurrence of blotches on the front margin and to the arrangement of the scales covering the veins in alternating light and dark patches (Austen).
Beating his wings so hard they hurt, he rose into the sky and soared around the small island, finally spotting three lone figures in small valley not too far from the Sanctuary.
DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided.
His wings are as long as my arm, and his bill is as long as my foot.
The Trigla polyommata, or flying garnet, is a greater beauty, with its body of crimson and silver, and its large pectoral fins, spread like wings, of a rich green, bordered with purple, and relieved by a black and white spot.
The true Tapaculo (P. albicollis) has a general resemblance in plumage to the females of some of the smaller Shrikes (Lanius), and to a cursory observer its skin might pass for that of one; but its shortened wings and powerful feet would on closer inspection at once reveal the difference.
A seraph with wings extended flew towards him from the horizon and inundated him with pleasure unutterable.
In the terrestrial type a pair of well-developed wings traverse the length of the pitcher; in the tubular or funnelshaped form the wings are narrow or ridge-like.
The leaf consists of a central midrib, several cells thick, and two wings, one cell thick.
It is absolutely certain that the wings of the Ratitae bear the strongest testimony that they are the descendants of typical flying birds.
The only really aberrant modifications of the wing-muscles are found in the Ratitae, where they are, however, all easily explained by reduction, and in the penguins, where the wings are greatly specialized into blades for rowing with screw-like motions.
New Zealand has also yielded many flightless birds, notably the numerous species and genera of Dinornithidae, some of which survived into the 19th century; Pseudapteryx allied to the Kiwi; Cnemiornis, a big, flightless goose; Aptornis and Notornis, flightless rails; and Harpagornis, a truly gigantic bird of prey with tremendous wings and talons.
On this theory the yellowbird or NorthAmerican "goldfinch," C. tristis, would seem, with its immediate allies, to rank among the highest forms of the group, and the pinegoldfinch, C. pinus, of the same country, to be one of the lowest the cock of the former being generally of a bright yellow hue, with black crown, tail and wings - the last conspicuously barred with white, while neither hens nor young exhibit any striations.
ANT-LION, the name given to neuropterous insects of the family Myrmeleonidae, with relatively short and apically clubbed antennae and four large densely reticulated wings in which the apical veins enclose regular oblong spaces.
KoXEOS, a sheath, and 7rTEpa, wings) was first used by Aristotle, who noticed the firm protective sheaths, serving as coverings for the hind-wings which alone are used for flight, without recognizing their correspondence with the fore-wings of other insects.
2d, 3 c) is always "free," the legs, wings and other appendages not being 1 Instar is a convenient term suggested by D.
Lameere's classification is founded on the number of abdominal sterna, the nervuration of the wings, the number of malpighian tubules (whether four or six) and other structural characters.
The Trichopterygidae, with their delicate narrow fringed wings, are the smallest of all beetles, while the Platypsyllidae consist of only a single species of curious form found on the beaver.
Sharp (1898), the marked divergence among the Hexapoda, as regards life-history, is between insects whose wings develop outside the cuticle (Exopterygota) and those whose wings develop inside the cuticle (Endopterygota), becoming visible only when the casting of the last larval cuticle reveals the pupa.
The auditorium is in remarkable preservation, almost every seat being still in situ, except a few where the supporting walls have given way on the wings.
Bell Pettigrew first satisfactorily analysed those movements, and reproduced them by the aid of artificial wings.
White-gray fur covered a body with moth-eaten wings, a hideous face and yellowed fangs.
She mentally envisioned his wings pink again.
Its colors rippled and changed before the flower bent and delicate wings spread apart, revealing a creature that was surely a fairy.
He beat the air mercilessly with his wings, rising high above the city and coasting on cold wind currents until he reached the ocean.
Wings, short fur, fangs the size of her forearm … she moved farther into the bathroom, lest she draw his attention.
The death dealer emerged from the hall running between the two wings, the trembling form of Lankha held under one arm like a bag of cement.
Her heart beat like a hummingbird.s wings as she took in the one-room cabin.
David Dean felt a momentary twinge of the here-we-go-agains that floated by on the wings of his wife's question.
There were no heavily veiled figures lurking in the wings of the church.
The ducks flapped their wings and splashed across the pond, finally becoming airborne.
Her plumage, with exception of the wings and tail, which are of a dull red, is light-olive above and brownish-yellow beneath.
In such a state of despair and destitution there is no hope for spiritualism, save in God; and Clauberg, Geulincx and Malebranche all take refuge under the shadow of his wings to escape the tyranny of extended matter.
The lid is especially attractive to insects from its bright colour and honey secretion; three wings lead up to the mouth of the pitcher, on the inside of which a row of sharp spines points downwards, and below this a circular ridge (r, fig.
Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.
The abdomen under the wings of the butterfly still represents the larva.
The phÅ“be had already come once more and looked in at my door and window, to see if my house was cavern-like enough for her, sustaining herself on humming wings with clinched talons, as if she held by the air, while she surveyed the premises.
The distant beat of a helicopter's wings drew closer as they raced away from the mountains.
The Ully-demon launched towards him. The tree snatched Toby and lifted him to safety, and Toby dangled far enough over Ully's head that the demon couldn't reach him. As he watched, the Ully-demon transformed into its natural form, a creature of wings, talons, and teeth longer than Toby's fingers.
He has given you wings with which to fly through the air.
The manor stretched into three long wings.
Toby whispered, clawing at the tree as the demon shook out his wings.
Seeds are carried with more facility when provided with plumes or wings.
The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.
The cock has a fine yellow bill and a head bearing a rounded crest of filamentous feathers; lanceolate scapulars overhang the wings, and from the rump spring the long flowing plumes which are so characteristic of the species, and were so highly prized by the natives before the Spanish conquest that no one was allowed to kill the bird when taken, but only to divest it of its feathers, which were to be worn by the chiefs alone.
The insects of this order have mandibles adapted for biting, and two pairs of membranous wings are usually present; the first abdominal segment (propodeum) becomes closely associated with the fore-body (thorax), of which it appears to form a part.
1, 1, 3, a) often cast their wings (fig.
3,b) after the nuptial flight; in a few species the females, and in still fewer the males, never develop wings.
a, Female; b, female after loss of wings; c, male; d, worker; e, larva; g, pupa (magnified four times); f, head of larva more highly magnified.
The Capitol (begun in 1785 and completed in 1792 - the wings were added in 1906) was designed from a model and plans of the Maison Carree, at Nimes, supplied by Thomas Jefferson, while he was minister to France.
Willughby, Ray and others in the late 17th century to include the active larvae of beetles, as well as bugs, lice, fleas and other insects with undeveloped wings.
The thorax is composed of three segments; each bears a pair of jointed legs, and in the vast majority of insects the two hindmost bear each a pair of wings.
And the wings, though not always present, are highly characteristic of the Hexapoda, since no other group of the Arthropoda has acquired the power of flight.
The wings of insects are, in all cases, developed after hatching, the younger stages being wingless, and often unlike the parent in other respects.
In such cases the development of wings and the attainment of the adult form depend upon a more or less profound transformation or metamorphosis.
Two pairs of wings are present in the vast majority of insects, borne respectively on the mesothorax and metathorax.
The long axis of the wings, when at rest, lies parallel to the body axis.
In addition to the wings there are smaller dorsal outgrowths of the thorax in many insects.
The legs, wings and other organs of the trunk receive their nerves from the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, and the fusion of several pairs of these ganglia may be regarded as corresponding to a centralization of individuality.
Though the T hx, thoracic segments bear the wings, no trace of these appendages exists till the close of the embryonic life, 8 `' nor even, in many cases, till much later.
20) and earwigs, for example - when young closely resemble their parents, except for the absence of wings.
21, d) is revealed, exhibiting the wings and other imaginal structures, which have been developed unseen beneath the cuticle of the larva.
The nymph of a thrips-insect (Thysanoptera) is sluggish, its legs and wings being sheathed by a delicate membrane, while the nymph of the male scaleinsect rests enclosed beneath a waxy covering.
In the metabolic Hexapoda the resting pupal instar shows externally the wings and other characteristic imaginal organs which have been gradually elaborated beneath the larval cuticle.
But in none of these latter cases have the wings to be changed from a position inside the body to become external and actively functional organs.
The difference between the nymph or false pupa and the true pupa is that in the latter a whole stage is devoted to the perfecting of the wings and body-wall after the wings have become external organs; the stage is one in which no food is or can be taken, however prolonged may be its existence.
But even at present we can correctly state that the true pupa is invariably connected with the transference of the wings from the interior to the exterior of the body.
It cannot but suggest itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed inwards instead of outwards.
We may remark that fleas possess no wings, but are understood to possess a true pupa.
His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.
The characters of the wings are doubtless important as indications of relationship, but the nature of the jaws and the course of the life-history must be considered of greater value.
Hexapoda mostly with wings, the wingless forms clearly degraded.
When wings are present, the fore-wings are small firm elytra, beneath which the delicate hind-wings are complexly folded.
Wings usually developed; the fore-wings much larger than the hind-wings.
Wings of both pairs closely alike; firm and glassy in texture.
Both pairs of wings similar, narrow and fringed.
Wings usually present.
Hexapoda mostly with wings; the wingless forms clearly degraded or modified.
Membranous, net-veined wings, those of the two pairs closely alike.
Two pairs of similar, membranous wings, with predominantly longitudinal neuration.
Two pairs of membranous, hair-covered wings, with predominantly longitudinal neuration.
Wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, covered with flattened scales.
Wings absent or vestigial.
Wings membranous, fore-wings larger than hind-wings.
The Devonian rocks of Canada (New Brunswick) have yielded several fossils which are undoubtedly wings of Hexapods.
Of special interest are cockroachlike forms, with two pairs of similar membranous wings and a long ovipositor, and gigantic insects allied to the Odonata, that measured 2 ft.
across the outspread wings.
The post-embryonic growth of Hexapods with or without metamorphosis is accompanied in most cases by the acquisition of wings.
On the other hand, it has been argued that the presence of wings in a vast majority of the Hexapoda suggests their presence in the ancestors of the whole class.
It is most unlikely that wings have been acquired independently by various orders of Hexapoda, and if we regard the Thysanura as the slightly modified representatives of a primitively wingless stock, we must postulate the acquisition of wings by some early offshoot of that stock, an offshoot whence the whole group of the Pterygota took its rise.
How wings were acquired by these primitive Pterygota must remain for the present a subject for speculation.
Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
They are not, therefore, like the wings of birds, modified from some pre-existing structures (the fore-limbs) common to their phylum; they are new and peculiar structures.
27) led C. Gegenbaur to the brilliant suggestion that wings might be regarded as specialized and transformed gills.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
It is now, in fact, generally admitted that metamorphosis has been acquired comparatively recently, and Scudder in his review of the earliest fossil insects states that " their metamorphoses were simple and incomplete, the young leaving the egg with the form of the parent, but without wings, the assumption of which required no quiescent stage before maturity."
It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect).
The first hypothesis is not negatived by direct evidence, for we do not actually know the ontogeny of any of the Palaeozoic insects; it is, however, rendered highly improbable by the modern views as to the nature and origin of wings in insects, and by the fact that the Endopterygota include none of the lower existing forms of insects.
the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.
It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of growth are directly opposed.
Now there are many forms of Exopterygota in which the creatures are almost or quite destitute of wings.
The wingless forms in question are always allied to winged forms, and there is every reason to believe that they have been really derived from winged forms. There are also insects (fleas, &c.) in which metamorphosis of a " complete " character exists, though the insects never develop wings.
Although we cannot yet define the conditions under which exopterygotous wings are suppressed or unusually developed, yet we know that such fluctuations occur.
There are, in fact, existing forms of Exopterygota that are usually wingless, and that nevertheless appear in certain seasons or localities with wings.
We are therefore entitled to assume that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and, speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet sometimes become perfectly developed.
But it may perhaps be considered improbable that organs like the wings, having once been lost, should have been reacquired on the large scale suggested by the theory just put forward.
The sub-imago of the Ephemeroptera suggests that a moult, after the wings had become functional, was at one time general among the Hexapoda, and that the resting nymph of the Thysanoptera or the pupa of the Endopterygota represents a formerly active stage in the life-history.
But the vestigial jaws, numerous Malpighian tubes, and specialized wings of may-flies forbid us to consider the order as on the whole primitive.
So the Dermaptera, which retain distinct maxillulae and have no ectodermal genital ducts, have either specialized or aborted wings and a large number of Malpighian tubes.
The Corrodentia retain vestigial maxillulae and two pairs of Malpighian tubes, but the wings are somewhat specialized in the Copeognatha and absent in the degraded and parasitic Mallophaga.
Thorax, Legs and Wings.
The Swedes joyfully accepted the chances of battle and, advancing with irresistible élan, were, at first, successful on both wings.
pp. 403-408), to which were assigned as other characters vertebrae of a saddle-shape and not biconcave, a keelless sternum, and wings consisting only of the humerus.
Hesperornis too, with its keelless sternum, had aborted wings but strong legs and feet adapted for swimming, while Ichthyornis had a keeled sternum and powerful wings, but diminutive legs and feet.
a main building with wings; the large amount of window space; the comparative flatness of the façades; the employment of a cornice to each storey; the effect of light and shade given by the balconies; and in churches by the circular pediments on the facades.
The design of the former is a trellis crossing the ceiling diagonally; in each of the lacunae is carved a cherubim with eight wings; the figures and the trellis are gilded; the ground is a rich ultramarine.
In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.
of wings, "a winged creature," and in the plural, b.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
The central system has two wings, one approaching the N.
Passing near Mount Caucasus, they heard the groans of Prometheus and the flapping of the wings of the eagle which gnawed his liver.
On the 16th Berthier went on to Augsburg, where he learnt that Lefebvre's advanced troops had been driven out of Landshut, thus opening a great gap seventy-six miles wide between the two wings of the French army.
Davout, however, had left a garrison of 1800 men in Regensburg, who delayed the junction of the Austrian wings until the 10th inst., and on the same day the emperor, having now reunited his whole right wing and centre, overwhelmed the covering detachments facing him in a long series of disconnected engagements lasting forty-eight hours, and the archduke now found himself in danger of being forced back into the Danube.
They consist of a long rectangular building, with a proscenium or column front which almost forms a tangent to the circle of the orchestra; at the middle and at either end of this proscenium are doors leading into the orchestra, those at the end set in projecting wings; the top of the proscenium is approached by a ramp, of which the lower part is still preserved, running parallel to the parodi, but sloping up as they slope down.
The wings are carried erect: the anterior pair large, with numerous longitudinal nervures, and usually abundant transverse reticulation; the posterior pair very much smaller, often lanceolate, and frequently wanting absolutely.
Immediately adjoining it and connected with it by two wings is the exchange.
The god of Atha was a form of Horus (Apollo) as the sun-god; his most characteristic representation is as the disk of the sun with outspread wings, so often seen over the doors of shrines, at the top of stelae, &c. In the temple, where he is often figured as a falconheaded man, he is associated with Hathor of Dendera and the child Harsemteus.
across its expanded wings.
Before the junction of the two allied wings was complete Sir George White attempted by a general attack to break up their line.
The Austrian cavalry, on weak and emaciated horses, could not gallop at speed up the heavy slopes (2 1 ?), and the artillery of both Prussian wings practically broke every attempt of the infantry to form for attack.
The happiest specimens of this glass almost rival the wings of butterflies in the brilliancy of their iridescent colours.
Some of the last-named are represented with such truth of colouring and delicacy of detail that even the separate feathers of the wings and tail are well distinguished, although, as in an example in the British Museum, a human-headed hawk, the piece which contains the figure may not exceed 4 in.
On tall, roomy, cylindrical glasses they painted portraits of the emperor and electors of Germany, or the imperial eagle bearing on its wings the arms of the states composing the empire.
In his hand he holds the crest of Lagash and its god - a lion-headed eagle with outstretched wings, supported by two lions which are set heraldically back to back.
Adapa while fishing had broken the wings of the south wind, and was accordingly summoned before the tribunal of Anu in heaven.
Its appearance is sufficiently striking - the head and lower parts, except a pectoral band, white, the former adorned with an erectile crest, the upper parts dark grey banded with black, the wings dusky, and the tail barred; but the huge bill and powerful scutellated legs most of all impress the beholder.
EARWIG, an insect belonging to the Forficulidae, a family usually referred to the Orthoptera, but sometimes regarded as typifying a special order, to which the names Dermaptera, Dermatoptera and Euplexoptera have been given, in allusion to certain peculiarities in the structure of the wings in the species that possess them.
The length and armature of the pincers and the presence or absence of wings are perhaps the most important features used by systematists in distinguishing the various kinds.
Except for the absence of wings, the young are miniature models of the adult.
However that may be, they are known to be used in the folding of the wings; and their importance as weapons of defence is attested by the precision and effect with which they are wielded against assailants like ants.
(2) The presence of variously formed scales on the body and its appendages: the head is clothed with scales, the thorax with hairs or scales, and the abdomen with either hairs or scales, or both; the legs and veins of the wings are always covered with scales, and the palpi are often (as in some Anophelinae) conspicuously scaly.
The wings exhibit six longitudinal veins (seven in Heptaphlebomyia), two of which are characteristically forked.
In dividing the Culicidae into genera reliance is placed chiefly upon characters derived from the scales on the three divisions of the body and on the wings.
The old genus Anopheles (characterized by the palpi being long in both sexes) is now divided into a number of genera according to the character and shape of the scales on the different regions of the body and on the wings.
The Anophelinae have narrow bodies, and generally spotted wings, and when at rest keep body and proboscis in a straight line, often at a considerable angle with the supporting surface; in this way they can be distinguished from Culicinae, which have a humped-up thorax with which the proboscis forms an angle, and in the resting position keep the body parallel to the support.
The wings in the male are shorter than the body; in the female they are rudimentary.
long, with wings 3 in.
Falling under the displeasure of Minos, he fashioned wings for himself and his son Icarus, and escaped to Sicily.
On the lakes there is a very handsome goose, with white body and dark-green wings shading into violet, called huachua, two kinds of ibis, a large gull (Larus serranus) frequenting the alpine lakes in flocks, flamingoes called parihuana, ducks and water-hens.
The cherub upon which he rides when he flies on the wings of the wind (Ps.
In Ezekiel the throne of Yahweh is borne up on Cherubim, the noise of whose wings is like thunder.
As the lame smith he reminds us of Hephaestus, and in his flight with wings of Daedalus escaping from Minos.
In appearance tsetse are somewhat narrow-bodied flies, with a prominent proboscis, which projects horizontally in front of the head, and with the wings in the resting position closed flat one over the other like the blades of a pair of scissors.
The coloration of tsetse-flies is sombre and inconspicuous; the brownish or greyish-brown thorax usually exhibits darker longitudinal markings, and when the insect is at rest the abdomen or hinder half of the body is entirely concealed by the brownish wings.
fusca or longipennis; the closed wings, however, project beyond the body and thus increase its apparent length.
He catches them by means of a rod smeared with bird-lime, and then tying a fine string under their wings, he flies them at its end.
The same law prevailing in all natures creation, in the plumage of birds, the painting of butterifies wings, the marking of shells, and in all the infinite variety and beauty of the floral kingdom, the lesson is constantly renewed to the observant eye.
Their sight is very bad; but they are quick of hearing, and their scent is very keen; they are, too, often accompanied by rhinoceros birds, which, by running about their heads, flapping their wings, and screeching at the same time, frequently give them notice of the approach of danger.
This flying machine consisted of a light frame covered with strong canvas and provided with two large oars or wings moving on a horizontal axis, and so arranged that the upstroke met with no resistance while the downstroke provided the lifting power.
It was not till the autumn of 1894 that an efficient launching apparatus was devised, and then the wings were found not to be strong enough to bear the pressures to which they were subjected.
in length, with wings measuring between 12 and 13 ft.
CADDIS-FLY and Caddis-Worm, the name given to insects with a superficial resemblance to moths, sometimes referred to the Neuroptera, sometimes to a special order, the Trichoptera, in allusion to the hairy clothing of the body and wings.
Apart from this feature the Trichoptera also differ from the typical Neuroptera in the relatively simple, mostly longitudinal neuration of the wings, the absence or obsolescence of the mandibles and the semi-haustellate nature of the rest of the mouth-parts.
Geologically they are known to date back to the Oligocene period, and wings believed to be referable to them have been found in Liassic and Jurassic beds.
Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.
Some of the earlier works of Ur-Nina, En-anna-turn, Entemena and others, before the Semitic conquest, are also extremely interesting, especially the famous stele of the vultures and a great silver vase ornamented with what may be called the coat of arms of Lagash, a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, grasping a lion in each talon.
Corps in the wings less so.
A series of partial offensives were therefore undertaken on the succeeding days, on both wings of the army, but with little real result; neither corps could succeed in attaining the final objectives of the first day's attack or clear the enemy entirely from the advanced defences of the Hindenburg line.
Mention has already been made of the series of curved hooks along the costa of the hind-wing; by means of this arrangement the two wings of a side are firmly joined together during flight, which thus becomes particularly accurate.
The wings in the Hymenoptera show a marked reduction in the number of nervures as compared with more primitive insects.
Among many of the smaller Hymenoptera we find that the wings are almost destitute of nervures.
Comparatively only a few species are, for part of their lives, denizens of fresh water; these, as larvae, are parasitic on the eggs or larvae of other aquatic insects, the little hymenopteron, Polynema natans, one of the " fairy-flies " - swims through the water by strokes of her delicate wings in search of a dragon-fly's egg in which to lay her own egg, while the rare Agriotypus dives after the case of a caddis-worm.
Fragments of wings from the Lias and Oolitic beds have been referred to ants and bees, but the true nature of these remains is doubtful.
The Mymaridae or " fairy-flies " are distinguished from the Chalcididae by their narrow fringed wings (figs.
But the wings vary considerably in different families, and the most distinctive feature is the structure of the jaws, which form a beaklike organ with stylets adapted for piercing and sucking.
The wings will be described in connexion with the various After Marlatt, Bull.
3) resembles its parents except for the absence of wings, and is active through all stages of its growth.
The occasional development of wings is probably of service to the species in enabling the insects to reach new fresh-water breeding-grounds.
- Water-scorpion (Nepa cinerea) with raptorial fore-legs, heteropterous wings, and long siphon for conveying air to spiracles.
Eugereon is a remarkable Permian fossil, with jaws that are typically hemipterous except that the second maxillae are not fused and with cockroach-like wings.
There is usually a marked difference between the wings of the two pairs.
Most Heteroptera are flattened in form, and the wings lie flat, or nearly so, when closed.
The Pentatomidae (shield bugs), some of which are metallic or otherwise brightly coloured, are easily recognized by the great development of the scutellum, which reaches at least half-way back towards the tip of the abdomen, and in some genera covers the whole of the hind body, and also the wings when these are closed.
The Anthocoridae are nearly related to the Cimicidae, but the wings are usually well developed and the forewing possesses cuneus and embolium as well as corium and clavus.
The fore-wings are sometimes membranous like the hind-wings, usually they are firmer in texture, but they never show the distinct areas that characterize the wings of Heteroptera.
When at rest the wings of Homoptera slope roofwise across the back of the insect.
The Cicadidae are for the most part large insects with ample wings; they are distinguished from other Homoptera by the front thighs being thickened and toothed beneath.
The families Psyllidae (or " jumpers ") with eight or ten segments in the feeler and the Aleyrodidae (or " snowyflies ") distinguished by their white mealy wings, are of comparatively slight importance.
'12' a) have the fore-wings developed and the hind-wings greatly reduced, while in the female wings are totally absent and the body undergoes marked degradation (figs.
About twenty-seven species are now known, all characterized by length not excee 4 ding 06 of an inch, flat wings, three articulations in the antennae, one or two articulations in the tarses, with digitules, but without cornicles on the abdomen.
These are the nymphs, destined to acquire wings; their body is more slender in outline, and at first they bear well-marked tubercles.
After several moults the rudiments of two pairs of wings appear, and then the insect creeps up to the surface of the earth, and on to the vine.
Neither male nor female has wings; the rostrum is replaced by a functionless tubercle; and there is no alimentary canal.
- Wingless Female pro birth to a female insect without wings, which resembles the rootdwelling forms, but has pointed antennae.
The wings and are well adapted for FIG.
Though goldfinches may occasionally be observed in the coldest weather, incomparably the largest number leave Britain in autumn, returning in spring, and resorting to gardens and orchards to breed, when the lively song of the cock, and the bright yellow wings of both sexes, quickly attract notice.
The French and Bavarians were taken somewhat by surprise, and were arrayed in two separate armies, each with its cavalry on the wings and its foot in the centre.
In rear of the village the plain was occupied by Mercy's army in the customary two lines, foot in the centre, horse in the wings.
The French army, similarly arrayed, but with a few battalions attached to the cavalry wings, was more heterogeneous than the German, being composed of French, Hessian, German mercenaries, and Liegeois.
The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.
The interior is very fine, and in one of the wings is a series of rooms dedicated to the poets Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, with appropriate mural paintings.
BIRDS OF PARADISE, a group of passerine birds inhabiting New Guinea and the adjacent islands, so named by the Dutch voyagers in allusion to the brilliancy of their plumage, and to the current belief that, possessing neither wings nor feet, they passed their lives in the air, sustained on their ample plumes, resting only at long intervals suspended from the branches of lofty trees by the wire-like feathers of the tail, and drawing their food "from the dews of heaven and the nectar of flowers."
Such stories obtained credence from the fact that so late as the year 1760, when Linnaeus named the principal species apoda, or "footless," no perfect specimen had been seen in Europe, the natives who sold the skins to coast traders invariably depriving them of feet and wings.
ii., thus describes the attitude of the male birds at one of those "sacaleli," or dancing parties, as the natives call them; "their wings," he says, "are raised vertically over the back, the head is bent down and stretched out, and the long plumes are raised up and expanded till they form two magnificent golden fans striped with deep red at the base, and fading off into the pale brown tint of the finely-divided and softly-waving points; the whole bird is then overshadowed by them, the crouching body, yellow head, and emerald green throat, forming but the foundation and setting to the golden glory which waves above."
The natives in preparing the skins remove both feet and wings, so as to give more prominence to the commercially valuable tuft of plumes.
Marshal Soult was appointed chief of the staff, a post for which he possessed very few qualifications; and, when the campaign began, command of the left and right wings had perforce to be given to the only two marshals available, Ney and Grouchy, who did not possess the ability or strategic skill necessary for such positions.
For his advance into Belgium in 1815 Napoleon divided his army into two wings and a reserve.
But the emperor regarded it merely as "an unfortunate accident," nothing more, and the advance in two wings and a reserve continued, undisturbed by such occurrences.
Ney's headquarters were at Gosselies; one division (Girard's) was at Wangenies and acted as a link between the two wings.
Napoleon had now perfected his arrangements for the invasion of Belgium, and his army was organized definitely in two wings and a reserve; the latter being so placed that it could be brought "into action on either wing as circumstances dictated."
Napoleon spent the early morning in closing up his army, and writing what proved to be the most important letter of the campaign to Ney (Charleroi, about 8 A.M.): "I have adopted as the general principle for this campaign to divide my army into two wings and a reserve....
The underlying idea of manoeuvring in two wings and a reserve should be kept in mind when considering this letter.
the seraphim, superhuman beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of Yahweh.
Putting aside the cherubim and seraphim, they are not spoken of as having wings.
The word Vanellus is from vannus, the fan used for winnowing corn, and refers to the audible beating of the bird's wings.
In others the wings are armed with a tubercle or even a sharp spur on the carpus.
In May 1670 he received the titles of excellency and privy councillor; in July of the same year he was ennobled under the name of Griffenfeldt, deriving his title from the gold griffin with outspread wings which surmounted his escutcheon; in November 1673 he was created a count, a knight of the Elephant and, finally, imperial chancellor.
The dipterous gall-formers include the gall-midges, or gallgnats (Cecidomyidae), minute slender-bodied insects, with bodies usually covered with long hairs, and the wings folded over the back.
Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).
The most striking feature of the moas, besides the truly gigantic size of some species, is the almost complete absence of the wings.
In fact, the whole skeletons of the wings and of the shoulder girdle seem to have been lost, excepting Anomalopteryx dromaeoides, which, according to Hutton,' had still some vestiges.
3 It is right to state, however, that the African examples of this bird are said to be distinguishable from the Asiatic by their somewhat shorter wings and weaker bill, and hence they are considered by some authorities to form a distinct species or subspecies, P. docilis; but in thus regarding them the difference of locality seems to have influenced opinion, and without that difference they would scarcely have been separated, for in many other groups of birds distinctions so slight are regarded as barely evidence of local races.
Generals Longstreet and Jackson commanded the right and left wings.
The Federal leader intended to hold back his centre whilst these two forces were rolling up Lee's wings.
10) we find "upon a cherub" parallel to "upon the wings of the wind" (cp. Isa.
"The Algonkins say that birds always make the winds, that they create the waterspouts, and that the clouds are the spreading and agitation of their wings."
"The Sioux say that the thunder is the sound of the cloud-bird flapping his wings."
In the month of the " diminishing of waters " the rain gods or Tlalocs were propitiated by a procession of priests with music of flutes and trumpets carrying on plumed litters infants with painted faces, in gay clothing with coloured paper wings, to be sacrificed on the mountains or in a whirlpool in the lake.
across, with angulated wings, and in colour olive brown, with white markings.
There are three fronts; the principal, towards College Green, is a colonnade of the Ionic order, with façade and two projecting wings; it connects with the western portico by a colonnade of the same order, forming the quadrant of a circle.
Archaeological discoveries in India, Persia, Assyria and Egypt show that in the polished stone age quaternary man had domesticated the horse, while a Chinese treatise, the Goei-leaotse, the fifth book of the Vouking, a sort of military code dating from the reign of the emperor Hoang-Ti (2637 years B.C.), places the cavalry on the wings of the army.
Amongst such lapses we may instance Prince Athanase (287), "The shadow of thy moving wings imbue (Its deserts and its mountains"; "To a Skylark" (80), "Thou lovestbut ne'er knew love's sad satiety."
As first used by Linnaeus (1735) it included all insects with mandibulate jaws and two pairs of net-veined wings - dragon-flies, May-flies, stone-flies, lacewing-flies and caddis-flies - and it has been employed in the same wide sense by D.
Some of the families - the stone-flies, for example - have the young insect much like the adult, growing its wings visibly outside the thoracic segments, and active at all stages of its life.
The other groups of the old Linnean order (such as lacewing-flies and caddis-flies)--which are hatched as larvae markedly unlike the parent, develop wing-rudiments hidden under the larval cuticle, and only show the wings externally in a resting pupal stage, passing thus through a " complete " metamorphosis and falling into the sub-class Endopterygotawere retained in the order Neuroptera, which thus became much restricted in its extent.
A curious feature among them is the frequent reduction of the wings in the males of certain species, contrary to the usual condition among the Hexapoda, where if the sexes differ in the development of their wings it is the female which has them reduced.
They are relatively shorter and broader insects than the Embiidae with large prothorax and long wings, which have a transverse line of weakness at the base and are usually shed after the nuptial flight.
When wings are present the front pair are much larger than the hind pair, and the neuration is remarkable for the concresence of the median with the After Marlatt, Bull.
These frail insects, the majority of which have wings of the type described above, are further characterized by the presence of minute but distinct maxillulae, while the inner lobe (lacinia) of the first maxilla is an elongate, hard structure (the " pick," fig.
In some Psocidae the wings are in a vestigial state, and the fully winged species rarely if ever fly.
The May-flies are remarkably primitive in certain of their characters, notably the elongate cerci, the paired, entirely mesodermal genital ducts, and the occurrence of an ecdysis after the acquisition of functional wings.
All the wings are of firm, glassy texture, and very complex in their neuration; a remarkable and unique feature is that a branch of the radius (the radial sector) crosses the median nervure, while, by the development of multitudinous cross-nervules, the wing-area becomes divided into an immense number of small areolets.
Structurally the Neuroptera are distinguished by elongate feelers, a large, free prothorax, a labium with the inner lobes of the second maxillae fused together to form a median ligula, membranous, net-veined wings without hairy covering, those of the two pairs being usually alike, the absence of abdominal cerci, and the presence of six or eight Malpighian tubes.
The Myrmeleonidae are large insects with short clubbed feelers on their prominent heads, and two pairs of closely similar net-veined wings, with regular oblong areolets at the tips.
The same is the case with the allied Ascalaphidae, which are distinguished from the Myrmeleonidae by their elongate feelers - as long as the body - and by the irregular apical areolets of the wings.
They may be distinguished from the Neuroptera by the elongation of the head into a beak, the small prothorax, the narrow, elongate wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, the presence of abdominal cerci and the cruciform larva.
Burmeister) indicates the hairy covering of the wings.
By British seamen it is commonly called the " molly mawk "1 (corrupted fromMallemuck),and is extremely well known to them, its flight, as it skims over the waves, first with a few beats of the wings and then gliding for a long way, being very peculiar.
Its wings are short and weak; the fore pair are falcate, and the hind pair do not reach to the end of the body.
A bird called moho, but actually of a different family, was the Pennula ecaudata or millsi, which had hardly any tail, and had wings so degenerate that it was commonly thought wingless.
394), being apparently led to that conclusion through its functionless wings and the backward situation of its legs.
The most obvious feature the Apteryges afford is the presence of a back toe, while the extremely aborted condition of the wings, the position of the nostrils - almost at the tip of the maxilla - and the absence of an after-shaft in the feathers, are characters nearly as manifest, and others not less determinative, though more recondite, will be found on examination.
of New Zealand, p. 362): "The kiwi is in some measure compensated for the absence of wings by its swiftness of foot.
It sometimes climbs trees, but generally remains on the ground, only using its comparatively short wings to balance itself in running or to break its fall when it drops from a tree - though not always then - being apparently incapable of real flight.
The other family is that of the Forficulidae or earwigs (q.v.), all of which have the cerci modified as a forceps, while wings of thecharacteristic form described above are present in many of the species.
More important characters of the Orthoptera than the nature of the wings - characters in which they differ from After Marlatt, Ent.
The prothorax is short and the mesothorax very long, the three pairs of legs closely similar, the wings often highly modified or absent, and the cerci short and unjointed.
In some of these insects the wings are so small as to be useless for flight, being modified altogether for stridulation.
Scudder have revealed insects with the general aspect of cockroaches and phasmids, but with the two pairs of wings similar to each other in texture and form.
The Orthopteroid type of wings appears therefore to have arisen from a primitive Isopteroid condition.
Europe, and may be readily recognized by the white bars in its wings and by its 16 or occasionally 18 rectrices.
But when another butterfly of the same species, but with the wings cut off, was offered to her she promptly ate it without showing any sign of dislike.
The front wings of the wasp have a conspicuous white patch near the tip and a patch similar in size and colour is present on the wings of the beetle, which, unlike the majority of beetles, habitually keeps its wings extended, and since the elytra are exceptionally short the wings are not covered by them when folded.
The resemblance also extends to the general form of the body and to the length and thickness of the wings and antennae.
In one of these (Heteronotus trinodosus), the dorsal area of the forepart of the thorax is developed into a plate which projects backwards over the body of the insect, which retains its normal form, and conceals all but the head, wings and, legs.
Trochilium apiforme, crabroniforme - present to bees and wasps is effected in the main by the loss of the scales from the wings, leaving these organs transparent.
The wings are transparent and are black-bordered and black-barred, the anterior wing having two black bars and the posterior one.
Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
In Mashonaland, for instance, a large number of genera and species of Hymenoptera belonging to the Apidae, Eumenidae, Sphegidae, Pompilidae, Scoliidae, Tiphiidae and Mutillidae, resemble each other in having black bodies and dark blue wings.
The badge of the order was a white Maltese cross decorated in gold, with the gold lilies of France at the angles, in the centre a white dove with wings outstretched, the ribbon was sky blue (cordon bleu).
The badge has an elaborate design; it consists of a star of purple, red, yellow, gold and silver rays, on which are displayed old Japanese weapons, banners and shields in various coloured enamels, the whole surmounted by a golden kite with outstretched wings.
Such were the sleeveless surplice, which was provided at the sides with holes to put the arms through; the surplice with slit-up arms or lappels (so-called "wings") instead of sleeves; the surplice of which not only the sleeves but the body of the garment itself were slit up the sides, precisely like the modern dalmatic; and, finally, a sort of surplice in the form of a bell-shaped mantle, with a hole for the head, which necessitated the arms being stuck out under the hem.
The species are all characterized by short rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a thick hair-like covering.
The wings are somewhat feeble, and the legs have the toes placed in pairs, two before and two behind.
grandiflorus, 3 ft., has large rose-coloured flowers with purplish-crimson wings, in June; L.
He consulted the older and graver Laurentius Andreae, who told him how "Doctor Martinus had clipped the wings of the pope, the cardinals and the big bishops," which could not fail to be pleasing intelligence to a monarch who was never an admirer of episcopacy, while the rich revenues of the church, accumulated in the course of centuries, were a tempting object to the impecunious ruler of an impoverished people.
The wings are short and rounded, and in some forms the feathers ' Brisson and after him Linnaeus confounded this bird, which they had never seen, with the Trumpeter.
The untiring efforts of Philip of Hesse to unite the two wings of the Protestant forces met with very little success, and the famous conference at Marburg in the autumn of 1529, for which he was responsible, revealed the fact that it was practically impossible for the Lutherans and the burg.
This startling victory of the Social Democracy, though to a certain extent discounted by the dissensions between the two wings of the party which were revealed at the congress at Dresden in the same year, was in the highest degree disconcerting to the government; but in the actual manipulation of the Reichstag it facilitated the work of the chancellor by enabling him to unite the other groups more readily against the common enemy.
The whole length of the bird is from 43 to 46 in., of which, however, about 20 are due to the long cuneiform tail, while the pointed wings measure more than 30 in.
The quill-feathers, both of the wings and tail, are of a dark blackish-grey.
You may almost hear the beating of his wings," he said, and concluded with an appeal to the prime minister that moved the House as it had never been moved within living memory.
The under jaws are hinged on to the quadrate bones, which extend obliquely backwards, and are immovably wedged in between the squamosal and the lateral occipital wings.
The conditions for a night march were thus ideal; but during the movement the wings closed towards each other, causing great risk of an outbreak of firing.
The imperial army accepted the challenge and drew up facing south-westward towards Bouvines, the heavy cavalry on the wings, the infantry in one great mass in the centre, supported by the cavalry corps under the emperor himself.
The French army (about 7000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry) took ground exactly opposite to the enemy and in a similar formation, cavalry on the wings, infantry, including the milice des communes, in the centre, Philip with the cavalry reserve and the Oriflamme in rear of the foot.
The day was already decided in favour of the French when their wings began to close inwards to cut off the retreat of the imperial centre.
The smith avenged himself by the slaughter of NiPoPr's two sons and the rape of his daughter Bodvildr. He then soared away on wings he had prepared.
Bodvildr and her attendant also appear, and Egill, who in one version made VOlundr's wings, is depicted in the act of catching birds.
The conception and attributes of the figure are taken, as has lately been recognized, from a description in the "Manto" of Politian: the goddess, to whose shoulders are appended a pair of huge wings, stands like Fortune on a revolving ball, holding the emblems of the cup and bridle, and below her feet is spread a rich landscape of hill and valley.
One of these is the portrait of Frederick the Wise of Saxony, formerly in the Hamilton collection and now at Berlin; the second, much disfigured by restoration, is the Dresden altarpiece with a Madonna and Child in the middle and St Anthony and Sebastian in the wings.
In an altarpiece at Ober St Veit and in the scattered wings of the Jabach altarpiece severally preserved at Munich, Frankfort and Cologne, the workmanship seems to be exclusively that of journeymen working from his drawings.
The period is closed, so far as paintings are concerned, by two examples of far higher value than those above named, that is to say the Paumgartner altarpiece at Munich, with its romantically attractive composition of the Nativity with angels and donors in the central panel, and the fine armed figures of St George and St Eustace (lately freed from the over-paintings which disfigured them) on the wings; and the happily conceived and harmoniously finished "Adoration of the Magi" in the Uffizi at Florence.
In 1509 followed the "Assumption of the Virgin" with the Apostles gathered about her tomb, a rich altarpiece with figures of saints and portraits of the donor and his wife in the folding wings, executed for Jacob Heller, a merchant of Frankfort, in 1509.
But though Mr Asquith and Sir Edward Grey adhered to the Liberal League, Sir Henry CampbellBannerman retained the loyalty of the majority of the Liberal party, and Lord Spencer threw his weight on the same side; and in a speech at the Liberal League dinner on the 31st of July Lord Rosebery had to admit that their principles had not yet prevailed, and that, until they did, a reconciliation between the two wings of the party would be impossible.
across the wings.
Flamenco), one of the tallest and most beautiful birds, conspicuous for the bright flame-coloured or scarlet patch upon its wings, and long known by its classical name Phoenicopterus, as an inhabitant of most of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
Their form is not described, but they have not only six wings (verse 2), but hands (verse 6) and feet (verse 2).
" Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often have I desired to gather thy children together, as a bird her brood beneath her wings, but ye refused."
On the wings it was possible to improve the situation.
Although the wings were holding, the situation in the centre was very grave, and Cadorna considered that if the Austrians were able to concentrate on the weak spot and keep up the impetus of their attack they might succeed in breaking through to the plain.
The wings of the Italian line had held firm, and it was above all necessary to gain room south of Arsiero.
The troops between Asiago and the Val Canaglia had very few guns, and even when sufficient artillery reenforcements were available Cadorna preferred first to strengthen his wings for the counter-attack that he was already preparing.
The young (which on leaving the nest have not the tips of the bill crossed) are of a dull olive colour with indistinct dark stripes on the lower parts, and the quills of the wings and tail dusky.
decidere, to fall down), a botanical and zoological term for "falling in season," as of petals after flowering, leaves in autumn, the teeth or horns of animals, or the wings of insects.
In early art, they were represented as birds with the heads of women; later, as female figures with the legs of birds, with or without wings.
Latrobe and Charles Bulfinch; wings and dome added 1851-1865).
It consists of a central building of Virginia sandstone, painted white, and two wings of white Massachusetts marble.
The allegorical decorations here are by Persico and Horatio Greenough; those on the Senate portico are by Thomas Crawford, who designed the bronze doors at the entrances to the Senate and House wings.
Two squares north of the Senate officebuilding is the Union Railway Station (1908; 343 by 760 ft.; cost, $4,000,000), designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham, consisting of a main building of white granite (from Bethel, Vermont) and two wings, and facing a beautiful plaza.
He is pictured as having seven mouths, a hundred wings and horns and is armed with bow and arrows and an axe.
Selby, properly belonging, at least in the Fame Islands, to the species known by the book-name of Sandwich tern, all the others being those called sea-swallows - a name still most commonly given to the whole group throughout Britain from their long wings, forked tail and marine habit.
the adults in summer plumage wearing a black cap and having the upper parts of the body and wings of a more or less pale grey, while they are mostly lighter beneath.
In such cases the absence of wings must be regarded as secondary - due to a parasitic or other special manner of life.
But the bristle-tails and springtails, which form the modern order Aptera, are all without any trace of wings, and, on account of several remarkable archaic characters which they exhibit, there is reason for believing that they are primitively wingless - that they represent an early offshoot which sprang from the ancestral stock of the Hexapoda before organs of flight had been acquired by the class.
In addition to the complete absence of wings and of metamorphosis, the Aptera are characterized by peculiar elongate mandibles (figs.
The sexes do not differ appreciably in colour, which is of a dark brown, somewhat lighter beneath; but the primaries have at the base a patch of white, visible even when the wings are closed, and forming, when they are spread, a conspicuous band.
It consists of three main wings, and a fourth and smaller wing, and is built round a courtyard.
Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.
The palace is quadrangular with two wings towards the east and four (two straight and two curving) towards the west.
angelus, an angle), shaped with corners or angles; an adjective used in botany and zoology for the shape of stems, leaves and wings.
Among more ideal work are "Eve" (1880), "Diana" (1882 and 1891), "Woman and Peacock," and "The Poet," astride his Pegasus spreading wings for flight.
between the tips of its wings, while it is probable that the expanse of wing never exceeds 12 ft.
The birds flap their wings on rising from the ground, but after attaining a moderate elevation they seem to sail on the air, Charles Darwin having watched them for half an hour without once observing a flap of their wings.
The clusters of green flowers terminate the young shoots and are erect; the two wings of the fruit spread almost horizontally, and are smaller than in the sycamore.
The flowers are borne in long pendulous racemes, and the two wings of the fruit are ascending.
It is a lofty tree (from 40 to 70 ft.), resembling the sycamore, but with yellow flowers, appearing before the leaves, and more spreading wings to the fruit.
The male of the cochineal insect is half the size of the female, and, unlike it, is devoid of nutritive apparatus; it has long white wings, and a body of a deep red colour, terminated by two diverging setae.
The high sierras are frequented by condors and eagles of the largest size, and the whole country by the common vulture, while the American ostrich (Rhea americanus) and a species of large stork (the bata or jaburu, Mycteria americans; maximum height, 8 ft.; spread of wings, 8 ft.
The benevolent institutions include the general hospital, founded in 1817, removed to the present site in 1867, extended by the addition of two wings in 1878 and of an eye department in 1890; a convalescent home for twenty patients from the hospital only (1903); the Royal Cambrian Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, established in 1847 at Aberystwyth, removed to Swansea in 1850, and several times enlarged, so as to have at present accommodation for ninety-eight pupils; the Swansea and South Wales Institution for the Blind, established in 1865 and now under the Board of Education; the Swansea and South Wales Nursing Institute (1873), providing a home for nurses in the intervals of their employment; a nursing institution (1902) for nursing the sick poor in their own homes, affiliated with the Queen's Jubilee Institute of London; the Sailors' Home (1864); a Sailors' Rest (1885); and a Mission to Seamen's Institute (1904).
The theatre, which is set in the lower slope of Mount Cynthus, has the wings of the auditorium supported by massive substructures.
The wings are thus constructed on the same plan as those of a bat, but instead of four fingers, only one is elongated to bear the membrane.
A pair of wings of the toothless Pteranodon from the Chalk of Kansas, now in the British Museum, measures about five and a half metres in span.
The legs and toes are comparatively feeble, but the wings are large.
To the bottom and muller are attached grinding plates (shoes and dies), which are replaced when worn; and to the sides three wings to deflect the moving pulp towards the centre, and thus establish the necessary pulp current.
The young are often taken from the nest and reared by the people to attend upon and defend their poultry, a duty which is faithfully 1 and, owing to the spurs with which the chaka's wings are armed, successfully discharged.
In order to meet these peculiarities the travelling organs of aquatic and flying animals (whether they be feet, fins, flippers or wings) are made not of rigid but of elastic materials.
When the bird dives, or flies under water, the long axis of the body is inclined obliquely downwards and forwards, and the bird forces itself into and beneath the water by the action of its feet, or wings, or both.
In diving or subaquatic flight the feet strike upwards and backwards, the wings downwards and backwards (b of fig.
The long axis of the bird is inclined obliquely upwards and forwards, and the wings strike, not downwards and backwards, but downwards and forwards (c of fig.
These changes in the direction of the long axis of the bird in swimming, diving and flying, and in the direction of the stroke of the wings in sub-aquatic and aerial flight, are due to the fact that the bird is heavier than the air and lighter than the water.
The balloon floats because it is lighter than the air; the flying creature floats because it extracts from the air, by the vigorous downward action of its wings, a certain amount of upward recoil.
She knows that if the wings are driven with sufficient rapidity they practically convert the spaces through which they move into solid bases of support; she also knows that the body in rapid flight derives support from all the air over which it passes.
The manner in which the wing surfaces are increased by the wing movements will be readily understood from the accompanying illustrations of the blow-fly with its wings at rest and in motion (figs.
8 the surfaces exposed by the body of the insect and the wings are, as compared with those of fig.
But they are not dead surfaces: they represent the spaces occupied by the rapidly vibrating wings, which are actively moving flying organs.
As, moreover, the wings travel at a much higher speed than any wind that blows, they are superior to and control the wind; they enable the insect to dart through the wind in whatever direction it pleases.
- Blow-fly with its wings with its wings at rest.
The elytra, however, are comparatively long narrow structures which occupy a position in front of the wings, of which they may be regarded as forming the anterior parts.
The elytra are to the delicate wings of some insects what the thick anterior margins are to stronger wings.
The elytra serve as protectors to the wings when the wings are folded upon the back of the insect, and as they are extended on either side of the body more or less horizontally when the insect is flying they contribute to flight indirectly, in virtue of their being carried forward by the body in motion.
The manner in which the wings of the insect traverse the air, so as practically to increase the basis of support, raises the whole subject of natural flight.
Flying creatures, however, are less remarkable for their strength, shape and comparative levity than for the size and extraordinarily rapid and complicated movements of their wings.
This physiologist in 1867 2 showed that all natural wings, whether of the insect, bird or bat, are screws structurally, and that they act as screws when the y are made to vibrate, from the fact that they twist in opposite directions during the down and up strokes.
He also explained that all wings act upon a common principle, and that they present oblique, kite-like surfaces to the air, through which they pass much in the same way that an oar passes through water in sculling.
He further pointed out that the wings of flying creatures (contrary to received opinions, and as has been already indicated) strike downwards and forwards during the down strokes, and upwards and forwards during the up strokes.
Lastly he demonstrated that the wings of flying creatures, when the I By the term aeroplane is meant a thin, light, expanded structure inclined at a slight upward angle to the horizon intended to float or rest upon the air, and calculated to afford a certain amoune, of support to any body attached to it.
In speaking of artificial flight Leonardo says: " The wings have to row downwards and backwards to support the machine on high, so that it moves forward."
In speaking of natural flight he remarks: " If in its descent the bird rows backwards with its wings the bird will move rapidly; this happens because the wings strike the air which successively runs behind the bird to fill the void whence it comes."
The following is Pettigrew's description of wings and wing movements published in 1867: " The wings of insects and birds are, as a rule, more or less triangular in shape, the base of the triangle being directed towards the body, its sides anteriorly and posteriorly.
The wings of insects may consist either of one or two pairs - the anterior or upper pair, when two are present, being in some instances greatly modified and presenting a corneous condition.
As this arrangement extends also to the margins, the wings are more or less twisted upon themselves and present a certain degree of convexity on their superior or upper surface, and a corresponding concavity on their inferior or under surface, - their free edges supplying those fine curves which act with such efficacy upon the air in obtaining the maximum of resistance and the minimum of displacement.
As illustrative examples of the form of wings alluded to, those of the beetle, bee and fly may be cited - the pinions in those insects acting as helices, or twisted levers, and ' Revue des tours scientifiques de la France et del' Etranger, 1869.
In registering the movements of the wings the tips and margins of the pinions were, by an ingenious modification, employed as the styles or pens.
By this arrangement the different parts of the wings were made actually to record their own movements.
elevating weights much greater than the area of the wings would seem to warrant " (figs.
" To confer on the wings the multiplicity of movements which they require, they are supplied with double hinge or compound joints, which enable them to move not only in an upward, downward, forward and backward direction, but also at various intermediate degrees of obliquity.
An insect with wings thus hinged may, as far as steadiness of body is concerned, be not inaptly compared to a compass set upon gimbals, where the universality of motion in one direction ensures comparative fixedness in another."
Although the figure-of-8 represents with considerable fidelity the twisting of the wing upon its axis during extension and flexion, when the insect is playing its wings before an object, or still better when it is artificially fixed, it is otherwise when the down stroke is added and the insect is fairly on the wing and progressing rapidly.
- The Cape Barn-owl (Strix capensis), showing the kitelike surfaces presented by the ventral aspect of the wings and body in flight.
3 " On the Physiology of Wings; being an analysis of the move ments by which flight is produced in the Insect, Bat and Bird," Trans.
This statement can be readily verified by experiment both with natural and artificial wings.
The rapidity of the wing movements is regulated by the size of the wing, small wings being driven at a very much higher speed than larger ones.
The wasp, for instance, is said to ply its wings at the rate of i io, and the common house-fly at the rate of 330 beats per second.
Quick as are the vibrations of natural wings, the speed of certain parts of the wing is amazingly increased.
Wings as a rule are long and narrow.
One naturally inquires why the high speed of wings, and why the progressive increase of speed at their tips and posterior margins?
If the wings were not driven at a high speed, and if they were not eccentrics made to revolve upon two separate axes, they would of necessity be large cumbrous structures; but large heavy wings would be difficult to work, and what is worse, they would (if too large), instead of controlling the air, be controlled by it, and so cease to be flying organs.
There is, however, another reason why wings should be made to vibrate at high speeds.
The air, as explained, is a very light, thin, elastic medium, which yields on the slightest pressure, and unless the wings attacked it with great violence the necessary recoil or resistance could not be obtained.
To meet these peculiarities the insect, bird and bat are furnished with extensive flying surfaces in the shape of wings, which they apply with singular velocity and power to the air, as levers of the third order.
In this process the weight of the body performs an important part, by acting upon the inclined planes formed by the wings in the plane of progression.
When the wings descend they elevate the body, the wings being active and the body passive; when the body descends it contributes to the elevation of the wings,' the body being active and the wings more or less passive.
It is in this way that weight forms a factor in flight, the wings and the weight of the body reciprocating and mutually assisting and relieving each other.
This is an argument for employing four wings in artificial flight, - the wings being so arranged that the two which are up shall always by their fall mechanically elevate the two which are down.
1 The other forces which assist in elevating the wings are - (a) the elevator muscles of the wings, (b) the elastic properties of the wings, and (c) the reaction of the compressed air on the under surfaces of the wings.
Here the cork, in falling, acts upon the feathers (which are to all 'f intents and purposes wings), g and these in turn act upon FIG.
It must tread with its wings and rise upon the air as a swimmer upon the water, or as a kite upon the wind.
Either the wings must attack the air with great violence, or the air in rapid motion must attack the wings: either suffices.
If a bird attempts to fly in a calm, the wings must be made to smite the air after the manner of.
In this case the wings fly the bird.
If, however, the bird is fairly launched in space and a stiff breeze is blowing, all that is required in many instances is to extend the wings at a slight upward angle to the horizon so that the under parts of the wings present kite-like surfaces.
If by any chance this magnificent bird alights upon the sea he must flap and beat the water and air with his wings with tremendous energy until he gets fairly launched.
This done he extends his enormous pinions 2 and sails majestically along, seldom deigning to flap his wings, the breeze doing the work for him.
In this case the air in rapid motion strikes the under surface of the kite and forces it up. The string and the hand are to the kite what the weight of the flying creature is to the inclined planes formed by its wings.
The area of the insect, bird and bat, when the wings are fully expanded, is greater than that of any other class of animal, their weight being proportionally less.
We have thus light-bodied and I The wings of the albatross, when fully extended, measure across the back some 14 ft.
large-winged insects and birds, as the butterfly and heron; and others with heavy bodies and small wings, as the beetle and partridge.
Those apparent inconsistencies in the dimensions of the body and wings are readily explained by the greater muscular development of the heavy-bodied, small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the increased power and rapidity with which the wings in them are made to oscillate.
That no fixed relation exists between the area of the wings and the size and weight of the body to be elevated is evident on comparing the dimensions of the wings and bodies of the several orders of insects, bats and birds.
The statements here advanced are borne out by the fact that the wings of insects, bats and birds may be materially reduced without impairing their powers of flight.
In such cases the speed with which the wings are driven is increased in the direct ratio of the mutilation.
While as explained, no definite relation exists between the weight of a flying animal and the size of its flying surfaces, there being, as stated, heavy-bodied and small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the converse, and while, as has been shown, flight is possible within a wide range, the wings being, as a rule, in excess of what are required for the purposes of flight, - still it appears from the researches of L.
It is a peculiarity of natural wings, and of artificial wings constructed on the principle of living wings, that when forcibly elevated or depressed, even in a strictly vertical direction, they inevitably dart forward.
The same thing happens when the wing is depressed from e to f and elevated from g to h, the wing describing a waved track as at There are good reasons why the wings should always be in advance of the body.
The wings consequently must be made to strike forwards and kept in advance of the body of the bird if they are to prevent the bird from falling downwards and forwards.
If the wings were to strike backwards in aerial flight, the bird would turn a forward somersault.
That the wings invariably strike forwards during the down and up strokes in aerial flight is proved alike by observation and experiment.
If any one watches a bird rising from the ground or the water, he cannot fail to perceive that the head and body are slightly tilted upwards, and that the wings are made to descend with great vigour in a downward and forward direction.
No one ever saw a bird in the air flapping its wings towards its tail.
The old idea was that the wings during the down stroke pushed the body of the bird in an upward and forward direction; in reality the wings do not push but pull, and in order to pull they must always be in advance of the body to be flown.
If the wings did not themselves fly forward, they could not possibly cause the body of the bird to fly forward.
It is the wings which cause the bird to fly.
These surfaces may be conferred on artificial wings, aeroplanes, aerial screws or similar structures; and these structures, if we may judge from what we find in nature, should be of moderate size and elastic. The power of the flying organs will be increased if they are driven at a comparatively high speed, and particularly if they are made to reverse and reciprocate, as in this case they will practically create the currents upon which they are destined to rise and advance.