Wings sentence example

wings
  • Words are the mind's wings, are they not?
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  • A blur of wings and darkness caught his attention.
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  • So, if we had the wings, and could escape the Gargoyles, we might fly to that rock and be saved.
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  • If the Gargoyles can unhook the wings then the power to fly lies in the wings themselves, and not in the wooden bodies of the people who wear them.
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  • Then, with the Wizard's help, he tried to fasten some of the wings to the old cab-horse.
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  • Zamon's wings turned pink, and she laughed.
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  • Toby whispered, clawing at the tree as the demon shook out his wings.
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  • A seraph with wings extended flew towards him from the horizon and inundated him with pleasure unutterable.
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  • The Trichopterygidae, with their delicate narrow fringed wings, are the smallest of all beetles, while the Platypsyllidae consist of only a single species of curious form found on the beaver.
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  • Seen in front, its white face, striped with black, and broad black gorget attract attention as it sits, often motionless, on the rocks; while in flight the white of the lower part of the back and white band across the wings are no less conspicuous even at a distance.
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  • Two pairs of wings are present in the vast majority of insects, borne respectively on the mesothorax and metathorax.
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  • The long axis of the wings, when at rest, lies parallel to the body axis.
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  • In addition to the wings there are smaller dorsal outgrowths of the thorax in many insects.
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  • The legs, wings and other organs of the trunk receive their nerves from the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, and the fusion of several pairs of these ganglia may be regarded as corresponding to a centralization of individuality.
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  • Sharp (1898), the marked divergence among the Hexapoda, as regards life-history, is between insects whose wings develop outside the cuticle (Exopterygota) and those whose wings develop inside the cuticle (Endopterygota), becoming visible only when the casting of the last larval cuticle reveals the pupa.
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  • The auditorium is in remarkable preservation, almost every seat being still in situ, except a few where the supporting walls have given way on the wings.
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  • Bell Pettigrew first satisfactorily analysed those movements, and reproduced them by the aid of artificial wings.
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  • A vertical movement having been communicated by means of india-rubber in a state of torsion to the roots of the wings, the wings themselves, in virtue of their elasticity, and because of the resistance experienced from the air, twisted and untwisted and formed reciprocating screws, precisely analogous to those originally described and figured by Pettigrew in 1867.
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  • As they had no wings the strangers could not fly away, and if they jumped down from such a height they would surely be killed.
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  • Eureka quickly followed him, and soon they were all standing together upon the platform, with eight of the much prized wooden wings beside them.
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  • However, the Wizard went once more to his satchel--which seemed to contain a surprising variety of odds and ends--and brought out a spool of strong wire, by means of which they managed to fasten four of the wings to Jim's harness, two near his head and two near his tail.
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  • The manor stretched into three long wings.
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  • Seeds are carried with more facility when provided with plumes or wings.
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  • The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.
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  • The cock has a fine yellow bill and a head bearing a rounded crest of filamentous feathers; lanceolate scapulars overhang the wings, and from the rump spring the long flowing plumes which are so characteristic of the species, and were so highly prized by the natives before the Spanish conquest that no one was allowed to kill the bird when taken, but only to divest it of its feathers, which were to be worn by the chiefs alone.
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  • The insects of this order have mandibles adapted for biting, and two pairs of membranous wings are usually present; the first abdominal segment (propodeum) becomes closely associated with the fore-body (thorax), of which it appears to form a part.
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  • The Capitol (begun in 1785 and completed in 1792 - the wings were added in 1906) was designed from a model and plans of the Maison Carree, at Nimes, supplied by Thomas Jefferson, while he was minister to France.
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  • Willughby, Ray and others in the late 17th century to include the active larvae of beetles, as well as bugs, lice, fleas and other insects with undeveloped wings.
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  • The thorax is composed of three segments; each bears a pair of jointed legs, and in the vast majority of insects the two hindmost bear each a pair of wings.
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  • And the wings, though not always present, are highly characteristic of the Hexapoda, since no other group of the Arthropoda has acquired the power of flight.
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  • The wings of insects are, in all cases, developed after hatching, the younger stages being wingless, and often unlike the parent in other respects.
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  • In such cases the development of wings and the attainment of the adult form depend upon a more or less profound transformation or metamorphosis.
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  • Though the T hx, thoracic segments bear the wings, no trace of these appendages exists till the close of the embryonic life, 8 `' nor even, in many cases, till much later.
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  • The nymph of a thrips-insect (Thysanoptera) is sluggish, its legs and wings being sheathed by a delicate membrane, while the nymph of the male scaleinsect rests enclosed beneath a waxy covering.
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  • In the metabolic Hexapoda the resting pupal instar shows externally the wings and other characteristic imaginal organs which have been gradually elaborated beneath the larval cuticle.
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  • But in none of these latter cases have the wings to be changed from a position inside the body to become external and actively functional organs.
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  • The difference between the nymph or false pupa and the true pupa is that in the latter a whole stage is devoted to the perfecting of the wings and body-wall after the wings have become external organs; the stage is one in which no food is or can be taken, however prolonged may be its existence.
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  • But even at present we can correctly state that the true pupa is invariably connected with the transference of the wings from the interior to the exterior of the body.
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  • It cannot but suggest itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed inwards instead of outwards.
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  • We may remark that fleas possess no wings, but are understood to possess a true pupa.
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  • His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.
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  • The characters of the wings are doubtless important as indications of relationship, but the nature of the jaws and the course of the life-history must be considered of greater value.
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  • Hexapoda mostly with wings, the wingless forms clearly degraded.
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  • When wings are present, the fore-wings are small firm elytra, beneath which the delicate hind-wings are complexly folded.
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  • Wings usually developed; the fore-wings much larger than the hind-wings.
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  • Both pairs of wings similar, narrow and fringed.
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  • Wings usually present.
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  • Hexapoda mostly with wings; the wingless forms clearly degraded or modified.
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  • Wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, covered with flattened scales.
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  • The Devonian rocks of Canada (New Brunswick) have yielded several fossils which are undoubtedly wings of Hexapods.
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  • Of special interest are cockroachlike forms, with two pairs of similar membranous wings and a long ovipositor, and gigantic insects allied to the Odonata, that measured 2 ft.
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  • The post-embryonic growth of Hexapods with or without metamorphosis is accompanied in most cases by the acquisition of wings.
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  • On the other hand, it has been argued that the presence of wings in a vast majority of the Hexapoda suggests their presence in the ancestors of the whole class.
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  • It is most unlikely that wings have been acquired independently by various orders of Hexapoda, and if we regard the Thysanura as the slightly modified representatives of a primitively wingless stock, we must postulate the acquisition of wings by some early offshoot of that stock, an offshoot whence the whole group of the Pterygota took its rise.
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  • How wings were acquired by these primitive Pterygota must remain for the present a subject for speculation.
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  • Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
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  • They are not, therefore, like the wings of birds, modified from some pre-existing structures (the fore-limbs) common to their phylum; they are new and peculiar structures.
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  • The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
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  • It is now, in fact, generally admitted that metamorphosis has been acquired comparatively recently, and Scudder in his review of the earliest fossil insects states that " their metamorphoses were simple and incomplete, the young leaving the egg with the form of the parent, but without wings, the assumption of which required no quiescent stage before maturity."
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  • It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect).
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  • The first hypothesis is not negatived by direct evidence, for we do not actually know the ontogeny of any of the Palaeozoic insects; it is, however, rendered highly improbable by the modern views as to the nature and origin of wings in insects, and by the fact that the Endopterygota include none of the lower existing forms of insects.
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  • It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of growth are directly opposed.
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  • Now there are many forms of Exopterygota in which the creatures are almost or quite destitute of wings.
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  • The wingless forms in question are always allied to winged forms, and there is every reason to believe that they have been really derived from winged forms. There are also insects (fleas, &c.) in which metamorphosis of a " complete " character exists, though the insects never develop wings.
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  • Although we cannot yet define the conditions under which exopterygotous wings are suppressed or unusually developed, yet we know that such fluctuations occur.
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  • There are, in fact, existing forms of Exopterygota that are usually wingless, and that nevertheless appear in certain seasons or localities with wings.
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  • We are therefore entitled to assume that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and, speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
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  • If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet sometimes become perfectly developed.
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  • But it may perhaps be considered improbable that organs like the wings, having once been lost, should have been reacquired on the large scale suggested by the theory just put forward.
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  • The sub-imago of the Ephemeroptera suggests that a moult, after the wings had become functional, was at one time general among the Hexapoda, and that the resting nymph of the Thysanoptera or the pupa of the Endopterygota represents a formerly active stage in the life-history.
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  • But the vestigial jaws, numerous Malpighian tubes, and specialized wings of may-flies forbid us to consider the order as on the whole primitive.
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  • So the Dermaptera, which retain distinct maxillulae and have no ectodermal genital ducts, have either specialized or aborted wings and a large number of Malpighian tubes.
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  • The Corrodentia retain vestigial maxillulae and two pairs of Malpighian tubes, but the wings are somewhat specialized in the Copeognatha and absent in the degraded and parasitic Mallophaga.
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  • The Swedes joyfully accepted the chances of battle and, advancing with irresistible élan, were, at first, successful on both wings.
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  • Hesperornis too, with its keelless sternum, had aborted wings but strong legs and feet adapted for swimming, while Ichthyornis had a keeled sternum and powerful wings, but diminutive legs and feet.
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  • The design of the former is a trellis crossing the ceiling diagonally; in each of the lacunae is carved a cherubim with eight wings; the figures and the trellis are gilded; the ground is a rich ultramarine.
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  • In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.
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  • Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
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  • Passing near Mount Caucasus, they heard the groans of Prometheus and the flapping of the wings of the eagle which gnawed his liver.
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  • On the 16th Berthier went on to Augsburg, where he learnt that Lefebvre's advanced troops had been driven out of Landshut, thus opening a great gap seventy-six miles wide between the two wings of the French army.
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  • Davout, however, had left a garrison of 1800 men in Regensburg, who delayed the junction of the Austrian wings until the 10th inst., and on the same day the emperor, having now reunited his whole right wing and centre, overwhelmed the covering detachments facing him in a long series of disconnected engagements lasting forty-eight hours, and the archduke now found himself in danger of being forced back into the Danube.
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  • They consist of a long rectangular building, with a proscenium or column front which almost forms a tangent to the circle of the orchestra; at the middle and at either end of this proscenium are doors leading into the orchestra, those at the end set in projecting wings; the top of the proscenium is approached by a ramp, of which the lower part is still preserved, running parallel to the parodi, but sloping up as they slope down.
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  • The wings are carried erect: the anterior pair large, with numerous longitudinal nervures, and usually abundant transverse reticulation; the posterior pair very much smaller, often lanceolate, and frequently wanting absolutely.
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  • Immediately adjoining it and connected with it by two wings is the exchange.
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  • The god of Atha was a form of Horus (Apollo) as the sun-god; his most characteristic representation is as the disk of the sun with outspread wings, so often seen over the doors of shrines, at the top of stelae, &c. In the temple, where he is often figured as a falconheaded man, he is associated with Hathor of Dendera and the child Harsemteus.
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  • Before the junction of the two allied wings was complete Sir George White attempted by a general attack to break up their line.
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  • The Austrian cavalry, on weak and emaciated horses, could not gallop at speed up the heavy slopes (2 1 ?), and the artillery of both Prussian wings practically broke every attempt of the infantry to form for attack.
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  • The happiest specimens of this glass almost rival the wings of butterflies in the brilliancy of their iridescent colours.
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  • Some of the last-named are represented with such truth of colouring and delicacy of detail that even the separate feathers of the wings and tail are well distinguished, although, as in an example in the British Museum, a human-headed hawk, the piece which contains the figure may not exceed 4 in.
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  • On tall, roomy, cylindrical glasses they painted portraits of the emperor and electors of Germany, or the imperial eagle bearing on its wings the arms of the states composing the empire.
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  • In his hand he holds the crest of Lagash and its god - a lion-headed eagle with outstretched wings, supported by two lions which are set heraldically back to back.
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  • Adapa while fishing had broken the wings of the south wind, and was accordingly summoned before the tribunal of Anu in heaven.
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  • Its appearance is sufficiently striking - the head and lower parts, except a pectoral band, white, the former adorned with an erectile crest, the upper parts dark grey banded with black, the wings dusky, and the tail barred; but the huge bill and powerful scutellated legs most of all impress the beholder.
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  • The length and armature of the pincers and the presence or absence of wings are perhaps the most important features used by systematists in distinguishing the various kinds.
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  • Except for the absence of wings, the young are miniature models of the adult.
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  • However that may be, they are known to be used in the folding of the wings; and their importance as weapons of defence is attested by the precision and effect with which they are wielded against assailants like ants.
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  • The wings exhibit six longitudinal veins (seven in Heptaphlebomyia), two of which are characteristically forked.
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  • In dividing the Culicidae into genera reliance is placed chiefly upon characters derived from the scales on the three divisions of the body and on the wings.
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  • The old genus Anopheles (characterized by the palpi being long in both sexes) is now divided into a number of genera according to the character and shape of the scales on the different regions of the body and on the wings.
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  • The Anophelinae have narrow bodies, and generally spotted wings, and when at rest keep body and proboscis in a straight line, often at a considerable angle with the supporting surface; in this way they can be distinguished from Culicinae, which have a humped-up thorax with which the proboscis forms an angle, and in the resting position keep the body parallel to the support.
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  • The wings in the male are shorter than the body; in the female they are rudimentary.
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  • Falling under the displeasure of Minos, he fashioned wings for himself and his son Icarus, and escaped to Sicily.
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  • On the lakes there is a very handsome goose, with white body and dark-green wings shading into violet, called huachua, two kinds of ibis, a large gull (Larus serranus) frequenting the alpine lakes in flocks, flamingoes called parihuana, ducks and water-hens.
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  • In Ezekiel the throne of Yahweh is borne up on Cherubim, the noise of whose wings is like thunder.
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  • As the lame smith he reminds us of Hephaestus, and in his flight with wings of Daedalus escaping from Minos.
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  • In appearance tsetse are somewhat narrow-bodied flies, with a prominent proboscis, which projects horizontally in front of the head, and with the wings in the resting position closed flat one over the other like the blades of a pair of scissors.
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  • The coloration of tsetse-flies is sombre and inconspicuous; the brownish or greyish-brown thorax usually exhibits darker longitudinal markings, and when the insect is at rest the abdomen or hinder half of the body is entirely concealed by the brownish wings.
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  • He catches them by means of a rod smeared with bird-lime, and then tying a fine string under their wings, he flies them at its end.
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  • The same law prevailing in all natures creation, in the plumage of birds, the painting of butterifies wings, the marking of shells, and in all the infinite variety and beauty of the floral kingdom, the lesson is constantly renewed to the observant eye.
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  • Their sight is very bad; but they are quick of hearing, and their scent is very keen; they are, too, often accompanied by rhinoceros birds, which, by running about their heads, flapping their wings, and screeching at the same time, frequently give them notice of the approach of danger.
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  • This flying machine consisted of a light frame covered with strong canvas and provided with two large oars or wings moving on a horizontal axis, and so arranged that the upstroke met with no resistance while the downstroke provided the lifting power.
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  • It was not till the autumn of 1894 that an efficient launching apparatus was devised, and then the wings were found not to be strong enough to bear the pressures to which they were subjected.
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  • Apart from this feature the Trichoptera also differ from the typical Neuroptera in the relatively simple, mostly longitudinal neuration of the wings, the absence or obsolescence of the mandibles and the semi-haustellate nature of the rest of the mouth-parts.
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  • Geologically they are known to date back to the Oligocene period, and wings believed to be referable to them have been found in Liassic and Jurassic beds.
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  • Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.
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  • Some of the earlier works of Ur-Nina, En-anna-turn, Entemena and others, before the Semitic conquest, are also extremely interesting, especially the famous stele of the vultures and a great silver vase ornamented with what may be called the coat of arms of Lagash, a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, grasping a lion in each talon.
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  • A series of partial offensives were therefore undertaken on the succeeding days, on both wings of the army, but with little real result; neither corps could succeed in attaining the final objectives of the first day's attack or clear the enemy entirely from the advanced defences of the Hindenburg line.
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  • Mention has already been made of the series of curved hooks along the costa of the hind-wing; by means of this arrangement the two wings of a side are firmly joined together during flight, which thus becomes particularly accurate.
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  • The wings in the Hymenoptera show a marked reduction in the number of nervures as compared with more primitive insects.
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  • Among many of the smaller Hymenoptera we find that the wings are almost destitute of nervures.
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  • Comparatively only a few species are, for part of their lives, denizens of fresh water; these, as larvae, are parasitic on the eggs or larvae of other aquatic insects, the little hymenopteron, Polynema natans, one of the " fairy-flies " - swims through the water by strokes of her delicate wings in search of a dragon-fly's egg in which to lay her own egg, while the rare Agriotypus dives after the case of a caddis-worm.
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  • Fragments of wings from the Lias and Oolitic beds have been referred to ants and bees, but the true nature of these remains is doubtful.
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  • But the wings vary considerably in different families, and the most distinctive feature is the structure of the jaws, which form a beaklike organ with stylets adapted for piercing and sucking.
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  • The wings will be described in connexion with the various After Marlatt, Bull.
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  • The occasional development of wings is probably of service to the species in enabling the insects to reach new fresh-water breeding-grounds.
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  • Eugereon is a remarkable Permian fossil, with jaws that are typically hemipterous except that the second maxillae are not fused and with cockroach-like wings.
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  • There is usually a marked difference between the wings of the two pairs.
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  • Most Heteroptera are flattened in form, and the wings lie flat, or nearly so, when closed.
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  • The Pentatomidae (shield bugs), some of which are metallic or otherwise brightly coloured, are easily recognized by the great development of the scutellum, which reaches at least half-way back towards the tip of the abdomen, and in some genera covers the whole of the hind body, and also the wings when these are closed.
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  • The Anthocoridae are nearly related to the Cimicidae, but the wings are usually well developed and the forewing possesses cuneus and embolium as well as corium and clavus.
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  • The fore-wings are sometimes membranous like the hind-wings, usually they are firmer in texture, but they never show the distinct areas that characterize the wings of Heteroptera.
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  • When at rest the wings of Homoptera slope roofwise across the back of the insect.
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  • The Cicadidae are for the most part large insects with ample wings; they are distinguished from other Homoptera by the front thighs being thickened and toothed beneath.
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  • The families Psyllidae (or " jumpers ") with eight or ten segments in the feeler and the Aleyrodidae (or " snowyflies ") distinguished by their white mealy wings, are of comparatively slight importance.
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  • About twenty-seven species are now known, all characterized by length not excee 4 ding 06 of an inch, flat wings, three articulations in the antennae, one or two articulations in the tarses, with digitules, but without cornicles on the abdomen.
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  • These are the nymphs, destined to acquire wings; their body is more slender in outline, and at first they bear well-marked tubercles.
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  • After several moults the rudiments of two pairs of wings appear, and then the insect creeps up to the surface of the earth, and on to the vine.
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  • Neither male nor female has wings; the rostrum is replaced by a functionless tubercle; and there is no alimentary canal.
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  • The wings and are well adapted for FIG.
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  • Though goldfinches may occasionally be observed in the coldest weather, incomparably the largest number leave Britain in autumn, returning in spring, and resorting to gardens and orchards to breed, when the lively song of the cock, and the bright yellow wings of both sexes, quickly attract notice.
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  • The French and Bavarians were taken somewhat by surprise, and were arrayed in two separate armies, each with its cavalry on the wings and its foot in the centre.
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  • In rear of the village the plain was occupied by Mercy's army in the customary two lines, foot in the centre, horse in the wings.
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  • The French army, similarly arrayed, but with a few battalions attached to the cavalry wings, was more heterogeneous than the German, being composed of French, Hessian, German mercenaries, and Liegeois.
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  • The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.
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  • The interior is very fine, and in one of the wings is a series of rooms dedicated to the poets Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, with appropriate mural paintings.
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  • Such stories obtained credence from the fact that so late as the year 1760, when Linnaeus named the principal species apoda, or "footless," no perfect specimen had been seen in Europe, the natives who sold the skins to coast traders invariably depriving them of feet and wings.
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  • The natives in preparing the skins remove both feet and wings, so as to give more prominence to the commercially valuable tuft of plumes.
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  • Marshal Soult was appointed chief of the staff, a post for which he possessed very few qualifications; and, when the campaign began, command of the left and right wings had perforce to be given to the only two marshals available, Ney and Grouchy, who did not possess the ability or strategic skill necessary for such positions.
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  • For his advance into Belgium in 1815 Napoleon divided his army into two wings and a reserve.
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  • But the emperor regarded it merely as "an unfortunate accident," nothing more, and the advance in two wings and a reserve continued, undisturbed by such occurrences.
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  • Ney's headquarters were at Gosselies; one division (Girard's) was at Wangenies and acted as a link between the two wings.
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  • Napoleon had now perfected his arrangements for the invasion of Belgium, and his army was organized definitely in two wings and a reserve; the latter being so placed that it could be brought "into action on either wing as circumstances dictated."
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  • Napoleon spent the early morning in closing up his army, and writing what proved to be the most important letter of the campaign to Ney (Charleroi, about 8 A.M.): "I have adopted as the general principle for this campaign to divide my army into two wings and a reserve....
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  • The underlying idea of manoeuvring in two wings and a reserve should be kept in mind when considering this letter.
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  • Putting aside the cherubim and seraphim, they are not spoken of as having wings.
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  • The word Vanellus is from vannus, the fan used for winnowing corn, and refers to the audible beating of the bird's wings.
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  • In others the wings are armed with a tubercle or even a sharp spur on the carpus.
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  • In May 1670 he received the titles of excellency and privy councillor; in July of the same year he was ennobled under the name of Griffenfeldt, deriving his title from the gold griffin with outspread wings which surmounted his escutcheon; in November 1673 he was created a count, a knight of the Elephant and, finally, imperial chancellor.
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  • The dipterous gall-formers include the gall-midges, or gallgnats (Cecidomyidae), minute slender-bodied insects, with bodies usually covered with long hairs, and the wings folded over the back.
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  • Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).
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  • The most striking feature of the moas, besides the truly gigantic size of some species, is the almost complete absence of the wings.
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  • In fact, the whole skeletons of the wings and of the shoulder girdle seem to have been lost, excepting Anomalopteryx dromaeoides, which, according to Hutton,' had still some vestiges.
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  • Generals Longstreet and Jackson commanded the right and left wings.
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  • The Federal leader intended to hold back his centre whilst these two forces were rolling up Lee's wings.
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  • In the month of the " diminishing of waters " the rain gods or Tlalocs were propitiated by a procession of priests with music of flutes and trumpets carrying on plumed litters infants with painted faces, in gay clothing with coloured paper wings, to be sacrificed on the mountains or in a whirlpool in the lake.
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  • There are three fronts; the principal, towards College Green, is a colonnade of the Ionic order, with façade and two projecting wings; it connects with the western portico by a colonnade of the same order, forming the quadrant of a circle.
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  • Archaeological discoveries in India, Persia, Assyria and Egypt show that in the polished stone age quaternary man had domesticated the horse, while a Chinese treatise, the Goei-leaotse, the fifth book of the Vouking, a sort of military code dating from the reign of the emperor Hoang-Ti (2637 years B.C.), places the cavalry on the wings of the army.
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  • Some of the families - the stone-flies, for example - have the young insect much like the adult, growing its wings visibly outside the thoracic segments, and active at all stages of its life.
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  • The other groups of the old Linnean order (such as lacewing-flies and caddis-flies)--which are hatched as larvae markedly unlike the parent, develop wing-rudiments hidden under the larval cuticle, and only show the wings externally in a resting pupal stage, passing thus through a " complete " metamorphosis and falling into the sub-class Endopterygotawere retained in the order Neuroptera, which thus became much restricted in its extent.
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  • A curious feature among them is the frequent reduction of the wings in the males of certain species, contrary to the usual condition among the Hexapoda, where if the sexes differ in the development of their wings it is the female which has them reduced.
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  • They are relatively shorter and broader insects than the Embiidae with large prothorax and long wings, which have a transverse line of weakness at the base and are usually shed after the nuptial flight.
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  • When wings are present the front pair are much larger than the hind pair, and the neuration is remarkable for the concresence of the median with the After Marlatt, Bull.
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  • In some Psocidae the wings are in a vestigial state, and the fully winged species rarely if ever fly.
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  • The May-flies are remarkably primitive in certain of their characters, notably the elongate cerci, the paired, entirely mesodermal genital ducts, and the occurrence of an ecdysis after the acquisition of functional wings.
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  • All the wings are of firm, glassy texture, and very complex in their neuration; a remarkable and unique feature is that a branch of the radius (the radial sector) crosses the median nervure, while, by the development of multitudinous cross-nervules, the wing-area becomes divided into an immense number of small areolets.
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  • Structurally the Neuroptera are distinguished by elongate feelers, a large, free prothorax, a labium with the inner lobes of the second maxillae fused together to form a median ligula, membranous, net-veined wings without hairy covering, those of the two pairs being usually alike, the absence of abdominal cerci, and the presence of six or eight Malpighian tubes.
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  • The Myrmeleonidae are large insects with short clubbed feelers on their prominent heads, and two pairs of closely similar net-veined wings, with regular oblong areolets at the tips.
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  • The same is the case with the allied Ascalaphidae, which are distinguished from the Myrmeleonidae by their elongate feelers - as long as the body - and by the irregular apical areolets of the wings.
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  • They may be distinguished from the Neuroptera by the elongation of the head into a beak, the small prothorax, the narrow, elongate wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, the presence of abdominal cerci and the cruciform larva.
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  • By British seamen it is commonly called the " molly mawk "1 (corrupted fromMallemuck),and is extremely well known to them, its flight, as it skims over the waves, first with a few beats of the wings and then gliding for a long way, being very peculiar.
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  • Its wings are short and weak; the fore pair are falcate, and the hind pair do not reach to the end of the body.
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  • A bird called moho, but actually of a different family, was the Pennula ecaudata or millsi, which had hardly any tail, and had wings so degenerate that it was commonly thought wingless.
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  • The most obvious feature the Apteryges afford is the presence of a back toe, while the extremely aborted condition of the wings, the position of the nostrils - almost at the tip of the maxilla - and the absence of an after-shaft in the feathers, are characters nearly as manifest, and others not less determinative, though more recondite, will be found on examination.
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  • It sometimes climbs trees, but generally remains on the ground, only using its comparatively short wings to balance itself in running or to break its fall when it drops from a tree - though not always then - being apparently incapable of real flight.
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  • The other family is that of the Forficulidae or earwigs (q.v.), all of which have the cerci modified as a forceps, while wings of thecharacteristic form described above are present in many of the species.
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  • More important characters of the Orthoptera than the nature of the wings - characters in which they differ from After Marlatt, Ent.
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  • The prothorax is short and the mesothorax very long, the three pairs of legs closely similar, the wings often highly modified or absent, and the cerci short and unjointed.
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  • In some of these insects the wings are so small as to be useless for flight, being modified altogether for stridulation.
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  • Scudder have revealed insects with the general aspect of cockroaches and phasmids, but with the two pairs of wings similar to each other in texture and form.
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  • The Orthopteroid type of wings appears therefore to have arisen from a primitive Isopteroid condition.
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  • Europe, and may be readily recognized by the white bars in its wings and by its 16 or occasionally 18 rectrices.
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  • But when another butterfly of the same species, but with the wings cut off, was offered to her she promptly ate it without showing any sign of dislike.
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  • The front wings of the wasp have a conspicuous white patch near the tip and a patch similar in size and colour is present on the wings of the beetle, which, unlike the majority of beetles, habitually keeps its wings extended, and since the elytra are exceptionally short the wings are not covered by them when folded.
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  • The resemblance also extends to the general form of the body and to the length and thickness of the wings and antennae.
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  • In one of these (Heteronotus trinodosus), the dorsal area of the forepart of the thorax is developed into a plate which projects backwards over the body of the insect, which retains its normal form, and conceals all but the head, wings and, legs.
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  • Trochilium apiforme, crabroniforme - present to bees and wasps is effected in the main by the loss of the scales from the wings, leaving these organs transparent.
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  • The wings are transparent and are black-bordered and black-barred, the anterior wing having two black bars and the posterior one.
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  • Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
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  • In Mashonaland, for instance, a large number of genera and species of Hymenoptera belonging to the Apidae, Eumenidae, Sphegidae, Pompilidae, Scoliidae, Tiphiidae and Mutillidae, resemble each other in having black bodies and dark blue wings.
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  • The badge of the order was a white Maltese cross decorated in gold, with the gold lilies of France at the angles, in the centre a white dove with wings outstretched, the ribbon was sky blue (cordon bleu).
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  • The badge has an elaborate design; it consists of a star of purple, red, yellow, gold and silver rays, on which are displayed old Japanese weapons, banners and shields in various coloured enamels, the whole surmounted by a golden kite with outstretched wings.
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  • Such were the sleeveless surplice, which was provided at the sides with holes to put the arms through; the surplice with slit-up arms or lappels (so-called "wings") instead of sleeves; the surplice of which not only the sleeves but the body of the garment itself were slit up the sides, precisely like the modern dalmatic; and, finally, a sort of surplice in the form of a bell-shaped mantle, with a hole for the head, which necessitated the arms being stuck out under the hem.
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  • The species are all characterized by short rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a thick hair-like covering.
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  • The wings are somewhat feeble, and the legs have the toes placed in pairs, two before and two behind.
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  • He consulted the older and graver Laurentius Andreae, who told him how "Doctor Martinus had clipped the wings of the pope, the cardinals and the big bishops," which could not fail to be pleasing intelligence to a monarch who was never an admirer of episcopacy, while the rich revenues of the church, accumulated in the course of centuries, were a tempting object to the impecunious ruler of an impoverished people.
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  • The wings are short and rounded, and in some forms the feathers ' Brisson and after him Linnaeus confounded this bird, which they had never seen, with the Trumpeter.
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  • The untiring efforts of Philip of Hesse to unite the two wings of the Protestant forces met with very little success, and the famous conference at Marburg in the autumn of 1529, for which he was responsible, revealed the fact that it was practically impossible for the Lutherans and the burg.
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  • This startling victory of the Social Democracy, though to a certain extent discounted by the dissensions between the two wings of the party which were revealed at the congress at Dresden in the same year, was in the highest degree disconcerting to the government; but in the actual manipulation of the Reichstag it facilitated the work of the chancellor by enabling him to unite the other groups more readily against the common enemy.
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  • The whole length of the bird is from 43 to 46 in., of which, however, about 20 are due to the long cuneiform tail, while the pointed wings measure more than 30 in.
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  • The quill-feathers, both of the wings and tail, are of a dark blackish-grey.
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  • You may almost hear the beating of his wings," he said, and concluded with an appeal to the prime minister that moved the House as it had never been moved within living memory.
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  • The under jaws are hinged on to the quadrate bones, which extend obliquely backwards, and are immovably wedged in between the squamosal and the lateral occipital wings.
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  • The conditions for a night march were thus ideal; but during the movement the wings closed towards each other, causing great risk of an outbreak of firing.
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  • The imperial army accepted the challenge and drew up facing south-westward towards Bouvines, the heavy cavalry on the wings, the infantry in one great mass in the centre, supported by the cavalry corps under the emperor himself.
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  • The French army (about 7000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry) took ground exactly opposite to the enemy and in a similar formation, cavalry on the wings, infantry, including the milice des communes, in the centre, Philip with the cavalry reserve and the Oriflamme in rear of the foot.
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  • The day was already decided in favour of the French when their wings began to close inwards to cut off the retreat of the imperial centre.
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  • The smith avenged himself by the slaughter of NiPoPr's two sons and the rape of his daughter Bodvildr. He then soared away on wings he had prepared.
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  • Bodvildr and her attendant also appear, and Egill, who in one version made VOlundr's wings, is depicted in the act of catching birds.
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  • The conception and attributes of the figure are taken, as has lately been recognized, from a description in the "Manto" of Politian: the goddess, to whose shoulders are appended a pair of huge wings, stands like Fortune on a revolving ball, holding the emblems of the cup and bridle, and below her feet is spread a rich landscape of hill and valley.
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  • One of these is the portrait of Frederick the Wise of Saxony, formerly in the Hamilton collection and now at Berlin; the second, much disfigured by restoration, is the Dresden altarpiece with a Madonna and Child in the middle and St Anthony and Sebastian in the wings.
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  • In an altarpiece at Ober St Veit and in the scattered wings of the Jabach altarpiece severally preserved at Munich, Frankfort and Cologne, the workmanship seems to be exclusively that of journeymen working from his drawings.
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  • The period is closed, so far as paintings are concerned, by two examples of far higher value than those above named, that is to say the Paumgartner altarpiece at Munich, with its romantically attractive composition of the Nativity with angels and donors in the central panel, and the fine armed figures of St George and St Eustace (lately freed from the over-paintings which disfigured them) on the wings; and the happily conceived and harmoniously finished "Adoration of the Magi" in the Uffizi at Florence.
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  • In 1509 followed the "Assumption of the Virgin" with the Apostles gathered about her tomb, a rich altarpiece with figures of saints and portraits of the donor and his wife in the folding wings, executed for Jacob Heller, a merchant of Frankfort, in 1509.
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  • But though Mr Asquith and Sir Edward Grey adhered to the Liberal League, Sir Henry CampbellBannerman retained the loyalty of the majority of the Liberal party, and Lord Spencer threw his weight on the same side; and in a speech at the Liberal League dinner on the 31st of July Lord Rosebery had to admit that their principles had not yet prevailed, and that, until they did, a reconciliation between the two wings of the party would be impossible.
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  • Their form is not described, but they have not only six wings (verse 2), but hands (verse 6) and feet (verse 2).
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  • On the wings it was possible to improve the situation.
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  • Although the wings were holding, the situation in the centre was very grave, and Cadorna considered that if the Austrians were able to concentrate on the weak spot and keep up the impetus of their attack they might succeed in breaking through to the plain.
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  • The wings of the Italian line had held firm, and it was above all necessary to gain room south of Arsiero.
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  • The troops between Asiago and the Val Canaglia had very few guns, and even when sufficient artillery reenforcements were available Cadorna preferred first to strengthen his wings for the counter-attack that he was already preparing.
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  • The young (which on leaving the nest have not the tips of the bill crossed) are of a dull olive colour with indistinct dark stripes on the lower parts, and the quills of the wings and tail dusky.
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  • In early art, they were represented as birds with the heads of women; later, as female figures with the legs of birds, with or without wings.
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  • It consists of a central building of Virginia sandstone, painted white, and two wings of white Massachusetts marble.
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  • The allegorical decorations here are by Persico and Horatio Greenough; those on the Senate portico are by Thomas Crawford, who designed the bronze doors at the entrances to the Senate and House wings.
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  • Two squares north of the Senate officebuilding is the Union Railway Station (1908; 343 by 760 ft.; cost, $4,000,000), designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham, consisting of a main building of white granite (from Bethel, Vermont) and two wings, and facing a beautiful plaza.
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  • He is pictured as having seven mouths, a hundred wings and horns and is armed with bow and arrows and an axe.
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  • Selby, properly belonging, at least in the Fame Islands, to the species known by the book-name of Sandwich tern, all the others being those called sea-swallows - a name still most commonly given to the whole group throughout Britain from their long wings, forked tail and marine habit.
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  • In such cases the absence of wings must be regarded as secondary - due to a parasitic or other special manner of life.
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  • But the bristle-tails and springtails, which form the modern order Aptera, are all without any trace of wings, and, on account of several remarkable archaic characters which they exhibit, there is reason for believing that they are primitively wingless - that they represent an early offshoot which sprang from the ancestral stock of the Hexapoda before organs of flight had been acquired by the class.
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  • The sexes do not differ appreciably in colour, which is of a dark brown, somewhat lighter beneath; but the primaries have at the base a patch of white, visible even when the wings are closed, and forming, when they are spread, a conspicuous band.
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  • It consists of three main wings, and a fourth and smaller wing, and is built round a courtyard.
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  • Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.
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  • The palace is quadrangular with two wings towards the east and four (two straight and two curving) towards the west.
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  • Among more ideal work are "Eve" (1880), "Diana" (1882 and 1891), "Woman and Peacock," and "The Poet," astride his Pegasus spreading wings for flight.
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  • The birds flap their wings on rising from the ground, but after attaining a moderate elevation they seem to sail on the air, Charles Darwin having watched them for half an hour without once observing a flap of their wings.
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  • The clusters of green flowers terminate the young shoots and are erect; the two wings of the fruit spread almost horizontally, and are smaller than in the sycamore.
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  • The flowers are borne in long pendulous racemes, and the two wings of the fruit are ascending.
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  • It is a lofty tree (from 40 to 70 ft.), resembling the sycamore, but with yellow flowers, appearing before the leaves, and more spreading wings to the fruit.
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  • The male of the cochineal insect is half the size of the female, and, unlike it, is devoid of nutritive apparatus; it has long white wings, and a body of a deep red colour, terminated by two diverging setae.
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  • The benevolent institutions include the general hospital, founded in 1817, removed to the present site in 1867, extended by the addition of two wings in 1878 and of an eye department in 1890; a convalescent home for twenty patients from the hospital only (1903); the Royal Cambrian Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, established in 1847 at Aberystwyth, removed to Swansea in 1850, and several times enlarged, so as to have at present accommodation for ninety-eight pupils; the Swansea and South Wales Institution for the Blind, established in 1865 and now under the Board of Education; the Swansea and South Wales Nursing Institute (1873), providing a home for nurses in the intervals of their employment; a nursing institution (1902) for nursing the sick poor in their own homes, affiliated with the Queen's Jubilee Institute of London; the Sailors' Home (1864); a Sailors' Rest (1885); and a Mission to Seamen's Institute (1904).
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  • The theatre, which is set in the lower slope of Mount Cynthus, has the wings of the auditorium supported by massive substructures.
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  • The wings are thus constructed on the same plan as those of a bat, but instead of four fingers, only one is elongated to bear the membrane.
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  • A pair of wings of the toothless Pteranodon from the Chalk of Kansas, now in the British Museum, measures about five and a half metres in span.
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  • The legs and toes are comparatively feeble, but the wings are large.
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  • To the bottom and muller are attached grinding plates (shoes and dies), which are replaced when worn; and to the sides three wings to deflect the moving pulp towards the centre, and thus establish the necessary pulp current.
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  • The young are often taken from the nest and reared by the people to attend upon and defend their poultry, a duty which is faithfully 1 and, owing to the spurs with which the chaka's wings are armed, successfully discharged.
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  • In order to meet these peculiarities the travelling organs of aquatic and flying animals (whether they be feet, fins, flippers or wings) are made not of rigid but of elastic materials.
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  • When the bird dives, or flies under water, the long axis of the body is inclined obliquely downwards and forwards, and the bird forces itself into and beneath the water by the action of its feet, or wings, or both.
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  • These changes in the direction of the long axis of the bird in swimming, diving and flying, and in the direction of the stroke of the wings in sub-aquatic and aerial flight, are due to the fact that the bird is heavier than the air and lighter than the water.
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  • The balloon floats because it is lighter than the air; the flying creature floats because it extracts from the air, by the vigorous downward action of its wings, a certain amount of upward recoil.
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  • She knows that if the wings are driven with sufficient rapidity they practically convert the spaces through which they move into solid bases of support; she also knows that the body in rapid flight derives support from all the air over which it passes.
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  • But they are not dead surfaces: they represent the spaces occupied by the rapidly vibrating wings, which are actively moving flying organs.
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  • As, moreover, the wings travel at a much higher speed than any wind that blows, they are superior to and control the wind; they enable the insect to dart through the wind in whatever direction it pleases.
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  • The elytra, however, are comparatively long narrow structures which occupy a position in front of the wings, of which they may be regarded as forming the anterior parts.
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  • The elytra are to the delicate wings of some insects what the thick anterior margins are to stronger wings.
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  • The elytra serve as protectors to the wings when the wings are folded upon the back of the insect, and as they are extended on either side of the body more or less horizontally when the insect is flying they contribute to flight indirectly, in virtue of their being carried forward by the body in motion.
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  • The manner in which the wings of the insect traverse the air, so as practically to increase the basis of support, raises the whole subject of natural flight.
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  • Flying creatures, however, are less remarkable for their strength, shape and comparative levity than for the size and extraordinarily rapid and complicated movements of their wings.
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  • This physiologist in 1867 2 showed that all natural wings, whether of the insect, bird or bat, are screws structurally, and that they act as screws when the y are made to vibrate, from the fact that they twist in opposite directions during the down and up strokes.
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  • He also explained that all wings act upon a common principle, and that they present oblique, kite-like surfaces to the air, through which they pass much in the same way that an oar passes through water in sculling.
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  • He further pointed out that the wings of flying creatures (contrary to received opinions, and as has been already indicated) strike downwards and forwards during the down strokes, and upwards and forwards during the up strokes.
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  • Lastly he demonstrated that the wings of flying creatures, when the I By the term aeroplane is meant a thin, light, expanded structure inclined at a slight upward angle to the horizon intended to float or rest upon the air, and calculated to afford a certain amoune, of support to any body attached to it.
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  • In speaking of artificial flight Leonardo says: " The wings have to row downwards and backwards to support the machine on high, so that it moves forward."
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  • In speaking of natural flight he remarks: " If in its descent the bird rows backwards with its wings the bird will move rapidly; this happens because the wings strike the air which successively runs behind the bird to fill the void whence it comes."
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  • The following is Pettigrew's description of wings and wing movements published in 1867: " The wings of insects and birds are, as a rule, more or less triangular in shape, the base of the triangle being directed towards the body, its sides anteriorly and posteriorly.
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  • The wings of insects may consist either of one or two pairs - the anterior or upper pair, when two are present, being in some instances greatly modified and presenting a corneous condition.
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  • As this arrangement extends also to the margins, the wings are more or less twisted upon themselves and present a certain degree of convexity on their superior or upper surface, and a corresponding concavity on their inferior or under surface, - their free edges supplying those fine curves which act with such efficacy upon the air in obtaining the maximum of resistance and the minimum of displacement.
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  • As illustrative examples of the form of wings alluded to, those of the beetle, bee and fly may be cited - the pinions in those insects acting as helices, or twisted levers, and ' Revue des tours scientifiques de la France et del' Etranger, 1869.
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  • In registering the movements of the wings the tips and margins of the pinions were, by an ingenious modification, employed as the styles or pens.
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  • By this arrangement the different parts of the wings were made actually to record their own movements.
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  • An insect with wings thus hinged may, as far as steadiness of body is concerned, be not inaptly compared to a compass set upon gimbals, where the universality of motion in one direction ensures comparative fixedness in another."
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  • Although the figure-of-8 represents with considerable fidelity the twisting of the wing upon its axis during extension and flexion, when the insect is playing its wings before an object, or still better when it is artificially fixed, it is otherwise when the down stroke is added and the insect is fairly on the wing and progressing rapidly.
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  • This statement can be readily verified by experiment both with natural and artificial wings.
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  • The rapidity of the wing movements is regulated by the size of the wing, small wings being driven at a very much higher speed than larger ones.
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  • The wasp, for instance, is said to ply its wings at the rate of i io, and the common house-fly at the rate of 330 beats per second.
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  • Quick as are the vibrations of natural wings, the speed of certain parts of the wing is amazingly increased.
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  • Wings as a rule are long and narrow.
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  • One naturally inquires why the high speed of wings, and why the progressive increase of speed at their tips and posterior margins?
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  • If the wings were not driven at a high speed, and if they were not eccentrics made to revolve upon two separate axes, they would of necessity be large cumbrous structures; but large heavy wings would be difficult to work, and what is worse, they would (if too large), instead of controlling the air, be controlled by it, and so cease to be flying organs.
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  • There is, however, another reason why wings should be made to vibrate at high speeds.
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  • The air, as explained, is a very light, thin, elastic medium, which yields on the slightest pressure, and unless the wings attacked it with great violence the necessary recoil or resistance could not be obtained.
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  • To meet these peculiarities the insect, bird and bat are furnished with extensive flying surfaces in the shape of wings, which they apply with singular velocity and power to the air, as levers of the third order.
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  • In this process the weight of the body performs an important part, by acting upon the inclined planes formed by the wings in the plane of progression.
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  • When the wings descend they elevate the body, the wings being active and the body passive; when the body descends it contributes to the elevation of the wings,' the body being active and the wings more or less passive.
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  • It is in this way that weight forms a factor in flight, the wings and the weight of the body reciprocating and mutually assisting and relieving each other.
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  • This is an argument for employing four wings in artificial flight, - the wings being so arranged that the two which are up shall always by their fall mechanically elevate the two which are down.
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  • Here the cork, in falling, acts upon the feathers (which are to all 'f intents and purposes wings), g and these in turn act upon FIG.
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  • It must tread with its wings and rise upon the air as a swimmer upon the water, or as a kite upon the wind.
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  • Either the wings must attack the air with great violence, or the air in rapid motion must attack the wings: either suffices.
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  • If a bird attempts to fly in a calm, the wings must be made to smite the air after the manner of.
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  • In this case the wings fly the bird.
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  • If, however, the bird is fairly launched in space and a stiff breeze is blowing, all that is required in many instances is to extend the wings at a slight upward angle to the horizon so that the under parts of the wings present kite-like surfaces.
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  • If by any chance this magnificent bird alights upon the sea he must flap and beat the water and air with his wings with tremendous energy until he gets fairly launched.
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  • This done he extends his enormous pinions 2 and sails majestically along, seldom deigning to flap his wings, the breeze doing the work for him.
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  • In this case the air in rapid motion strikes the under surface of the kite and forces it up. The string and the hand are to the kite what the weight of the flying creature is to the inclined planes formed by its wings.
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  • The area of the insect, bird and bat, when the wings are fully expanded, is greater than that of any other class of animal, their weight being proportionally less.
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  • We have thus light-bodied and I The wings of the albatross, when fully extended, measure across the back some 14 ft.
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  • Those apparent inconsistencies in the dimensions of the body and wings are readily explained by the greater muscular development of the heavy-bodied, small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the increased power and rapidity with which the wings in them are made to oscillate.
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  • That no fixed relation exists between the area of the wings and the size and weight of the body to be elevated is evident on comparing the dimensions of the wings and bodies of the several orders of insects, bats and birds.
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  • The statements here advanced are borne out by the fact that the wings of insects, bats and birds may be materially reduced without impairing their powers of flight.
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  • In such cases the speed with which the wings are driven is increased in the direct ratio of the mutilation.
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  • It is a peculiarity of natural wings, and of artificial wings constructed on the principle of living wings, that when forcibly elevated or depressed, even in a strictly vertical direction, they inevitably dart forward.
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  • The same thing happens when the wing is depressed from e to f and elevated from g to h, the wing describing a waved track as at There are good reasons why the wings should always be in advance of the body.
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  • The wings consequently must be made to strike forwards and kept in advance of the body of the bird if they are to prevent the bird from falling downwards and forwards.
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  • If the wings were to strike backwards in aerial flight, the bird would turn a forward somersault.
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  • That the wings invariably strike forwards during the down and up strokes in aerial flight is proved alike by observation and experiment.
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  • If any one watches a bird rising from the ground or the water, he cannot fail to perceive that the head and body are slightly tilted upwards, and that the wings are made to descend with great vigour in a downward and forward direction.
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  • No one ever saw a bird in the air flapping its wings towards its tail.
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  • The old idea was that the wings during the down stroke pushed the body of the bird in an upward and forward direction; in reality the wings do not push but pull, and in order to pull they must always be in advance of the body to be flown.
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  • If the wings did not themselves fly forward, they could not possibly cause the body of the bird to fly forward.
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  • It is the wings which cause the bird to fly.
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  • These surfaces may be conferred on artificial wings, aeroplanes, aerial screws or similar structures; and these structures, if we may judge from what we find in nature, should be of moderate size and elastic. The power of the flying organs will be increased if they are driven at a comparatively high speed, and particularly if they are made to reverse and reciprocate, as in this case they will practically create the currents upon which they are destined to rise and advance.
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  • This, as stated, is true of natural wings.
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  • It should also be true of artificial wings and their analogues.
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  • We are now in a position to enter upon a consideration of artificial wings and wing movements, and of artificial flight and flying machines.
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  • We begin with artificial wings.
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  • This author, distinguished alike as a physiologist, mathematician and mechanician, describes and figures a bird with artificial wings, each of which consists of a rigid rod in front and flexible feathers behind.
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  • He, in fact, endeavours to prove that a bird wedges itself forward upon the air by the perpendicular vibration of its wings, the wings during their action forming a wedge, the base of which (c b e) is directed towards the head of the bird, the apex (a f) being directed towards the tail (d).
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  • In the 1 96th proposition of his work (De motu animalium, Leiden, 1685) he states that " If the expanded wings of a bird suspended in the air shall strike the undisturbed air beneath it with a motion perpendicular to the horizon, the bird will fly with a transverse motion in a plane parallel with the horizon."
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  • The same argument is re stated in different words as under: - " If the air under the wings be struck by the flexible portions of the wings (flabella, literally fly flaps or small fans) with a motion perpendicular to the horizon, the sails (vela) and flexible portions of the wings (flabella) will yield in an upward direction and form a wedge, the point of which is directed towards the tail.
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  • Whether, therefore, the air strikes the wings from below, or the wings strike the air from above, the result is the same, - the posterior or flexible margins of the wings yield in an upward direction, and in so doing urge the bird in a horizontal direction."
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  • Moreover, in point of fact, all natural wings, and all artificial wings constructed on the natural type, invariably strike downwards and forwards.
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  • If the anterior margins of natural and artificial wings were rigid, it would be impossible to make them vibrate smoothly and continuously.
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  • If a rigid rod, or a wing with a rigid anterior margin, be made to vibrate, the vibration is characterized by an unequal jerky motion, at the end of the down and up strokes, which contrasts strangely with the smooth, steady fanning movement peculiar to natural wings.
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  • There is one unanswerable objection to this theory: the birds and bats, and some if not all the insects, have distinct elevator muscles, and can elevate their wings at pleasure when not flying and when, consequently, the reaction of the air is not elicited.
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  • He describes two artificial wings, the one composed of a rigid rod and sail - the rod representing the stiff anterior margin of the wing; the sail, which is made of paper bordered with cardboard, the flexible posterior margin.
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  • After Pettigrew enunciated his views (1867) as to the screw configuration and elastic properties of natural wings, and more especially after his introduction of spiral, elastic artificial wings, and elastic screws, a great revolution took place in the construction of flying models.
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  • Armour, 2 and elastic aeroplanes, wings and screws by Alphonse Penaud.3 Penaud's experiments are alike interesting and instructive.
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  • He constructed models to fly by three different methods: - (a) by means of screws acting vertically upwards; (b) by aeroplanes propelled horizontally by screws; and (c) by wings which FIG.
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  • The production of flight by the vertical flapping of wings is in some respects the most difficult, but this also has been attempted and achieved.
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  • De Villeneuve made the wings of his artificial bat conical in shape and comparatively rigid.
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  • He controlled the movements of the wings, and made them strike downwards and forwards in imitation of natural wings.
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  • India-rubber springs were made to extend between the inner posterior parts of the wings and the frame, corresponding to the backbone of the bird.
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  • This frame extends on either side of the car in a similar manner to the outstretched wings of a bird; but with this difference, that the frame is immovable.
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  • The wings, or aeroplanes, four in number, consisted of light frames of tubular aluminium steel covered with china silk.
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  • In January 1910 Delagrange was killed by the fracture of one of the wings of a monoplane on which he was flying.
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  • It is a huge square building flanked with two wings, having towers rising to the height of about 140 ft.
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  • The anterior wings, when present, are always small; but the posterior wings are sometimes of large size and very beautifully coloured.
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  • The colouring, however, is only visible when the wings are expanded and in use.
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  • The radiation from a spot changes little as it approaches the sun's limb; in fact Hale and Adams find that the absorption from the limb itself differs from that of the centre of the disk in a manner exactly resembling that from a spot, the same lines being strengthened or weakened in the same way, though in much less degree, with, however, one material exception: if a line is winged in the photosphere the wings are generally increased in the spot, but on the limb they are weakened or obliterated.
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