Wines Sentence Examples
Mr Gladstone specially quoted him in support of the Light Wines Bill (1860).
It has an extensive trade in the wines of the district.
Its trade is in the wines of Alsace, brandy and cereals.
The characteristic flavour and odour of wines and spirits is dependent on the proportion of higher alcohols, aldehydes and esters which may be produced.
Arbois is well known for its red and white wines, and has saw-mills, tanneries and market gardens, and manufactures paper, oil and casks.Advertisement
Imports include woven goods, metals, ironware, machinery, tea, wines and spirits, mineral oils, opium, paper, and arms and powder.
Among the exports may be noticed minerals, wines and spirits, tobacco, hides, live animals; and among the imports, groceries, cotton and cereals.
The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
The quality, too, owing to bad weather at the time of vintage, was not good; Italian wine, indeed, never is sufficiently good to compete with the best wines of other countries, especially France (thotigh there is more opening for Italian wines of the Bordeaux and,Burgundy type); nor will many kinds of it stand keeping, partly owing to their natural qualities and partly to the insufficient care devoted to their preparation.
There has been some improvement, however, while some of the heavier white wines, noticeably the Marsala of Sicily, have excellent keeping qualities.Advertisement
The principal exports are silk and cotton tissues, live stock, wines, spirits and oils; corn, flour, macaroni and similar products; and minerals, chiefly sulphur.
There is a school of viticulture and a very considerable trade in Moselle wines, especially during the annual auctions.
The vine flourishes chiefly on the hills of the south-east; the wines of Les Riceys, Bar-sur-Aube, Bouilly and Laines-aux-Bois are most esteemed.
The vineyards of Bugey and Revermont yield good wines.
With France there is a large traffic in wines, spirits, silk, fruit, vegetables and general provisions.Advertisement
It is well stocked with trout, and the steep declivities of the lower valley furnish red wines of excellent quality.
Pears, apples, quinces, mulberries an d other fruit-trees flourish, as well as vines; the Cretan wines, however, no longer enjoy the reputation which they possessed in the time of the Venetians.
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
The trade mainly consists of the wines of the district.
The principal industries are wool and cotton spinning, and the manufacture of porcelain, earthenware, boots, soap, oil, sparkling wines and beer.Advertisement
It was the most piquant feature of his life that he, one of the gilded youth, a connoisseur in wines, and a learned man to boot, had become agitator and the champion of the working man.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
Wines of fair quality are grown in the valley of the Sioule; walnuts, chestnuts, plums, apples and pears are principal fruits.
In the Vivarais cattle are reared, while on the slopes of the Beaujolais excellent wines are grown.Advertisement
St Emilion is celebrated for its wines.
Its medieval importance, due to the pilgrimages to the tomb of the saint and to the commerce in its wines, began to decline towards the end of the 13th century owing to the foundation of Libourne.
The wines of Hungary were already renowned throughout Europe, and cattle breeding was conducted on a great scale.
The Parras district in the southern part of the state has long been celebrated for its wines and brandies.
The grain produce, consisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye and Indian corn, exceeds the consumption, and the vineyards yield an abundant supply of both white and red wines, those of Limoux and the Narbonnais being most highly esteemed.
The imports include manufactured articles of all kinds, hardware and building materials, earthenware and glassware, furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs, coal, petroleum and many other things.
In the middle ages, owing to various causes, the better wines of France and Germany could not be obtained in England except at prohibitive prices; but when this state of things ceased, and foreign wine could be imported, the English consumers would no longer tolerate the inferior productions of their own vineyards.
The relative inferiority of the wines made at the Cape of Good Hope and in Australia is partly due to variations of climate, the vine not yet having adapted itself to the new conditions, - and partly to the deficient skill of the manufacturers.
The island imports wines, spirits, tissues, clothing and ironmongery; and exports ores, nickel, cobalt and chrome (which represent over three-quarters of the total exports in value), preserved meats and hides, coffee, copra and other colonial produce.
John was forced to withdraw to Burgundy (August 1413), and the university of Paris and John Gerson once more censured Petit's propositions, which, but for the lavish bribes of money and wines offered by John to the prelates, would have been solemnly condemned at the council of Constance.
Oleg returned to Kiev laden with golden ornaments, costly cloths, wines, and all manner of precious things.
Grapes are produced in many of the irrigated valleys of the coast, such as Chincha, Lunahuana, Ica, Vitor, Majes, Andaray, Moquegua and Locumba, and the fruit is manufactured into wines and brandies.
Excellent clarets and white wines are produced, and the industry is steadily increasing.
The culture of the vine increases, and the wines, which are characterized by a mildness of flavour, are in good demand.
The principal exports are wines, especially champagne, spirits, hay, straw, wool, potatoes, woven goods, fruit, glass-ware, lace and metal-ware.
The ozone so prepared has numerous uses, as, for example, in bleaching oils, waxes, fabrics, &c., sterilizing drinking-water, maturing wines, cleansing foul beer-casks, oxidizing oil, and in the manufacture of vanillin.
Dijon has considerable trade in cereals and wool, and is the second market for the wines of Burgundy.
Manufactures are of small account, the raw material going mostly to the coast; but olive-oil is made, together with various wines, of which the most famous is the vino d'oro, a sweet liqueur-like beverage.
In southern Tirol, silk-spinning is still one of the principal industries, while good local wines are produced near Meran and Botzen.
Among the principal imports are cocoa, coffee, grain (including Indian corn), fruit, provisions (including butter, eggs and potatoes from France and the Channel Islands), wines and spirits, sugar, wool, and other foreign and colonial produce.
The manufacture of paper and wood-pulp products ($37,750,605 in 1905) is an industry for which the state still furnishes much of the raw material, and other large industries of which the same is true are the manufacture of flour and grist-mill products, dairy products, canned fruits and vegetables, wines, clay products, and salt.
It is well laid out, has an Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, and carries on a considerable trade in the red wines of the district.
Excellent wines are also made, those of Melnik in Bohemia and the Slovakian wines being the best known.
In that treaty the concessions made to France were the reduction by Great Britain of duties on wines and spirits, and the admission, free of duty, of some important French products, notably silk manufactures, gloves, and other products in which the French had superiority.
The country, in the words of an expert sent to report on the subject by the French government, " can produce an infinite variety of wines suitable to every constitution and to every caprice of taste."
Algerian vineyards were also attacked (1883) despite precautionary measures, but in the meantime the worth of their wines had been proved.
It is an important steamboat station for both passenger and cargo traffic, and besides manufactures of cement, dyes and soap, has a considerable trade in the wines of the district.
The wines are for the most part rough and strong, though some are very good, especially when matured.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
The surrounding country is extremely fertile, and its wines are the best produced in Turkey.
Once every four years in cities and once in two years in towns the question of licence or no-licence must be submitted to a vote of the electorate, and in a no-licence town or city no bar-room or saloon is to be permitted; in such a town or city, however, malt liquor, cider and light wines may be sold at a railway restaurant and an inn-keeper may serve liquors to his bona-fide registered guests.
Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
There is a considerable trade in wines.
Leitmeritz is situated in the midst of a very fertile country, called the "Bohemian Paradise," which produces great quantities of corn, fruit, hops and wines.
Rio is also a distributing centre in the coasting trade, and many imported products, such as jerked beef (came secca), hay, flour, wines, &c., appear among the coastwise exports, as well as domestic manufactures.
The imports include wheat, flour, Indian corn, jerked beef (carne secca), lard, bacon, wines and liquors, butter, cheese, conserves of all kinds, coal, cotton, woollen, linen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, earthenand glasswares, railway material, machinery, furniture, building material, including pine lumber, drugs and chemicals, and hardware.
A law prohibiting drunkenness (1835) was followed in 1838 by a licence law and in 1839 by a law prohibiting the importation of spirits and taxing wines fifty cents a gallon; in 1840 another prohibitory law was enacted; but licence laws soon made the sale of liquor common.
None of the Corfu wines is much exported.
It is famous for its wines, in which a large export trade is done.
The trade is almost exclusively confined to the manufacture and export of the wines of the district.
The principal exports are wines, cereals, olive-oil, cotton goods, soap, cigarette-paper, furniture and barrels, boots, shoes and leather goods, and machinery.
And when they had been served with wines and spices they went away leaving only the candidate, the esquires, " the priest, the chandler and the watch," who kept the vigil of arms until sunrise, the candidate passing the night " bestowing himself in orisons and prayers."
In December 1767, in reply to a message from Boston, a townmeeting forbade the use of tea, wines, liquors and foreign manufactures; in 1770 all citizens were forbidden to hold 1 The principal village of the Mohegans was originally, it seems, on the site of Norwich.
Having established his right to levy a tonnage on wines in the mark, he issued in February 1473 the important dispositio Achillea, which decreed that the mark of Brandenburg should descend in its entirety to the eldest son, while the younger sons should receive the Franconian possessions of the family.
The principal articles imported are textiles, hardware, wines, rice, flour, canned goods and general provisions; the exports are yerba mate, hides, hair, dried meat; wood, oranges, tobacco.
There is a large lithographic establishment, and a considerable trade is done in wine and fruit, the wines of Esslingen being very famous.
He received Johnson's homage with the most winning affability, and requited it with a few guineas, bestowed doubtless in a very graceful manner, but was by no means desirous to see all his carpets blackened with the London mud, and his soups and wines thrown to right and left over the gowns of fine ladies and the waistcoats of fine gentlemen, by an absent, awkward scholar, who gave strange starts and uttered strange growls, who dressed like a scarecrow and ate like a cormorant.
In the south the declivities of the Taunus (2890 ft.) are marked by the occurrence of mineral springs, as at Ems on the Lahn, Nauheim; Homburg, Soden, Wiesbaden, &c., and by the vineyards which produce the best Rhine wines.
In the valley of the Saale and Elbe (near Dresden), and in lower Silesia (between Guben and Grunberg), the number of vineyards is small, and the wines of inferior quality; but along the Rhine from Basel to Coblenz, in Alsace, Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse, and above all in the province of Nassau, the lower slopes of the hills are literally covered with vines.
The Moselle wines are lighter and more acid than those of the Rhine.
The port is a free port, import duties being payable only on opium, wines and spirits.
The trade of Budapest is mainly in corn, flour, cattle, horses, pigs, wines, spirits, wool, wood, hides, and in the articles manufactured in the town.
Per_ia, the centre of the industry, is the largest producer of whisky and high-class wines of the cities in the United States.
The leading imports are grains, flour, lard and various other foodstuffs, coal, lumber, petroleum and machinery, all mainly from the United States; wines and olive oil from Spain; jerked beef from South America; fabrics and other staples from varied sources.
The town carries on an active trade in cereals, wines and cattle.
There is a considerable trade in French wines, for which Luneburg has for centuries been one of the chief emporia in north Germany, and also in grain and wool.
They also forbade the introduction of foreign wines and unguents.
Between 1872 and 1903 exports of canned fruits increased from 91 to 94,205 short tons; between 1880 and 1903 the increase of dried fruit exports was from 295 to 149,531 tons; of fresh deciduous fruits, from 2590 to 101,199; of raisins, from 400 to 39,963; of citrus fruits, from 458 to 299,623; of wines and brandies between 1891 and 1903, from 47,651 to 97,332 tons.
The better California wines are largely sold under French labels.
They are made chiefly from grapes, and are used to fortify wines.
Manufactured wares, groceries and wines are the goods principally imported from western Europe.
Valdepenas contains large distilleries, tanneries, flour mills, cooperages, and other factories; but its trade is chiefly in the red wines for which the district is famous throughout Spain.
At a later date the republic sought to stimulate its home industry by prohibiting the importation of wine, and by restricting its cultivation in the colonies, thus preserving the latter as a useful market for Italian wines.
According to Pliny, Spanish, Gallic and Greek wines were all consumed in Rome during the 1st century of the Christian era, but in Gaul the production of wine appears to have been limited to certain districts on the Rhone and Gironde.
Wines imported into the United Kingdom in 1906.
Of the wines imported from France, about one-quarter was Champagne and Saumur, the remainder consisting almost entirely of still wines, such as claret and burgundy.
Viticulture And Wine-Making General Considerations.-Although the wine is cultivated in practically every part of the world possessing an appropriate climate and soil, from California in the West to Persia in the East, and from Germany in the North to the Cape of Good Hope and some of the South American republics in the South, yet, as is the case also with the cereal crops and many fruits and vegetables, the wines produced in countries possessing temperate climates are-when the vintage is successful-finer than those made in hot or semi-tropical regions.
Although, for instance, the wines of Italy, Greece, the Cape, &c., possess great body and strength, they cannot compare as regards elegance of flavour and bouquet with the wines of France and Germany.
On the other hand, of course, the vagaries of the temperate climate of northern Europe frequently lead to a partial or complete failure of the vintage, whereas the wines produced in relatively hot countries, although they undoubtedly vary in quality from year to year, are rarely, if ever, total failures.
The same vine, exposed to practically identical conditions of climate, will produce markedly different wines if planted in different soils.
On the other hand, different varieties of the vine, provided they are otherwise not unsuitable, may, if planted in the same soil, after a time produce wines which may not differ seriously in character.
On the other hand, the replanting of some of the French vineyards (after the ravages due to the phylloxera) with American vines, or, as was more generally the case, the grafting of the old French stock on the hardy American roots, resulted, after a time, in many cases, in the production of wines practically indistinguishable from those formerly made.
In the case of red wines the skins are not removed, inasmuch as it is from the latter that the colour of the wine is derived.
In the case of the production of certain sweet wines (such as the sweet Sauternes, Port and Tokay) the fermentation only proceeds up to a certain extent.
In this way, by making pure cultures derived from some of the finest French and German wines it has been possible to lend something of their character to the inferior growths of, for instance, California and Australia.
For this purpose isinglass, gelatin or, in the case of high-class red wines, white of egg is employed.
Some wines, particularly those which lack acid or tannin, are very difficult to fine.
Sweet wines, which are liable to fret, are more highly and frequently sulphured than dry wines.
Certain wines, however, such as some of the varieties of port, are not bottled, but are kept in the wood, at any rate for a considerable number of years.
Wines so preserved, however, develop an entirely different character from those placed in bottle.
In the case of red wines colouring matter is dissolved from the skins and a certain amount of mineral matter and tannin is extracted.
Wines which have received a check of this description during the main fermentation are very liable to bacterial troubles and frets.
This reduction of acidity is partly due to the deposition of various salts of tartaric acid, which are less soluble in a dilute alcoholic medium than in water, and partly to the action of micro-organisms. Young wines differ very widely in their composition according to class and vintage.
The alcohol in naturally fermented wines may vary between 7 and 16%, although these are not the outside limits.
The total solid matter or " extract," as it is called, will vary between 1.5 and 3.5% for dry wines, and the mineral matter or ash generally amounts to about one-tenth of the " extract."
The tannin in young red wines may amount to as much as 0.4 or 0.5%, but in white wines it is much less.
The taste and bouquet of wines in the earlier stages of their development, or within the first four or five years of the vintage, are almost entirely dependent upon constituents derived from the must, either directly or as a result of the main fermentation.
In the case of dry wines, the quality which is known as " body " (palate-fulness) is mainly dependent on the solid, i.e.
It has been found by experience also that wines which are normally constituted as regards the relative proportions of their various constituents, provided that the quantities of these do not fall below certain limits, are likely to develop well, whereas wines which, although perfectly sound, show an abnormal constitution, will rarely turn out successful.
The bouquet of young wines is due principally to the compound esters which exist in the juice or are formed by the primary fermentation.
On the contrary, it is frequently the case that the most successful wines in after years are those which at first show very little bouquet.
The wines which remain for a long period in cask gradually lose alcohol and water by evaporation, and therefore become in time extremely concentrated as regards the solid and relatively non-volatile matters contained in them.
As a rule, wines which are kept for many years in cask become very dry, and the loss of alcohol by evaporation - particularly in the case of light wines - has as a result the production of acidity by oxidation.
Although these old wines may contain absolutely a very large quantity of acid, they may not appear acid to the palate inasmuch as the other constituents, particularly the glycerin and gummy matters, will have likewise increased in relative quantity to such an extent as to hide the acid flavour.
Wortmann examined a number of old wines and found that in all cases in which the wine was still in good condition or of fine character a small number of living organisms (yeast cells, &c.) were still present.
He also found that in the case of old wines which had frankly deteriorated, the presence of micro-organisms could not be detected.
Highly alcoholic wines, such as port and sherry, will improve and remain good for a much longer period than relatively light wines, such as claret, champagne or Moselle.
The colour in the case of red wines is first altered from red to brown, and in bad cases disappears altogether, leaving an almost colourless solution.
Another disease which generally occurs only in white wines is that which converts the wine into a thick stringy liquid.
As a rule this disease is due to a lack of tannin (hence its more frequent occurrence in white wines).
It would appear from the researches of the author and others that the mannitol ferment is more generally present in wines than is supposed to be the case.
Thus the author found in some very old and fine wines very appreciable quantities of mannitol.
It is said that wines treated in this manner mature more quickly, and that they are more stable and of better colour.
It certainly appears to be the case that musts which are plastered rarely suffer from abnormal fermentation, and that the wines which result very rarely turn acid.
If carefully prepared there is no objection to these basis wines from a hygienic point of view, although they have not the delicate qualities and stimulating effects of natural wines; unfortunately, however, these wines have in the past been vended on a large scale in a manner calculated to deceive the consumer as to their real nature, but energetic measures, which have of late been taken in most countries affected by this trade, have done much to mitigate the evil.
Wines Of France It may be safely said that there is no other country in which the general conditions are so favourable for the production of wine of high quality and on a large scale as is the case in France.
It may here be stated that a rich soil such as is suitable for the growth of cereal crops or vegetables is not, as a rule, an ideal one for the production of fine wines.
The number of different varieties of wines produced in France is remarkable.
The red wines include the elegant and delicate (though not unstable) wines of the Gironde, and again the full, though not coarse, wines of the Burgundy district.
Among the white wines we have the full sweet Sauternes, the relatively dry and elegant Graves and Chablis, and the light white wines which produce champagne and brandy.
Although other parts of France produce excellent wines, the Gironde is easily first if high and stable character, elegance and delicacy, variety and quantity are considered together.
The finest wines of the Medoc and Graves are largely grown on a mixture of gravel, quartz and sand with a subsoil of alios or clay.
Although properly belonging to the Cotes, the St Emilion district is sometimes classified separately, as indeed, having regard to the excellence and variety of its wines, it has a right to be.
All these produce red wines.
This practice is almost without exception resorted to with what are known as the " classed growths " and the superior " bourgeois " wines, whilst in seasons in which the wines are of good quality it is continued down to the lower grades.
The " classed growths," which include all the most famous wines of the Medoc, are themselves subdivided into five sections or growths.
This general classification, which was made by a conference of brokers in 1855 as a result of many years of observation dating back to the 18th century, is still very fairly descriptive of the average merit of the wines classified.
The quality of the Medoc red wines (and this applies also to some of the finer growths of the other Bordeaux districts) is radically different from that of wines similar in type grown in other parts of the world.
The Gironde red wines have sufficient body and alcohol to ensure stability without being heavy or fiery.
It is to this relatively large amount of body and absence of an excess of acid and of tannin that the peculiarly soft effect of the Bordeaux wines on the palate is due.
It has been said that chemistry is of little avail in determining the value of a wine, and this is undoubtedly true as regards the bouquet and flavour, but there is no gainsaying the fact that many hundreds of analyses of the wines of the Gironde have shown that they are, as a class, distinctly different in the particulars referred to from wines of the claret type produced, for instance, in Spain, Australia or the Cape.
The quality of the wines naturally varies considerably with the vintage; but it is almost invariably the case that the wines of successful vintages will contain practically the same relative proportions of their various constituents, although the absolute amounts present of these constituents may differ widely.
The prices of the wines also are subject to great fluctuation, but in fair years will vary, according to class and quality, from;IO to 30 per hogshead for the better growths.
The principal claret vintages of modern times have been those of 1858, 1864, 1869, 1870, 1874, 1875, 1877, 1878, 1888, 1893, 1896, 1899 and 1900, while it was thought probable that many of the wines of 1904 to 1907 inclusive would turn out well.
In 1887 to 1895 a number of fair wines were produced in each year, and the first really good vintage of the post-mildew-phylloxera period was that of 1888.
Most of the wines grown on a purely gravelly soil are termed " Graves," but there is a specific district of Graves which lies south of Bordeaux and west of the river, and extends as far as Graves.
This district produces both red and white wines.
The vines, the methods of viticulture and vinification as regards the red wines of the Graves district, are similar to those of the Medoc. The wines are, if anything, slightly fuller in body and more alcoholic than those of the latter region.
They possess a characteristic flavour which differentiates them somewhat sharply from the Medoc wines.
The district of Sauternes produces the finest white wines of the Gironde, one might say of the whole of France.
Whereas the white wines of the Graves are on the whole fairly dry and light in character, the white wines of Sauternes are full and sweet, with a very fine characteristic bouquet.
The wines are made entirely from white grapes, and the methods of collecting the latter, and of working them up Analyses of Chateau Lafite of Different Vintages.'
As a rule, three wines are made in the principal vineyards in three successive periods.
For some markets these wines are shipped separately, for others they are blended according to the prevalent taste.
The musts from which the Sauternes wines are made are so concentrated that only a part of the sugar is transformed into alcohol, an appreciable portion remaining unfermented.
These wines, therefore, require very careful handling in order to prevent undesirable secondary fermentations taking place at a later period.
They are subjected to frequent racking, the casks into which they are racked being more highly sulphured than is the case with red wines.
The Sauternes generally are full-bodied wines, very luscious and yet delicate; they possess a special seve, or, in other words, that special taste which, while it remains in the mouth, leaves the palate perfectly fresh.
The best of the Cotes wines are grown in the St Emilion St reg i on.
It produces wines of a decidedly bigger type than those of the Medoc, and is frequently called the Burgundy of the Bordeaux district.
The above wines are grown in the marshy regions in the immediate neighbourhood of the Garonne and Dordogne.
They produce useful but rather rough wines.
This district produces both red and white wines, but their character is not comparable to that of the Medoc or of the Cotes.
The best wines, however, are grown almost exclusively in the Marne district.
For wines exported to England very little liqueur is employed; in the case of some wines, known as Brut or Nature, none at all is added.
Wines intended for consumption in France receive a moderate quantity of liqueur, but those for the Russian and South American markets, where very sweet wines are liked, receive more.
The latter blend the wines received from the various proprietors, and the chief aim in this blending is to maintain the character of the wine which is sold under a particular trade mark or brand.
Similarly, it has been said that, strictly speaking, there is no such thing as vintage champagne, for it is almost invariably the practice, in order to maintain the general character of a specific brand, to blend the new wines with some old wine or wines which have been vatted for this particular purpose.
These vattings, and indeed all blendings of any particular batch of wines, are termed cuve'es.
In the Yonne are made chiefly the white wines known to us as Chablis; in the Saone-et-Loire are made the red and white wines of Macon, and there is also, stretching into the department of the Rhone, the district producing the Beaujolais wines.
The most important wines, however, the Burgundy wines proper, are made in the centre of this region on the range of low hills running north-east by south-west called the Cote d'Or, or the golden slope.
The vineyards producing the best wines are situated about half-way up the slopes, those at the top producing somewhat inferior, and those at the foot and in the plain ordinary growths.
The influence of the soil on one and the same vine is interestingly illustrated by the different character of the vines grown in those districts, the Beaujolais wines having far greater distinction than those of Macon.
To the north of Beaune lie the famous vineyards of Chambertin, Clos Vougeot, Romanee, Richebourg, Nuits St Georges and Corton; to the south those of Pommard, Volnay, Monthelie and Meursault with its famous white wines.
The vinification of the Burgundy wines takes place in cuves of 500 to 2000 gallons capacity, and it has for very many years been the common practice in vintages in which the must is deficient in saccharine to ensure the stability of the wine by the addition of some sugar in the cuve.
The practice of sugaring has ensured greater stability and keeping power to the wines, which formerly were frequently irregular in character and difficult to preserve.
There is no official classification of the Burgundy wines, but the following is a list comprising some of the finest growths in geographical order, from north to south, together with the localities in or near which they are situated.
It will be seen that, compared with the dry, light red wines, the proportion of sugar, alcohol and acidity is comparatively high in champagne, and the extract (solid matter) rather low.
Loire have been known for many centuries, but up to 1834 were used only as still wines.
At that date, however, it was found that the wines of Saumur (situated in the department of the Maine-et-Loire) could be successfully converted into sparkling wines, and since then a considerable trade in this class of wine has developed.
At first it was chiefly used for blending with the wines of the Champagne when the vintage in this district was insufficient, but at the present time it is largely sold under its own name.
The wines of these vineyards are sold every year by auction early in November, and the prices they make serve as standards for the valuation of the other growths.
The quality of some of these, particularly of the sweet white wines, is considered very fine.
The red wines made at the present time are after the style of Burgundy and possess good keeping qualities.
If we except the wines of Roussillon, produced in the old province of that name, in the extreme south of France, the above constitute.
These wines formerly were largely exported as y in de cargaison to South America, the United States, Australia, &c., and were also much employed for local consumption in other parts of France.
Owing, however, to the fact that viticulture has made much progress in South America, in California, in Australia and particularly in Algeria, and also to the fact that the quality of these Midi wines has fallen off considerably since the phylloxera period, the outlet for them has become much reduced.
The wines, moreover, of Algeria are on the whole of decidedly fair quality, possessing body and strength and also stability.
In this regard they are superior to the wines of the Midi.
Wines Of Spain The wines of Spain may be regarded as second in importance to those of France.
There are three main types of wine with which consumers in the United Kingdom are familiar, namely Sherry, Tarragona (Spanish Port or Spanish Red) and wines of a claret type.
The trade with the United Kingdom is of considerable proportions, the total quantity of Spanish wines imported in 1906 amounting to 1,689,049 gallons of red wine (to the value of £154,963), and white wines to the extent of 1,119,702 gallons (to the value of £242,877).
There is also a variety of Pedro-Ximenes, which, however, is not used for making ordinary wine, but for the purpose of preparing the so-called dulce, a very sweet must or wine, made from over-ripe grapes, which, after fortification with spirit, is employed for sweetening other wines.
Thus the term palma is applied to fine dry wines when in their second or third years.
In some cases the fermentation of the must is stopped by the addition of spirit before the whole of the saccharine is converted, and the wines so prepared retain a proportion of the sugar naturally present in the must.
In other cases dry wines are prepared and sugar is added to them in the form of dulce (see above).
In order to prevent refermentation it is then necessary to fortify these wines with spirit.
Wines of the same type are stored in vats or soleras, and the contents of the soleras are kept as far as possible up to a particular style of colour, flavour and sweetness.
In addition to the wines described above,there are others of a similar nature grown in the vicinity, such as montilla (made in Cordova) and moguer (produced on the right bank of the Guadalquivir).
Chemically the sweet sherry differs from the natural dry light wines in that it contains relatively high proportions of alcohol, extractives, sugar and sulphates, and small quantities of acid and glycerin.
While the most important Spanish wines are those grown in the southern province of Andalusia, the central and northern districts also produce wine in considerable quantity, and much of this is of very fair quality.
Thus in the central district of Val de Penas and in the Rioja region (situated between Old Castile and Navarre) in the north-east are produced red wines which in regard to vinosity, body and in some other respects resemble the heavier clarets or burgundies of France - although not possessing the delicacy and elegance of the latter.
Wines Of Portugal In the north-east of Portugal, not far from the town of Oporto - from which it takes its name and whence it is exported - is produced the wine, unique in its full-bodied and generous character, known as port.
Thudichum, in his Treatise on Wines, gives a striking and almost poetical description of it as compared with Jerez.
When, after the approach of the cold weather, the lees have dropped, the wines are racked and a further addition of brandy is made.
The great bulk of the wine is stored for many years before shipping, but this does not apply to the commoner varieties, nor to the finest wines, which, being the produce of a specific year, are shipped unblended and as a vintage wine.
White port is made from white grapes, and a peculiarity of its manufacture is that the must is frequently fermented in the presence of the skins, which is most unusual in the case of white wines.
The value of the port taken by the United Kingdom was in the year 1906 over one million sterling, that is, rather less than half of the total value of all the French wines imported, but more than double the value of the total of Spanish wines.
The wines of the Alto Douro only form a small proportion of the total quantity of wine produced in Portugal.
Wines Of Germany Although the quantity of wine produced in Germany is comparatively small and subject to great variations, the quality of the finer wines is, in successful years, of a very high order.
The finer wines possess great breed and distinction, coupled with a very fine and pronounced bouquet, and in addition they are endowed with the - in the case of lighter wines - rare quality of stability.
The great inequalities observed in the different vintages and the exceptionally fine character of the wines in good years are, generally, due to the same cause, namely, to the geographical position of the vineyards.
The wines of the Rhine are grown in the most northerly latitude at which viticulture is successful in Europe, and consequently, when the seasons are not too unpropitious, they display the hardiness and distinction characteristic of northern products.
The wines grown in the Rheingau, Rheinhessen and in parts of the Palatinate are generally known by the name of Rhine wines, although e many of these are actually produced on tributaries of that river.
The most important wines in this region are those of the Johannisberg and of the Steinberg.
The vineyards of these two properties are tended with extraordinary care, and the wines, of which several qualities are made in each case, fetch exceedingly high prices.
The finest wines are produced in a manner somewhat similar to that employed for making the Sauternes.
This process produces the so-called Auslese wines, which frequently fetch as much as 30s.
The other most important wines produced in the Rheingau and its extensions are those of Marcobrunn, Geisenheim, Redesheim and Hochheim.
The most important wines produced in Rheinhessen (on the left bank of the Rhine and south of the Rheingau) are those of Liebfraumilch, Nierstein, Oppenheim, Bodenheim, Laubenheim and Scharlachberg.
The wines of the Moselle are of a somewhat different character to those of the Rhine.
Whereas the Rhine wines of the finer descriptions Moselle, are as a rule fairly full bodied and of marked vinosity, the Moselle wines are mostly light and of a somewhat delicate nature.
While the Rhine wines generally improve in bottle for a lengthy period, the Moselles are as a rule at their best when comparatively fresh.
Some of the tributaries of the Moselle also produce wines which in quality approach those of the parent river.
Among the wines, however, which are well known may be mentioned the Franconian growths, amongst which the celebrated Stein wine, which is grown at the foot of the citadel of the town of Wurzburg, and in the grand duchy of Baden the celebrated growths of Affenthal (red) and Markgrafler.
Practically all the important wines of Germany are white, although there are a few red growths of some quality, for instance that of Assmannshausen in the Rheingau.
This plant appears to be indigenous to the Rhine valley, and the finest wines are made exclusively from its grapes.
In the hope of reproducing the characteristic of the Rhine wines, the Riessling has been planted in many young wine-producing countries, such as Australia, California and the Cape, and not entirely without success.
The vintage on the Rhine is, in order to permit the grapes to acquire the " over-ripeness " necessary to the peculiar character of the wines, generally very late, rarely taking place before the end of October.
The very great variations which are shown by the same growths of different vintages makes it impracticable in the case of the German white wines to give representative analyses of them.
Comparing the fine wines of the better vintages with, for instance, the red wines of the Gironde, the main features of interest are the relatively high proportions of acid and glycerin and the low proportion of tannin which they contain.
Wines Of Italy Italy ranks second to France as regards the quantity of wine produced, but in respect to quality a comparison is scarcely possible, inasmuch as the Italian wines are on the whole of a poor character.
They display many of the features characteristic of southern wines, showing either an excessive vinosity coupled with a somewhat crude bouquet, or where the alcoholic strength is not high, a decided lack of stability.
The wines of northern Italy are on the whole of good colour, but somewhat harsh.
Among the best-known wines in Piedmont are the Barolos and the wines of Asti, which are made from a species of muscatel grapes.
Among the best-known wines of Lombardy are the Passella wines of Valtelina.
Tuscany produces the greater part of these wines, which are of good but not excessive alcoholic strength, containing as a rule some 101% to I12% of alcohol.
The Montepulciano wines have a brilliant colour and high bouquet, and are of a sweet, luscious flavour.
The wines of Chianti, near Siena, are often described as being of the claret type, but actually they are somewhat similar to the growths of Beaujolais.
The best Italian wines, however, are probably those grown in the Neapolitan district.
The white muscat wines of Vesuvius are also of good quality, and the island of Capri produces some excellent wine.
Perhaps the best known of Italian wines in the United Kingdom is that produced in the neighbourhood of Marsala in the island of Sicily, which bears the name of the town from which it is exported.
It is somewhat similar in character to the wines of Madeira, but its character also recalls some of the sherry types.
In the neighbourhood of Palermo, Muscat and Malvoisie wines of very fair quality are made.
Wines Of Austria-Hungary In point of quantity Austria-Hungary takes the fourth place among the wine-producing nations.
The quality of the bulk of the Austro-Hungarian wines has been improved of late years, principally owing to the endeavours of the respective governments to introduce scientific and modern methods among the wine-farmers.
Since the recovery of the Hungarian vineyards from the phylloxera considerable efforts have been made to develop an export trade, but so far the wines of Hungary are not generally known in the United Kingdom.
The Ausbruch wines take from three to four years to ripen, and they may contain from 12% to 15% of alcohol and a little or a fair quantity of sugar, these factors varying according to the vintage and the number of " butts " of zibebs employed.
The term is applied to different varieties of wines according to the district, but in the neighbourhood of Tokay it generally refers to wines obtained by treating szamorod or Ausbruch residues with dry wine.
In the neighbourhood of Menes sweet red wines produced by the Ausbruch system are also termed mdslds.
Hungary produces a variety of other wines both strong, such as those of central Hungary, and relatively light, such as those of Croatia and Transylvania.
The wines produced at Carlowitz (on the Danube), some 40 m.
Some of the Dalmatian wines are of fair quality, and somewhat resemble Burgundy.
Wines Of The United States The cultivation of the vine has made very rapid strides in the United States during the past half-century.
The result has been that the domestic wines have now very largely displaced the foreign product for ordinary beverage purposes.
At the same time, there is no reason to believe that the finer European wines will be entirely displaced, inasmuch as these are characterized by qualities of delicacy and breed which cannot be reproduced at will.
Here, as well as at Cleveland, " champagnes " and " clarets " and " sparkling Catawba " are the chief wines produced.
The wines grown on the Pacific slope are generally of a mild and sweet character, resembling in general nature the wines of southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal).
Wines Of The British Empire The production of the British empire is very small, amounting to roughly to million gallons, and this is produced almost entirely in the Cape of Good Hope and in the Australian Commonwealth.
It is possible that the trade would grow much more rapidly than it has done if it were practicable to ship the lighter varieties of wines.
These, which would be suitable for ordinary beverage purposes, cannot as a rule stand the passage through the Red Sea, and it is therefore only possible to ship the heavier or fortified wines.
It is doubtful, therefore, whether the products of the British Empire will ever displace European wines in the United Kingdom on a really large scale, for they cannot compete at present as regards quality with the finer wines of Europe, nor, for the reason stated, with the lighter beverage wines.
The red wines of Australia, particularly those of South Australia, somewhat resemble French wines, being intermediate between claret and burgundy as regards their principal characteristics.
There are several types of white wines,.
It has been recognized, however, that it is impossible to actually reproduce the character of the European wines, and it is now generally held to be desirable to recognize the fact that Australian and Cape wines represent distinct types, and to sell them as such without any reference to the European parent types from which they have been derived.
In Persia, also, wines are made, especially in the Shiraz district.
It has a handsome parish church and is the seat of a Greek Orthodox bishop. Versecz is one of the principal wineproducing centres in Hungary, and the red wines and brandy produced here enjoy a great reputation.
Essex was thus thrown upon his own resources, and his anger against the queen being roused afresh by the refusal to renew his monopoly of sweet wines, he formed the desperate project of seizing her person and compelling her to dismiss from her council his enemies Raleigh, Cobham, and Cecil.
Vineyards occupy a considerable area, and the native wines are pure and strong, but not always palatable.
The various agricultural products, cattle and mules, cheese, wines and spirits, silk cocoons and gypsum make up the bulk of the exports.
The town is a market for the agricultural and pastoral regions of Beauce and Sologne, and has a considerable trade in grain, the wines of the Loire valley, and in horses and other live-stock.
The export trade is chiefly in esparto grass, cereals, wines, olive oil, marbles, cattle and hides.
The higher rates are designed chiefly to protect national industries, while wines, liquors, cigars and tobacco are admitted at the lowest rate.
The vine is cultivated all the way from Atacama and Coquimbo, where excellent raisins are produced, south to Concepcion, where some of the best wines of Chile are manufactured.
Nothing is being done to improve the vine, and the Persian wines, until recently of world-wide reputation, are yearly getting thinner and poorer.
Gmelin, who explored the southern shores of the Caspian in 1771, observed that the wines of Gilan were, made from the wild grape.
Where neither method is strictly pursued it is usual to forbid to gouty patients sugar, pastry and pickles, and to forbid heavy wines, especially Burgundy and port.
They possessed numerous slaves, grew wheat in sufficient quantity to make it an article of export, and were famed for the good quality of their wines.
Its most far-reaching provisions were those which admitted Portuguese wines to the British market at a lower rate of duty than was imposed upon French and German wines, in return for a corresponding preference to English textiles.
The imports consisted of cottons, woollens, live-stock, provisions, hardware and machinery, wines, spirits and clothing.
The revenues are derived principally from duties and fees on imports, excise taxes on spirits, wines, tobacco and sugar, general, mining taxes and export duties on minerals (except silver), export duties on rubber and coca, taxes on the profits of stock companies, fees for licences and patents, stamp taxes, and postal and telegraph revenues.
The weaving of sail-cloth and woollen and other fabrics, machine construction, wire-drawing, and manufacture of sparkling wines and preserved fruits are also carried on.
It is apparently the presence of these oxydases which causes certain wines to change colour and alter in taste when poured from bottle to glass, and so exposed to air.
The wines produced in the district are among the best in South Africa, ranking second only to those of Constantia.
The imports are French wines, spirits and liqueurs; silk and cotton stuffs, tobacco, hardware, glass, earthenware, clothing, preserved meat, fish, and vegetables, maize, flour, hay, bran, oils and cattle.
The wines of Bacharach were once held in the greatest esteem, and it is still one of the chief markets of the Rhenish wine trade.
A merchant vessel laden with Spanish wines was sent to Lough Swilly, and anchoring off Rathmullan, where the boy was residing in the castle of MacSweeny his foster parent, Hugh Roe with some youthful companions was enticed on board, when the ship immediately set sail and conveyed the party to Dublin.
The imports consist chiefly of cotton goods and hardware from Great Britain; rice, flour and cotton from India, sugar and rum from Mauritius, coffee from Aden, wines and spirits and clothing from France.
The red wines of Moldavia, especially the brand known as Piscul Cerbului, resemble Bordeaux.
The best white wines came from Cotnar in the Jassy department, but here phylloxera ruined the vineyards.
Good red and white wines are grown in the hilly region bordering the Rhone valley, the white wine of St Peray being highly esteemed.
The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
The Cape wines are chiefly those known as Hermitage, Muscadel, Pontac, Stein and Hanepoot.
Owing to greater care on the part of growers, and the introduction of FrenchAmerican resistant stocks to replace vines attacked by the phylloxera, the wines in the early years of the 10th century again acquired a limited sale in England.
The chief imports are textiles, food stuffs, wines and whisky, timber, hardware and machinery.
Owing to its position on two important railways, Alcazar has a flourishing transit-trade in the wines of Estremadura and Andalusia; the soda and alkali of La Mancha are used in the manufacture of soap; and gunpowder, chocolate and inlaid daggers are also made here.
The treaty bound France to reduce her duties on English coal and iron, and on many manufactured articles; while, in return, Great Britain undertook to sweep away the duties on all manufactured goods, and largely to reduce those on French wines.
The vine is grown on the lower slopes sheltered from the north wind, the wines of Jurancon, near Pau, being the most renowned.
The trade of Alicante consists chiefly in the manufacture of cotton, linen and woollen goods, cigars and confectionery; the importation of coal, iron, machinery, manures, timber, oak staves and fish; and the exportation of lead, fruit, farm produce and red wines, which are sent to France for blending with better vintages.
In 1908 the country's imports were valued at $7,806,811 (vegetable products, $1,879,297; agricultural products, $1,258,900; textiles, $1,187,802; mineral products, $788,069; and wines and liquors, $675,703; the textiles mainly from Great Britain, all other imports largely from the United States); and the exports were valued at $1,757,135 (including vegetable products, mostly bananas, $ 1, 539,395, animal products, $135,207, and mineral products, $79,620), of which $1,587,217 was the value of goods shipped to the United States, $113,038 of goods to Great Britain, and $34,495 to Germany.
The imports consist principally of cereals and flour, coffee, sugar, ale, wines and spirits, tobacco, manufactured wares, iron and metal wares, timber, salt, coal, &c. The money, weights and measures in use are the same as in Denmark.
The wines of Rioja are highly esteemed and are an important source of income for the district.
The best Servian wines are those of Negotin and Semendria.
The town is of little commercial importance, but the vineyards on the neighbouring hills produce some of the best Walachian wines.
Much of the lower ground is well adapted for agriculture, and yields grain in abundance; the principal fruit grown is the apple, from which cider is made in some districts; hemp, flax and oil are also produced, and mulberries are cultivated for silkworms. The wine trade is active, and the products of the vineyards are in great demand in south-west France and at Passages in Guipuzcoa for mixing with French wines.
The export of wines of the southJerez, Malaga and other fullbodied wines styled generosodid not suffer so much, and England and France continued to take much the same quantities of such wines- There is also a large export of grapes and raisins, especially from Malaga, Valencia, AlmerIa and Alicante.
The exports of Spanish wines to France alone amounted to 12,000,000 annually.
Not a few nations retaliated with higher duties upon Spanish exports, and France raised her wine duties to such an extent that the exports of wines to that country dropped from 12,500,000 before 1892 to 2,400,000 in 1893 and the following years.
In Dec. 1917 he forbade American soldiers the use of alcoholic drinks, excepting light wines and beer, allowing these only in deference to French customs. As Commander-inChief of the A.E.F.
The beneficial effects of red wine can be extended to sherry wines.
Otherwise South West wines are conspicuously absent from the shelves of our wine retailers.
The wines from this region are very lively and have a fruity acidity.
Shepherd Neame's Kentish ales are on offer in the bar together with an expert selection of wines from around the world.
Hazel nuts and roasted almonds in white wines, dried figs in red ones.
The single domaine wines, at the top end represent the apogee of their respective appellations.
I must also confess that I am fond of the sparkling wines that bear the appellation Saumur AC.
It's popular bistro serves a fine selection of classic seasonal European dishes and an eclectic range of wines to complement the menu.
In medieval times the English valued its wines (which include Armagnac brandy) more highly than those of Bordeaux.
The French used wooden bungs wrapped in hemp to stopper their wines.
Ms zuiderdam drinking wines Vienna cafe fine dining outstanding.
This includes the wines of Bordeaux where we also have sufficient cellarage to hold stocks, not yet listed, for laying down.
Our vast cellarage and choice of wines is guaranteed to satisfy all tastes.
Maroon is the color of burgundy wines and flushed cheeks and smacked bottoms and port and gout and winter uniforms.
Needless to say, you'll also probably have treated yourself to a few fine wines and after-dinner cognacs!
An extensive cellar of fine wines are available to complement the exquisite cuisine.
No, in a word, however like many of these wines it is approachable once decanted.
Mr George Goring has been laying down wines for the future delectation of his customers for many a long year.