The ship was driven about by the winds; it was wrecked.
Many of the passengers were ill and others whimpered and whined as the plane dropped, rose and rolled in the churning gusts, riding the heavy winds like a cork in a whirlpool.
She dared not stand on her own with the winds strong enough to knock her over.
Flame collectors blow out in high winds, whilst water-droppers are apt to get frozen in winter.
In summer the sun has great power, and the temperature reaches 100° in the shade, with hot winds blowing from the interior.
and noon during westerly winds, which at Madras are usually very dry and dusty.
With certain dry winds, notably Fan winds in Austria and Switzerland, dissipation becomes very high.
Real bikers weren't bothered by a little rain, he tried to tell himself, but the car radio spoke of a storm system moving up from the south, bringing with it high winds and torrential rain.
The rafters creaked and strained, and the branches of the trees surrounding the house rattled and beat against the windows, as the winds rioted up and down the country.
At length the sun's rays have attained the right angle, and warm winds blow up mist and rain and melt the snowbanks, and the sun, dispersing the mist, smiles on a checkered landscape of russet and white smoking with incense, through which the traveller picks his way from islet to islet, cheered by the music of a thousand tinkling rills and rivulets whose veins are filled with the blood of winter which they are bearing off.
But though I do not know what causes the cold winds to blow when the oak buds unfold, I cannot agree with the peasants that the unfolding of the oak buds is the cause of the cold wind, for the force of the wind is beyond the influence of the buds.
For one wild, glad moment we snapped the chain that binds us to earth, and joining hands with the winds we felt ourselves divine!
Round the house was a wide piazza, where the mountain winds blew, sweet with all wood-scents.
Tacking and jibbing, we wrestled with opposing winds that drove us from side to side with impetuous fury.
The peasants say that a cold wind blows in late spring because the oaks are budding, and really every spring cold winds do blow when the oak is budding.
The warm winds blow The waters flow And robin dear, Is come to show That Spring is here.
In almost all climes the tortoise and the frog are among the precursors and heralds of this season, and birds fly with song and glancing plumage, and plants spring and bloom, and winds blow, to correct this slight oscillation of the poles and preserve the equilibrium of nature.
I see only a coincidence of occurrences such as happens with all the phenomena of life, and I see that however much and however carefully I observe the hands of the watch, and the valves and wheels of the engine, and the oak, I shall not discover the cause of the bells ringing, the engine moving, or of the winds of spring.
or the S., but in several of the smaller valleys the prevailing winds are from the N.W.
The prevailing winds in this region, which the sea traverses longitudinally, are westerly, but the sea itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturbances frequently develop, while in summer the region comes under the influence of the polar margin of the tropical high pressure belt.
Autumn is warmer than spring, especially in the coastal regions, and this is exaggerated in the eastern region by local land winds, which replace the cool sea-breezes of summer: overcoats are ordinarily worn in Spain and Italy till July, and are then put aside till October.
It first takes a northerly and north-westerly course, and in a deep and well-wooded valley winds past the romantically situated town of Arnsberg.
The prevailing winds, mild and humid, are west winds from the Atlantic; continental climatic influence makes itself felt in the east wind, which is frequent in winter and in the east of France, while the mistral, a violent wind from the north-west, is characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
It is situated on the seaward slope of the South Downs; the position is sheltered from inclement winds, and the climate is generally mild.
It is subject, however, to extreme and rapid variations in temperature, to alternations of dry and humid winds (the latter, called catias, being irritating and oppressive), to chilling night mists brought up from the coast by the westerly winds, and to other influences productive of malaria, catarrh, fevers, bilious disorders and rheumatism.
The winds are liable to little variation; they blow from the west, often with great violence, for nine months in the year, and at other times from the north; and they moderate the summer heats, which are chiefly felt during the months of July and August, when the hot winds blow from the coast of Anatolia.
The hot winds which prevail during the summer in some of the other colonies are unknown in Queensland.
In the Connecticut and Hudson-Champlain valleys the winds blow mostly from either the N.
trade winds, and the city is considered healthful.
The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.
In the summer and autumn the winds are light.
While steam has been said to make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to encounter the least resistance possible from prevailing winds and permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanographical and meteorological knowledge.
winds - prevail over extensive areas, and sweep across the flat plains without hindrance.
Cold dry winds, often of great violence, occur in the Rhone valley (the Mistral), in Istria, and Dalmatia (the Bora), and in the western Caucasus.
The building swayed gently in the strong winds whipping through southern Florida, and water pelted the windows across from her.
Sure, everyone winds up in the hospital when they catch a cold.
- The great extent of Argentina in latitude - about 33° - and its range in altitude from sea-level westward to the permanently snow-covered peaks of the Andes, give it a highly diversified climate,, which is further modified by prevailing winds and mountain barriers..
The port of Algiers is sheltered from all winds.
The trade winds give rise, in the region most exposed to their influence, to two westward-moving drifts - the equatorial currents, which are separated in parts of their course by currents moving in the opposite direction along the equatorial belt.
In some passages the poet seems to take delight in casting dramatic illusion to the winds.
Thus the great plain of northern Italy is chilled by the cold winds from the Alps, while the damp warm winds from the Mediterranean are to a great extent intercepted by the Ligurian Apennines.
Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
It is customary to speak of the disastrous effect, of cold winds, snow, hail and frost, lightning, &c., under the heading of atmospheric influences, which only shows once more how impossible it is to separate causes individually.
In cushion plants the leaves are very small, very close together, and the low habit is protective against winds.
Aristotle had himself shown that in the southern temperate zone winds similar to those of the northern temperate zone should blow, but from the opposite direction.
They passed the cape on the 31st of January, encountering the usual westerly winds.
vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.
It has a hot, humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds.
The south-east winds which sweep over Table Mountain frequently cause the phenomenon known as "The Table-cloth."
In the Ala-kul steppes the winds blow away the snow.
Constant use, increased friction (m o r e especially at high speeds), and damage to the rotator will alter an ascertained log error; head or following seas, strong winds, currents and tidal streams also FIG.
The Atlantic cyclones penetrate to the Russian plains, mitigating to some extent the cold of winter, and in summer bringing with them their moist winds and thunderstorms. Their influence is chiefly felt in W.
The winds closely depend on the routes followed by both.
winds prevail in W.
winds are most common in S.E.
winds are predominant on the Black Sea coast.
In the north it is due to the fact that the winds from the Pacific lose most of their moisture, especially in winter, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; in the south it is due to the fact that the region lies in a zone of calms, and light, variable winds.
The prevalent winds from the west, south-west and south blow continuously, at times approaching the force of a hurricane.
The prevalent winds, which temper the heat, are the S.E.
winds supervene from January to March.
deprives the winds from the Pacific of nearly all their moisture before they reach the Great Basin, the climate of Nevada is characterized by an excessive dryness.
While the western mountains keep out the moisture, they do not ward off the winds which pour down the steep slopes in the winter and spring and raise clouds of dust.
Driven by contrary winds to take shelter in the Seine, the refugees passed the winter in the Netherlands, and in April 1608 proceeded to Rome, where they were welcomed and hospitably entertained by Pope Paul V., and where Tyrconnel died the same year.
of Cape Recife these emigrants founded a town, Port Elizabeth, its harbour being sheltered from all winds save the S.E.
Cool southeast trade winds blow, sometimes with great violence, from April to December.
During the rest of the year the winds blow from west-north-west and north, with rain and occasional destructive hurricanes.
in the shade, but the heat is modified by cool sea winds which prevail day and night throughout the greater part of the year.
The prevailing winds are from the south-east; but the rain-bearing winds are chiefly from the southwest, and the high winds from the west and north-west.
The winds are variable and seldom violent, except along the coast during the sub-tropical storms of late summer and early autumn.
The winter cold produces an effect of just an opposite nature, and Winds.
The necessary and immediate results of such periodical changes of pressure are winds, which, speaking generally, blow from the area of greatest to that of least pressure - subject, however, to certain modifications of direction, arising from the absolute motion of the whole body of the air due to the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
Although the succession of the periodical winds follows the progress of the seasons as just described, the changes in the wind's direction everywhere take place under the operation of special local influences which often disguise the more general law, and make it difficult to trace.
Thus the south-west monsoon begins in the Arabian Sea with west and north-westerly winds,which draw round as the year advances to south-west and fall back again in the autumn by northwest to north.
In the Bay of Bengal the strength of the southwest monsoon is rather from the south and south-east, being succeeded by north-east winds after October, which give place to northerly and north-westerly winds as the year advances.
Among the islands of the Malay Archipelago the force of the monsoons is much interrupted, and the position of this region on the equator otherwise modifies the directions of the prevailing winds.
The southerly summer winds of the Asiatic seas between the equator and the tropic do not extend to the coasts of Java, and the southeasterly trade winds are there developed in the usual manner.
The winds which pass northward over India blow as south-easterly and easterly winds over the north-eastern part of the Gangetic plain, and as south winds up the Indus.
The heaviest falls of rain occur along lines of mountain of some extent directly facing the vapour-bearing winds, as on the Western Ghats of India and the west coast of the Malay peninsula.
north-east of Calcutta, which presents an abrupt front to the progress of the moist winds flowing up from the Bay of Bengal.
The very small and irregular rainfall in Sind and along the Indus is to be accounted for by the want of any obstacle in the path of the vapour-bearing winds, which, therefore, carry the uncondensed rain up to the Punjab, where it falls on the outer ranges of the western Himalaya and of Afghanistan.
The diurnal mountain winds are very strongly marked on the Himalaya, where they probably are the most active agents in determining the precipitation of rain along the chain - the monsoon currents, as before stated, not penetrating among the mountains.
Cagliari is considerably exposed to winds in winter, while in summer it is almost African in climate.
The roadstead is very shallow, and exposed to winds which cause great variations in the height of the water; it is, moreover, rapidly silting up. At the quay the depth of water is only 8 to 9 feet, and large ships have to lie 5 to 13 miles from the town.
annually, and the valleys that open upon it or are exposed to winds blowing off it, in which the rainfall varies, however, from 20 in.
Winnowing was done by women, who tossed the grain into the air with small wooden boards, the chaff being blown away by the winds.
The cold winds which prevail in January and February frequently injured the crops in the more exposed and higher districts.
It was introduced into Britain soon after its rediscovery by David Douglas in 1827, and has been widely planted, but does not flourish well where exposed to high winds or in too shallow soil.
It was hailed with satisfaction by the Unionists, but the pure economists complained that he had thrown sobriety and thrift to the winds.
The prevailing winds in most parts are westerly, but sudden changes, as well as the extremes of temperature, are caused mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W.
At Cleveland and Cincinnati the winds blow mostly from the S.E.
Thus, the Eskimo are said to believe in spirits of the sea, earth and sky, the winds, the clouds and everything in nature.
The Greeks identified both this and a similar cult at Ascalon with their own worship of Aphrodite, 3 and localized at Paphos the legend of her birth from the sea foam, which is in fact accumulated here, on certain winds, in masses more than a foot deep. 4 Her grave also was 1 E.
Its whereabouts is thus, to a great extent, concealed both from enemies searching for spiders and from insects suitable for food; and its open meshwork of strong threads makes it much less liable to be beaten down by rain or torn to shreds by winds than if it were a flat sheet of closely woven silk.
This is effected by the so-called habit of "ballooning" practised by very young spiders, which float through the air, often at great altitudes, in the direction of the prevalent winds.
Wind is another important factor, as cotton does not do well in localities subject to very high winds; and in exposed situations, otherwise favourable, wind belts have at times to be provided.
- Strong winds and heavy rains do much damage to cotton by blowing or beating the lint out of the bolls.
The armies of Fulcher and Gottschalk were destroyed by the Hungarians in just revenge for their excesses (June); the third, after joining in a wild Judenhetze in the towns of the valley of the Rhine, during which some io,000 Jews perished as the first-fruits of crusading zeal, was scattered to the winds in Hungary (August).
The heat at Damascus and Aleppo is great, the cooling winds being kept off by the mountains.
Since the semitropical and sub-tropical zones are nearer the course of the Gulf Stream, and are swept by the trade winds, their temperatures are more uniform than those of the zones of southern climate; indeed, the extremes of heat (103° F.) and cold (13° F.) are felt in the region of southern climate.
Surface currents are set up by prevailing winds, which also seriously affect water levels, lowering the water at Chicago and raising it at the strait, or the reverse, so as greatly to inconvenience navigation.
The summer heat is moderated by the sea-breeze or by cool northerly winds from the mountains (especially in July and August).
The district thus occupied sloped towards the sun and was sheltered by the Acropolis from the prevailing northerly winds.
Among the earlier buildings of this period is the Horologium The Horo- of Andronicus of Cyrrhus (the " Tower of the Winds"), logium of still standing near the eastern end of the Roman Agora.
in diameter; the eight sides, which face the points of the compass, are furnished with a frieze containing inartistic figures in relief representing the winds; below it, on the sides facing the sun, are the lines of a sun-dial.
The temperature is moderated by the north-east trade winds, which, somewhat modified by local conditions, blow throughout the year, briskly during the day and more mildly during the night.
These hills afford shelter from inclement winds, and give Warrenpoint and other neighbouring watering-places on the lough a climate which renders them as popular in winter as in summer.
Other features frequently met with are the Paradise in the Far East, miniatures of towns, plants, animals, human beings and monsters, and an indication of the twelve winds around the margin.
Edmund Halley, the astronomer, compiled the first variation chart of scientific value (1683), as also a chart of the winds (1686).
Aello and Ocypete, daughters of Thaumas and Electra, winged goddesses with beautiful locks, swifter than winds and birds in their flight, and their domain is the air.
The water is deep right to the base of the cliff and owing to the winds and the strength of the ocean currents, navigation is dangerous.
In winter the snowfall is very light, and even this is frequently removed by warm winds from the west.
Through the mountain passes come at times dry winds from the Pacific coast, which lick up the snow in a few hours.
These winds are known as Chinook winds.
This climate is much less influenced by the Pacific winds than (A) .
The tidal action of the gulf is so slight and the marshes are so low that perfect drainage cannot be obtained through tide gates, which must therefore be supplemented by pumping machinery when rains are heavy or landward winds long prevail.
Through its great flood-plain the Mississippi river winds upon the summit of a ridge formed by its own deposits.
the equable temperature is largely the effect of the network of bays, bayous and lakes, and throughout the state the climate is materially influenced by the prevailing southerly winds from the Gulf of Mexico.
In a series of observations of winds about one half have been found to indicate a direction from north-east or east.
The Bosna issues from many springs near Serajevo, and winds for 107 m.
The British admiral, delayed by contrary winds, had not been able to start from the entry to the Straits of Gibraltar till the 1 r th of May..
The southern flanks, being exposed to the hot dry winds of the Sahara,.
In the interior the surface of the inland ice is composed of dry snow which never melts, and is constantly packed and worked smooth by the winds.
The climate is very uncertain, the weather changing suddenly from bright sunshine (when mosquitos often swarm) to dense fog or heavy falls of snow and icy winds.
The climate of the interior has been found to be of a continental character, with large ranges of temperature, and with an almost permanent anti-cyclonic region over the interior of the inland ice, from which the prevailing winds radiate towards the coasts.
2 The well-known strangely warm and dry fain- winds of Greenland occur both on the west and the east coast; they are more local than was formerly believed, and are formed by cyclonic winds passing either over mountains or down the outer slope of the inland ice.
In most localities the prevailing winds are northwest in winter and southerly in summer, but at Duluth, on the shore of Lake Superior, they are south-west during November, December and January and north-east during all other months.
This main scheme is complicated in various ways: (r) by the rotation of the earth, which continually deflects currents of water or air to the right in the northern or to the left in the southern hemisphere; (2) by the conformation of the land masses (as in the case of the equatorial stream which is banked up in the Gulf of Mexico and flows out through the Straits of Florida); (3) by the varying depth of the ocean, for currents tend to flow more readily through deep than in shallow waters (as in the case of the main Atlantic drift, which flows most strongly through the deep channel between Shetland and the Faroe Is.); and (4) by the driving force of the winds acting on the surface of the sea (thus the drift of water from the equator is not N.E., as one might expect, but from E.
winds, however, drive it towards the N.E., where it impinges on the shallow seas and shore of northern Europe.
In front of the city is the small harbour, well protected from all winds except those from the S.; in and after 1892 the Hawaiian government deepened its entrance from 21 ft.
From here to its outfall in the China Sea the river winds for some 400 m.
The second group represents, first, the birth of Mithras; then the god nude, cutting fruit and leaves from a fig-tree in which is the bust of a deity, and before which one of the winds is blowing upon Mithras; the god discharging an arrow against a rock from which springs a fountain whose water a figure is kneeling to receive in his palms; the bull in a small boat, near which again occurs the figure of the animal under a roof about to be set on fire by two figures; the bull in flight, with Mithras in pursuit; Mithras bearing the bull on his shoulders; Helios kneeling before Mithras; Helios and Mithras clasping hands over an altar; Mithras with drawn bow on a running horse; Mithras and Helios banqueting; Mithras and Helios mounting the chariot of the latter and rising in full course over the ocean.
The prevailing winds in the Amazon valley are easterly and westerly (or south-westerly), the former warm and charged with moisture, the latter dry and cold.
The cold south-westerly winds are felt when the sun is north of the equator, and are most severe, for a few days, in the month of May, when a tempo da friagem (cold period) causes much discomfort throughout the upper Amazon region.
There are winter winds from the Andes, but in the summer season there are cold currents of air from up-river (ventos da cima) which are usually followed by downpours of rain.
The winds are more variable, and the seasons are more sharply defined.
It lies in the north-east trade winds belt, but the mountain chain on its northern frontier robs these winds of their moisture and leaves the greater part of the Brazilian plateau rainless.
South of the Amazon valley and filling a great part of the eastern projection of the continent, is another arid, semi-barren plateau, lying within the southeast trade winds belt, and extending from Piauhy southward to southern Bahia.
The prevailing winds are the south-east trades, which have lost some of their moisture in rising from the coastal plain.
South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.
The prevailing winds are from the north-west in this region, and westerly winds in the rainy season are usually accompanied by rain.
Next year the Portuguese commander, Pedro Alvares Cabral, appointed by his monarch to follow the course of Vasco da Gama in the East, was driven by adverse winds so far from his track, that he reached the Brazilian coast, April 24, and anchored in Porto Seguro (16° S.
Owing to the hot winds blowing from Rajputana, the climate of Bharatpur is extremely sultry till the setting in of the periodical rains.
The climate of Sydney is mild and equable; in summer sea breezes blow from the north-east, which, while they temper the heat, make the air exceedingly humid; in winter the winds blow from the west and the climate is dry and bracing.
The prevailing winds on the coast are north-east, warm and humid, and south-west, cool and bracing, though in summer the south-west wind brings rain.
These winds, which blow on an average twenty-five days in the year, seldom reach the coast and are generally followed by rain.
The Kobdo river, which rises in the Dain-gol (7060 ft.) in the Ektagh Altai, winds in great curves across the plateau, and enters Lake Kara-usu (3840 ft.), which also receives the Buyantu, an outflow from Lake Kobdo, and is connected by a small river with another large lake, Durga-nor, situated a score of miles to the east.
Owing to its high altitude, north-western Mongolia is very cold, and the severity of the winter is intensified by the prevalence of cold but dry north-western winds.
In summer the warm winds come from the south and south-east, but having first to cross the Gobi,.
The vast sandy wastes mainly contribute to the dryness of the winds on the Great Hungarian Alfold.
The whole of the short Hungarian seaboard is mountainous and subject to violent winds.
The climate is tropical and generally unfavourable to white settlement, the exceptions being the elevated localities on the Amazon exposed to the strong winds blowing up that river.
He foretold the duration of the siege of Troy, and, when the fleet was detained by adverse winds at Aulis, he explained the cause and demanded the sacrifice of Iphigeneia.
of its course winds among the Mandla hills, which form the head of the Satpura range; then at Jubbulpore, passing through the "Marble Rocks," it enters its proper valley between the Vindhyan and Satpura ranges, and pursues a direct westerly course to the Gulf of Cambay.
The winds in winter are uniformly dry while dust storms are frequent at all seasons - a fact which renders the country unsuitable for persons suffering from chest complaints.
Fishguard Bay is deep and well sheltered from all winds save those of the N.
In general the climate of Venezuela is healthy wherever the ocean winds have free access.
A little above Brandeis it picks up the Iser, which, like itself, comes down from the Riesengebirge, and at Melnik it has its stream more than doubled in volume by the Moldau, a river which winds northwards through the heart of Bohemia in a sinuous, trough-like channel carved through the plateaux.
Then the river winds through the fantastically sculptured sandstone mountains of the " Saxon Switzerland," washing successively the feet of the lofty Lilienstein (932 ft.
from Antibes; the harbour, however, is exposed to the east and north-east winds.
The ships sailed away to Carthage; on their way back to Syracuse with supplies they could not get beyond Cape Pachynus owing to adverse winds, and they were confronted by a Roman fleet.
winds, about 1500 yds.
On starting to hoist, the rope winds from the small towards the large end of the drum, the lever arm, or radius of the coils, increasing as the weight of Winding Engine.
- The climate of Florence is very variable, ranging from severe cold accompanied by high winds from the north in winter to great heat in the summer, while in spring-time sudden and rapid changes of temperature are frequent.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
It winds, a continuous strip of houses and factories, for 9 m.
The greatest possible care is bestowed on the preparation of the seed bed - it must have good, very rich soil in fine tilth, be protected from winds, and yet well exposed to sunlight; the southern or south-eastern slope of an open place in a forest is often selected.
trade winds temper the tropical heat.
of Aden, the summer heat is tempered by the monsoon winds, and the seasonal variation of temperature is less marked.
The prevailing winds in northern Arabia as far as is known are from the west; along the southern coast they are from the east; at Sana there is generally a light breeze from the north-north-west from 9 to II A.M., from noon till 4 P.M.
The divine teams, four in number, again traverse the world toward the four winds, to execute Yahweh's commands.
In addition to many shorter articles, reports, &c., he published Western America, including California and Oregon (1849) and Theory of the Winds (1856).
The prevailing winds from May to September are east and north-east and during the rest of the year north-west and east.
Violent winds are common at both equinoxes.
deal with the phenomena of the heavens and of time, which is measured by the motions of the heavenly bodies, with the sky and all its wonders, fire, rain, thunder, dew, winds, &c. Books v.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
Conflagrations are frequent, particularly in the months of January and December, when hot, dry winds resembling the Fdhn of the Alps come down from the snow-capped Elburz.
across, but there is good shelter against all winds except from the N.E.
During the cold season, which begins in October and ends in April, northerly and westerly winds prevail throughout Japan.
Hence throughout this season the prevailing winds are light breezes from the west and south.
It would seem that only the immense weight of the roofs and their heavy projections prevent a collapse of some of these structures in high winds.
The combined river winds eastwards by south-east through the United Provinces, receiving the Gumti and the Gogra.
When the growth is complete, a half-shady place outdoors during August and September will be suitable, with protection from parching winds and hot sunshine.
Pleasant north-east winds blow for an average of 150 days a year, cool northerly winds for 31 days, east winds 70 days, west for 34 days.
In 1372 Edward made his final effort to lead an army, but contrary winds prevented his even landing his troops in France.
From Miranda it winds south-eastward through the wide basin enclosed on the right by the highlands of Old Castile and western Aragon, and on the left by the Pyrenees.
farther the road winds first amongst the broken ridges of the Koh-i-Mulla Khwaja, then over the intervening dasht into the southern spurs of the Paropamisus to the Ardewan pass.
The town is near the Maranon and Jigue rivers, on a plain from which hills rise on all sides except the E., on which side it is open to the winds of the plateau.
1-8 may be concluded with Spitta, Bousset and others from the fact that the four winds, which in vii.
In the monsoon regions the half-yearly change from on-shore to off-shore winds produces noticeable differences in XIX.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
The tropical maxima of salinity on the poleward side of the trade-winds coincide with the regions of minimum rainfall, high temperature, strong winds and consequently of maximum evaporation.
The general scheme of ocean currents depends on the prevailing winds taken in conjunction with the configuration of the coast and its submarine approaches.
In the region of the: westerly winds on the poleward side of 40° N.
Both currents unite off the coast of the United States and run northward, turning towards the east when they come within the influence of the prevailing westerly winds.
above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-Ong Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li.
5 and 6) the tower was overthrown by the winds; according to Yaqut (i.
72) mankind were swept together by winds into the plain afterwards called " Babil," and were scattered again in the same way (see further D.
In the region of Galveston, along the northern section of the coast, where southerly or south-easterly winds from the Gulf prevail throughout the year, the climate is warm, moist and equable, but the moisture decreases westward and south-westward, and the equability, partly because of northerly winds during the winter months, decreases in all directions inland.
The prevailing winds are southerly or south-easterly throughout most of the state in spring and summer.
In the interior April brings south-east winds, which continue until about the beginning of October.
During the rest of the year changing winds prevail.
These winds are charged with moisture, which they part with on ascending the precipitous side of the plateau.
Most of the suburbs and the city itself are exposed to the southeast winds which, passing over the flats which join the Cape Peninsula to the mainland, reach the city sand-laden.
"We can now easily conceive," he says, "that in all rain-water which is collected from gutters in cisterns, and in all waters exposed to the air, animalcules may be found; for they may be carried thither by the particles of dust blown about by the winds."
Occupying 135 degrees of latitude, living on the shores of frozen or of tropical waters; at altitudes varying from sea-level to several thousands of feet; in forests, grassy prairies or deserts; here starved, there in plenty; with a night here of six months' duration, there twelve hours long; here among health-giving winds, and there cursed with malaria - this brown man became, in different culture provinces, brunette or black, tall or short, long-headed or short-headed, and developed on his own hemisphere variations from an average type.
Heat and cold, rain and drought, the winds in relation to the points of the compass, were nearest their wants and supplies, and were never out of their thoughts.
Meteorological phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early recognition; thus Hesiod, in his Works and Days, speculated on the origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the air.
Carbon dioxide is invariably present, as was inferred by Dr David Macbride (1726-1778) of Dublin in 1764, but in a proportion which is not absolutely constant; it tends to increase at night, and during dry winds and fogs, and it is greater in towns than in the country and on land than on the sea.
As the prevailing winds are westerly, the safest anchorage is on the north-east.
The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.
The winds are very variable; the average number of rainy and snowy days is 146 at Riga (rainfall 24.1 in.).
above sea-level on an isolated hill above the Basento (anc. Casuentus), it is much exposed to winds and has a far more northerly climate than its position (40° 40' N.) implies, and is indeed one of the coldest places in Italy (mean temp. Jan 37.8°, July 70.9°, for whole year 53° F.).
Very seldom indeed is moisture excessive in the eastern half; there is even a deficiency in unfavourable years, and dry, warm winds do damage to crops.
In western Washington, where the ocean greatly influences the temperature and the mountains condense the moisture of vapour-bearing winds, the climate is equable and moist.
Eastern Washington, too, usually has a mild temperature, but occasionally some regions in this part of the state are visited by a continental extreme, and as the winds from the ocean lose most of their moisture in passing over the Cascades, the climate is either dry or arid according to elevation.
Along the coast the prevailing winds blow from the west or south; in the Puget Sound Basin from the south, and in eastern Washington from the south-west, except in the Yakima and Wenatchee valleys, where they are north-west.
During summer the winds are very moderate in western Washington, but during winter they occasionally blow with great violence.
In eastern Vashington hot winds from the north or east are occasionally injurious to the growing wheat in June or July.
- Cut off from the warm, rain-bearing winds of the Indian Ocean by the Drakensberg, the country is swept by the winds from the dry desert regions to the west.
It is also occasionally subject to hot, dry winds from the north.
The amount of precipitation is greater in the north-west and on the mountains, because in the one case the mountains of lower elevation are a less obstruction to the moisturebearing winds from the west, and in the other the mountains condense the moisture; the mountains which stand in isolated groups upon the plains are frequently in summer the focus of local thunder showers.
The snows are generally light, and cattle may graze on the prairies during most of the winter; but there are occasional severe " blizzards," which are accompanied by intense cold and high winds.
In the north-eastern districts the climate is somewhat uncertain, and damage is often done to early fruit-blossoms and vegetation by cold easterly winds and late frosts.
High winds and seams of burning lignite coal have aided the rains in giving the Bad Lands their peculiar configuration.
High winds are frequent, and prairie houses are often protected by rows of trees called " wind breaks."
During the growing season the winds are usually light, but in the late summer and autumn occasional dry, hot, southerly winds (" hot southers ") prove very destructive to vegetation.
The climate is so arid, and precipitation so extremely rare, that the fine powdery material falls a helpless prey to the winds.
This range acts as a " breakwater " to the clouds, arresting and condensing the moisture which is carried northwards by the south winds.
All are somewhat exposed to the easterly winds prevalent in spring.
On the 23rd of September the two armies encountered near Pildawa, and after a stubborn three days' contest the gallant Polish pageant was scattered to the winds.
AEOLUS, in Greek mythology, according to Homer the son of Hippotes, god and father of the winds, and ruler of the island of Aeolia.
1) he entertains Odysseus, gives him a favourable wind to help him on his journey, and a bag in which the unfavourable winds have been confined.
Out of curiosity, or with the idea that it contains valuable treasures, Odysseus' companions open the bag; the winds escape and drive them back to the island, whence Aeolus dismisses them with bitter reproaches.
According to Virgil, Aeolus dwells on one of the Aeolian islands to the north of Sicily, Lipara or Strongyle (Stromboli), where he keeps the winds imprisoned in a vast cavern (Virgil, Aen.
Menelaus on his way home was also driven by stress of winds to Egypt, where he found his wife and took her home (Herodotus 11.112-120; Euripides, Helena).
The prevailing winds are westerly; but generally north-west in winter in the west section and south-west in summer in the south section.
It is greatest, about 53 in., on the east slope of Catoctin Mountain, owing to the elevations which obstruct the moisture-bearing winds, and is above the average along the middle of the shores of the Chesapeake.
"The Algonkins say that birds always make the winds, that they create the waterspouts, and that the clouds are the spreading and agitation of their wings."
Except in the east of the Pacific, the south-east trade is only fully developed during the southern winter; at other seasons the regular trade-belt is cut across from north-west to south-east by a band twenty to thirty degrees wide, in which the trades alternate with winds from north-east and north, and with calms, the calms prevailing chiefly at the boundary of the monsoon region (5° N.-15° S., 160°-185° E.).
Beyond the tropical high-pressure belt, the winds of the North Pacific are under the control of an area of low pressure, which, however, attains neither the size nor the intensity of the " Iceland " depression in the north Atlantic. The result is that north-westerly winds, which in winter are exceedingly dry and cold, blow over the western or Asiatic area; westerly winds prevail in the centre, and south-westerly and southerly winds off the American coast.
In the southern hemisphere there is a transition to the low-pressure belt encircling the Southern Ocean, in which westerly and north-westerly winds continue all the year round.
ing generally, however, it may be said that they are for the most part under the direct control of the prevailing winds.
It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream, to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.
The Equatorial CounterCurrent flowing eastwards is largely assisted during the latter half of the year by the south-west monsoon, and from July to October the south-west winds prevailing east of 150° E.
further strengthen the current, but later in the year the easterly winds weaken or even destroy it.
The prevailing winds blow from the west or south-west; rain-bearing winds blow mostly from the south; and the cold waves come from the:north or north-west.
The climate of Melbourne is exceptionally fine; occasionally hot winds blow from the north for two or three days at a time, but the proportion of days when the sky is clear and the air dry and mild is large.
Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
Nearly all the Gulf coast rivers, however, are obstructed by bars owing to the quantity of silt brought down from the sierras and the prevailing winds and currents on the coast.
The windward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental receive the greater part of the rainfall, and the winds, deprived of their moisture, pass over the northern plateau without further precipitation.
The southern terraces of the plateau have no high mountain barriers between them and the moist winds of the Caribbean, and they too receive an abundant rainfall in the wet season, especially during the prevalence of heavy " northers " on the Gulf coast.
The prevailing winds are generally N.W., but in the vicinity of the sea they are S.E.
The mountains condense the moisture brought by the west winds, and the yearly amount of rain varies from So to 120 in.
Remember, Lord, thy church to deliver it from all evil, and to perfect it in thy love, and gather it together from the four winds,' the sanctified, unto thy kingdom, which thou bast prepared for it; for thine is the power and the glory for ever.
The average rainfall is very heavy, especially on the Atlantic slope, where the prevailing winds are charged with moisture from the Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbean Sea; at Tual, a high station on the Atlantic slope, it reaches 195 in.; in central Guatemala it is only 27 in.
The transoceanic invasion progressed slowly through the 17th and ~8th centuries, delayed by the head winds of a rough ocean which was crossed only in slow sailing vessels, and by the rough backwoods of the Appalachians, which retarded the penetration of wagon roads and canals into the interior.
The best explanation suggested for bess is that, during certain phases of the glacial period, it was carried as dust by the winds from the flood plains of aggrading rivers, and slowly deposited on the neighboring grass-covered plains.
Along parts of their eastern border, where the rainfall is a little increased by the approach of the westerly winds to the Rocky Mountains, there is a belt of very deep, impalpably fine soil, supposed to be a dust deposit brought from the drier parts of the plains farther west; excellent crops of wheat are here raised.
such case the washing of the centripetal slopes of the depressions by occasional sheetfloods (widespreading sheets of turbid running water, supplied by heavy short-lived rains) has been efficient in keeping the rock floor at even grade toward a central basin, where the finest waste is collected while waiting to be removed by the winds.
The Cascade Mountains present a marked example of the effect of relief and aspect on rainfall; they rise across the path of the prevailing westerly winds not far inland from a great ocean; hence they receive an abundant rainfall (80 in.
Two leading features, from which many others follow, are the intermediate value of the mean annual temperatures and the prevalence of westerly winds, with which drift the areas of high and low pressurecyclonic and anticyclonic areascontrolling the short-lived, non-periodic weather changes.
The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.
In this connection the effect of the prevailing winds is very marked.
In summer the stormy westerly winds withdraw from these lower latitudes, which are then to be more associated with the trade winds.
In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.
The general winds also are much affected by the changes of pressure due to the strong continental changes of temperature.
The warmed air of summer produces an area of low pressure in the west-central United States, which interrupts the belt of high pressure that planetary conditions alone would form around the earth about latitude 30; hence there is a tendency of the summer winds to blow inward from the northern Pacific over the Cordilleras toward the continental centre, and from the trades of the torrid Atlantic up the Mississippi Valley; conversely in winter time, the cold air over the lands produces a large area of high pressure from which the winds tend to flow outward; thus repelling the westerly winds of the northern Pacific and greatly intensifying the outflow southward to the Gulf of Mexico and eastward to the Atlantic. As a result of these seasonal alternations of temperature and pressure there is something of a monsoon tendency developed in the winds of the Mississippi Valley, southerly infiowing winds prevailing in summer and northerly outfiowing winds in winter; but the general tendency to inflow and outflow is greatly modified by the relief of the lands, to which we next turn.
The mountains also introduce controls over the local winds; diurnal warming in summer suffices to cause local ascending breezes which frequently become cloudy by the expansion of ascent, even to the point of forming local thunder showers which drift away as they grow and soon dissolve after leaving the parent mountain.
The mountains are of larger importance in obstructing and deflecting the course of the general winds.
The Pacific ranges, standing transverse to the course of the prevailing westerlies near the Pacific Ocean, are of the greatest importance in this respect; it is largely by reason of the barrier that they form that the tempering effects of the Pacific winds are felt for so short a distance inland in winter, and that the heat centre is displaced in summer so far towards the western coast.
The rainfall from the stromy westerly winds is largely deposited on the western slopes of the mountains near the Pacific coast, and arid or desert interior plains are thus found close to the great ocean.
The descending winds on the eastern slopes of the ranges are frequently warm and dry, to the point of resembling the Fhn winds of the Alps; such winds are known in the Cordilleran region as Chinook winds.
The ranges of the Rocky Mountains in their turn receive some rainfall from the passing winds, but it is only after the westerlies are reinforced by a moist indraft from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlanticthe result of summer or of cyclonic inflowthat rainfall increases to a sufficient measure on the lower lands to support agriculture without irrigation.
The cyclonic inflows and anticyclonic outflows, so characteristic of the belt of westerly winds the world over, are very irregular in the Cord illeran region; but farther eastward they are typically developed by reason of the great extent of open country.
Although of reduced strength in the summer, they still suffice to dominate weather changes; it is during the approach of a low pressure centre that hot southerly winds prevail; they sometimes reach so high a temperature as to wither and blight the grain crops; and it is almost exclusively in connection with the cloudy areas near and south-east of these cyclonic centres that violent thunderstorms, with their occasional destructive whirling tornadoes, are formed.
With the passing of the low pgessure centre, the winds shift to west or northwest, the temperature falls, and all nature is relieved.
In wintertime, the cyclonic and anticyclonic areas are of increased frequency and intensity; and it is partly for this reason that many meteorologists have been disposed to regard them as chiefly driven by the irregular flow of the westerly winds, rather than as due to convectional instability, which should have a maximum effect in summer.
Shortly after they threw their pledges to the winds and took the Norwegian Eric Bloodaxe, son of Harold Fairhair (Harald Harfagar), as their king.
The proximity of the sea or of great lakes, the elevation and the direction of mountain chains, the usual path of storms and of prevalent winds, and the relative length of day and amount of sunshine in summer and winter all have their effect on different parts of Canada.
In southern Alberta, however, the winter cold is often interrupted by chinooks, westerly winds which have lost their moisture by crossing the mountains and become warmed by plunging down to the plains, where they blow strongly, licking up the snow and raising the temperature, sometimes in a few hours, from 20 to 40° F.
In the neighbourhood of Chalcis, both to the north and the south, the bays are so confined as readily to explain the story of Agamemnon's fleet having been detained there by contrary winds.
Often the word thus extruded is irrecoverable; Ginevra, 125 sqq., "The matin winds from the expanded flowers I Scatter their hoarded incense and awaken I The earth, until the dewy sleep is shaken From every living heart which it possesses I Through seas and winds, cities and wildernesses"; the second "winds" is a repetition of the first, but what should stand in its place, - "lands" or "strands" or "waves" or something else - no one can say.
[Ascribed to Theophrastus, or his time, by Zeller.] 3.t avEpwv 9eaees Kai 7rpoa7 7 yoptaL: Ventorum situs et appellationes: A fragment on the winds.
by the winds from the Gulf of Mexico, and in the N.
The prevailing winds are from the S.
SANCTI SPIRITUS, an old Cuban city in Santa Clara province, situated on a sandy plain in an angle of the Yayabo river, which winds through the city.
His efforts to destroy the ships of Mehemet Ali at Alexandria in 1825 were defeated by contrary winds.
The harbour, protected by breakwaters, with a lighthouse at the entrance, is well defended from the north winds, but those from the south, south-east, and south-west prove sometimes highly dangerous.
In spring the prevailing winds blow from the N.E.
The heat, however, is greatly modified on the coast by the south-east trade winds, and the climate is generally considered healthy, though beri-beri and eruptive diseases are common on the coast.
he winds it on bobbins with a rapid reciprocating motion, so as to lay the fibre in diagonal lines.
The dry season, with north-west winds, lasts from December to May.
There are two seasons of rainfall over the province: the monsoon season, when supplies of moisture are brought up by the ocean winds from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal; and the winter season, when storms advancing eastwards from Persia and the Caspian districts occasion winds, widespread rain and snowfall.
portion of the island the trade winds, driving through the channel between Maui and Molokai, sweep the rocks bare.
On the high moors between Chollerford and Gilsland its traces are still plain, as it climbs from hill to hill and winds along perilous precipices.
Besides these five groups, an obscure road, called by the Saxons Akeman Street, gave alternative access from London through Alchester (outside of Bicester) to Bath, while another obscure road winds south from near Sheffield, past Derby and Birmingham, and connects the lower Severn with the Humber.
He had before wooed her in vain, and now carried her off to Mount Haemus, where they lived as king and queen of the winds, and had two sons, Zetes and Calais, and two daughters, Cleopatra and Chione (Apollodorus iii.
On the Tower of the Winds at Athens he is figured holding a shell, such as is blown by Tritons.
It is approached in a very circuitous way, either by a passage (Xaupn) leading from a side door in the main propylaeum or by another long passage which winds round the back cf the chief hall, and so leads by a long flight of steps, cut in the rock, to the little postern door in the semicircular bastion.
Certainly the Rosa Ventorum, or Wind-rose, is far older than the compass itself; and the naming of the eight principal "winds" goes back to the Temple of the Winds in Athens built by Andronicus Cyrrhestes.
Third in importance of the towns on the Moorish coast, unimpeded by bar or serious rocks, the roadstead is exposed to the north-west winds.
The harbour is an open roadstead, very dangerous to shipping in northerly winds, and the discharge and loading of cargoes is effected by means of lighters at considerable risk and expense.
On the other hand, since the spurs of the Taurus bring the winter cold a long way south, and the cold increases from west to east as we leave the mild coast of the Mediterranean, far down into the Mesopotamian plain the influence of the snowcovered ridges can be felt, and in the higher parts of the plain snow and ice are not infrequent; and although there is no point of sufficient altitude to retain snow for long, the temperature may fall as low as 14° F., especially if the cold north winds are blowing.
The temperature is quite mild and equable in the south-east province where the ocean influences it and where the mountains bounding it on the north and north-west are some protection from the colder winds.
The prevailing winds are westerly, but they are frequently interrupted by warm breezes from the south, or moisture-bearing currents from the east.
It crosses the Himalayas by the Tang Pass (15,200 ft.), and thence proceeds via Gyantse (13,200 ft.) and the Kharo Pass (16,500 ft.), Yamdok Lake (15,000) to the Tsang-po (12,100 ft.), and crossing the river winds up along the Kyi Chu, on which Lhasa stands, 33 m.
From April till October hot southerly winds blow by day; at night the heat is tempered by seabreezes.
long, terminating in a deep ovalshaped basin several acres in extent, and completely sheltered from all winds.
Fearless and patient navigators, they ventured into regions where no one else dared to go, and, always with an eye to their monopoly, they carefully guarded the secrets of their trade routes and discoveries, and their knowledge of winds and currents.
The coasts are exposed to the prevailing winds, namely the Sirocco from the south-southeast, and the Bora from the north-east.
A zigzag highway, regarded as a triumph of engineering, winds through the mountain passes between Cettigne and the Austrian seaport of Cattaro; and other good roads give access to the richest parts of the interior.
Owing to the prevalent dry easterly winds from the arid plains of north Australia, Timor, like Ombay, Flores and other neighbouring islands, has a much drier climate, and a poorer vegetation, than islands further west, and has few perennial streams and no considerable rivers.
Cold north-west winds prevail from October to March, while in July and August torrential rains fall, resulting in a sudden and very considerable rise in the Amur and its right-bank tributaries.
By the 23rd of August Sprengtporten was ready to re-embark for Stockholm with 780 men, but contrary winds kept him back, and in the meantime Gustavus III.
But the low temperature causes the moisture-laden winds to deposit here greater quantities of rain and snow than in the semi-arid regions below, which not only promote the growth of vegetation, but cause the activity of the springs, geysers and waterfalls.
The prevailing winds are S.
When Troy was captured he set sail for Ithaca, but was carried by unfavourable winds to the coast of Africa.
The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain.
Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation.
surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.
Care should be taken, however, not to hem in the garden by crowded plantations, shelter from the prevailing strong winds being all that is required, while the more open it is in other directions the better.
Extensive gardens in exposed situations are often divided into compartments by hedges, so disposed as to break the force of high winds.
For many plants this under current of ventilation would be exceedingly beneficial, especially when cold winds prevented the sashes from being opened.
spectabilis, 2 to 3 ft., has paeony-like foliage, and gracefully drooping spikes of heart-shaped pink flowers, about May, but it should have a sheltered place, as it suffers from spring frosts and winds; D.
Transfer chrysanthemums to sheltered positions out of doors, and provide means of protecting them from frost and cutting winds.
Protect tulips, ranunculuses and anemones from the mid-day sun, and from rains and winds.
In the distribution of the rainfall, as dependent on the direction of the winds, the following parts of Sumatra must be distinguished: (r) south-east Sumatra, on which, as on Banka and Billiton, the heaviest rainfall occurs during the north-west monsoon, the annual volume of rainfall increasing from 98.4 in.
(3) The northern and north-eastern parts of Sumatra are swept by a variety of winds.
The north-east and south-west winds, on the other hand, being laden with the moisture of the sea, bring rain if they blow for any length of time.
per second), and to the strong west or north-west winds which carry off large quantities of material.
the climate of Holland shows a difference in the lengths of day and night extending in the north to nine hours, and there is a correspondingly wide range of temperature; it also belongs to the region of variable winds.
The prevalence of south-west winds during nine months of the year and of north-west during three (April - June) has a strong influence on the temperature and rainfall, tides, river mouths and outlets, and also, geologically, on dunes and sand drifts, and on fens and the accumulation of clay on the coast.
The west winds of course increase the moisture, and moderate both the winter cold and the summer heat, while the east winds blowing over the ' See J.
Such was still the reputation of its mysteries that Germanicus endeavoured to visit the island, but was driven off by adverse winds (Tac. Ann.
In the neighbourhood are the Cave of the Winds, the Grand Caverns, charming glens, mountain lakes and picturesque canyons; and the Garden of the Gods, - approached by a narrow gateway between two tremendous masses of red rock 330 ft.
From the south end of Kongens Nytorv, a street called Holmens Kanal winds past the National Bank to the Holmens Kirke, or church for the royal navy, originally erected as an anchor-smithy by Frederick II., but consecrated by Christian IV., with a chapel containing the tombs of the great admirals Niels Juel and Peder TordenskjOld, and wood-carving of the 17th century.
The harbour, which is usually closed by ice from about the middle of December to the second week in May, is sheltered against the east winds by a group of islands.
The Bay of Spezia is sheltered from all except southerly winds, and on its western shore are numerous openings, which afford perfectly safe anchorage in all weathers.
The prevailing winds are westerly, with north-north-east and south winds in autumn and winter, and east winds in spring.
The prevailing winds blow from the north or south.
Through the centre of the township winds the Aberjona river, which empties into Mystic Pond, in Winchester township, both favourite resorts for canoeing, &c. Wedge Pond and Winter Pond, in the centre of the township, are clear and beautiful sheets of water.
It rises at the upper or eastern extremity of the Swiss canton of the Valais, flows between the Bernese Alps (N.) and the Lepontine and Pennine Alps (S.) till it expands into the Lake of Geneva, winds round the southernmost spurs of the Jura range, receives at Lyons its principal tributary, the Saline, and then turns southward through France till, by many mouths, it enters that part of the Mediterranean which is rightly called the Golfe du Lion (sometimes wrongly the Gulf of Lyons).
Although Manila Bay is nearly landlocked, it is so large that in times of strong winds it becomes nearly as turbulent as the open sea, and it was formerly so shallow that vessels drawing more than 16 ft.
owing to strong north-west winds.
east of the Caspian, and have in many parts been excavated and washed away by the rivers (which have frequently changed their beds) or been transported by the winds, which sweep with unmitigated violence across those wide unsheltered expanses.
But the winter extremes go far below this range: during the prevalence of north-east winds the thermometer drops to -20°, or even lower, on the surrounding steppes, while on the Ust-Urt plateau a temperature of -30 is not uncommon.
The former section, which is too shallow to store up any large amount of heat during the summer, freezes for three or four months along the shores, effectually stopping navigation on the lower Volga, but out in the middle ice appears only when driven there by northerly winds.
The prevalent winds of the Caspian blow from the south-east, usually between October and March, and from the north and north-west, commonly between July and September.
Wooded heights form a semicircle round the town, which is protected from sea winds by Capstone Hill.
After finishing his studies in the Egyptian capital he set sail for Greece; but the ship was driven by contrary winds to Italy, and he seized the opportunity of paying a flying visit to Rome.
winds, while the heat is great in summer, though tempered by S.W.
In the west no chain of hills intercepts the warmer and moister winds which blow from the Atlantic, and these accordingly influence at times even the eastern regions of Germany.
On his return he was driven by contrary winds to Britain, and so came to Iona, where he related his experiences to his host, the abbot Adamnan (679-704).
His other writings include: Sonnets and Other Verses (1894); Lucifer, a Theological Tragedy (1899); Three Philosophical Poets (1910); Winds of Doctrine; Studies in Contemporary Opinion (1913); Philosophy (1916) and Character and Opinion in the United States; with Reminiscences of William James and Josiah Royce, and Academic Life in America (1920).
As the lakes never freeze, the prevalent cold north-west winds of North America are warmed in their passage over them, and often much of the winter precipitation is in the form of rain, so that the weather has much less certainty than in the north.
The old harbour is semi-circular in shape, 232 acres in area, with numerous quays, and protected by moles from southern and south-westerly winds.
in height) winds on the whole south-eastwards in the direction of Cape Passaro.
Lying high (3500 ft.) and swept by purifying winds, Aintab is a comparatively clean and healthy spot, though not free from ophthalmia and the "Aleppo button," and it has been selected by the American Mission Board as its centre for N.
From the few observations that exist, it seems that farther south the southern winter winds decrease rapidly, becoming westerly, until at Assuan and Wadi Haifa the northerly winds are almost invariable throughout the year.
The khamsin, hot sand-laden winds of the spring months, come invariably from the south.
The southern winds of-the summer months which occur in the low latitudes north of the equator are not felt much north of Khartum.
The period of the hot winds, called the khamsin, that is, the fifties, is calculated from the day after the Coptic Easter, and terminates on the day of Pentecost, and the Moslems observe the Wednesday preceding this period, called Jobs Wednesday, as well as its first day, when many go into the country from Cairo, to smell the air.
South-westerly winds prevail from January to March, and from September to the end of the year.
In April the east wind, which is particularly searching, is predominant, while westerly winds prevail from May to August.
Bitter north-easterly winds prevail in the spring, and snow is not uncommon even in the low-lying districts of Greece.
Thick clouds for the most part shut out the sun; while the cold current from the Sea of Okhotsk, aided by north-east winds, brings immense ice-floes to the east coast in summer.
These are the summer and winter portions of the year, and an important result of the prevalence of these winds, with their accompanying rains, which are coincident with the annual extremes of temperature, is to imprint a more strictly insular character on the climate, by moderating the heat of summer and the cold of winter.
The north-east winds acquire their greatest frequency from March to June and in November, which are accordingly the driest portions of the year.
The mountainous regions are mostly massed in the west and lie generally north and south, or approximately facing the rain-bringing winds from the Atlantic. Thus the climates of the west are essentially wet.
Cumberland had returned to London, but Hawley marched;from Edinburgh with an army which Charles drove to the winds on Falkirk Moor.
winds prevail from the middle of October to the end of April, and S.
The mean velocity of winds for 1906 was 110 m.; the maximum recorded being 148 in May, the minimum velocity recorded being 76 in December.
It used to be doubted whether these people could have gone from the Indian archipelago so far eastward, because the prevailing winds and currents are from the east.
But it is now well known that at times there are westerly winds in the region over which they would have to travel, and that there would be no insuperable difficulties in the way of such a voyage.
trade winds; the temperature ranges from an absolute minimum of 61° to an absolute maximum of 99° (1904).
part of the great central plateau is arid and has a very light rainfall; it has no streams, therefore, except from melting snows, and the higher elevations which receive the impact of the easterly winds.
Even here there are local modifications, as at Ambato, where a shallow depression, surrounded by barren, dust-covered ridges exposed to cold winds, is celebrated for its warm, equable climate and its fruit.
These serve to modify the temperatures of the plateau, which is swept by cold winds at all seasons of the year.
The prevailing wind is that of the north-east and south-east trade winds, broken and modified on the plateau and western lowlands by mountain barriers.
Westerly and north-west winds are sometimes experienced, but are not permanent.
The warm winds which sweep up the Mississippi Valley from the Gulf of Mexico are responsible for the extremes of heat, and the Arctic winds of the north, which find no mountain range to break their strength, cause the extremes of cold.
At Cairo the prevailing winds are southerly during all months except February, and as far north as Springfield they are southerly from April to January; but throughout the N.
to S.W., the winds are mostly from the W.
The prevalent winds in the Gulf follow the configuration of the coast, i.e.
But, while he caused storms and shipwrecks, he could also send favouring winds; hence he was known as Soler, " the preserver."
They appear early in the year, or, as Shakespeare says, "come before the swallow dares, and take the winds of March with beauty."
BADGHIS ("home of the winds"), a district on the north-west of Afghanistan, between the Murghab and Hari Rud rivers, extending as far northward as the edge of the desert of Sarakhs.
On the north coast there are no harbours; but fairly safe anchorages, even in the north-east winds, are available off Hadibu or under Haulaf, a few miles distant, and at Kallansayia, at the north-west end of the island.
The hot season throughout this part of the country is rendered more trying by frequent dust storms and fiery winds; whilst the bare rocky ridges that traverse the country, absorbing heat by day and radiating it by night, render the summer nights most oppressive.
The great peninsula of India, with its lofty mountain ranges behind and its extensive seaboard exposed to the first violence of the winds of two oceans, forms an exceptionally valuable and interesting field for the study of meteorological phenomena.
Up or down this plain, at opposite seasons, sweep the monsoon winds, in a direction at right angles to that of their nominal course; and thus vapour which has been brought by winds from the Bay of Bengal is discharged as snow and rain on the peaks and hillsides of the Western Himalayas.
Together with the two parallel valleys of the Nerbudda and Tapti, which drain the flanks of its western half, it gives, at opposite seasons of the year, a decided easterly and westerly direction to the winds of this part of India, and condenses a tolerably copious rainfall during the south-west monsoon.
The rains, however, are prolonged some three or four weeks later than in tracts to the north of the Satpuras, since they are also brought by the easterly winds which blow from the Bay of Bengal in October and the early part of November, when the recurved southerly wind ceases to blow up the Gangetic valley, and sets towards the south-east coast.
This gap affords a passage to the winds which elsewhere are barred by the hills of the Ghat chain.
The general meridional direction of the ranges and valleys determines the direction of the prevailing surface winds, this being, however, subject to many local modifications.
On the north, the Himalaya range and the plateau of Afghanistan shut it off from the climate of central Asia, and give it a continental climate, the characteristics of which are the prevalence of land winds, great dryness of the air, large diurnal range of temperature, and little or no precipitation.
Over all she winds a silken sari or sheet round the body; it is then passed between the legs and the end thrown over the right shoulder.
The climate is greatly influenced by the prevailing winds, which are W., S.W.
a year), and the prevailing winds help to clean the streets.
The westerly winds, however, sometimes bring across the bay the offensive smells of the great abattoirs and meat-curing establishments (saladeros) at the foot of the Cerro.
from shore to shore, and an outer roadstead exposed to the violent winds of this latitude, where the larger ocean-going steamers were compelled to anchor before the construction of the new port works.
The mean annual rainfall in this city is about 76 in., and nearly three-fourths of it is from the middle of June to the middle of October, when the winds blow from the south-west.
On the Pacific coast of Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao the rainy season is from November to May, when the winds blow from the east or the north-east.
He was driven back by unfavourable winds to Leucopetra, and then, hearing better news, returned to Rome on the 21st of August.
He had a ship near in which he had previously attempted to fly, but being cast back by unfavourable winds he returned to his villa, saying, " Let me die in the country which I have often saved."
In the lower part of its course the river winds through fertile, marshy plains.
The transoceanic invasion progressed slowly through the 17th and 18th centuries, delayed by the head winds of a rough ocean which was crossed only in slow sailing vessels, and by the rough " backwoods " of the Appalachians, which retarded the penetration of wagon roads and canals into the interior.
The climate of the coast district is hot, moist and unhealthy, with a season of heavy rain lasting from May to November, during which time variable winds, calms and tornadoes succeed one another.
Another weather factor is the winds, which are extremely regular in their movements.
Its deep and capacious bay is sheltered from northerly and north-easterly winds, and the construction of modern harbour works has greatly increased the facilities for trade.
In summer the climate is often oppressively hot under the influence of winds blowing from the interior, but the proximity of the sea on the one side and of the mountains on the other allows the inhabitants to avoid the excessive heat; at other seasons, however, the climate is mild and pleasant; with a mean annual rainfall of 20 ï¿½ 4 ins.
The climate is severe, as the town is much exposed to cold winds blowing from the snowy Alps.
The highest is Goatfell (2866 ft., the name said to be a corruption of the Gaelic Goadh Bhein, " mountain of the winds").
the winds (viz.
The prevailing winds are W.
The Russian squadron was detained by contrary winds, and before it could sail peremptory orders arrived from the tsar for it to remain until Ibrahim should have repassed the Taurus mountains.
The rainy westerly winds (S.W.
It is also exposed to the dangerous Papagayos tornadoes, caused by the prevailing north-easterly winds meeting opposite currents from the Pacific. It is drained on the south by the San Juan river, which flows generally east by south to the Caribbean Sea.
The principal river is the Segovia, which rises in the main cordillera due north of Lake Managua, winds E.N.E.
They have a sort of chart, medo, of small sticks tied together, representing the positions of islands and the directions of the winds and currents.
On the north coast the winter is cold, and the winds, sweeping across the Black Sea from the steppes of Russia, are accompanied by torrents of rain and heavy falls of snow.
On the west coast the climate is moderate, but the influence of the cold north winds is felt as far south as Smyrna, and the winter at that place is colder than in corresponding latitudes in Europe.
The climate shows great extremes of heat in summer and of cold in winter, when fierce north and north-west winds blow across the plains.
Thin, hollow towers (such as furnace chimneys exposed to high winds), square I: 6
Stories were told of the ingenuity and generosity by which he had made the marshes round Selinus salubrious, of the grotesque device by which he laid the winds that ruined the harvests of Agrigentum, and of the almost miraculous restoration to life of a woman who had long lain in a death-like trance.
It has long been known that the whole Red Sea area is undergoing gradual elevation, and much has been done in recent years in investigating the levels of raised beaches found in different localities., In the northern part, down to almost 19° N., the prevailing winds are north and north-west.
The middle region, to 14°-16° N., has variable winds in an area of low barometric pres- sure, while in the southern Red Sea south-east and east winds prevail.
From June to August the north west wind blows over the entire area; in September it retreats again as far as 16° N., south of which the winds are for a time variable.
Strong north-north-east winds prevail in the Gulf of Akaba during the greater part of the year; they are weakest in April and May, sometimes giving place at that season to southerly breezes.
Elsewhere the surface movements at least are controlled by the prevailing winds, which give rise in places to complex "transverse" currents, and near the coast are modified by the channels enclosed by the coral reefs.
During the prevalence of the north and north-west winds the surface level of the northern part of the Red Sea is depressed by as much as 2 ft.
Winds are constant and rather high (5 to 10 m.), and for many persons are the most trying feature of the climate.
Owing to the prevalence of moist west and south-west winds the climate of Finland is less severe than it is farther east in corresponding latitudes.
As the winds that reach New Mexico have been desiccated while crossing the plains of Texas or the mountains of the N.W., the climate is characterized by a lack of humidity.
Just as the emperor is kami, and provincial officers of rank, so also mountains, rivers, the sea, thunder, winds, and even animals like the tiger, wolf or fox, are all kami.7 The spirits of the dead also become kami, of varying character and position; some reside in the temples built in their honour; some hover near their tombs; but they are constantly active, mingling in the vast multitude of agencies which makes every event in the universe, in the language of Motowori (1730-1801), the act of the Kami.
These were of course created, but they were in their turn the agents of the phenomena of nature, " the angels of the spirit of fire and the angels of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirits of the clouds and of darkness and of snow and of hail and of hoarfrost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer " (Jubilees, tr.
Some of these birds have lived thus exposed for many years, enduring the English cold easterly winds, rain, hail and snow, all through the winter - a marvellous contrast to the equable equatorial temperature (hardly ever less than 70°) to which many of them had been accustomed for the first year or years of their existence.
This is soon impregnated with the seeds of the Saccharum spontaneum and other grasses that have been partly brought by the winds and partly deposited by the water.
The climate is dry and healthy, with high south winds from March till September.
The climate is severe, great cold being experienced in winter, though moist west winds exercise a moderating influence.
The climate of northern and central Chile is profoundly affected by the high mountain barrier on the eastern frontier and by the broad treeless pampas of Argentina, which raise the easterly moisture-laden winds from the Atlantic to so high an elevation that they sweep across Chile without leaving a drop of rain.
At very rare intervals light rains fall in the desert regions north of Coquimbo, but these are brought by the prevailing coast winds.
In southern Chile the climate undergoes a radical change - the prevailing winds becoming westerly, causing a long rainy season with a phenomenal rainfall.
The higher ranges intercept considerable moisture from the prevailing trade winds, and their flanks and valleys are covered with forest, but the plateaus are either thinly wooded or open campo.
The climate, which is generally described as healthful, is hot and humid on the coast, tempered by the cool trade winds; but in the more elevated regions it is very hot and dry, although the nights are cool.
ANDRONICUS OF CYRRHUS, Greek astronomer, flourished about ioo B.C. He built a horologium at Athens, the so-called "tower of the winds," a considerable portion of which still exists.
It is octagonal, with figures carved on each side, representing the eight principal winds.
The eastern escarpments (the Drakensberg, &c.) of the plateau intercept the rain-bearing winds from the Indian Ocean, so that over the greater part of the interior the rainfall is slight (5 to 24 in.).
But contrary winds prevented him from crossing to Stockholm, and in the meanwhile events had occurred which made his presence there unnecessary.
The town with its narrow streets winds up the fortified hill which is crowned by the old citadel.
It stands near the site of the Aeolian Heraclea, on rising ground at the end of a bay which is separated from the Gulf of Adramyttium, and protected from the prevailing winds by the Moschonisi Islands (Hecatonnesoi).
of this divergence it strikes the Kadanai river, turning the northern spurs of the Toba plateau (the base of the Kwaja Amran (Kojak) Range, and winds through the open plains west of the Kojak.
It is a land of dust-storms and poisonous winds; a land where the thermometer never sinks below 100° F.
They should be sheltered from winds and well watered during the growing period.
The cicada's song resounds among the woods in the autumn; flights of locusts frequently appear after the summer, and they are carried by the prevailing winds even among the glaciers and eternal snows.
In the deep valleys where the mountains keep off the cool winds, it is excessively hot in summer; while on the summits of the mountains snow lies for many months.
This is largely due to the fact that the moistureladen winds from the Atlantic penetrate almost as far inland as the Portuguese frontier, but do not reach the interior of Spain.
Pedro Alvares Cabral, sailing to India, but steering far westward to avoid the winds and currents of the Guinea coast, reached Brazil Woo) and claimed it for his sovereign.
- Bolivia lies wholly within the torrid zone, and variations in temperature are therefore due to elevation, mountain barriers and prevailing winds.
This vertical arrangement of climatic zones is modified to some extent (less than in Argentina) by varying rainfall conditions, which are governed by the high mountain ranges crossing one corner of the republic, and also by the prevailing winds.
The trade winds give to S.
On the west side of the Cordillera, which extracts the moisture from the prevailing easterly winds, the elevated plateaus have a limited rainfall in the north, which diminishes toward the south until the surface becomes absolutely barren.
The prevailing winds are easterly, bringing moisture across Brazil from the Atlantic, but eastern Bolivia is also exposed to hot, oppressive winds from the north, and to violent cold winds (surazos) from the Argentine plains, which have been known to cause a fall of temperature of 36° within a few hours.
The harbour is well sheltered from all winds except the southwest, but escape is difficult with the wind from that quarter, as the channel between the town and Mogador Island is narrow and hazardous.
Very little rain comes from the Pacific or the Gulf of California, the mountains and desert, as well as the adverse winds, making it impossible.
or more along the shore of Lake Michigan, and are formed on this side (but not on the Wisconsin side) of the lake by the prevailing west winds.
Although the temperature of the entire lower peninsula is considerably influenced by the lakes, yet, the prevailing winds being westerly, it is in the west portion of that peninsula that the moderation is greatest, both the summer and winter isotherms being there deflected more than half the length of the peninsula.
On the other hand, the prevailing winds of the upper peninsula being northwesterly, the lakes have little effect on the temperature there; and so, while in the south-west the extremes are not great, in the rest of the state they have ranged within two years from 104° F.
excellent holding ground, protected from all winds except the southeast, the prevailing wind being westerly.
It has an excellent modern harbour, and its roadstead, which is never frozen, is well protected from east and west winds, and partly also from the south, but its depth is only II to 14 ft., reaching 35 ft.
throughout the year; but the heat is tempered by easterly winds.
When at last she was ready to sail she was delayed by contrary winds.
The floods in the river make it an island in spring; in summer it is parched by the sun and hot winds, and hardly a tree can be got to grow.
But his voyage being delayed by contrary winds he was finally compelled to return without accomplishing his wish.
In the summer the prevailing winds throughout the state are from the S.W.; in the winter, from the N.W.
When grown in Great Britain Cryptomeria requires a deep, well-drained soil with plenty of moisture, and protection from cold winds.
Easterly winds prevail all the year round.
They are expert navigators, and construct curious charts of thin strips of wood tied together with fibres, some giving the position of the islands and some the direction of the prevailing winds.
4.2 Winds 4.3 Storms 4.4 Rainfall 4.5 Sunshine
As to how far the narrow portion of the North Sea modifies the influence of the European continent, there seems reason to believe that the prevailing winds blowing up the English Channel carry oceanic conditions some distance inland, along those parts of the continent nearest to England.
The normal seasonal march of pressure-change produces a maximum gradient in December and January, and a minimum gradient in April; but for every month in the year the mean gradient is for winds from southerly and westerly quarters.
The rainfall of England, being largely due to passing cyclones, can hardly be expected to show a very close relation to the physical features of the country, yet looked at in a general way the relation between prevailing winds and orographic structure is not obscure.
The cause of the mild climate of the Panhandle, formerly supposed to be the Japanese current, or Kuro Shiwo, is now held to be the general eastward drift of the waters of the North Pacific in the direction of the prevalent winds.
of this point, and the true explanation lies probably in the fact that in winter, when the seeds of the coastal forests ripen and are released, the prevalent winds W.
and S.W., while the spread of the seeds requires dry winds blowing from the N.
The recent political mission to Seistan under Sir Henry M c Mahon (1904-1905) added much information respecting the ancient and modern channels of the lower Helmund, proving that river to have been constantly shifting its bed over a vast area, changing the level of the country by silt deposits, and in conjunction with the terrific action of Seistan winds actually altering its configuration.
It is sheltered from the north-east and east winds, but is exposed to the cold north-west wind or mistral.
The only drawback to the climate is the prevalence of high cold winds in winter.
These winds cause temperatures as low as 36°, but the mean reading, on an average of ten years, is 73°.
Navigation, which is practicable for only one hundred and eighty days in the year, is rather difficult owing to fogs and gales, which are often accompanied, even in April and September, with snow-storms. The prevailing winds blow from N.W.
winds cause the water to rise in the south-western part, sometimes 3 to 5 ft.
Extremes of temperature are not so great as farther inland in the same latitude; for the summer heats are tempered by the sea and the cool north winds, and the winter cold is so constant as to be less severely felt than the changing temperature of more southern districts.
Although the temperature remains pretty steadily below the freezing point for at least three months of the year, many of the harbours remain unobstructed; for the tides and the prevailing off-shore winds break up and drive off the ice.
The winds are variable; at no season of the year is it usual for them to blow from the same direction for many days in succession.
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