With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
Larger combinations, being semi-orchestral, especially where the double-bass and wind instruments are used, lend themselves to a somewhat lighter style; thus Beethoven's septet and Schubert's octet are both in the nature of a very large serenade.
- The longitudinal vibration of air in cylindrical pipes is made use of in various wind instruments.
Choral singing is a popular amusement, and is accompanied by the Spanish guitar and native wind-instruments.
Brewing, flour-milling, distilling, turnery, cotton-bleaching, cidermaking, metal-founding, tanning, and the manufacture of glass, paper, iron ware, nails, pins, wind-instruments, bricks and sugar are also carried on.
acoustics of wind instruments like flutes or organ pipes.
brass wind instruments have an innate power to rouse, to stimulate.
The following is Bach's fullest orchestra: the string-band, consisting (as at the present day) of violins in two parts, violas, violoncellos, doubled (where the contrary is not indicated) by double basses; the wind instruments (generally one to each part, as the string-band was never large)-2 flutes, 2 or 3 oboes, or oboe d'amore (a lower-pitched and gentler type), taille or oboe da caccia (some kind of alto oboe corresponding to the cor anglais), bassoon, generally doubling the string basses, 2 horns, with parts needing much greater practice in high notes than is customary to-day, 3 (occasionally 4) trumpets, of which at least the first 2 were played by players especially trained to produce much higher notes than are compatible with the power to produce the lower notes (the high players were called Clarin-Blaser; and the others Principal-Blaser); a pair of kettle-drums, tuned to the tonic and dominant of the piece.
But the mere tone-colours of that scene are enough to make a casual listener imagine that he is dealing with the true Wagner: the variety of tone never fails, and depends on no immoderate paraphernalia; for, farreaching as are the results of the systematic increase of the classical pairs of wind-instruments to groups of three, this is a very modest reform compared to the banausic " extra attractions " of every new production of Meyerbeer's.
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