Sir William Jones lived nearly two hundred years ago.
The manor was granted by William I.
Hoadly was shrewd enough not to answer the most brilliant, though comparatively unknown, of his antagonists, William Law.
Hoadly was shrewd enough not to answer the most brilliant, though comparatively unknown, of his antagonists, William Law.
In 1251 William de Ferrers obtained from the crown a charter for a weekly market and a yearly fair, but gradually this annual fair was replaced by four others chiefly for horses and cattle.
The plague of 1665, carried hither from London, almost depopulated this village, and the name of the rector, William Mompesson, attracted wide notice on account of his brave attempts to combat the outbreak.
The barony and castle of Kendal or Kirkby-in-Kendal, held by Turold before the Conquest, were granted by William I.
Little William Jones was always asking questions.
In the centre of the Schlossplatz is the lofty jubilee column, erected in 1841 in memory of the king of Wurttemberg, William I., and in the courtyard of the old palace is a bronze equestrian statue of Duke Eberhard the Bearded.
At the beginning of the 19th century it did not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance began with the reigns of Kings Frederick and William I., who exerted themselves in every way to improve and beautify it.
Sir William Abney has found that the above law agrees remarkably well with his observations on the transmission of light through water in which particles of mastic are suspended (Prot.
to No de Taillebois, but the barony was divided into three parts in the reign of Richard II., one part with the castle passing to Sir William Parr, knight, ancestor of Catherine Parr.
After the death of her brother William Parr, marquess of Northampton, his share of the barony called Marquis Fee reverted to Queen Elizabeth.
The countship of Angouleme dated from the 9th century, the most important of the early counts being William Taillefer, whose descendants held the title till the end of the 12th century.
William Stevenson was born at Hunwick, Durham, matriculated in 1546, took his M.A.
Stevenson was a fellow of Christ's College from 1559 to 1561, and is perhaps to be identified with a William Stevenson who was a fellow from 1551 to 1554.
The settlement was at first called Aspinwall, in honour of William H.
As a friend of the Prussian "Camarilla" and of King Frederick William IV.
He is probably the William Barbour who was ordained acolyte by Bishop Fleming of Lincoln on the 21st of April 1420 and sub - deacon on the 21st of January 1421; and as "William Barbour," otherwise Waynflete of Spalding, was ordained deacon on the 18th of March 1421, and priest on the 21st of January 1426, with title from Spalding Priory.
He may have been the William Waynflete who was admitted a scholar of the King's Hall, Cambridge, on the 6th of March 1428 (Exch.
William Waynflete, presented to the vicarage of Skendleby, Lincs, by the Priory of Bardney (Lincoln, Ep. Reg.
There was, however, another William Waynflete, who was instituted rector of Wroxhall, Somerset, on the r7th of May 1433 (Wells, Ep. Reg.
A successor to the William Waynflete at the King's Hall was admitted on the 3rd of April 1434.
William Westbury, who left New College, "transferring himself to the king's service," in May 1442, and appears in the first extant Eton Audit Roll1444-1445as headmaster, was probably such from May 1442.
there in even greater state, when Master William Grocyn, "the Grecian," a fellow of New College, "responded," in divinity.
Sir William Webb Follett >>
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON (1723-1790), American political leader, was born at Albany, New York, probably on the 30th of November 1723.
William Livingston graduated at Yale College in 1741, studied law in the city of New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1748.
With the help of William Smith (1728-1793), the New York historian, William Livingston prepared a digest of the laws of New York for the period 1691-1756, which was published in two volumes (1752 and 1762).
William's Son, (HENRY) BROCKHOLST LIVINGSTON (1757-1823), was an officer in the American War of Independence, and was an able lawyer and judge.
The bishops appointed "chatelains," one of whom was the celebrated "Wild Boar of the Ardennes," William de la Marck.
In April 1772 Warren Hastings took his seat as president of the council at Fort William.
At the outbreak of the Civil War the city was abandoned, and the navy yard was burned by the Federals in April 1861; Norfolk was then occupied until the 9th of May 1862 by Virginia troops, first under General William Booth Taliaferro (1822-1898) and later under General Benjamin Huger (1806-1877).
It was granted by William II.
William Gifford Palgrave (1826-1888) went to India as a soldier after a brilliant career at Charterhouse School and Trinity College, Oxford; but, having become a Roman Catholic, he was ordained priest and served as a Jesuit missionary in India, Syria, and Arabia.
From September 1829 until March 1830 Lundy was assisted in the editorship of the paper by William Lloyd Garrison.
William Eaton >>
There is now no doubt that William Gascoigne, a young gentleman of Yorkshire, was the first 1 Gran, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 449.
William Crabtree, a friend of his, taking a journey to Yorkshire in 1639 to see Gascoigne, writes thus to his friend Jeremiah Horrocks.
Sir William Herschel was the first astronomer who measured position angles; the instrument he employed is described in Phil.
These facilities, coupled with the wide and fascinating field of research opened up by Sir William Herschel's discovery of the binary character of double stars, gave an impulse to micrometric research which has continued unabated to the present time.
The French legend of the knight of the swan is attached to the house of Bouillon, and although William of Tyre refers to it about 1170 as fable, it was incorporated without question by later annalists.
He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
a tract entitled The Desertion discuss'd in a Letter to a Country Gentleman (1688), in answer to Bishop Burnet's defence of King William's position.
But in 1696 for his boldness in granting absolution on the scaffold to Sir John Friend and Sir William Parkyns, who had attempted the assassination of William, he was obliged to flee, and for the rest of his life continued under sentence of outlawry.
A co-ordinate woman's college, the William Smith school for women, opened in 1908, was endowed in 1906 by William Smith of Geneva, who at the same time provided for a Hall of Science and for further instruction in science, especially in biology and psychology.
In 1888 the Smith Observatory was built at Geneva, being maintained by William Smith, and placed in charge of Dr William Robert Brooks, professor of astronomy in Hobart College.
On the death of Southampton, Ashley was placed on the commission of the treasury, Clifford and William Coventry being his principal colleagues.
Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy by William Archer Butler (1814-1848;(1814-1848; lecturer on moral philosophy at Trinity College, Dublin), the value of which was greatly enhanced by Thompson's notes.
The death without direct heirs of Duke John William in 1609 led to serious complications in which almost all the states of Europe were concerned; however, by the treaty of Xanten in 1614, Cleves passed to the elector of Brandenburg, being afterwards incorporated with the electorate by the great elector, Frederick William.
Although defeated in the early stages of the conflict, the Yankees or Connecticut settlers finally rallied in August 1771 and compelled the Pennsylvanians to retreat, and the war terminated with the defeat of Colonel William Plunket (1720-1791) and about 700 Pennsylvanians by a force of 300 Yankees under Colonel Zebulon Butler (1731-179, 5)5) in the battle of "Rampart Rocks" on the 25th of December 1775.
The palace contains a picture gallery and collections of natural history and antiquities, and in front of it are two monumental fountains and a monument to the emperor William I.
Ten years later it was rebuilt on an extended scale, and provided with fortifications by the elector John William.
At times he acted as viceroy in William's absence; at times he led the royal forces to chastise rebellions.
William Rufus, to the disgust of his supporters, permitted Odo to leave the kingdom after the collapse of this design (1088), and thenceforward Odo was the right-hand man of Robert in Normandy.
See the authorities cited for WILLIAM I.
from Inigo Jones's designs, and in that of Queen Anne from designs by Sir Christopher Wren; and behind these buildings are on the west those of King William and on the east those of Queen Mary, both from Wren's designs.
In the King William range is the painted hall.
(1792-1849), king of the Netherlands, son of William I., was born at the Hague on the 6th of December 1792.
In April 1831 William took the command of a Dutch army for the invasion of Belgium, and in a ten-days' campaign defeated and dispersed the Belgian forces under Leopold I.
In 1840, on the abdication of his father, he ascended the throne as William II.
William died suddenly on the 17th of March 1849.
He himself was a prebendary of St Paul's, and was also a clerk in the service of William II.
Refusing to recognize the new archbishop of Canterbury, William of Corbeil, as his superior, Thurstan took no part in his consecration, and on two occasions both archbishops carried their complaints in person to Rome.
William Oughtred 575and Thomas Harriot (1560-1621).
The free grammar-school was founded in 1548 by William Ermysted, a canon of St Paul's, London.
After the death of Harold in 1066, Archbishop Aldred and the citizens of London desired to make him king, but on the advance of William, Edgar and his supporters made their submission.
In 1074 he went to Normandy and made peace with William.
William Fitzstephen (d.
In 1859 he began, in concert with Sir William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin), to work on problems respecting the making and use of cables, and the importance of his researches on the resistance of gutta-percha was at once recognized.
NATHANIEL WILLIAM TAYLOR (1786-1858), American Congregational theologian, was born in New Milford, Connecticut, on the 2 3 rd of June 1786, grandson of Nathaniel Taylor (1722-1800), pastor at New Milford.
The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD (1837-), English historian and man of letters, was born at Hampstead, London, on the 2nd of December 1837, and was educated in Germany and at the university of Cambridge.
William Aiton >>
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
Skeat, E.E.T.S., 1877, with William of Palerme) contains an account of the wars of Philip, of Nectanebus and of the education of Alexander.
See William Molyneux, History of Burton-on-Trent (1869); Victoria County History, Staffordshire.
Guy and Sibylla were married in 1180; and Guy thus became heir presumptive of the kingdom, if the young Baldwin V., Sibylla's son by her first marriage to William of Montferrat, should die without issue.
It is mentioned in Domesday only as a bailiwick of Newbold belonging to the king, and granted to William Peverell.
In 1204 John gave the manor to William Bruere and granted to the town all the privileges of a free borough which were enjoyed by Nottingham and Derby; but before this it seems to have had prescriptive borough rights.
Several of the earlier exploits of William Wallace were achieved in the neighbourhood.
He burned the town and slew the English sheriff William Hezelrig.
William Lithgow (1582-1645), the traveller, William Smellie (1697-1763), the obstetrician and Gavin Hamilton (1730-1797), the painter, were born at Lanark.
As a member of the council of Madras he helped to defend the city against the French in 1759, and in July 1760 he went to Bengal as president of the council and governor of Fort William.
The Prinsenhof, previously a monastery, was converted into a residence for the counts of Orange in 1575; it was here that William the Silent was assassinated.
It is now used as a William of Orange Museum.
It is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, and contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, executed by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about 1621, and the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the market-place outside the church.
In 1 246 it received a charter from Count William II.
Thus Ranulf Flambard, the minister of William II., who was probably the first to exercise the powers of a justiciar, is called justiciarius by Ordericus Vitalis.
granted William de Braose a yearly three-days' fair at his manor of Horsham.
William de Braose claimed to have a free market on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
William Thomas Stead >>
It has been usually supposed that John Napier was buried in St Giles's church, Edinburgh, which was certainly the burialplace of some of the family, but Mark Napier (Memoirs, p. 426) quotes Professor William Wallace, who, writing in 1832, gives strong reasons for believing that he was buried in the old church of St Cuthbert.
Sir William Francis Patrick Napier >>
The church of St Mary and St German belonged to a Benedictine abbey founded under a grant from William the Conqueror in 1069 and raised to the dignity of a mitred abbey by Pope Alexander II.
Sir William Monson >>
Encouraged by William IV., duke of Bavaria, he began to write the Annales Boiorum, about 1517, and finishing this book in 1521, undertook a German version of it, entitled Bayersche Chronik, which he completed some years later.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
of £600 (regium donum), and under William III.
William Dunlop (c. 1650-1700) ministered to them until 1688, when he became principal of the university of Glasgow.
In 1819 he removed with his parents to Chillicothe, Ohio, where he attended the local academy for two years, studied law in the office of his uncle, William Allen,' and in 1835 was admitted to the bar, becoming his uncle's law partner.
On the 17th of June 1806 General William Beresford landed with a body of Effects of troo s from a British fleet under the command of Sir p Home Popham, and obtained possession of Buenos Aires.
WILLIAM MURRAY MANSFIELD, 1ST Earl Of (1705-1793), English judge, was born at Scone in Perthshire, on the 2nd of March 1705.
William Murray was educated at Perth grammar school and Westminster School, of which he was a king's scholar.
On the death of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, the young son and heir of the late duke.
N.) is a cottage shown by an inscription to have been the home of the ancestors of William McKinley, president of the United States.
The oldest charter now on record is one belonging to the 6th year of Edward I.; and it refers to previous documents of the time of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror.
After his accession to the throne William spent some time at the court of the English king, Henry II.; then, quarrelling with Henry, he arranged in 1168 the first definite treaty of alliance between France and Scotland, and with Louis VII.
In return for this aid the younger Henry granted to William the earldom of Northumberland, a possession which the latter had vainly sought from the English king, and which was possibly the cause of their first estrangement.
However, when ravaging the country near Alnwick, William was taken prisoner in July 1174, and after a short captivity at Richmond was carried to Normandy, where he soon purchased his release by assenting in December 1174 to the treaty of Falaise.
William's next quarrel was with Pope Alexander III., and arose out of a double choice for the vacant bishopric of St Andrews.
In 1188 William secured a papal bull which declared that the Church of Scotland was directly subject only to the see of Rome, thus rejecting the claims to supremacy put forward by the English archbishop. This step was followed by the temporal independence of Scotland, which was one result of the continual poverty of Richard I.
In 1186 at Woodstock William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a cousin of Henry II., and peace with England being assured three years later, he turned his arms against the turbulent chiefs in the outlying parts of his kingdom.
The story of William's relations with King John is interesting, although the details are somewhat obscure.
Both these treaties seem to have been more favourable to England than to Scotland, and it is possible that William acknowledged John as overlord of his kingdom.
William died at Stirling on the 4th of December 1214 and was buried at Arbroath.
William founded and richly endowed the abbey at Arbroath, and many of the Scottish towns owe their origin to his charters.
William I Of Prussia >>
Adolphe William Bouguereau >>
The incumbency of Trinity Chapel was held by the famous preacher Frederick William Robertson (1847-18J3).
Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
Both entered the country, but George William proved himself the stronger and occupied Ratzeburg; having paid a substantial sum of money to the elector, he was recognized by the inhabitants as their duke.
JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH, 3rd baron (1842-), English physicist, was born in Essex on the 12th of November 1842, being the son of the 2nd baron.'
JULIUS JACOB HAYNAU (1786-1853), Austrian general, was the natural son of the landgrave - afterwards elector - of Hesse-Cassel, William IX.
In his lecture on Human Immortality (3rd ed., 1906), Professor William James deals with " two supposed objections to the doctrine."
The first English navigator to sight the Australian continent was William Dampier, who made a visit to these shores in 1688, as supercargo of the " Cygnet," a trader whose crew had turned buccaneers.
Some twelve years afterwards the East India Company fitted out an expedition under the leadership of Commander William de Vlamingh, with the object of searching for any traces of the lost vessel on the western shores of New Holland.
The leading men of the party were Mr Robert O'Hara Burke, an officer of police, and Mr William John Wills, of the Melbourne observatory.
long., an extent of half a million square miles, still remained a blank in the map. But the two expeditions of 1873, conducted by William Christie Gosse (1842-1881), afterwards deputy surveyorgeneral for South Australia, and Colonel (then Major) Egerton Warburton, made a beginning in the exploration of this terra incognita west of the central telegraph route.
After much negotiation the leader, Mr William Lane, a Brisbane journalist, decided on Paraguay, and he tramped across the continent, preaching a new crusade, and gathering in funds and recruits in his progress.
Garran, The Coming Commonwealth: a Handbook of Federal Government (Sydney, 1897); George William Rusden, History of Australia, 3 vols.
Bernard was succeeded in 1706 by his three sons, Ernest Louis, Frederick William and Anton Ulrich, but after 1746 the only survivor was the youngest, Anton Ulrich, who reigned alone from this date until his death in 1763.
WILLIAM HENRY GREEN (1825-1900), American Hebrew scholar, was born in Groveville, near Bordentown, New Jersey, on the 27th of January 1825.
At the siege and capture of Damietta (1218) it was the contingent of NorthNetherlanders (Hollanders and Frisians under Count William I.
The most serious difficulty with which Margaret had to deal arose from the attitude of the great nobles, and among these especially of William (the " Silent ") of Nassau, prince of Orange, Lamoral, count of Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, count of Hoorn.
William, Egmont, and Hoorn therefore placed themselves at the head of a league of nobles against Granvelle (who had become cardinal in 1561) with the object of undermining his influence and driving him from power.
Following the example of William of Orange, Hoorn, Berghen and other governors, the magistrates generally declined to enforce the edicts, and offered to resign rather than be the instruments for burning and maltreating their fellow-countrymen.
The regent was alienated from the popular leaders, and was no longer disposed to help William of Orange, Egmont, and Hoorn to secure a mitigation of religious persecution; and the heart of Philip was hardened in its resolve to exterminate heresy in the Netherlands.
William of Orange was not deceived by the specious temporizing of the king.
All this time William and Louis were indefatigably making preparations for a new campaign, and striving by their agents to rouse the people to active resistance.
In 1569 William in his capacity as sovereign prince of Orange issued letters-of-marque to a number of vessels to prey upon the Spanish commerce in the narrow seas.
Under the command of the lord of Lumbres, the lord of Treslong, and William de la Marck (lord of Lumey) they spread terror and alarm along the coast, seized much plunder, and in revenge for Alva's cruelty committed acts of terrible barbarity upon the priests and monks and catholic officials, as well as upon the crews of the vessels that fell into their hands.
On the 9th of July William crossed the Rhine, and captured Malines, Termonde and Oudenarde, and was advancing southwards when the news reached him of the massacre of St Bartholomew, which deprived him of the promised aid of Coligny and his army of 12,000 men.
but his camp at Harmignies was surprised by a night attack, and William himself narrowly escaped capture.
A few weeks later his eldest son, Philip William, count of Buren, a student at the university of Louvain, was kidnapped and carried off to Madrid.
William had meanwhile succeeded in raising a force in Germany with which his brother Louis invaded Friesland.
Aremberg himself was killed, as was Adolphus of Nassau, a younger brother of William and Louis.
Already at his summons the states of Holland had Orange takes up met at Dort (July 15) under the presidency of Philip his resi- de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, and they had deuce at unanimously recognized William as their lawful stadt- Delft.
This was a grievous blow to William, but his courage did not fail.
William made his triumphal entry into the capital (September 23), which he had quitted as an outlawed fugitive ten years before.
William, however, whose position had been strengthened by his nomination to the post of ruwaard of Brabant, determined to welcome Matthias and use him for his own purposes.
William was still struggling to carry out that larger scheme of a union of all the seventeen provinces, which at the time of the " Pacification of Ghent " had seemed a possibility.
As representing the pope, the suzerain of Henry, he claimed the regency and actually divided the chief power with William Marshal, earl of Pembroke.
Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.
About the year 1070 William Malbedeng or Malbank was created baron of Nantwich, which barony he held of the earl of Chester.
In 1689 battles were fought between William III.'s army and the Irish under Macarthy (for James II.), Lisnaskea (26th July) and Newtownbutler (30th July).
WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD (1801-1872), American statesman, was born on the 16th of May 1801 in the village of Florida, Orange county, New York.
In 1834 he received the Whig nomination for governor, but was defeated by William L.
He was one of the earliest political opponents of slavery, as distinguished from the radical Abolitionists, or the followers of William Lloyd Garrison, who eschewed politics and devoted themselves to a moral agitation.
HiS Son, Frederick William Seward, was born in Auburn, New York, on the 8th of July 1830, graduated at Union College in 1849 and was admitted to the bar at Rochester, N.Y., in 185x.
Seward (2 vols., New York, 1900); see also, The Life and Works of William H.
Baker; William H.
Seward; William H.
Seward; Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), by Gideon Welles; and William Henry Seward (new ed., Boston, 1899), by T.
William Sewell >>
His policy was in principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and - in the following generation - of William of Orange.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
They were published after his death by his son, William Theobald Wolfe Tone (1791-1828), who was educated by the French government and served with some distinction in the armies of Napoleon, emigrating after Waterloo to America, where he died, in New York City, on the 10th of October 1828.
Grant married in 1872 Jessie, daughter of William Lawson of Halifax.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
(probably William Warner), first printed in 1595, which Shakespeare may possibly have used (in MS.) for his Comedy of Errors.
WILLIAM CAVE (1637-1713), English divine, was born at Pickwell in Leicestershire.
By the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry Plantagenet, the countship passed under the suzerainty of the kings of England, but at the same time it was divided, William VII., called the Young (1145-1168), having been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his uncle William VIII.,called the Old,who was supported by Henry II.
LOUIS OF NASSAU (1538-1574), son of William, count of Nassau, and Juliana von Stolberg, and younger brother of William the Silent, took an active part in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish domination.
On the arrival of Alva at Brussels, Count Louis, with his brother William, withdrew from the Netherlands and raised a body of troops in defence of the patriot cause.
Alva then advanced to meet the invaders with a large army, and at Jemmingen (July 21), with very slight loss, annihilated the levies of Louis, who himself escaped by swimming from the field across an estuary of the Ems. He now joined the army of his brother William, which had in October to beat a hasty retreat before Alva's superior skill.
Then Louis, in company with his brothers William and Henry, made his way across the French frontier to the camp of the Huguenot leader, Admiral Coligny.
William made an attempt to relieve his brother, but failed, and Mons had to surrender (September 17).
After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.
Sir William Crookes had already suggested in 1892 in the Fortnightly Review (February 1892) that such an application might be 1 Nuovo cimento, series iii.
From this station as a centre the little band of adventurers, playing the Greeks off against the Lombards, and the Lombards against the Greeks, spread their power in all directions, until they made themselves the most considerable force in southern Italy William of Hauteville was proclaimed count of Apulia.
This, while the elder branch of the Hauteville family still held the title and domains of the Apulian duchy; but in 1127, upon the death of his cousin Duke William, Roger united the whole of the future realm.
When William II., the last monarch of the Norman race, died, Henry VI.
It is now known that the influence of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples and France.
Sir William Hamilton was subsequently recalled in a manner closely resembling a disgrace, and his place was taken by Paget, who behaved with mote dignity and tact.
Very many of them, distrusting both of these kings, sought to act independently in favor of an Italian republic. Lord William Bentinck with an AngloSicilian force landed at Leghorn on the 8th of March 1814, and issued a proclamation to the Italians bidding them rise against Napoleon in the interests of their own freedom.
Lord William Bentinck finally took over large administrative powers, seeing that Ferdinand, owing to his dulness, and Maria Carolina, owing to her very suspicious intrigues with Napoleon, could never be trusted.
The contest between the royal power and that of the Sicilian estates threatened to bring matters to a deadlock, until in 1812, under the impulse of Lord William Bentinck, a constitution modelled largely on that of England was passed by the estates.
He succeeded Sir William Coventry as commissioner for the state treasury in 1669, and in 1673 was appointed a commissioner for the admiralty.
He terminated the war with Holland in 1674, and from that time maintained a friendly correspondence with William; while in 1677, after two years of tedious negotiations, he overcame all obstacles, and in spite of James's opposition, and without the knowledge of Louis XIV., effected the marriage between William and Mary that was the germ of the Revolution and the Act of Settlement.
He was visited by Dykvelt, William of Orange's agent; and in June 1687 he wrote to William assuring him of his support.
On the 30th of June 1688 he was one of the seven leaders of the Revolution who signed the invitation to William.
In November he occupied York in the prince's interest, returning to London to meet William on the 26th of December.
He appears to have thought that William would not claim the crown,' and at first supported the theory that the throne having been vacated by James's flight the succession fell as of right to Mary; but as this met with little support, and was rejected both by William and by Mary herself, he voted against the regency and joined with 7 Add.
Danby had rendered extremely important services to William's cause.
He was, however, still greatly disliked by the Whigs, and William, instead of reinstating him in the lord treasurership, only appointed him president of the council in February 1689.
In 1690, during William's absence in Ireland, he was appointed Mary's chief adviser.
He returned in October, but was not included among the lords justices appointed regents during William's absence in this year.
He opposed the prosecution of Sir John Fenwick, but supported the action taken by members of both Houses in defence of William's rights in the same year.
Early in 1783 the marquess of Carmarthen, as he was called, was selected as ambassador to France, but he did not take up this appointment, becoming instead secretary for foreign affairs under William Pitt in December of the same year.
Their elder son, George William Frederick (1775-1838), succeeded his father as duke of Leeds and his mother as Baron Conyers.
A son of William Thistlewood, and born at Tupholme in Lincolnshire, young Thistlewood passed his early years in a desultory fashion; he became a soldier and visited France and America, imbibing republican opinions abroad and running into debt at home.
William James stood almost alone in being.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
Sir William Blackstone is almost equally admiring.
On the 12th of November 12 t 6 the regent William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, reissued the charter in the name of the young king Henry III.
The theory of natural selection, or survival of the fittest, was suggested by William Charles Wells in 1813, and further elaborated by Patrick Matthew in 1831.
Educated at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, he obtained a position in Florence through the influence of an Englishman, William Craufurd, but soon he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and was employed in Florence, in Constantinople and in Rome.
Reumont was the friend and adviser of Frederick William IV.
The charter of William the Conqueror abrogated the laws of Edgar.
Among the educational establishments is the State University, founded by King William I.
William Scott, Baron Stowell >>
William Learned Marcy >>
William the Conqueror revived it immediately of ter his accession, as a convenient method of national taxation, and it was with the object of facilitating its collection that he ordered the compilation of Domesday Book.
In the middle ages, meat, eggs and milk were forbidden in Lent not only by ecclesiastical but by statute law; and this rule was enforced until the reign of William III.
The statute, however, would not seem to have had much effect; for in spite of a proclamation of Queen Elizabeth in 1560 imposing a fine of £ 20 for each offence on butchers slaughtering animals during Lent, in 1563 Sir William Cecil, in Notes upon an Act for the Increase of the Navy, says that "in old times no flesh at all was eaten on fish days; even the king himself could not have license; which was occasion of eating so much fish as now is eaten in flesh upon fish days."
William Lenthall >>
William Caxton >>
To no town has the memory of one famous son brought wider notoriety than that which the memory of William Shakespeare has brought to Stratford; yet this notoriety sprang into strong growth only towards the end of the 18th century.
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
under the heading of Polar Regions, and only the names of Martin Frobisher (1576), John Davis (1585), Henry Hudson (1607) and William Baffin (1616) need be mentioned here in order to preserve the complete conspectus of the history of discovery.
The chief result of this early intercourse between Great Britain and Japan was the interesting series of letters written by William Adams from 1611 to 1617.
A second large Dutch fleet sailed in 1598; and, so eager was the republic to extend her commerce over the world that another fleet, consisting of five ships of Rotterdam, was sent in the same year by way of Magellan's Strait, under Jacob Mahu as admiral, with William Adams as pilot.
The association first employed John Ledyard (who had previously made an extraordinary journey into Siberia) to cross Africa from east to west on the parallel of the Niger, and William Lucas to cross the Sahara to Fezzan.
The narratives Pacific of such men as Woodes Rogers, Edward Davis, George Shelvocke, Clipperton and William Dampier, can never fail to interest, while they are not without geographical value.
The works of Dampier are especially valuable, and the narratives of William Funnell and Lionel Wafer furnished the best accounts then extant of the Isthmus of Darien.
In September 1740 Vitus Bering sailed from Okhotsk on a second Arctic voyage with George William Steller on board as naturalist.
2 This phrase is old, appearing in one of the earliest English works on geography, William Cuningham's Cosmographical Glasse conteinyng the pleasant Principles of Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie or Navigation (London, 1559).
ROBERT SPENCER SUNDERLAND, 2ND Earl Of (1640-1702), English politician, was the only son of Henry Spencer (1620-1643), who succeeded his father, William, as 3rd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton in 1636.
He voted for the exclusion of James, duke of York, from the throne, and made overtures to William, prince of Orange, and consequently in 168r he lost both his secretaryship and his seat on the privy council.
It should be mentioned that while Sunderland was thus serving James II., he was receiving a pension from France, and through his wife's lover, Henry Sidney, afterwards earl of Romney, he was furnishing William of Orange with particulars about affairs in England.
to find a place at once among the advisers of William and Mary, and he was excepted from the act of indemnity of 1690.
But his experience was invaluable and soon he became prominent in public affairs, a visit which William III.
It was his advice which led the king to choose all his ministers from one political party, to adopt the modern system, and he managed to effect a reconciliation between William and his sister-in-law, the princess Anne.
The discovery of their true nature was made by Dr William Buckland, who observed that certain convoluted bodies occurring in the Lias of Gloucestershire had the form which would have been produced by their passage in the soft state through the intestines of reptiles or fishes.
high, on the walls of which are the original painting, by William Henry Powell (1823-1879), of O.
Garfield, William T.
M`Neld) to William McKinley.
In 1826 he appeared before the public as the hero of a most extraordinary adventure, the abduction of Miss Ellen Turner, daughter of William Turner, of Shrigley Park, Cheshire.
After serving in the Spanish army William Hayward Wakefield (1803-1848) emigrated to New Zealand in 1839.
was ill and childless; his sister-in-law, the prospective queen, Anne, had just lost her only surviving child, William, duke of Gloucester; and abroad the supporters of the exiled king, James II., were numerous and active.
In these circumstances the Act of Settlement was passed, enacting that, in default of issue to either William or: Anne, the crown of England, France 4 and Ireland was to pass to "the most excellent princess Sophia, electress and duchess dowager of Hanover," a grand-daughter of James I., and "the heirs of her body being Protestants."
This and some of the other clauses amount practically to censures on the policy of William III.
The casket was opened in 1906, at the instance of the emperor William II., and the draperies enclosing the body were temporarily removed to Berlin, with a view to the reproduction of similar cloth.
There are many fine streets and squares and some handsome public monuments, notably among the last the fountain on the market square surmounted by a statue of Charlemagne, the bronze equestrian statue of the emperor William I.
These were still further extended in 1250 by the anti-Caesar William of Holland, who had made himself master of the place and of the imperial regalia, after a long siege, in 1248.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
On Congress Street, below the Observatory, is the Eastern Cemetery, the oldest burying ground of the city; in it are the graves of Commodore Edward Preble, and of Captain Samuel Blythe (1784-1813) and Captain William Burroughs (1785-1813), who were killed in the engagement between the British brig "Boxer" and the American brig "Enterprise," their respective ships, off this coast on the 5th of September 1813.
Willis, The History of Portland (Portland, 1865), and William Goold, Portland in the Past (Portland, 1886).
Its founder was a Norfolk lawyer, William Howard or Haward, who was summoned to parliament as a justice in 1295, being appointed a justice of the common pleas in 1297.
William Howard was employed as counsel by the corporation of Lynn, and it is worthy of note that the "crosslets fitchy" in his shield of arms suggest the cross with which the dragon was discomfited by St Margaret, the patroness of Lynn.
Prospering by the law, William Howard of Wiggenhall rose to knight's rank and acquired by purchase Grancourt's manor in East Winch, near Lynn, where he had his seat in a moated house whose ruins remain.
The second duke, twice married, was father of at least eleven sons and six daughters, the sons including Edward the lord high admiral, killed in boarding Pregent's galleys at Brest, Edmund the knight marshal of the army at Flodden, and William the first Lord Howard of Effingham.
The eldest of the cadet branches of the ducal house has its origin in William (c. 1510-1573), eldest son of the victor of Flodden by his second marriage.
Sir William Howard of Lingfield, younger brother of the great admiral, carried on the Effingham line, his great-grandson succeeding to the barony on the extinction of the earldom.
Lord William Howard (1563-1640), the "belted Will" of Scott's Lay and the "bauld Willie" of more authentic legend, was another of the sons of the fourth duke and Margaret Audley.
William Howard, Viscount Stafford, was the fifth son of Thomas, earl of Arundel, and grandson of Philip the prisoner.
William the Conqueror in 1084 celebrated Easter at Abingdon, and left his son, afterwards Henry I., to be educated at the abbey.
In December 1774, as a militia captain he assisted in the capture of Fort William and Mary at New Castle, New Hampshire, one of the first overt acts of the American colonists against the property of the crown.
He was the son of William and Martha Arnold, the former of whom occupied the situation of collector of customs at Cowes.
Dives is celebrated as the harbour whence William the Conqueror sailed to England in 1066.
2 But nothing so well illustrates this formal side of the Norman character as the whole position of William the Conqueror himself.
In William's theory, the forcible conquest of England by strangers was an untoward accident.
The army of Duke William was undoubtedly very far from being wholly made up of Normans, but it was a Norman army; the element which was not Norman, though considerable, was exceptional.
They started with no such claim as Duke William put forth to justify his invasion of England; their only show of legal right was the papal grant of conquests that were already made.
Duke William was undisputed master of England at the end of five years; it took Count Roger thirty years to make himself undisputed master of Sicily.
William assuredly did not create the kingdom of England; Roger assuredly did create the kingdom of Sicily.
The narratives of the conquest of England use both the Norman and the French names to express the followers of William.
During the bitter contest for the governorship in 1900 between William Goebel (Democrat) and William S.
By an invention probably due to Humfray Cole and published in 1 578 by William Bourne in his Inventions and Devices, it was proposed to register a ship's speed by means of a "little small close boat," with a wheel, or wheels, and an axle-tree to turn clockwork in the little boat, with dials and pointers indicating fathoms, leagues, scores of leagues and hundreds of leagues.
William Foxon of Deptford in 1772, James Guerimand of Middlesex in 1776 (by his "marine perambulator"), and R.
Sir William Blackstone >>
The city has several fine monuments, among which are statues of Oliver P. Morton, George Rogers Clark, William Henry Harrison, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas A.
In 1871 and 1872 Fordun's chronicle, in the original Latin and in an English translation, was edited by William F.
The latter position, ascribed by the schoolmen to the Averroists, becomes dominant among the later Nominalists, William of Occam and his disciples, who withdraw all doctrines of faith from the sphere of reason.
(Whether one calls the unknowable a revealed mystery or an unexplained and inexplicable fact makes little difference.) William Paley (1743-1805) borrows from many writers; he borrows Lardner's learning and Butler's " particular evidence for Christianity," viz.
"ROBERT BONTINE CUNNINGHAME-GRAHAM (1852-), British author and traveller, was born in 1852, the son of William Cunninghame-Graham Bontine of Ardoch and Gartmore, and was educated at Harrow.
The Witch of Edmonton was attributed by its publisher to William Rowley, Dekker, Ford, "&c.," but the body of the play has been generally held to be ascribable to Ford and Dekker only.
When his master, William Varron, removed to Paris in 1301, Duns Scotus was appointed to succeed him as professor of philosophy, and his lectures attracted an immense number of students.
There is more than one meaning of William James discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
"BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-), English mathematician and philosopher, second son of Viscount Amberley and grandson of the 1st Earl Russell, was born at Chepstow May 18 1872.
George William Russell >>
on this occasion William Jessop, of the Butterley Iron Works, near Derby, proposed to get over it by laying down two plates of iron, perfectly flat and level with the road but each having on its outside a groove 4 in.
The earliest communications were carried on by means of "raps," or, as Sir William Crookes calls them, "percussive sounds."
Sir William Crookes has published accounts of striking experiments and observations with D.
Two fine inlets, Berkeley Sound and Port William, run far into the land at the northeastern extremity of the island.
Port Louis, formerly the seat of government, is at the head of Berkeley Sound, but the anchorage there having been found rather too exposed, about the year 1844 a town was laid out, and the necessary public buildings were erected on Stanley Harbour, a sheltered recess within Port William.
EDMUND GRINDAL (c. 1519-1583), successively bishop of London, archbishop of York and archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1519, was son of William Grindal, a farmer of Hensingham, in the parish of St Bees, Cumberland.
Till 1765 it was only a village under the name of Causewayhead, but the discovery of marl in the lake brought it some prosperity, and it was purchased in 1792 by Sir William Douglas and called after him.
His grandfather, William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), was ninth president of the United States.
William Cadogan, 1st earl Cadogan >>
WILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT (1796-1859), American historian, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of May 1796.
His grandfather was Colonel William Prescott (1726-1795), who commanded at the battle of Bunker Hill; and his father was a well-known lawyer.
In 1718 he entered into a correspondence with William Wake, archbishop of Canterbury, with a view to a union of the English and Gallican churches; being suspected of projecting a change in the dogmas of the church, his papers were seized in February 1719, but nothing incriminating was found.
Henry meanwhile, however, had sent William Knight, his secretary, on a separate mission to Rome to obtain facilities for his marriage with Anne; and on the cardinal's return in August he found her installed as the king's companion and proposed successor to Catherine of Aragon.
On the 12th Sir Francis Weston, Henry Norris, William Brereton and Mark Smeaton were declared guilty of high treason, while Anne herself and Lord Rochford were condemned unanimously by an assembly of twenty-six peers on the 15th.
"I have seen many men" (wrote Sir William Kingston, governor of the Tower) "and also women executed, and all they have been in great sorrow, and to my knowledge this lady has much joy and pleasure in death."
To Sir William Kingston she protested her entire innocence, and on the scaffold while expressing her submission she made no confession.
William Gilpin calls the cypress an architectural tree: "No Italian scene," says he, "is perfect without its tall spiral form, appearing as if it were but a part of the picturesquely disposed edifices which rise from the middle ground against the distant landscape."
An attack on Christianity laid a writer open to prosecution and penalties under the statutes of the realm (9 and io William III.
In 1875 he became Lady Margaret professor of divinity in succession to William Selwyn.
2 (1893); William Wright, History of the Big Bonanza (Hartford, Conn., 1876); C. H.
William Henry Davies >>
The poet William Cowper was born in the rectory in 1731.
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been betrothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the Great.
and Frederick William for each other.
Frederick William I >>
WILLIAM THOMAS SAMPSON (1840-1902), American naval commander, was born at Palmyra, New York, on the 9th of February 1840, and graduated at the head of his class from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1861.
Here also are a tablet marking the location of the old fort (1621), which was also used as a place of worship, a tablet showing the site of the watch-tower built in 1643, and a marble obelisk erected in 1825 in memory of Governor William Bradford.
Plymouth was the first permanent white settlement in New England, and dates its founding from the landing here from the "Mayflower" shallop of an exploring party of twelve Pilgrims, including William Bradford, on the 21st of December (N.s.) 1620.
- For the sources of the early history of Plymouth consult (George) Mourt's Relation, or Journal of the Plantation of Plymouth (Boston, 1865, and numerous other editions); William Bradford's History of the Plimouth Plantation (Boston, 1858, and several later editions), the most important source of information concerning Plymouth before 1646; the Plymouth Colony Records (12 vols., Boston, 1855-1861); the Records of the Town of Plymouth (3 vols., Plymouth, 1889-1903); J.
WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT (1857-), the twenty-seventh President of the United States, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 15th of September 1857.
William Howard Taft attended the public schools of Cincinnati, graduated at the Woodward High School of that city in 1874, and in the autumn entered Yale College, where he took high rank as a student and was prominent in athletics and in the social life of the institution.
At the ensuing election in November, Taft and Sherman received 321 electoral votes against 162 cast for William Jennings Bryan and John W.
Henry William Paget, 1st marquess of Anglesey >>
ALEXANDER WILLIAM WILLIAMSON (1824-1904), English chemist, was born at Wandsworth, London, on the 1st of May 18 24.
He was the son of John Henry, a welleducated Scotsman, among whose relatives was the historian William Robertson, and who served in Virginia as county surveyor, colonel and judge of a county court.
See Moses Coit Tyler, Patrick Henry (Boston, 1887; new ed., 1899), and William Wirt Henry (Patrick Henry's grandson), Patrick Henry: Life, Correspondence and Speeches (New York, 1890-1891); these supersede the very unsatisfactory biography by William Wirt, Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1817).
Charles's ambition aimed at wider fields, and when Margaret, countess of Flanders, asked help of the French court against the German king William of Holland, by whom she had been defeated, he gladly accepted her offer of the county of; Hainaut in exchange for his assistance (1253); this arrangement was, however, rescinded by Louis of France, who returned from captivity in 1254, and Charles gave up Hainaut for an immense sum of money.
WILLIAM WOLLASTON (1659-1724), English philosophical writer, was born at Coton-Clanford in Staffordshire, on the 26th of March 1659.
William Hyde Wollaston >>
WILLIAM GEORGE WARD (1812-1882), English Roman Catholic theologian, was born on the 21st of March 1812.
William Eden Auckland >>
One of the first acts of the emperor William II.
On the question of universals he endeavoured to steer a middle course between the pantheistically inclined realism of Duns Scotus and the extreme nominalism of William of Occam.
In the following July the Confederation created a "war directory" of five, of which Meagher was a member, and he and William Smith O'Brien travelled through Ireland for the purpose of starting a revolution.
of Spain, their letters to whom were intercepted by the viceroy, Sir William Russell.
William Shield >>
In that year William Longsword, eldest of the five sons of Count William III., came to the kingdom of Jerusalem, on the invitation of Baldwin IV.
Count William III.
Shortly after the battle of Hittin there appeared in Palestine the ablest and most famous of the family, Count William's second son, Conrad.
Still another son of Count William III.
WILLIAM BORLASE (1695-1772), English antiquary and naturalist, was born at Pendeen in Cornwall, of an ancient family, on the 2nd of February 1695.
WILLIAM FARR (1807-1883), English statistician, was born at Kenley, in Shropshire, on the 30th of November 1807.
The next castle was a royal residence from 1189 to 1371 and was occupied occasionally by William the Lion, Alexander II.
See William Beauchamp Wildman, A Short History of Sherborne from A.D.
WILLIAM FLEETWOOD (1656-1723), English divine, was descended of an ancient Lancashire family, and was born in the Tower of London on New Year's Day 1656.
the duke of Gloucester and King William.
William Lithgow >>
CAROLINE LUCRETIA HERSCHEL (1750-1848), English astronomer, sister of Sir William Herschel, the eighth child and fourth daughter of her parents, was born at Hanover on the 16th of March 1750.
After the death of her father in 1767 she obtained permission to learn millinery and dressmaking with a view to earning her bread, but continued to assist her mother in the management of the household until the autumn of 1772, when she joined her brother William, who had established himself as a teacher of music at Bath.
Sir Frederick William Herschel >>
It is rendered memorable by the decisive victory gained here on the 12th of July 1691 by the forces of William III.
The borough was founded before 1217 by William de Vernon, earl of Devon, whose ancestor Richard de Redvers had received the manor from Henry I.
In the 14th century it passed to the Courtenays, and in 1698 Sir William Courtenay was confirmed in the right of holding court leet, view of frankpledge and the nomination of a portreeve, these privileges having been surrendered to James II.
The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-SonderburgGliicksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863).
In 1507 he took up his residence in the Benedictine Abbey of St Germain des Pres, near Paris; this was due to his connexion with the family of Brigonnet (one of whom was the superior), especially with William Brigonnet, cardinal bishop of St Malo (Meaux).
In 1865 President Johnson appointed as provisional governor William Lewis Sharkey (1797-1873), who had been chief justice of the state in 1832-1850, and a convention which assembled on the 14th of August recognized the "destruction" of slavery and declared the ordinance of secession null and void.
The struggle was especially bitter during the administrations of the last three royal governors, Arthur Dobbs (1684-1765), William Tryon (1729-1788) and Josiah Martin (1737-1786).
Governor William Woods Holden (1818-1892; governor 1868-1870) was so weak and tyrannical that he was impeached by the legislature in December 1870.
William Drummond .
William Glover, president of the council .
Thomas Carey contestants (Carey's rebellion) William Glover Edward Hyde, deputy-governor Thomas Pollock, president of the council.
Thomas Pollock, president of the council William Reid, president of the council.
William Tryon James Hasell, president of the council Josiah Martin.
William Richardson Davie.
William Hawkins .
William Miller .
and of the German emperor William I.
The mysticism of William Law (1686-1761) and of Louis Claude de Saint Martin in France (1743-1803), who were also students of Boehme, is of a much more elevated and spiritual type.
Captain William Gill, of the Indian survey, first made his way across China to eastern Tibet and Burma, and subsequently delighted the world with his story of the River of Golden Sand.
Its style is mainly Early English, and among those buried here are Gower, Fletcher and Massinger, the poets, and Edmund, brother of William Shakespeare.
His philosophical influence was exerted largely through the writings of Dugald Stewart and Sir William Hamilton.
The complete edition of the works by Sir William Hamilton, published in two volumes with notes and supplementary dissertations by the editor (6th ed.
Hugh, who was probably one of William the Conqueror's companions, was made earl of Chester in 1071; he had special privileges in his earldom, and he held land in twenty counties.
It contains a monument to William Cowper, who came to live here in 1796, and the Congregational chapel stands on the site of the house where the poet spent his last days.
The Saxon fort of Alaric was replaced by a Norman castle built by William de Mohun, first lord of Dunster, who founded the priory of St George.
His daughter was the wife of General William T.
GEORGE HAMILTON GORDON ABERDEEN, 4TH Earl Of (1784-1860), English statesman, was the eldest son of George Gordon, Lord Haddo, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of William Baird of Newbyth, Haddingtonshire, and grandson of George, 3rd earl of Aberdeen.
At the age of fourteen he was permitted by Scotch law to name his own curators, or guardians, and selecting William Pitt and Dundas for this office he spent much of his time at their houses, thus meeting many of the leading politicians of the day.
Moreover, he wrote an article in the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord Byron to refer to him in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers as "the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen."
The name of Bloomsbury is commonly derived from William Blemund, a lord of the manor in the 15th century.
Sacheverell was among its rectors (1713-1724), and Thomas Chatterton (1770) was interred in the adjacent burial ground, no longer extant, of Shoe Lane Workhouse; the register recording his Christian name as William.
There is a monument at Ottawa to the 1400 soldiers from La Salle county who died in the Civil War, and among the public buildings are the County Court House, the Court House for the second district of the Illinois Appellate Court, and Reddick's Library, founded by William Reddick.
He certainly failed to conciliate the new king Frederick William; and thus ended Mirabeau's one attempt at diplomacy.
WILLIAM SAWTREY (d.
Knaresborough (Canardesburg, Cnarreburc, Cknareburg), which belonged to the Crown before the Conquest, formed part of William the Conqueror's grant to his follower Serlo de Burgh.
In 1317 John de Lilleburn, who was holding the castle of Knaresburgh for Thomas duke of Lancaster against the king, surrendered under conditions to William de Ros of Hamelak, but before leaving the castle managed to destroy all the records of the liberties and privileges of the town which were kept in the castle.
Four years later his party passed him by for William Henry Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe, and Webster refused the proffered nomination for vice-president.
He was the son of Richard Bright, the physician who first diagnosed " Bright's disease " in 1827, and his mother was Eliza Follett, sister of Sir William Follett, who was solicitor-general and attorney-general in Peel's administration (1834-44).
It was doubtless because of his known sentiments that he was selected to command in America, and was joined in commission with his brother Sir William Howe, the general at the head of the land forces, to make a conciliatory arrangement.
His Irish title descended to his brother William, the general, who died childless in 1814.
ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE (c. 1122-1204), wife of the English king Henry II., was the daughter and heiress of Duke William X.
See James Sully, Pessimism: A History and a Criticism (1877); Caro, Le Pessimisme au xix e siecle (1878); Saltus, The Anatomy of Negation (1886); Tulloch, Modern Theories on Philosophy and Religion (1884); William James, The Will to Believe; Duhring, Der Werth des Lebens (1865); Meyer, Weltelend and Weltschmerz (1872); E.
At Oxford William Chillingworth was then busy with his great work, The Religion of Protestants, and it is possible that by intercourse with him Taylor's mind may have been turned towards the liberal movement of his age.
He became tutor to the son of Sir William Hickes, and was eventually glad to accept the patronage of William Pierrepont, earl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a chaplaincy he had refused earlier.
William Brewster >>
Part of the present structure is believed to date from 1220 and once sheltered William Wallace.
Through his friendship with Sir William Hicks Strype obtained access to the papers of Sir Michael Hicks, secretary to Lord Burghley, from which he made extensive transcripts; he also carried on an extensive correspondence with Archbishop Wake and Bishops Burnet, Atterbury and Nicholson.
Lord William Bentinck >>
William Fiennes, 1st viscount Saye and Sele >>
Another great Domesday landholder was William Peverel, the historic founder of Peak Castle, whose vast possessions were known as the Honour of Peverel.
Colonel William Byrd,' who owned much land along the 1 The Byrds and their ancestors, the Steggs, were conspicuous in the early history of Virginia.
He was succeeded by his nephew, William Byrd (1652-1704), who was born in London, went to Virginia about 1670, became a successful Indian trader, was a member of the House of Burgesses in 16 771682, was a supporter of Nathaniel Bacon at the beginning of James river, at the falls, visited: the tract in September 1733, and decided to found there the town of Richmond, at the same time selecting and naming the present site of Petersburg.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737 by Major William Mayo (c. 1685-1744), and was incorporated as a town in 1742.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
His son William (1674-1744), the founder of Richmond - and above referred to - was educated in England; returned to Virginia in 1696; succeeded his father as auditor-general of the colony, and was receiver-general in 1705-1716.
In 1727 he was appointed one of the commission (of which William Fitzwilliams and William Dandridge were the other members) to mark the boundary between North Carolina and Virginia, concerning which undertaking he wrote (probably in 1737) The History of the Dividing Line.
This with his other publications, A Journey to the Land of Eden and A Progress to the Mines, was published at Petersburg, Va., in 1841, and again (New York, 1901) as The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, edited by John S.
See William W.
At Lonsdale, William Blackstone (c.1595-1675), the first permanent white settler within the present limits of Rhode Island, built his residence, "Study Hall," about 1635.
In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland.
In 1835 Sir William Molesworth founded the London Review with Mill as editor; it was amalgamated with the Wesminster (as the London and Westminster Review) in 1836, and Mill continued editor (latterly proprietor also) till 1840.
In 1883 appeared a work on fruit pests by William Saunders, which mainly applies to the American continent; and another small book on the same subject was published in 1898 by Miss Ormerod, dealing with the British pests.
The latter's son Henry (1746-1812) became 3rd duke, and in 1810 succeeded also, on the death of William Douglas, 4th duke of Queensberry, to that dukedom as well as its estates and other honours, according to the entail executed by his own great-grandfather, the 2nd duke of Queensberry, in 1706; he married the duke of Montagu's daughter, and was famous for his generosity and benefactions.
His son Charles William Henry (d.
William Parker died about 1516, and his widow married a certain John Baker.
ROBERT I., "THE Bruce" (1274-1329), king of Scotland, was the son of the 7th Robert de Bruce, earl of Carrick by right of his wife Marjorie, daughter of Niel, or Nigel, earl of Carrick, and was the eighth in direct male descent from a Norman baron who came to England with William the Conqueror.
at Carlisle, the younger Robert joined Sir William Wallace, who raised the standard of Scottish independence in the name of Baliol after that king had surrendered his kingdom to Edward in 1296.
About 1299 a regency was appointed in Scotland in the name of Baliol, and a letter of Baliol mentions Robert Bruce, lord of Carrick, as regent, along with William of Lamberton, bishop of St Andrews, and John Comyn the younger, a strange combination - Lamberton the friend of Wallace, Comyn the enemy of Bruce, and Bruce a regent in name of Baliol.
Of two surviving daughters, Matilda married Thomas Ysaak, a simple esquire, and Margaret became the wife of William, earl of Sutherland.
In fulfilment of a vow to visit the Holy Sepulchre, which he could not accomplish in person, Bruce requested Douglas to carry his heart there, but his faithful follower perished on the way, fighting in Spain against the Moors, and the heart of Bruce, recovered by Sir William Keith, found its resting-place at Melrose.
Greville, nephew of Sir William Hamilton, who in 1790 laid out a town on this spot, the advantages of which as a convenient port for the Irish traffic he clearly recognized.
In 1554 she took into her service William Maitland of Lethington, who as secretary of state gained very great influence over her.
Meanwhile Maitland of Lethington had been at the English court, and an English fleet under William Winter was sent to the Forth in January 1560 to waylay Elbeuf's fleet, which was, however, driven back by a storm to Calais.
The circular vaulted keep erected by Earl William Marshal (c. 1200), remains almost intact.
Facing the castle, on the western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains of Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Earl William Marshal as a cell to the abbey of Seez or Sayes in Normandy, but under Henry VI.
The great canal was not begun; irrigation works were started but were soon given up. The letters of Kleber and Menou (the successors of Bonaparte) show that the expenditure on public works had been so reckless that the colony was virtually bankrupt at the time of Bonaparte's departure; and William Hamilton, who travelled through Egypt in 1802, found few traces, other than military, of the French occupation.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
It was of about 180 tons burden, and in company with the "Speedwell" sailed from Southampton on the 5th of August 1620, the two having on board 120 Pilgrims. After two trials the "Speedwell" was pronounced unseaworthy, and the "Mayflower" sailed alone from Plymouth, England, on the 6th of September with the zoo (or 102) passengers, some 41 of whom on the lzth of November (o.s.) signed the famous "Mayflower Compact" in Provincetown Harbor, and a small party of whom, including William Bradford, sent to choose a place for settlement, landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 11th of December (21st N.s.), an event which is celebrated, as Forefathers' Day, on the 22nd of December.
He was the son of Sir Richard Aungervyle, who was descended from one of William the Conqueror's soldiers, settled in Leicestershire, where the family came into possession of the manor of Willoughby.
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
A notice of Richard de Bury by his contemporary Adam Murimuth (Continuatio Chronicarum, Rolls Series, 1889, p. 171) gives a less favourable account of him than does William de Chambre, asserting that he was only moderately learned, but desired to be regarded as a great scholar.
In 1694 William III.
Hackett) of the enlarged American edition of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400 articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the American revision committee employed in connexion with the Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
Simultaneously William Lewin began his seven quarto volumes on the Birds of Great Britain, a reissue in eight volumes following between 1795 and 1801.
It does not seem to have been the author's original intention to publish any letterpress to this enormous work, but to let the plates tell their own story, though finally, with the assistance, as is now known, of William Macgillivray, a text, on the whole more than respectable, was produced in five large Ma egil- octavos under the title of Ornithological Biography, of liyr ay.
This was William Sharpe Macleay, a man of education and real genius, who in 1819 and 1821 brought out a work under the title of Horae Entomoiogicae, which was soon after hailed by Vigors as containing a new revelation, and applied by him to ornithology in some vigoes.
The manor of West Ham was settled upon Stratford-Langthorne Abbey, founded by William de Montfichet in 1135 for monks of the Cistercian order.
In reply to this the French sovereign despatched Andrew as his ambassador to the great Khan Kuyuk; with Longjumeau went his brother (a monk) and several others - John Goderiche, John of Carcassonne, Herbert "le sommelier," Gerbert of Sens, Robert a clerk, a certain William, and an unnamed clerk of Poissy.
We only know of Andrew through references in other writers: see especially William of Rubruquis in Recueil de voyages, iv.
was conferred on Guthrie by the university of Edinburgh; and in 1850 William Hanna (1808-1882), the biographer and son-in-law of Thomas Chalmers, was inducted as his colleague in Free St John's Church.
WILLIAM OUGHTRED (fl.
One of the first military exploits of the War of Independence occurred at New Castle, where there was then a fort called William and Mary.
Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor.
A lively agitation all over Europe, and particularly in England (conducted by Ruskin and William Morris), led the Italian government to discard the Austrian plan of restoration, at least as regards the interior of the Basilica, and to respect the ancient portions which had stood the test of time and had escaped "renewal" by man.
Five presidents have come from Ohio, William Henry Harrison, Rutherford B.
Garfield, William McKinley, Jr., and William Howard Taft.
William McKinley, Jr...1890-1892 1892-1896 Asa S.
In 1817 he removed to Baltimore, where he became the professional associate of Luther Martin, William Pinkney and Roger B.
WILLIAM WORTH BELKNAP (1829-1890), American soldier and politician, was born at Newburgh, N.Y., on the 22nd of September 1829.
After visiting Luther at Wittenberg, he settled with his amanuensis William Roy in Cologne, where he had made some progress in printing a 4to edition of his New Testament, when the work was discovered by John Cochlaeus, dean at Frankfurt, who not only got the senate of Cologne to interdict further printing, but warned Henry VIII.
Copies were smuggled into England but were suppressed by the bishops, and William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, even bought up copies on the Continent to destroy them.
Demaus, William Tyndale (London, 1871); also the Introduction to Mombert's critical reprint of Tyndale's Pentateuch (New York, 1884), where a bibliography is given.
WILLIAM WARREN (1812-1888), American actor, was born in Philadelphia on the 17th of November 1812, the son of an English actor (1767-1832) of the same name.
of his letters, edited by William Hanna, D.D., with reminiscences by Dean Stanley and Principal Shairp, appeared in 1877.
WILLIAM COXE (1747-1828), English historian, son of Dr William Coxe, physician to the royal household, was born in London on the 7th of March 1747.
He married in 1803 Eleanora, daughter of William Shairp, consulgeneral for Russia, and widow of Thomas Yeldham of St Petersburg.
Kane, by William Elder (1858); Life of E.
It has windows by La Farge, William Morris, Burne-Jones and others.
Andrew by Thomas Ball; of Generals Joseph Hooker and William F.
At that time a " bookish recluse," William Blaxton (Blackstone), one of the several " old planters " scattered about the bay, had for several years been living on Boston peninsula.
The ruins first became known to Europe through the visit of Dr William Halifax of Aleppo in 1691; his Relation of a voyage to Tadmor has been printed from his autograph in the Pal.
When nominalism was revived in the 14th century by the English Franciscan, William of Occam, it gave evidence of a new tendency in thought, a distrust of abstractions and an impulse towards direct observation and inductive research, a tendency which had its fulfilment in the scientific movement of the Renaissance.
Mahan, Sea-Power in its Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols., Boston, 1905); and William Kingsford, The History of Canada, vol.
The town possesses a fine park and has statues of the emperor William I.
In 1689 it was given to Philip William, a younger son of the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William, and he and his successors called themselves margrave of BrandenburgSchwedt.
William Balfour Baikie >>
On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
On the 5th of July 1779 the place was invaded by a British force under General William Tryon, who intended to burn the town, but met so strong a resistance that he withdrew before the next day.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
The grammar school founded in 1418 by Sir William Sevenoke was reconstituted as a first-grade modern school in 1877.
There is also a school founded by Lady Margaret Boswell, wife of Sir William Boswell, ambassador to Charles I.
at The Hague, and almshouses founded by Sir William Sevenoke in connexion with his school.
The settlement was first called "Boston Plantation," or "Poontoosuck," but in 1761, when it was incorporated as a township, the name was changed to Pittsfield, in honour of the elder William Pitt.
William James distinguishes the transmissive function of the brain from the productive in relation to thought, and admits only the former, and not the latter (Human Immortality, p. 32).
to the north of Kinghorn is the estate of Grange, which belonged to Sir William Kirkcaldy.
Alexander William Kinglake >>
MAURICE OF NASSAU, prince of Orange (1567-1625), the second son of William the Silent, by Anna, only daughter of the famous Maurice, elector of Saxony, was born at Dillenburg.
He had been a devoted adherent of William the Silent and he now used his influence to forward the interests of Maurice.
Maurice, who had on the death of his elder brother Philip William, in February 1618, become prince of Orange, was now supreme in the state, but during the remainder of his life he sorely missed the wise counsels of the experienced Oldenbarneveldt.
He also wrote biographies of Frederick the Great and Frederick William IV.
William John Macquorn Rankine >>
This piece of apparatus was introduced by William Morris in 1831, and consists of a long double link with closely-fitting jaws which, however, slide freely up and down.
Three of these, led by Fulcher of Orleans, Gottschalk and William the Carpenter respectively, failed to reach even Constantinople.
Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem.
But Genoese aid was given to others beside Baldwin (it enabled Raymund to capture Byblus in 1104, and his successor, William, to win Tripoli in 1109); while, on the other hand, Baldwin enjoyed other aid besides that of the Genoese.
Even before the conquest of Tripoli, there had been dissensions between William, the nephew and successor of Raymund, and Bertrand, Raymund's eldest son, which it had needed the interference of Baldwin I.
He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.
If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a jus consuetudinarium under Baldwin III., quo regnum regebatur), then the "Letters of the Sepulchre" are a myth - or rather, if they ever existed, they existed not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs, like the Sicilian Defetarii.
Again in 1252 St Louis (who had already begun to negotiate with the Mongols in the winter of 1248-1249) sent the friar William of Rubruquis to the court of the great khan; but again nothing came of the mission save an increase of geographical knowledge.
geography more studied; the Crusades gave a great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle ages - the Historia transmarina of William of Tyre.
Until about 1840 the authority followed for its history was naturally the great work of William of Tyre.
For the First Crusade William had followed Albert of Aix; and he had consequently depicted Peter the Hermit as the prime mover in the Crusade.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
These instincts and impulses would be at work already among the soldiers during the Crusade, producing a saga all the more readily, as there were poets in the camp; for we know that a certain Richard, who joined the First Crusade, sang its exploits in verse, while still more famous is the princely troubadour, William of Aquitaine, who joined the Crusade of Iloo.
But the whole subject of the continuators of William of Tyre is dubious.] To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the Eastern - Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
Ralph of Coggeshall, who used information gained from crusaders, and William of Newburgh, who had access to a work by Richard I.'s chaplain Anselm, which is now lost.4 The French side is presented in Rigord's Gesta Philippi Augusti and in the Gesta (an abridgment and continuation of Rigord) and the Philippeis of William the Breton.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
The history of the later Crusades, from the Fifth to the Eighth, enters into the continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned; while the Historia orientalis of Jacques de Vitry, who had taken part in the Fifth Crusade, and died in 1240, embraces the history of events till 1218 (the third book being a later addition).
Gaston Dodu, in the work mentioned below, begins by a brief account of the original authorities, which is chiefly of value so far as it deals with William of Tyre and the history of the assizes; and H.
His relations with the emperor William II.
18 William D.