In the south-west the results of this erosion are seen in an accentuated form in the region between the White river and the South Fork of the Cheyenne river, known as the Bad Lands or terres mauvaises.
This area extends from the mist meridian up the White river for about 120 m.
The Bad Lands of the White river are also noted for their wealth of animal fossils, which have been found in such quantities as to cause geologists to believe that the vertebrates perished there in droves during a severe storm or flood.
North-west of the Bad Lands of the White river lie the Black Hills (q.v.), an irregular dome-shaped uplift, about 125 m.
This included, roughly speaking, all of the land between the Missouri River and the Black Hills and between the White River and the Big Cheyenne and a strip extending north from the Black Hills to the North Dakota line between the 102nd and 103rd meridians.
By way of the White river cut-off the Arkansas finds an additional outlet through the valley of that river in times of high water, and the White, when the current in its natural channel is deadened by the backwaters of the Mississippi, finds an outlet by the same cut-off through the valley of the Arkansas.
Along the upper course of the White river in the Bostons and in the country about Hot Springs in the Ouachitas is found the most beautiful scenery of the highlands; few regions are more beautiful.
The reservation Indians in 1909 were chiefly members of the Uinta, Uncompahgre and White River Ute tribes on the Uinta Valley reservation (179,194 acres unallotted) in the north-eastern part of the state.
2 The Report of the commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1909 gives the following figures for the Indian population: under the Panguitch School, Kanab Kaibab, 81, Shivwitz Paiute, 118; under the Uinta and Puray Agency, Uinta Ute, 443, Uncompahgre Ute, 469, White River Ute, 296; not under agency, Paiute 370.
Of these the White river is by far the most important, being second only to the Wabash itself in extent of territory drained.
The Wabash and Erie canal (1843), which connected Lake Erie with the Ohio river, entering the state in Allen county, east of Fort Wayne, and following the Wabash river to Terre Haute and the western fork of the White river from Worthington, Greene county, to Petersburg, Pike county, whence it ran south-south-west to Evansville; and the White Water canal from Hagerstown, Wayne county, mostly along the course of the White Water river, to Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio River, in the south-eastern corner of the state, although now abandoned, served an important purpose in their day.
the White river and Hat Creek have carved canyons in deep lacustrine deposits, creating fantastic cliffs and buttes, bare of vegetation, gashed with drainage channels, and baked by the sun.
The superficial Miocene and Pliocene deposits in the west, above referred to, are underlaid by the White river groups of the Oligocene, whose outcrops of Brule clay and Chadron formation also have been mentioned.
Fossil insects referable to the order have been found in Tertiary beds as old as the White River Oligocene of North America, and the Baltic amber, but nothing is known as to the previous history of the group.
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