The ant was carrying a grain of wheat as large as itself.
In 1902 the total production of wheat in the island was 2,946,070 bushels, but in 1903 it rose to 4,823,800 bushels, in 1904 it fell to 4,015,020, and in 1905 rose again to 4,351,987 bushels, 81 of the whole production of Italy.
The value of Australian wheat and flour exported in 1905 was £5,500,000.
The wheat crop was 4,810,000 bushels, and the acreage 370,000.
In 1953, he developed a method to make strains of wheat highly resistant to a single form of rust.
When he finishes clean-up in Ohio, he's been instructed to count the stalks of wheat in the field outside Speck's farmhouse and not return until he's done, Dusty growled.
He pushed himself out of bed and stood for a long moment, gazing out the window at the fields of winter wheat glowing in the moonlight.
To further enhance yield, at the same time Borlaug bred wheat strains with short, stubby stalks, which were able to better handle more weight of grain.
Its northern limit nearly coincides with that of successful wheat cultivation.
He found Speck on the back porch, smoking a cigar while gazing at the glowing wheat fields.
Though much land previously devoted to grain culture has been planted with vines, the area under wheat, barley, beans and maize is still considerable.
The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.
In Lombardy a six-year shift is common: either wheat, clover, maize, rice, rice, rice (the last year manured with lupines) or maize, wheat followed by clover, clover, clover ploughed in, and rice, rice and rice manured with lupines.
Meslin, a mixture of wheat and rye, is produced in the great majority of French departments, but to a marked extent in the basin of the Sarthe.
Dean ate a chicken salad on whole wheat with a piece of cherry pie and ice cream.
The district is famous for its melons, and also produces wine, olives, wheat and esparto grass.
Wheat is the most important crop and is widely distributed.
All he could do was cross strains of wheat, much in the same fashion as Gregor Mendel did in the 1800s.
Magic shot through him, burning like fire. Kris gasped. Another blast, and he fell to the ground. His body roiled with the demon magic, convulsing until the blow faded. He felt himself hauled up by his neck and thrust onto the ground again. His vision blurry, Kris could only see Hannah's beautiful blond hair. Sorrow replaced anger, and he reached out, touching the soft wheat curls.
Speck's sector headquarters was abuzz with activity; the only private place to talk was the back porch overlooking a field of knee-high winter wheat facing a sun setting too early.
He would pollinate a wheat stalk, then cover it with a trash bag to prevent contamination by other plants.
It is the principal port of the island, exporting barley, wheat, cotton, raisins, oranges, lemons and gypsum.
After smearing peanut butter and jam on whole wheat bread for a lunch on the fly, Dean knocked on Martha's door.
While wheat and wine constitute the staples of French agriculture, its distinguishing characteristic is the variety of its products.
They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
Dean looked up from squeezing honey from a plastic bear onto a piece of whole wheat toast smeared with peanut butter.
Nevertheless, we will not forget that some Egyptian wheat was handed down to us by a mummy.
The chief productions are wheat, wine, oil, mastic, figs, raisins, honey, wax, cotton and silk.
Throughout this time, Borlaug constantly battled wheat's arch-nemesis: rust, a fungus that feeds on wheat, oats, and barley.
of the total area, produced 151,696,571 bushels of wheat, a yield of only 12 bushels per acre.
simila, wheat flour.
At one point, Tiger Woods got a dime for every box of Wheaties cereal with his photo on it, while the farmer was paid only a nickel for the wheat in that same box—and the farmer still made a profit.
This sort of gingerbread is baked daily and more sedulously than pure wheat or rye-and-Indian in almost every oven, and finds a surer market.
Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1872, together with the average rate of freight.
for twelve hundred measures of wheat.
The wheat crop in 1906 in the Agro Romano was 8,108, 500 bushels, the Indian corn 3,314,000 bushels, the wine 12,100,000.
In all the provinces of eastern Canada the acreage under oats greatly exceeds that under wheat.
Naan is made from white flour and rubbed with butter, but roti is typically whole wheat and served in smaller portions.
1899 the wheat exports exceeded 50,000,000 bushels, and the Indian corn 40,000,000 bushels.
The rapid development of the foreign trade of the republic since 1881 is due to settled internal conditions and to the prime necessity to the commercial world of many Argentine products, such as beef, mutton, hides, wool, wheat and Indian corn.
Taking into account the variations in wages and in the price of wheat, it may be calculated that the number of hours of work requisite to earn a sum equal to the price of a cwt.
In 1898 it was 105, on account of the rise In the price of wheat, and since then up till 19o2 it oscillated between 105 and 95.
I For example, wheat, the price of which was in 1902 26 lire pe cwt., pays a tax of 74 lire; sugar pays four times its wholesale val,ii in tax; coffee twice its wholesale value.
The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
False etiolation may occur from too low a temperature, often seen in young wheat in cold springs.
The soil in the valleys and plains of the department, especially in the Bresse, is fertile, producing large quantities of wheat, as well as oats, buckwheat and maize.
The island is of great fertility - wheat, oats, barley, olives, sesame and valonia being the principal products, in addition to a variety of fruits.
The principal crops are wheat, pulse, maize, millet, with some cotton and sugar-cane.
Indian corn, quinoa, mandioca, possibly the potato, cotton and various fruits, including the strawberry, were already known to the aborigines, but with the conqueror came wheat, barley, oats, flax, many kinds of vegetables, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, grapes, figs, oranges and lemons, together with alfalfa and new grasses for the plains.
The principal wheat and Indian corn producing districts lie in the provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Entre Rios, and the average yield of wheat throughout the country is about 12 bushels to the acre.
For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.
"It's not your hand that'll get you in trouble," Dean said as he munched on a piece of whole wheat toast.
He mentions the different kinds of wheat, barley and oats; and after describing the method of harrowing "all maner of cornnes," we find the roller employed.
Under the article " To falowe," he observes, " the greater clottes (clods) the better wheate, for the clottes kepe the wheat warme all wynter; and at March they will melte and breake and fal in manye small peces, the whiche is a new dongynge and refreshynge of the come."
The corn harvest naturally follows: rye and wheat were usually shorn, and barley and oats cut with the scythe.
The writer does not approve of the common practice of cutting wheat high and then mowing the stubbles.
" In Somersetshire," he says, " they do shere theyr wheat very lowe; and the wheate strawe that they purpose to make thacke of, they do not threshe it, but cut off the ears, and bynd it in sheves, and call it rede, and therewith they thacke theyr houses."
" Wheat is moost commonlye sowne under the forowe, that is to say, cast it uppon the falowe, and then plowe it under "; and this branch of his subject is concluded with directions about threshing, winnowing and other kinds of barn-work.
Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.
He is a great enemy to commons and common fields, and to retaining land in 1 During the 16th century wheat had risen in price, and between 1606 and 1618 never fell below 30s.
The ground in the valleys and plains bear very good corn, but especially bears barley or bigge, and oats, but rarely wheat and rye."
Such reliance did he place in the pulverization of the soil that he grew as many as thirteen crops of wheat on the same field without manure.
" The infield (where wheat is sown) is generally divided by the tenant into four divisions or breaks, as they call them, viz.
one of wheat, one of barley, one of pease and one of oats, so that the wheat is sowd after the pease, the barley after the wheat and the oats after the barley.
In this he lays it down as a rule that it is bad husbandry to take two crops of grain successively, which marks a considerable progress in the knowledge of modern husbandry; though he adds that in Scotland the best husbandmen after a fallow take a crop of wheat; after the wheat, peas; then barley, and then oats; and after that they fallow again.
In 1795, under the joint operation of a deficient harvest and the diminution in foreign supplies of grain owing to outbreak of war, the price of wheat, which, for the twenty preceding years, had been under 50s.
The average price of wheat for the whole period was 89s.
The same year, 1877, was the last also in which the annual average price of English wheat (then 56s.
Wheat in particular was a poor crop in 1892, and the low yield was associated with falling prices due to large imports.
It is quite possible for a hot dry season to be associated with a large yield of corn, provided the drought is confined to a suitable period, as was the case in 1896 and still more so in 1898; the English wheat crops in those years were probably the biggest in yield per acre that had been harvested since 1868, which is always looked back upon as a remarkable year for wheat.
Between these two occurrences came the disastrous decline in the value of grain in the autumn of 1894, when the weekly average price of English wheat fell to the record minimum of 17s.
As a consequence, the extent of land devoted to wheat in the British Isles receded in 1895 to less than i 2 million acres.
At the beginning of the period the aggregate area under wheat, barley and oats was nearly 102 million acres; at the close it did not amount to 8 million acres.
From Table I., showing the acreages at intervals of five years, it will be learnt that the loss fell chiefly upon the wheat crop, which at the close of the period Table - Areas of Cereal Crops in the United Kingdom - Acres.
If the land taken from wheat had been cropped with one or both of the other cereals, the aggregate area would have remained about the same.
These prices are per imperial quarter, - that is, 480 lb of wheat, 400 lb of barley and 312 lb of oats, representing 60 lb, 50 lb and 39 lb per bushel respectively.
After 1883 the annual average price of English wheat was never so high as 40s.
weekly average prices of English wheat in 1898 fluctuated between 48s.
Wheat was so great a glut in the market that various methods were devised for feeding it to stock, a purpose for which it is not specially suited; in thus utilizing the grain, however, a smaller loss was often incurred than in sending it to market.
The result was that in the following year the wheat crop of the United Kingdom was harvested upon the smallest area on record - less than 12 million acres.
In 1895 the average price of 480 lb of wheat, at 23s.
The declining prices that have operated against the growers of wheat should be studied in conjunction with Table III., which shows, at intervals of five years, the imports of TABLE III.
- Imports into the United Kingdom of Wheat Grain, and of Wheat Meal and Flour - Cwt.
wheat grain and of wheat meal and flour into the United Kingdom.
The highest and lowest areas of wheat, barley and oats in the United Kingdom during the period 1875-1905 were the following: Wheat.
These show differences amounting to 2,106,470 acres for wheat, 1,059,504 acres for barley, and 529,699 acres for oats.
The acreage of wheat, therefore, fluctuated the most, and that of oats the least.
Going back to 1869, it is found that the extent of wheat in that year was 3,981,989 acres or very little short of four million acres.
Taking cereals and pulse corn together, the aggregate areas of wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans and peas in the United Kingdom varied as follows over the six quinquennial intervals embraced in the period 1875-1905: - Year.
Under the old Norfolk or four-course rotation (roots, barley, clover, wheat) land thus seeded with clover or grass seeds was intended to be ploughed up at the end of a year.
Labour difficulties, low prices of produce, bad seasons and similar causes provided inducements for leaving the land in grass for two years, or over three years or more, before breaking it up for wheat.
The comparative insignificance of Ireland in the case of the wheat and barley crops, represented by 2 and 8% respectively, receives some compensation when oats and potatoes are considered, about one-fourth of the area of the former and more than half that of the latter being claimed by Ireland.
A similar comparison for the several sections of Great Britain, as set forth in Table VI., shows that to England belong about 95% of the wheat area, over 80% of the barley area, over 60% of the oats area, and over 70% of the potato area, and these proportions do not vary much from year to year.
By dividing the total production, say of wheat, in each county by the number of acres of wheat as returned by the occupiers on June 4, the estimated average yield per acre is obtained.
The fact that much of the wheat to which the figures apply is still in the stack after the publication of the figures shows that the latter are essentially estimates.
The largest area of wheat in the period was that of 1890, and the smallest was that of 1904; the same two years are seen to have been respectively those of highest and lowest total produce.
It is noteworthy that in 1895 the country produced about half as much wheat as in any one of the years 1890, 1891 and 1898.
The produce of barley, like that of oats, is less irregular than that of wheat, the extremes for barley being 80, 794,000 bushels (1890) and 62,453,000 bushels (1904), and those for oats 190,863,000 bushels (1894) and 161,17 5,000 bushels (1901).
wheat 26ï¿½08 bushels, barley 2 9.3 o bushels, oats 38.14 bushels, beans 19.61 bushels, rotation hay 23.55 cwt., permanent hay 20.41 cwt.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
Although enormous single crops of mangels [[Table X]].--Decennial Average Yields in Great Britain of Wheat, Barley and Oats-Bushels per acre.
This, indeed, is the practice in Ireland, and in order to incorporate the Irish figures with those for Great Britain so as to obtain average values for the United Kingdom, the Irish yields are calculated into bushels at the rate of 60 lb to the bushel of wheat, of beans and of peas, 50 lb to the bushel of barley and 39 lb to the bushel of oats.
Amongst the field experiments there is, perhaps, not one of more universal interest than that in which wheat was grown for fifty-seven years in succession, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with various artificial manures.
The results show that, unlike leguminous crops such as beans or clover, wheat may be successfully grown for many years in succession on ordinary arable land, provided suitable manures be applied and the land be kept clean.
Even without manure the average produce over forty-six years, 1852-1897, was nearly thirteen bushels per acre, or about the average yield per acre of 1 The higher yield of wheat in the later years of the 19th century appears to be largely attributable to better grain-growing seasons.
the wheat lands of the whole world.
The requirements of barley within the soil, and its susceptibility to the external influences of season, are very similar to those of its near ally, wheat.
In the British Isles wheat is, as a rule, sown in the autumn on a heavier soil, and has four or five months in which to distribute its roots, and so it gets possession of a wide range of soil and subsoil before barley is sown in the spring.
Accordingly it is more susceptible to exhaustion of surface soil as to its nitrogenous, and especially as to its mineral supplies; and in the common practice of agriculture it is found to be more benefited by direct mineral manures, especially phosphatic manures, than is wheat when sown under equal soil conditions.
The exhaustion of the soil induced by both barley and wheat is, however, characteristically that of available nitrogen; and when, under the ordinary conditions of manuring and cropping, artificial manure is still required, nitrogenous manures are, as a rule, necessary for both crops, and, for the spring-sown barley, superphosphate also.
Although barley is appropriately grown on lighter soils than wheat, good crops, of fair quality, may be grown on the heavier soils after another grain crop by the aid of artificial manures, provided that the land is sufficiently clean.
Additional significance to the value of the above experiments on wheat and barley is afforded by the fact that the same series, with but slight modifications, has also been carried out since 1876 at the Woburn (Bedfordshire) experimental farm of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the soil here being of light sandy character, and thus very different from the heavy soil of Rothamsted.
The cereal crops (wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize); the cruciferous crops (turnips, cabbage, kale, rape, mustard); the solanaceous crops (potatoes); the chenopodiaceous crops (mangels, sugar-beets), and other non-leguminous crops have, so far as is known, no such power, and are therefore more or less benefited by the direct application of nitrogenous manures.
In Canada and the United States this rational employment of a leguminous crop for ploughing in green is largely resorted to for the amelioration of worn-out wheat lands and other soils, the condition of which has been lowered to an unremunerative level by the repeated growth year after year of a cereal crop. The well-known paper of Lawes, Gilbert and Pugh (1861), " On the Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation,.
Although many different rotations of crops are practised, they may for the most part be considered as little more than local adaptations of the system of alternating root-crops and leguminous crops with cereal crops, as exemplified in the old four-course rotation - roots, barley, clover, wheat.
Under this system the clover is ploughed up in the autumn, the nitrogen stored up in its roots being left in the soil for the nourishment of the cereal crop. The following summer the wheat crop is harvested, and an opportunity is afforded for extirpating weeds which in the three previous years have received little check.
In 1 In the absence of experiments it is assumed that wheat is digested like other foods of the same class.
attacked by them, but they are particularly destructive to wheat and other cereals.
Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.
We might assume that criticism and analysis had separated the wheat from the chaff in their writings, that everything of permanent value had probably been preserved and incorporated in the works of later economists.
Wheat and oats are largely cultivated and almost all sub-tropical fruits flourish.
There is a thriving trade in wine, fruit, wheat, cattle, brandy, chalk and soap.
Wheat, coal, cotton, petroleum, wood, lime and cement are brought into Venice for shipment to the Levant or for distribution over Italy and Europe.
There is a great variety of produce, but the principal crops are Indian corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples and tobacco.
In 1900 the acreage of cereals constituted 68.4% of the acreage of all crops, and the acreage of Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99.3% of the total acreage of cereals.
The wheat crop was 27,882,159 bushels in 1870; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000 bushels (grown on 1,480,000 acres) in 1909.
Indian corn, wheat and oats are grown in all parts, but the W.
half of the state produces about three-fourths of the Indian corn and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N.
The principal crops are wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize, hemp, flax, potatoes, beetroot and tobacco.
In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.
Lord Cromer in his report on the Sudan for 1906 remarks that: " There seems to be some reason for thinking that the future-or at all events the immediate future-of Sudan agriculture lies more in the direction of cultivating wheat and other cereals than in that of cultivating cotton."
Mr Hooker has shown with reference to the wheat market how close is the correlation between prices in different places,' and the same has been observed of the cotton market, though the Conceivably some indication of the working of " futures " might be gleaned from observation of the relations of near and distant " futures " to one another and of both to spot."
Cotton, tobacco, pulse, millet, wheat and barley are also grown.
He has 200 bezants, along with a quantity of wheat, barley, lentils and oil; and in return he must march with four horses (Rey, Les Colonies franques en Syrie, p. 24).
But it continues to export wheat.
In summer the country appears as one waving field of wheat, millet and mealies; whilst on the mountain slopes and on their flat tops are large flocks of sheep, cattle and goats, and troops of ponies.
The chief exports are wheat, mealies, Kaffir corn, wool, mohair, horses and cattle.
Rice is grown in such quantities as to procure for Formosa, in former days, the title of the " granary of China "; and the sweet potato, taro, millet, barley, wheat and maize are also cultivated.
With regard to the nutritive value of oatmeal, as compared with that of wheat flour, it contains a higher percentage of albuminoids than any other grain, viz.
12.6 - that of wheat being Io 8 - and less of starch, 58.4 as against 66.3 in wheat.
5.4 - wheat having 4.2 - and a good deal more fat, viz.
o% in oat, but are only I 7 in wheat.
Among the Hebrews it was the third and chief of the three annual pilgrimage festivals connected respectively with the harvesting of the barley (Passover), of wheat (Pentecost), and of the vine (Tabernacles).
The principal crops are barley,',rice, wheat, other food-grains, pulse, sugar-cane and opium.
In this region the sandstone rocks are generally overlaid with heavy black soil formed from the decaying trap, which is principally devoted to the cultivation of the spring crops, wheat and grain, while rice and hill millets are sown in the lighter and more sandy soils.
Next, the long and narrow valley of the Nerbudda from Jubbulpore to Hoshangabad is formed of deep alluvial deposits of extreme richness and excellently suited to the growth of wheat.
In the latter are grown wheat and other spring crops, while the lighter kinds of rice and the hill millets are all that the poorer land can bear.
Broadly speaking, the northern districts of the province produce principally cold weather crops, such as wheat and grain, and the eastern ones principally rice.
At the beginning of the decade 1891-1901 wheat was the staple product of the Vindhyan and Nerbudda valley districts, and was also grown extensively in all the Satpura districts except Nimar and in Wardha and Nagpur.
The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations, especially during famine periods.
Cereals occupy half the surface, wheat and oats being chiefly cultivated.
Red winter wheat is now produced to a considerable degree.
In central Alberta coarse grains - oats and barley - and some wheat are grown, in conjunction with mixed farming.
The principal crops are rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, though wheat, beetroot, flax, hemp and tobacco are also grown.
The city has a considerable trade in wheat and flour.
Wheat is grown at an elevation of 1800 ft.
It is said to yield wheat eighty-fold and barley a hundred.
The year 1884 may be taken as the initial date of the new period, and the grain is now harvested exactly as is wheat in the west-central states.
Wheat, Indian corn and many vegetables, especially tuberous, are particularly important.
Wheat, maize, oats, barley and rye are the chief agricultural products.
The beginning of barley harvest is however generally associated with it, while the wheat harvest is connected with Pentecost.
Wheat, oats, barley and other cereals are grown and exported, and owing to the abundance of pasture and forage, sheep and cattle-rearing are actively carried on.
Geographically the wheat-raising area extends across the entire south of the state - the Minnesota Valley and the Red River Valley - the rich glacial loam of which renders it one of the most productive wheat regions in the world.
The towns of the Red River Valley, which are nearer to the great wheat belt, give promise of developing into great flouring cities.
provided with transport facilities, which renders its cities the principal distributing centres both for the entire Northwest for coal shipped via the Great Lakes, and also for the eastern and middle Western states for the great staples, wheat and lumber, derived either from Minnesota itself or by means of its great transcontinental railways from the neighbouring Northwestern states and Canadian provinces.
east, where wheat granaries were built and still remain, but later the greater convenience of a waterside site drew the merchants and population back to the vicinity of the submerged town.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
It lives entirely away from houses, commonly taking up its abode in wheat or hay fields, where it builds a round grass nest about the size of a cricket-ball, in which it brings up its young.
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
In the lowland districts good crops of maize, wheat, barley, oats and rye, as well as of turnips and potatoes, are obtained.
Chinon has trade in wheat, brandy, red wine and plums. Basket and rope manufacture, tanning and cooperage are among its industries.
wheat, millet, barley and melons, also rice and cotton.
The scorpion, attacking the genitals of the bull, is sent by Ahriman from the lower world to defeat the purpose of the sacrifice; the dog, springing towards the wound in the bull's side, was venerated by the Persians as the companion of Mithras; the serpent is the symbol of the earth being made fertile by drinking the blood of the sacrificial bull; the raven, towards which Mithras turns his face as if for direction, is the herald of the Sun-god, whose bust is near by, and who has ordered the sacrifice; various plants near the bull, and heads of wheat springing from his tail, symbolize the result of the sacrifice; the cypress is perhaps the tree of immortality.
Wheat, flour and silk are exported.
Although an agricultural country, Brazil does not produce all its own bread and meat, and the imports of wheat, wheat flour, rice, fish, jerked beef and preserved meats, lard, butter, beans, potatoes, packed fruits and vegetables, Indian corn and other food-stuffs, are surprisingly large.
Much has been said in regard to the production of wheat, and efforts have been made in various places to promote its cultivation.
The great majority of the people are unused to wheaten bread, using the coarse flour of the mandioca root instead, consequently the demand for wheat and flour is confined to the large cities, which can obtain them from Argentina more cheaply than they can be produced in the country.
The crude methods of preparing jerked beef were also modified to some extent by better equipped abattoirs and establishments for preparing beef extract, preserved meats, &c. There were also mills for crushing the dried mate leaves, cigar and 1 The " bran " exported is from imported wheat and cannot be considered a national product.
While maize thrives in every part of the country, wheat, barley and oats - cultivated by the white farmers - flourish only in the midlands and uplands.
Straw (from strew, as being used for strewing), is the general term applied to the stalky residue of grain-plants (especially wheat, rye, oats, barley).
The straw of certain varieties of wheat cultivated in that region is, in favourable seasons, possessed of a fine bright colour and due tenacity and strength.
The chief agricultural products of Hungary are wheat, rye, barley, oats and maize, the acreage and produce of which are shown in the following tables: Seton -Watson, op. cit.
Subsequent returns for maize and wheat show an increase both in the area cultivated and quantity yielded.
The exports, which show plainly the prevailing agricultural character of the country, are flour, wheat, cattle, beef, barley, pigs, wine in barrels, horses and maize.
Stock-raising was for a time the principal industry, but agriculture has been largely developed in several localities, among the chief products of which are cotton - Coahuila is the principal cotton-producing state in Mexico - Indian corn, wheat, beans, sugar and grapes.
The crops raised in the country districts are principally vegetables and fruit, potatoes, hay, oats, rye and wheat.
These tribes raised wheat, presumably in the river valleys, and sold it for export; in the eastern half from west to east were Georgi (perhaps the same as Aroteres) between the Ingul and the Borysthenes (Dnieper), nomad Scyths and Royal Scyths between the Borysthenes and the Tanais (Don).
The chief method employed for their destruction is spraying the swarms with arsenic. The districts with the greatest area under cultivation are Heidelberg, Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Standerton and Krugersdorp. The chief crops grown for grain are wheat, maize (mealie) and kaffir corn, but the harvest is inadequate to meet local demands.
The grain produce, consisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye and Indian corn, exceeds the consumption, and the vineyards yield an abundant supply of both white and red wines, those of Limoux and the Narbonnais being most highly esteemed.
Wheat was introduced by the Spaniards immediately after their occupation of Venezuela, and is grown in the elevated districts of Aragua and the western states, but the production does not exceed home consumption.
There has been some development in the manufacture of agricultural machinery and implements, vehicles, pianos and furniture, and some older industries, such as tanning leather and the manufacture of saddles and harness, the milling of wheat and Indian corn, distilling, soap-making, &c. At Guanta there is a factory for the manufacture of patent fuel from Naricual coal and asphalt.
Wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, flax, hemp and tobacco are grown in large quantities, and the products of the vineyards are of a good quality.
The principal exports are wheat and indigo.
Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat, millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea, barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.
Situated at the intersection of two roads - from Kulja to Tashkent, and from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar - Vyernyi carries on an active trade in wheat, rice, corn, tea, oil and tobacco.
193) wheat commonly returned two hundred-fold to the sower, and occasionally three hundred-fold.
17) states that it was cut twice, and afterwards was good keep for sheep, and Berossus remarked that wheat, sesame, barley, ochrys, palms, apples and many kinds of shelled fruit grew wild, as wheat still does in the neighbourhood of Anah.
The principal crops are millet, wheat, pulse, oil-seeds, cotton and sugar cane.
The soil is very fertile; wheat, Indian corn, olives, vines, fruit trees of many kinds cover both the plain and the surrounding hills; the chief non-fruit-bearing trees are the stone pine, the cypress, the ilex and the poplar, while many other varieties are represented.
9,200 „ From the figures given previously of the amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid removed by a wheat or mangel crop it would appear that this soil has enough of these ingredients in it to yield many such crops; yet experience has shown that these crops cannot be grown on such a poor sandy soil unless manures containing phosphates, potash and nitrogen are added.
Fields of wheat and other cereals rarely recover after a week's submergence, but orchards and many trees when at rest in winter withstand a flooded or water-logged condition of the soil for two or three weeks without damage.
Of course care must be exercised in the selection of plants - such as sorghum, maize, wheat, and alfalfa or lucerne - which are adapted to dry conditions and a warm climate.
It has been found by experiment that the nitrogen needed by practically all farm crops except leguminous ones is best supplied in the form of a nitrate; the rapid effect of nitrate of soda when used' as a top dressing to wheat or other plants is well known to farmers..
That the fertility of land used for the growth of wheat is improved by growing upon it a crop of beans or clover has been long recognized by farmers.
When wheat, barley, turnips and similar plants are grown, the soil upon which they are cultivated becomes depleted of its nitrogen; yet after a crop of clover or other leguminous plants the soil is found to be richer in nitrogen than it was before the crop was grown.
The clover-grass ley is then grazed for a year or two with sheep, after which wheat and potatoes are the chief crops grown on the land.
Their growth makes no new addition of mineral food-constituents to the land, but they bring useful substances from the subsoil nearer to the surface, and after the decay of the buried vegetation these become available to succeeding crops of wheat or other plants.
On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.
The soil of Zeeland consists of a fertile sea clay which especially favours the production of wheat; rye, barley (for malting), beans and peas, and flax are also cultivated.
Thence proceeding eastwards to higher altitudes where coffee plantations give way to fields of wheat and barley, they reached the town of Jibla situated among a group of mountains exceeding 10,000 ft.
The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.
In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.
Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize, wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.
The imports to Jidda in the same year were £1,405,000, largely consisting of rice, wheat and other food stuffs from India; the exports, which have dwindled away in late years, amounted in 1904 to only £25,000.
Wheat is largely produced, and there are vineyards in some localities.
The principal crops are millets, pulse, cotton, wheat, barley and sugar cane.
These central uplands of Tunisia in an uncultivated state are covered with alfa or esparto grass; but they also grow considerable amounts of cereals - wheat in the north, barley in the south.
Oats, wheat and barley are the chief crops in the north.
The principal exports are olive oil, wheat, esparto grass, barley, sponges, dates, fish (especially tunny), hides, horses, wool, phosphates, copper, zinc and lead.
Vineyards and sugar-cane yield crops in the warmer ravines; the sub-tropical valleys are famous for splendid crops of maize; wheat and barley thrive on the mountain slopes; arid at heights from 7000 to 13,000 ft.
In the sierra region, wheat, barley, oats, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), alfalfa, Indian corn, oca (Oxalis tuberosa) and potatoes are the principal products.
Wheat is widely grown but the output is not large.
The cultivation of wheat, vines and olives, and European domestic animals were introduced.
It is the centre of a prosperous agricultural district producing, chiefly, wheat and maize; the vine is also largely grown and excellent wine is made.
The principal crops are millet, wheat, other food grains, pulse, oilseeds and cotton; there is some manufacture of cotton-cloth and blankets, and there are ginning factories in the town.
The total acreage of cereals (barley, buckwheat, Indian corn, oats, rye and wheat) decreased from acres in 1879 to 10,552 acres in 1899, and the total product of these crops decreased from 801,111 bu.
Agricultural products include rice and maize (the principal crops), wheat, barley and oats.
These produce cotton, rice, sugar-cane, wheat, coffee, Indian corn, barley, potatoes and fruit.
Sugar, cotton, Indian corn, beans and considerable quantities of wheat are grown, but agriculture is largely hampered by the uncertainty of the rainfall.
In the same year the chief crops were oats, barley, rye, wheat, potatoes and hay.
In the valleys the soil is particularly fertile, yielding luxuriant crops of wheat, maize, barley, spelt, beans, potatoes, flax, hemp, hops, beetroot and tobacco; and even in the more mountainous parts rye, wheat and oats are extensively cultivated.
Agriculture is the principal industry, the chief products being sugar, barley, Indian corn and wheat.
Rice, wheat, barley, oats, Indian corn, various kinds of millet, pulses, oil-seeds, tobacco, cotton, indigo, opium, flax and hemp and sugar-cane, are the principal agricultural products of Bhagalpur district.
With these, as a work produced without any literary suggestion, though very different in feeling, may be associated the "Eastern Slinger scaring Birds in the Harvest-time: Moon-rise" (1875), a nude figure standing on a raised platform in a field of wheat.
Manzanares has manufactures of soap, bricks and pottery, and an active trade in wheat, wine, spirits, aniseed and saffron.
The surrounding district produces quantities of wheat and fruits for export, and much excellent wine is made.
The other cereal crops consist of mandua (a grass-like plant producing a coarse grain resembling rice), wheat, barley, and china, a rice-like cereal.
Notwithstanding its mountainous character, Morelos is one of the most flourishing agricultural states of Mexico, producing sugar, rice, Indian corn, coffee, wheat, fruit and vegetables.
Cautin lies within the temperate agricultural and forest region of the south, and produces wheat, cattle, lumber, tan-bark and fruit.
Around the cottages in the mountains the land is cleared for cultivation, and produces thriving crops of barley, wheat, buckwheat, millet, mustard, chillies, etc. Turnips of excellent quality are extensively grown; they are free from fibre and remarkably sweet.
The wheat and barley have a full round grain, and the climate is well adapted to the production of both European and Asiatic vegetables.
The grain crops are maize, wheat and barley; the two latter are frequently sown together.
In 1906, 13,000 acres produced 17,975 quarters of wheat and 12,000 quarters of barley.
More than two-thirds of the wheat comes from abroad; fish, vegetables and fruit are also imported from Sicily in considerable quantities.
Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, yucas (Manihot aipi) and tropical fruits are produced in the irrigated valleys of the coast, and wheat, Indian corn, barley, potatoes, coffee, coca, &c., in the upland regions.
The soil, though not very fertile, except in some of the valleys and sheltered hillsides, produces wheat, maize, barley, rye, flax, grapes, peaches, apples and other fruits.
Sugar, wheat, alfalfa, Indian corn, tobacco and hides are the principal products, and cotton, which was grown here under the Incas, is still produced.
Indian corn and wheat form the two largest crops, their product in 1900 being respectively 24% and 52% greater than in 1890; but these crops when compared with those of other states are relatively unimportant.
In 1906 the acreage of Indian corn was 196,472 acres with a yield of 5,894,160 bushels valued at $2,475,547, and the acreage of wheat was 121,745 acres with a yield of 1,947,920 bushels valued at $1,383,023.
6: "A choenix of wheat for a denarius, and three choenikes of barley for a denarius, and the oil and the wine hurt thou not."
and a choenix of wheat Verse II postulates either a Vespasianic or Domitianic date:" And the beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goeth into perdition."In verse 10 it is stated that five of the seven had fallen," the one is and another is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a little while."If we reckon from Augustine and omit Galba, Otho and Vitellius, each of whom reigned only a few months, we arrive at Vespasian.
According to the words just quoted from the Apocalypse, there was to be a dearth of grain and a superfluity of wine; the price of the wheat was to be seven times the ordinary, according to Reinach's computation, and that of the barley four times.
The principal agricultural products are wheat, kao-liang, oats, millet, maize, pulse and potatoes.
Wheat and oats are largely cultivated, while hemp, vegetables and various fruits are also produced.
in 1909 (valued at $92,910,000); the wheat crop, 5,050,000 bu.
The wheat crop has varied from 12,531,304 bushels in 1903, 13,683,003 bushels in 1905, 7,653,000 bushels in 1907 (according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture), to 22,769,440 bushels (Twelfth Census) in 1899.
For the most part the several crops are quite evenly distributed throughout the state; but nearly all the winter wheat is grown in the S.
and N.W., spring wheat most largely in the N.W., barley mostly in the N., flax-seed and prairie hay in the N.E.
The chief export is wheat.
The principal crops are wheat, millet, other food-grains, pulse, oil-seeds, and a little sugar-cane and cotton.
Thus he showed that the weevils of granaries, in his time commonly supposed to be bred from wheat, as well as in it, are grubs hatched from eggs deposited by winged insects.
The soil in the valleys is fertile, yielding wheat, barley, maize, flax, hemp and fruits.
He used all sorts of expedients, sometimes dishonest, to replenish the treasury, and was even accused of having himself profited from the commerce in wheat.
Wheat, maize, rice, oil, flax and hemp, of fine quality, are grown in considerable quantities; as well as saffron, madder, liquorice, sumach, and a variety of fruits.
The riverain population is largely engaged in agriculture, the chief crops cultivated being durra, barley, wheat and cotton.
The district produces wheat, maize, barley and tobacco; sericulture and viticulture are both practised on a limited scale.
The principal crops are rye, oats, barley, flax and potatoes, with some wheat, hemp and buckwheat.
Although New York has lost in the competition with the Western States in the production of most of the grains, especially wheat and barley, and in the production of wool, mutton and pork, it has made steady progress in the dairy business and continues to produce great crops of hay.
The oat crop in 1909 was 37,365,000 bushels; the Indian corn crop, 1,910,000 bushels; the wheat crop, 24,120,000 bushels; the barley crop, 8,820,000 bushels; the rye crop, 2,720,000 bushels; buckwheat, 7,512,000 bushels.
A large portion of the Indian corn, wheat and barley is produced on the Ontario plain.
Owing, however, to its poverty in that form of nitrogenous compound called gluten, so abundant in wheat, barley-flour cannot be baked into vesiculated bread; still it is a highlynutritious substance, the salts it contains having a high proportion of phosphoric acid.
On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a"coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other " cleaning " crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in.
In any case it must not be stacked while damp, and if cut by machine is therefore sometimes tied in sheaves and set up in stooks as in the case of wheat.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.
The principal crops are rye, wheat, oats, barley and potatoes.
But prosperity brought on a feverish land speculation; prices of wool and wheat fell in 187 9 and went on falling.
The valley and delta of the Vistula are very fertile, and produce good crops of wheat and pasturage for horses, cattle and sheep. Besides cereals, the chief crops are potatoes, hay, tobacco, garden produce, fruit and sugar-beet.
In eastern Vashington hot winds from the north or east are occasionally injurious to the growing wheat in June or July.
The wheat crop in 1909 was 35,780,000 bushels, valued at $33,275,000; oats, 9,898,000 bushels, valued at $4,751,000; barley, 7,189,000 bushels, valued at $4,601,000; rye, 84,000 bushels, valued at $79,000; Indian corn, 417,000 bushels, valued at $359,000.
The cereals chiefly grown are wheat, oats, barley and rye.
The chief crop is mealies, the staple food of the natives; wheat, oathay, Kaffir corn and oats coming next.
Here, in the districts of Ladybrand, Ficksburg, Bethlehem and Rouxville, most wheat is grown.
Its chief exports are diamonds, live stock (cattle, horses and mules, sheep and goats), wool, mohair, coal, wheat and eggs.
In 1906 the farm area was almost equally divided between " dry " farming and farming under irrigation, three-fourths of the wheat produced was grown without irrigation, and the dry farming was very successful with the comparatively new and valuable crops of durum, or macaroni wheat, and Russian barley, which is used in straw for winter feed to sheep and neat cattle.
2% was wheat, 9% was barley, and 1 .
In 1909 the oat crop was 1 5,39 0, 000 bushels from 300,000 acres; the acreage of wheat in 1909 was 350,000 and the production 10,764,000 bushels; the acreage of barley in 1909 was 50,000 acres, and 1,900,000 bushels were raised; the acreage of Indian corn in 1909 was 5000 acres, and 175,000 bushels were grown.
Wheat and barley are grown in considerably less quantity.
They practised agriculture, cultivating several varieties of wheat and barley, besides millet and flax.
It was only in years when the harvest was most favourable that AustriaHungary was able to provide for her own requirements in corn; for export purposes only barley was of considerable importance, while wheat, and above all, of recent years, maize had to be imported.
Wheat constituted 60.7% of the total for all cereals, Indian corn 21.1%, oats 11.9% and barley 5.8%.
The total acreage of spring wheat, the state's leading crop, in 1909 was 3,375,000 with a yield of 47,5 88, 000 bush.
Wheat grows chiefly in the east and north-east parts of the state, especially in Brown, Spink, Roberts, Day and Grant counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Brown county, 3,3 20, 57 0 bush., or about one-twelfth of the state's product.
Oats and wheat are grown in almost equal quantities, barley being of rather less importance.
No winter wheat can be grown, and the climate is too harsh for the larger fruits, such as apples, pears, peaches, plums and grapes; but such hardy small fruits as currants, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries and strawberries may be grown in abundance.
Wheat is the state's most important product.
Next in importance to wheat in 1909 was flaxseed, amounting to 14,229,000 bushels, valued at $22,340,000.
Among its many branches are the " Wheat Line," running from Kenmare, North Dakota, to Thief River Falls, Minnesota, and having a length of 251 m.
The types of its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish.
The town was governed largely after the Mosaic law and continued essentially Puritan for fifty years or more; about 1730 Presbyterianism superseded Congregationalism, and in 1734 Colonel Josiah Ogden, having caused a schism in the preceding year, by saving his wheat one dry Sunday in a wet season, founded with several followers the first Episcopal or Church of England Society in Newark - Trinity Church.
In the neighbourhood large quantities of wheat, hemp, fruit and cider are produced; and there are important coal and iron mines, foundries, and factories for the manufacture of coarse cloth.
The chief agricultural products are potatoes and vegetables, beet-root and hops, wheat, rye, barley and oats.
hordei, the " joint-worm " of the United States, which produces galls on the stalks of wheat;4 also various members of the family Tenthredinidae, or saw-flies.
2 Certain minute Nematoid worms, as Anguillula scandens, which infests the ears of wheat, also give rise to galls.
The Act of 1816 prohibited the importation of wheat when the price was less than 80s.
Thus the duty on wheat, which had been gradually raised as high as 5 marks per hundred kilogrammes (roughly is.
Millet, wheat, sweet potatoes, yams and tares are also grown.
The principal exports are fish, coarse black tea, cotton, vegetable tallow, sweet potatoes, and some wheat.
The leading agricultural pursuits are the growing of Indian corn and wheat and the raising of livestock, yet it is in the production of fruits, vegetables and tobacco, that Maryland ranks highest as an agricultural state, and in no other state except South Carolina is so large a per cent.
In 1907, according to the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Indian corn crop was 22,196,000 bushels, valued at $11,986,000; the wheat crop was 14,763,000 bushels, valued at $14,172,000; the oat crop was 825,000 bushels, valued at $404,000; and the crop of rye was 315,000 bushels, valued at $236,000.
The Indian-corn, wheat and livestock sections of the state, are in the Piedmont Plateau, the Hagerstown Valley and the central portion of the East Shore.
Wheat, fruit, vines and cotton are largely grown, and cattle and sheep are bred.
Of the crops raised, wheat, barley and oats are the principal cereals.
The outskirts are richly cultivated with wheat, barley, lucerne and poppies.
On the irrigated lowlands rice, wheat and other cereals are cultivated, and exported to the highlands.
Among the cereals wheat is the next largest crop; it increased from 2,142,822 bu.
Wheat is grown both in the Blue Grass Region and farther west; 'and the best country for fruit is along the Ohio river between Cincinnati and Louisville and in the hilly land surrounding the Blue Grass Region.
Wheat and oats are the predominant cereals.
Wheat sufficient for one-fourth of the population is grown, and the vine is extensively cultivated.
The tema is the same name as the large wheat measure (35), which was worth 30,000 to 19,000 grains of copper, according to Ptolemaic receipts and accounts (Rev. Eg., 1881, 150), and therefore very likely worth to utens of copper in earlier times when metals were scarcer.
These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.
The rainy season completely changes the appearance of these plains, new grass appears, and wheat and Indian corn are cultivated.
Wheat is widely cultivated and a considerable part of the population depend upon it for their bread.
" Tunas " or cactus fruit, red peppers, " zapotes " (the fruit of various trees), " arrayan " (Myrtus arayan), " ciruelas " or Mexican plums (Spondias), guavas, " huamuchil " (Pithecolobium dulce), tamarinds, aguacates (Persea gratissima), bananas, plantains, pineapples, grapes, oranges, lemons, limes, granadillas, chirimoyas, mammees (Mammea americana), coco-nuts, cacao, mangoes, olives, gourds and melons, are among the fruits of the country, and rice, wheat, Indian corn, beans, yams, sweet potatoes, onions and " tomatoes " (Physalis) are among its better-known food products.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
This region has, for the most part, a temperate climate, and produces wheat, barley, Indian corn and forage crops.
Long droughts often destroy the wheat and Indian corn and compel their importation in large quantities to supply thepeople with food.
This uncertainty in the wheat crop extends to the southern limits of the higher plateau, and is a serious obstacle to the increased production of this cereal.
The soil is fertile, producing wheat, maize, grapes, figs, pomegranates and wine.
to 25,694 acres (30,000 acres in 1909), but that of oats decreased from 26,618 acres to 12,589 acres (14,000 acres in 1909), that of wheat decreased from 2027 acres to 271 acres (none reported in 1909), that of barley decreased from 4934 acres to 1596 acres (2000acres in 1909), that of buckwheat decreased from 3117 acres to 1835 acres (2000 acres in 1909), and that of rye decreased from 1056 acres to 350 acres (none reported in 1909).
Unirrigated land laid under wheat by the natives is said to yield twelve bushels an acre.
As on his outward voyage, Leif was again driven far out of his course by contrary weather - this time to lands (in America) "of which he had previously had no knowledge," where "self-sown" wheat grew, and vines, and "m&sur" (maple?) wood.
The chief crops are maize, wheat, barley, beans, rye, hemp, potatoes and tobacco.
Sidi-bel-Abbes is also an important agricultural centre, wheat, tobacco and alfa being the chief articles of trade.
The chief crops are oats, barley, wheat and rye, but by far the most land is planted with potatoes.
It is a shipping centre for a large wheat, fruit and cotton-raising region, and the principal jobbing market for northern Texas, Oklahoma and part of Louisiana, and the biggest distributing point for agricultural machinery in the South-west.
Along parts of their eastern border, where the rainfall is a little increased by the approach of the westerly winds to the Rocky Mountains, there is a belt of very deep, impalpably fine soil, supposed to be a dust deposit brought from the drier parts of the plains farther west; excellent crops of wheat are here raised.
The principal crops are millets, cotton, wheat and pulse.
wide, with its outlet Hudson Strait, has long been navigated by trading ships and whalers, and may become a great outlet for the wheat of western Canada, though closed by ice except for four months in the summer.
The snow and the frost in the ground are considered useful as furnishing moisture to start the wheat in spring.
This is especially important in a country where the large wheat crop renders an additional quantity of money necessary on very short notice during the autumn and winter.
The prairie lands of Manitoba and Saskatchewan produce wheat of the finest quality.
Of wheat many varieties are grown.
The average yield of wheat for the Crops.
In 1901 the total production of wheat in Canada was 552 million bushels.
The total wheat acreage, which at the census of 1901 was 4,224,000, was over 6,200,000 in 1906, an increase of nearly two million acres in five years.
In 1900 the wheat acreage in Ontario was 1,487,633, producing 28,418,907 bushels, an average yield of 19.10 bushels per acre.
Over three-quarters of this production was of fall or winter wheat, the average yield of which in Ontario over a series of years since 1883 had been about 20 bushels per acre.
A census taken in 1906 shows that the total acreage of wheat in the North-West Provinces was 5,062,493, yielding 110,586,824 bushels, an average in a fairly normal season of 21.84 bushels per acre.
Of this total wheat acreage, 2,721,079 acres were in Manitoba, 2,117,484 acres in Saskatchewan, and 223,930 acres in Alberta, with average yields per acre at the rates of 20.02 bushels in Manitoba, 23.70 in Saskatchewan and 26.49 in Alberta.
In these provinces spring wheat is almost universally sown, except in Alberta where fall or winter wheat is also sown to a considerable extent.
Summer fallowing for wheat is a practice that has gained ground in the North-West Provinces.
Land ploughed and otherwise tilled, but left unseeded during the summer, is sown with wheat in the succeeding autumn or spring.
Wheat on summer fallow land yielded, according to the NorthWest census of 1906, from 2 to 8 bushels per acre more than that sown on other land.
The northern limits of the wheat-growing areas have not been definitely ascertained; but samples of good wheat were grown in 1907 at Fort Vermilion on the Peace river, nearly 600 m.
Suitable machinery for cleaning the grain is everywhere in general use, so that weed seeds are removed before the wheat is ground.
This gives Canadian wheat excellent milling properties, and enables the millers to turn out flour uniform in quality and of high grade as to keeping properties.
a quarter more than English-grown wheat.
There is room for a great extension in the cultivation of wheat and the manufacture and exportation of flour.
In the twelve months of 1907 Canada exported 37,503,057 bushels of wheat of the value of $34,132,759 and 1,858,485 barrels of flour of the value of $7,626,408.
Flour from wheat, meal from oats, and meal from Indian corn are preferred.
It was famous in the early 17th century for wheat and oats; hopgrowing began in 1597.
Wheat has been cultivated from remote antiquity.
The tales that grains of wheat found in the cerements of Egyptian mummies have been planted and come to maturity are no longer credited, for the vital principle in the wheat berry is extremely evanescent; indeed, it is doubtful whether wheat twenty years old is capable of reproduction.
It is conjectured that the wheat plant, as now known, is a degenerate form of something much finer which flourished thousands of years ago, and that possibly it may be restored to its pristine excellence, yielding an increase twice or thrice as large as it now does, thus postponing to a distant period the famine doom prophesied by Sir W.
Wheat well repays careful attention; contrast the produce of a carelessly tilled Russian or Indian field and the bountiful yield on a good Lincolnshire farm, the former with its average yield of 8 bushels, the latter with its 50 bushels per acre; or compare the quality, as regards the quantity and flavour of the flour from a fine sample of British wheat, such as is on sale at almost every agricultural show in Great Britain, with the produce of an Egyptian or Syrian field; the difference is so great as to cause one to doubt whether the berries are of the same species.
It may be stated roundly that an average quartern loaf in Great Britain is made from wheat grown in the following countries in the proportions named: - For details connected with grain and its handling see Agriculture, Corn Laws, Granaries, Flour, Baking, Wheat, &C. Wheat occupies of all cereals the widest region of any foodstuff.
Rice, which shares with millet the distinction of being the principal food-stuff of the greatest number of human beings, is not grown nearly as widely as is wheat, the staple food of the white races.
Wheat grows as far south as Patagonia, and as far north as the edge of the Arctic Circle; it flourishes throughout Europe, and across the whole of northern Asia and in Japan; it is cultivated in Persia, and raised largely in India, as far south as the Nizam's dominions.
In Canada a very fine wheat crop was raised in the autumn of 1898 as far north as the mission at Fort Providence, on the Mackenzie river, in a latitude above 62° - or less than m.
In Africa it was an article of commerce in the days of Jacob, whose son Joseph may be said to have run the first and only successful "corner" in wheat.
For many centuries Egypt was famous as a wheat raiser; it was a cargo of wheat from Alexandria which St Paul helped to jettison on one of his shipwrecks, as was also, in all probability, that of the "ship of Alexandria whose sign was Castor and Pollux," named in the same narrative.
Along the north coast of Africa are areas which, if properly irrigated, as was done in the days of Carthage, could produce enough wheat to feed half of the Caucasian race.
m., or three times the extent of Great Britain and Ireland, according to the opinion of a British consul, could raise millions of acres of wheat.
Land is being extensively put under wheat in the pampas of South America and in the prairies of Siberia.
Lawes in Hertfordshire have proved that the natural fruitfulness of the wheat plant can be increased threefold by the application of the proper fertilizer.
It is by no means, however, the wheat which yields the greatest number of bushels per acre which is the most valuable from a miller's standpoint, for the thinness of the bran and the fineness and strength of the flour are with him important considerations, too often overlooked by the farmer when buying his seed.
Nevertheless it is the deficient quantity of the wheat raised in the British Islands, and not the quality of the grain, which has been the cause of so much anxiety to economists and statesmen.
were based on the assumption that wheat was imported rates duty free.
He calculated that the cost of carriage from abroad of wheat, or the equivalent of the product of an acre of good wheat land in Great Britain, would not be less than 30s.
In 190o an all-round freight rate for wheat might be taken at 15s.
per ton (a ton representing approximately the produce of an acre of good wheat land in England), say from ios.
Inferior land bearing less than 42 quarters per acre would not be protected to the same extent, and moreover, seeing that a portion of the British wheat crop has to stand a charge as heavy for land carriage across a county as that borne by foreign wheat across a continent or an ocean, the protection is not nearly so substantial as Caird would make out.
Coming to the rates on grain, we find (in Table 23) a record for the forty years 1858-1897 of the charge on wheat from Chicago to New York, via all rail from 1858, and via lake and rail since 1868, the authority being the secretary of the Chicago Board of Trade.
per ton; and in periods of great trade depression wheat is carried from New York to Liverpool as ballast, being paid for by the ship-owner.
Another route worked more cheaply than formerly is that by river, from the centre of the winter wheat belt, say at St Louis, to New Orleans, and thence by steamer to Liverpool.
71 the cost of transportation is compared year by year with the export price of the two leading cereals in the States as follows: Wheat and Corn-Export Prices and Transportation Rates compared.
As regards the British farmer, it does not appear as if he had improved his position; for he has to send his wheat to greater distances, owing to the collapse of many country millers or their removal to the seaboard, while railway rates have fallen only to a very small extent; again the farmer's wheat is worth only half of what it was formerly; it may be said that the British farmer has to give up one bushel in nine to the railway company for the purpose of transportation, whereas in the 'seventies he gave up one in eighteen only.
Speaking broadly, the Kansas or Minnesota farmer's wheat does not have to pay for carriage to Liverpool more than 2S.
Only a very small proportion of the decline in the price of wheat since 1880 is due to cheapened transport rates; for while the mileage rate has been falling, the length of haulage has been extending, until in 1900 the principal wheat fields of America were 2000 m.
farther from the eastern seaboard than was the case in 1870, and consequently, notwithstanding the fall in the mileage rate 'of 50 to 75%, it still costs the United Kingdom nearly as much to have its quota of foreign wheat fetched from abroad as it did then.
The difference in the cost of the operation is shown in the following tabular statement, both the cost in the aggregate on a year's imports and the cost per quarter: Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1900, together with the average rate of freight.
N.B.-A trifling quantity of Californian and Australian wheat was imported in the period in question, but the Board of Trade records do not distinguish the quantities, therefore they cannot be given.
per quarter (480 lb), a trifle in comparison with the actual fall in the price of wheat during the same years.
The following data bearing upon the subject, for selected periods, are partly taken from the Corn Trade Year-Book:- In passing, it may be pointed out that for a period of four years, from 1871 to 1874, the price of wheat averaged 56s.
per quarter, whereas in 1901 wheat was sold in England at 28s.
per quarter; the ocean transport companies carried eight bushels of wheat across the seas in 1901 for the value of one bushel, or exactly at the same ratio as in 1872.
The contrast between the case of railway freight and ocean freight is to be explained by the greater length of the present ocean voyage, which now extends to 1 o,000 miles in the case of Europe's importation of white wheat from the Pacific Coast of the United States and Australia, in contrast with the short voyage from the Black Sea or across the English Channel or German Ocean.
per quarter of the fall in the price of,wheat, which happened between 1880 and 1894, is attributable to the lessened cost of transport.
Thus, whatever the cause of the decline in the price of wheat may be, it cannot be attributed solely to the fall in the rate of Wheat Prices The following figures show the fluctuations from year to year of English wheat, chiefly according to a record published by Mr T.
per quarter, or not one-third of the actual difference between the average price of wheat in 1872 and 1900.
Wheat and other cereals are cultivated, with fruits of many kinds, olives, and vines which yield a wine of fair quality; while saffron is largely produced, and some attention is given to the keeping of bees and silkworms. Stock-farming, for which the wide plains afford excellent opportunities, employs many of the peasantry; the bulls of Albacete are in demand for bull-fighting, and the horses for mounting the Spanish cavalry.
In recent years there has been a tendency to diversify crops, Indian corn, wheat and oats being raised extensively in the "Cereal Belt."
In 1906, according to the Year-Book of the Department of Agriculture, the following were the acreages, yields and values of Alabama's more important crops (excepting cotton): - Indian corn, 2,990,387 acres, 47, 8 49,39 2 bushels, $30,623,611; wheat, 98,639 acres, 1,085,029 bushels, $1,019,927; oats, 184,179 acres, 3,167,879 bushels, $1,615,618; hay, 5 6, 35 o acres, 109,882 tons, $1,461,431.
The principal cereals cultivated are Indian corn (product, 53,75 0, 000 bushels in 1908) and wheat; the cultivation of the latter, formerly remunerative, declined on account of the competition of the Western States, but revived after 1899, largely owing to the efforts of the Georgia Wheat Growers' Association (organized in 1897), and in 1908 the yield was 2,208,000 bushels.
Wheat, maize and potatoes are the chief crops.
The neighbourhood produces wheat, barley, olives and vines in abundance.
The agricultural products of Jalisco include Indian corn, wheat and beans on the uplands, and sugar-cane, cotton, rice, indigo and tobacco in the warmer districts.
The imports include wheat, flour, Indian corn, jerked beef (carne secca), lard, bacon, wines and liquors, butter, cheese, conserves of all kinds, coal, cotton, woollen, linen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, earthenand glasswares, railway material, machinery, furniture, building material, including pine lumber, drugs and chemicals, and hardware.
Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.
This it leaves at nightfall to seek fields of young wheat and other cereals whose tender herbage forms its favourite food.
Payen gives only 7% of gluten in rice as compared with 22% in the finest wheat, 14 in oats and 12 in maize.
The percentage of potash in the ash is as 18 to 23 in wheat.
Legislative interference with agricultural operations or with the distribution of food-supplies, currency restrictions and failure of transport, which have all caused famines in the past, are unlikely thus to operate again; nor is it probable that the modern speculators who attempt to make "corners" in wheat could produce the evil effects contemplated in the old statutes against forestallers and regrators.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
The principal crops are - in the cold weather, maize and bajra; in the spring, wheat, barley and gram.
Massillon is built among hills in a part of the state noted for its large production of coal and wheat and abounding in white sandstone, iron ore and potter's clay.
It has the appearance of a Mussulman town on account of its mosques (only two of which are in use) and it is a centre of trade in wheat, maize, tobacco and cocoons.
Agricultural products are wheat, millet, Indian corn, pulse, arrowroot and many varieties of fruits and vegetables.
Wheat and wool were exported in the 4th century, when, as we have said, Britain was especially prosperous.
(2) At the line where this east to west wall ends begins the sea of undulating plains where there is enough rain for abundant wheat and barley.
(2) The following are among the more important products of the central zone of Mesopotamia: wheat, barley, rice (e.g.
The different cereals are all grown with success, wheat and rye sometimes in quantity enough for exportation.
Hay, Indian corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, fruits, vegetables and tobacco are the principal crops.
More than one-half of the crop acreage in 1899 was devoted to cereals, and of the total cereal acreage 32% was of wheat, 31.
The product of Indian corn was 48,800,000 bushels in 1909; of wheat 26,265,000 bushels; of oats 25,948,000 bushels; of barley 196,000 bushels; of rye 5,508,000 bushels; and of buckwheat 5,665,000 bushels.
Indian corn, wheat and rye, are cultivated most extensively in the south-east counties.
Erie is quite unimportant among the lake ports in foreign commerce, but has a large domestic trade in iron ore, copper, wheat and flour.
Cattle, wheat and wine are the principal products, but Indian corn and fruit also are produced.
Of the flora of Tibet Rockhill writes: " In the ` hot lands ' (Tsa-rong) in southern and south-eastern Tibet, extending even to Batang, peaches, apricots, apples, plums, grapes, water-melons, &c., and even pomegranates, are raised; most of Tibet only produces a few varieties of vegetables, such as potatoes, turnips, beans, cabbages, onions, &c. The principal cereals raised are barley and buckwheat, wheat in small quantities, and a little oats.
The chief crops are sesamum, millet, rice, peas, wheat and cotton.