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The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac. Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral.
WH made it plain that the Alexandrian text was a literary development of the Neutral, but they always maintained that the latter text was not confined to, though chiefly used in Alexandria.
Of these three types WH thought that the Neutral was decidedly the best.
On the evidence which they had WH were undoubtedly justified, but discoveries and investigation have gone far to make it impossible to hold this view any longer.
We now know more about the Old Latin, and, thanks to Mrs Lewis' discovery, much more about the Old Syriac. The result is that the authorities on which WH relied for their Western text are seen to bear witness to two texts, not to one.
Other races, wh i ch are not numerous, are Armenians, Greeks, Bulgars, Albanians and Italians.
Hort (commonly quoted as WH), the Cambridge scholars, supplied the deficiencies of Lachmann, and without giving up the advantages of his system, and its development by Tischendorf, brought back the study of the text of the New Testament to the methods of Griesbach.
It is impossible, in face of the fact that the evidence of the oldest witnesses of all sorts is constantly opposed to the longer readings, to doubt that WH were right in arguing that these phenomena prove that the later text was made up by a process of revision and conflation of the earlier forms. Influenced by the use of the later text by Chrysostom, WH called it the Syrian or Antiochene text, and refer to the revision which produced it as the Syrian revision.
The earlier texts which were used for the Syrian revision may, according to WH, be divided into three: - (i) the Western text, used especially by Latin writers, and found also in cod.
The Alexandrian was clearly a literary recension of it, and WH strove to show that the Western was merely due to the non-literary efforts of scribes in other parts to improve the narrative.
Having thus decided that the Neutral text was almost always right, it only remained for WH to choose between the various authorities which preserved this type.
Opinions differ as to the correctness of the results reached by WH, but there is scarcely room for doubt that as an example of method their work is quite unrivalled at present and is the necessary starting-point for all modern investigations.
Various useful texts have been issued, among which those of Nestle (Novum Testamentum Graece, Stuttgart, 1904), based on a comparison of the texts of Tischendorf, WH and Weiss, and of Baljon (Novum Testamentum Graece, Groningen, 1898), are the best.
Besides these works the chief efforts of textual critics since WH have been directed towards the elucidation of minor problems, and the promulgation of certain hypotheses to explain the characteristics either of individual MSS.
The work of WH may be summed up into two theorems: - (1) The text preserved in the later MSS.
The obvious solution would be to say that where two agree their reading is probably correct, but the followers of WH maintain that the agreement of the Western and Eastern is often an agreement in error.
It is also possible to argue, as WH did, on the same side, that the purest form of text was preserved in Alexandria, from which the oldest uncials are directly or indirectly derived, but this argument has been weakened if not finally disposed of by the evidence of Clement of Alexandria.
W, wax-yielding surface, covering true gland; s, septem, or carina; wh, webbed hairs.
St Margaret's, in the midst of St Peter's churchyard, built in 1485, and restored in 1865, is situated near the cave in the side of the MOnchsberg, said to have been the hermitage of St Maximus, wh?
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On the other hand, the plant-beds of the Permo-Carboniferous age in South Africa, South America, India and Australia demonstrate the existence of a widely distributed vegetation wh i ch agrees in age with the Upper Carboniferous and of the beds in which Glossopteris and other genera make FIG.
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wh, Roots from k', which grows at expense of k.
vertical, where Wh tan 0 = N = (c 2 - cl) c2 g2 tan 0, (6) (7) in which we have put k' 2 = ek 2, where E is a numerical factor depending on the shape.
Bezae and in Syr C; (2) the Alexandrine text used by Cyril of Alexandria and found especially in CL 33; and (3) a text which differs from both the above mentioned and is therefore called by WH the Neutral text, found especially in rt B and the quotations of Origen.
They might be called Neutral interpolations, but WH preferred the rather clumsy expression " Western non-interpolations."
The great importance of this work of WH lies in the facts that it not merely condemns but explains the late Antiochene text, and that it attempts to consider in an objective manner all the existing evidence and to explain it historically and genealogically.
- This was regarded by WH as a definite text, found in D, the Old Latin and the Old Syriac; and it is an essential part of their theory that in the main these three witnesses represent one text.
It is clearly a revision of the second stage, as WH saw, but we can now add that it was not merely a literary revision but was influenced by the tendency to revive readings which are found in the first stage but rejected in the second.
But wh tever the London world may have thought of him, Burke's ener :y and devotion of character impressed the better minds in the co ntry.
Lessons of value may be learnt from the fate of similar work undertaken by the Cotton Supply Association, Suppl at on As= wh i ch was instituted in April 18 J 7.
The text reached is not widely different from that of WH.
The third stage is WH's Alexandrian, found in the quotations of Cyril of Alexandria and a few MSS.
It thus seems probable that WH's theory must be modified, both as regards the " Western " text, which is seen not to be a single text at all, and as regards the " Neutral " text, which seems to be nothing more than the second stage of the development of the text in Alexandria.
But the importance of these modifications is something more than the doubt which they have thrown on WH's theories: they have really shifted the centre of gravity of the textual problem.
accessory retailers and bookshops including: Halfords, Motor World and WH Smith.
WH Smith were struggling with how to handle the mass of rush hour commuters passing through their shops in train stations.
I can appreciate wh... 7 Jul 2006, 11:01 PM James jag You need to consider total power requirements.
At the end of the 19th century it was owned by the newspaper magnate WH Smith who became Viscount Hambleden.
pavilion block layout designed by WH Ward of Birmingham.
The proposal raises fears that magazines like Loaded or FHM might be bagged if WH Smith judges their covers to be too raunchy.
In past years, WH Smith, Sainsbury 's and M&S all suffered from either unsound strategy or inefficiencies, or both.
No matter wh sichtyle and delivery method you choose, the goal is to personally let people know you'd like them to join you in celebrating or commemorating a specific event.
Those Wh!gs end principles, to which that party adhered which about this time became known as the Tory party, had been formed under the influence of the terror caused by militant Puritanism.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.