Westward of South Australia, on the shores of the Australian Bight, there is a stretch of country 300 m.
shore of San Francisco Bay, named after Bishop Berkeley on account of his line "Westward the course of empire takes its way."
The great desire of the Spanish government at that time was to find a westward route to the Moluccas.
Russia's advance westward raised indirectly the Eastern Question, because it threatened two of France's traditional allies, Sweden and Poland, and Choiseul considered that the best means of checkmating Catherine's 7l aryl, aggressive schemes was to incite France's third traditional ally, Turkey, to attack her.
1749), who, gradually pushing westward from Lake Superior, reached Lake Winnipeg in 1733, and in the following year built a fort not far from the present Fort Alexander.
Westward Ho >>
Deposits of the Tertiary period form the basis of more than half the state, extending from the border of the Cretaceous westward nearly to the Yazoo Delta and the Mississippi Bottom, and southward to within a few miles of the Gulf coast.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
From Pennsylvania the sect spread chiefly westward, and, after various vicissitudes, caused by defections and divisions due to doctrinal differences, in 1908 were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and North Dakota.
However, the woman and her husband were leaving to continue a summer-long trip westward.
He therefore turned westward, and struck a large river, with many affluents, to which he gave the name of the Darling.
Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 71 m.
Westward two short but important roads led on each side of the Tiber to the great harbour at its mouth; while the coast of Latium was supplied with a coast road by Septimius Severus.
In the west the folds run from north to south, curving gradually westward towards the southern and western coasts; but in the east the folds appear to run from west to east, and to be the continuation of the Dinaric folds of the Balkan peninsula.
Westward to Houston and southward to about 32° 48' on the Alabama boundary and occupying a much larger area than the other Cretaceous formations, is the Selma chalk, called "Rotten Limestone" by Hilgard; it is made up of a material of great uniformity, - a soft chalky rock, white or pale blue, composed chiefly of tenacious clay, and white carbonate of lime in minute crystals.
The extension of the southern boundary line by this decision due westward until it met His Majesty's other governments gave rise, however, to a controversy with New York.
The south-west corner of the island was served by a direct road from Carales westward through Decimomannu (note the name Decimo, a survival, no doubt, of a Roman post-station ad decimum lapidem), where there is a fine Roman bridge over 100 yds.
It stands on a wooded hill, its botanical gardens commanding a fine view westward of the bay and rock of St Michel.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
It thence passed farther north to the Burdekin, ascending to the source of that river, and turned westward across a table-land, from which there was an easy descent to the Gulf of Carpentaria.
When the state constitution of 1776 was adopted the counties were so nearly equal in population that they were given equal representation in the General Assembly, but the equality in population disappeared in the general westward movement, and in 1790 the West began to urge a new division of the state into representative districts according to population and taxation.
Gulf, the Tigris, and thence westward to the north-east angle of the Levant; on the north the high land follows nearly 36° N.
The Sciaenidae extend from the Bay of Bengal to China, but are not known to the westward.
North of the Satpuras is,the rich valley of the Nerbudda, which may be said to begin towards the north of the Jubbulpore district and to extend westward through the district of Narsinghpur as far as the western limit of Hoshangabad, a distance of nearly 300 m.
From Seatoller in Borrowdale a road traverses Honister Pass (1100 ft.), whence it descends westward, beneath the majestic Honister Crags, where green slate is quarried, into the valley containing Buttermere (94 ft.
coast of the Persian Gulf, but as the early navigators pushed their voyages further, the ships rounded the coast of Arabia, and came into the Red Sea, and the names of Magan and the neighbouring Melukhkha gradually extended westward, with the result that in late times to the Assyrians Melukhkha meant Ethiopia.
During the period of the Volkerwanderung many of these people moved westward, but some remained behind to give their name to the country, although it was not until the 8th century that the word Hesse came into use.
Thus Claudius Clavus Swartha (Niger), who was at Rome in 1424, compiled a map of the world, extending westward as far as Greenland.
Westward of Berbera the ascent to the high country is not so abrupt as in the east but is made by several steps, the mountains forming a chaotic mass.
Westward it is bounded by Abyssinian and British Somaliland.
Afterward going westward from Lake Athabasca and through the Peace river, he reached the Pacific Ocean, being the first white man to cross the North American continent, north of Mexico.
To the westward there is a rapid drop to the wellwatered valley of the Yaw River, and then a rise over broken, dry country before the valleys of the Myit-tha and Mon rivers are reached.
shore running westward Guantanamo, Santiago and Cienfuegos, are harbours of the first class, several of them among the best of the world.
and the largest of Cuba, flows through it westward to the southern coast near Manzanillo.
The other, a narrowgauge line, crosses the Save at Bosna Brod, and follows the Bosna to Serajevo, throwing out branches eastward beyond Dolnja Tuzla, and westward to Jajce and Bugojno.
On the 7th of October this movement was completed - the Austrians abandoned the Danube bridges after a show of resistance, retreating westward - and Napoleon, leaving Murat in command of the V.
Bernadotte in his turn became an army of observation, and Napoleon joining Murat with the main body marched rapidly westward from the Lech towards the Iller.
Believing implicitly in the rumours of a descent on Boulogne and of risings in France which also reached him, and knowing the destitution he had left behind him in his movement to Ulm, when he heard of the westward march of French columns from the Lech he told his army, apparently in all good faith, that the French were in full march for their own coun try.
However, it was evident that the bulk of the Prussians lay to his left, and instructions were at once despatched to Davout to turn westward from Naumburg towards Kdsen and to bring Bernadotte with him if the two were still together.
westward of Bagdad.
Once established, its cultivation would readily extend westward, or, on the other hand, by Cabul to north-western India, where its cultivation is not ancient.
In the northern part of the state the great pine belt stretches from the head of Lake Superior westward to the confines of the Red River Valley, while along the north border and in the north-east the forest growth is almost exclusively tamarack and dwarf pine.
The rapid settling of the state drove its native fauna, which comprised buffalo, deer, moose, bear, lynx and wolves, in great numbers into the northern sections, westward into Dakota, or across the Canadian border.
In 1819 Michigan Territory was extended westward to the Mississippi river, and in 1820 General Lewis Cass, its governor, conducted an exploring expedition in search of the source of the Mississippi, which he was satisfied was in the body of water named Lake Cass in his honour.
On the erection of Wisconsin Territory in 1836 the whole of Minnesota, which then extended westward to the Missouri river, was incorporated with it, but on the erection of Iowa Territory in 1838 Minnesota was divided and the part west of the Mississippi became a part of Iowa Territory.
It lies in a flat plain on the river Don, with slight hills rising westward.
to the westward.
The absence of all mention of one great oppressing world-power seems most natural before the westward march of Assyria involved Israel in the general politics of Asia.
It ascends the Parana to the great falls of Guayra, or Sete Quedas, and thence westward along the water-parting of the Sierra de Maracayu to the cerro of that name, thence northerly along the Sierra d'Amambay to the source of the Estrella, a small tributary of the Apa, and thence down those two streams to the Paraguay.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
The Amazonian chapadao, which includes the remainder of the great Brazilian plateau west of the Sao Francisco and Parnahyba regions and which appears to be the continuation of these tablelands westward, is much the largest of these plateau divisions.
In Rio Grande do Sul the Atlantic coastal plain extends westward more than half-way across the state, and is well watered by numerous streams flowing eastward to the Lagoa dos Patos.
This great railway runs from the city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of Sao Paulo and northward into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m.
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.
Other bands penetrated into Minas and still farther north and westward, discovering mines there and in Goyaz and Cuyaba.
The whole district between Sydney and Parramatta on each side of the railway is practically one continuous town, the more fashionable suburbs lying on the east of the city while the business extension is to the westward and the southern quarters are largely devoted to manufacturing.
The chief events of his administration, which has been called the " era of good feeling," were the Seminole War (1817-18); the acquisition of the Floridas from Spain (1819-21); the "Missouri Compromise " (1820), by which the first conflict over slavery under the constitution was peacefully adjusted; the veto of the Cumberland Road Bill (1822) 1 on constitutional grounds; and - most 1 The Cumberland (or National) Road from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, West Virginia, was projected in 1806, by an appropriation of 1819 was extended to the Ohio River, by an act of 1825 (signed by Monroe on the last day of his term of office) was continued to Zanesville, and by an act of 1829 was extended westward from Zanesville.
But by far the greater portion of the Hungarian highlands belongs to the Carpathian mountains, which begin, to the north, on the left bank of the Danube at Deveny near Pressburg (Pozsony), run in a north-easterly and easterly direction, sway round south-eastward and then westward in a vast irregular semicircle, and end near Orsova at the Iron Gates of the Danube, where they meet the Balkan mountains.
The downs or plateaus occupy all the southern part of the country, sloping gradually westward from the Drakensberg.
No boundary westward had been indicated in the Sand River Convention.
Article 4 stated: " The South African Republic will conclude no treaty or engagement with any state or nation, other than the Orange Free State, nor with any native tribe to the eastward or westward of the Republic, until the same has been approved by her Majesty the Queen."
But Cronje had now realized his danger, and slipped away westward behind French and in Paardeberg.
This was deflected by Kitchener westward to follow up the Boer rearguard, and after some delay the remainder of the infantry, at first fronting northwards, swerved westward likewise, while French from Kimberley, with such of his men as he could mount on serviceable horses, headed off Cronje in the north-west.
Continuing westward, the most important stream was Tyburn, which rose at Hampstead, and joined the Thames through branches on either side of Thorney Island, on which grew up the great ecclesiastical foundation of St Peter, Westminster, better known as Westminster Abbey.
The next stream westward was the Westbourne, the name of which is perpetuated in Westbourne Grove and elsewhere in Paddington.
" Water London " is an irregular area extending from Ware in Hertfordshire to Sevenoaks in Kent, and westward as far as Ealing and Sunbury.
The first great emigration of the London merchants westward was about the middle of the 18th century, but only those who had already secured large fortunes ventured so far as Hatton Garden.
Westward of the uplands are the Kyudeni Hills (5000 ft.), also densely wooded, situated near the junction of the Buffalo and Tugela rivers.
In July of the same year Chaka sent an army westward which laid waste the Pondo country.
West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.
- Rumours of the existence of the Bahr-el-Ghazal led some of the Greek geographers to imagine that the source of the Nile was westward in the direction of Lake Chad.
From Chilongo, on the Katanga railway, the building of a line westward to the Angola frontier - about 400 m.
Copper, too, was worked with skill; indeed, it is possible that Babylonia was the original home of copper-working, which spread westward with the civilization to which it belonged.
The powers of Phrygia and Lydia rose successively out of its ruins, and continued to offer westward passage to influences of Mesopotamian culture till well into historic times.
PANNONIA, in ancient geography a country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
On his death several claimants disputed the succession; ultimately his son Fesal was recognized by the British government, and was granted a subsidy from British-Indian revenues, in consideration of which he engaged not to cede any of his territory without the consent of the British government; similar engagements have been entered into by the tribes who occupy the south coast from the borders of Oman westward to the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Lake Umayo is on higher ground to the westward.
The ordinary course for such vessels is from the westward, on which side they are sheltered by Green Island and Kellett Bank.
SAIS (Egyptian Sai), an ancient city of the Egyptian Delta, lying westward of the Thermuthiac or Sebennytic branch of the Nile.
above sea-level, sloping down westward and southward to the rich valley of the Penganga; its eastern portion, the taluks of Mangrul and Pasud, mainly of a succession of low hills covered with poor grass.
From Tlemcen the railway is continued westward to the Moroccan frontier at Lalla Maghnia, a distance of 44 m.
But the fringe of coast-land from Trebizond westward is one of the most beautiful parts of Asia Minor and is justly extolled by Strabo for its wonderful productiveness.
Some of them extend westward as far as the Red Sea.
A ware of which considerable quantities have found their way westward of late years in the Awcfji-yaki, so called from the island of Awaji where it is manufactured in the village of Iga.
Suess pointed out that it was surrounded by a curved line of earth-fracture, following an arc drawn from a centre in the Lipari Islands, from Catanzaro to Etna, and so westward; within this arc he held that the crust of the earth is gradually sinking, and is in an unstable condition.
to Monterrey, and thence westward to Trevino (formerly Venadito) in Coahuila, a station on the Mexican International.
To the south Lebanon ends about the point where the river Litany bends westward, and at Banias.
A number of valleys run to the north and north-east, among them that of the Nahr el-Kebir, the Eleutherus of the ancients, which rises in the Jebel el-Abiaei on the eastern slope of Lebanon, and afterwards, skirting the district, flows westward to the sea.
Of the valleys descending westward the first to claim mention is the Wadi Yafufa; a little farther south, lying north and south, is the rich upland valley of Zebedani, where the Barada has its highest sources.
(For details of gold-mining, see Gold.) A railway traverses the Rand, going westward past Krugersdorp to Klerksdorp and thence to Kimberley, and eastward past Springs to Delagoa Bay.
from the latter, in a plain extending westward to Sicyon.
side, stretching westward from the gat 'Theatre ' 'showing sites of excavations ' Yards o to so too z?, Baths of Eurycles Temple of Apollo Greek Temple h_ °
end it turned westward at an obtuse angle and extended about io ft.
The building to which the figures belonged, a porch, extended westward from the propylaea; and may be traced for 45 ft.
The Prussian cavalry promptly bore away to cover to the westward, and reported what they had seen to superior authority, but not to the advanced guard of the 5th infantry division, which, emerging in its turn from the defile, ran right against the deployed French infantry moving to meet them.
From the eastern edge of the above-named copses he suddenly descried the camp of a whole French Corps (the 4th), evidently ignorant of their danger, on the slopes trending westward from Amanvillers.
Unmindful of the experience of the 16th, he decided to execute an artillery surprise on a grand scale, and sent orders to his corps artillery to come into action on the long spur overlooking the French camps from the westward.
For the moment the chief care of the Prince was to guard against an attempt of the French army to break out to the westward.
Later he was one of the contractors for extending the Grand Trunk railway westward from Toronto.
(in the order from westward - " Good Hope," " Monmouth," " Otranto " and " Glasgow "), course N.W.
He attacked the desert city of Hatra, westward of the Tigris, whose importance is still attested by grand ruins.
In 1638 Peter Minuit on hehalf of this company established a settlement at what is now Wilmington, naming it, in honour of the infant queen Christina, Christinaham, and naming the entire territory, bought by Minuit from the Minquas Indians and extending indefinitely westward from the Delaware river between Bombay Hook and the mouth of the Schuylkill river, " New Sweden."
The Sunda Trench is distinguished by the wave-like configuration of its floor, and this wave-like character is continued to the westward of Sumatra with islands rising from the higher portions.
It does not occur in the Atlantic Ocean at all, and in the Indian Ocean it is only known round Cocos and Christmas Islands; but it is abundant in the Pacific, where it covers a large area between 5° and 15° N., westward from the coast of Central America to 165° W., and it is also found in patches north of the Samoa Islands, in the Marianne Trench and west of the Galapagos Islands.
On the overthrow of the dynasty about 1125 this prince, who is called by the Chinese Yeliu Tashi, and had gone through a complete Chinese education, escaped westward with a body of followers.
Apparently no real tradition existed among the Eastern Christians of such a personage; the myth had taken shape from the clouds of rumour as they rolled westward from Asia.
In Great Britain there is the South Welsh field, extending westward from the march of Monmouth shire to Kidwelly, and northward to Merthyr Tydfil.
Coal has also been found in an extension northward from this field towards Antwerp, while westward the same field extends into north-eastern France.
DENDERA, a village in Upper Egypt, situated in the angle of the great westward bend of the Nile opposite Kena.
In a subsequent campaign the Assyrian forces penetrated into the Kurdish mountains south of Lake Van and then turned westward, Malatia submitting to the invader.
Thence westward to the Tooth meridian are the prairies, the south-westward extension of the Prairie Plain province.
half rises in a succession of scarps or steps to an elevation of 2500 ft., to the Great Plains region, which extends westward past the valley of the Pecos river.
Loblolly pine, cypress, oaks, hickory, ash, pecan, maple, beech and a few other deciduous trees are interspersed among both the long-leaf and the short-leaf pines, and the proportion of deciduous trees increases to the westward.
In the region of Galveston, along the northern section of the coast, where southerly or south-easterly winds from the Gulf prevail throughout the year, the climate is warm, moist and equable, but the moisture decreases westward and south-westward, and the equability, partly because of northerly winds during the winter months, decreases in all directions inland.
The average annual rainfall decreases quite regularly westward and south-westward from 47.6 in.
The pine and hardwood areas occur chiefly in the north-eastern part of the state, and are bordered on the west by scattering growths of hardwood, extending as far westward as Austin.
Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.
Early in the next century the Sauk and Foxes, vanquished by the French in Michigan, retreated westward, and in their turn largely supplanted the Iowas.
The principal business streets runs westward from the Plaza Mayor toward the Alameda, and is known as the Calle de los Plateros (Silversmiths' Street) for two squares, Calle de San Francisco for three squares, and Avenida Juarez along the south side of the Alameda to its junction with the Paseo.
south-east of the city; but as the approaches from this direction were very strongly fortified he cut a new road southward along the eastern shore of Lake Chalco and westward along the southern shore of lakes Chalco and Xochimilco to San Augustin, where his army arrived on the 17th and 18th of August.
ahead, was strongly fortified, another short detour was made to the westward by cutting a road through a field of broken lava.
It lies in a plain bounded, except westward, where it opens on Osaka Bay, by hills of considerable height, on both sides of the Yodogawa, or rather its headwater the Aji (the outlet of Lake Biwa), and is so intersected by riverbranches and canals as to suggest a comparison with a Dutch town.
A few years later he drifted westward with twenty-five dollars in his pocket, and the autumn of 1855 found him in a law office in the city of Buffalo.
when Napoleon, hearing the sound of Ney's cannon to the westward and realizing that Wellington was attacked and neutralized, commenced the battle at Ligny.
Although the emperor wrote to Ney again at noon, from Ligny, that troops had now been placed in position at Marbais to second the marshal's attack on Quatre Bras, yet Ney remained quiescent, and Wellington effected so rapid and skilful a retreat that, on Napoleon's arrival at the head of his supporting corps, 1 There appears to be no reason to believe that Grouchy pushed any reconnaissances to the northward and westward of Gentinnes on June 17; had he done so, touch with Blucher's retiring columns must have been established, and the direction of the Prussian retreat made clear.
'He did not start his corps on their westward march until a considerable time after dawn, and then, owing to bad staff work, the rear corps of all (Billow) was selected to lead the march.
Instead of concentrating his force upon one bridge over the swampy and unfordable Dyle, Grouchy scattered it in attacks upon several; and when the emperor's despatch arrived, saying Billow was in sight, the marshal was powerless to move westward.
westward of Balkh on the road to Andkhui.
of the Mohawk Valley, rises a high-level plateau which extends westward to the Pennsylvania boundary.
Thence westward the Mohawk Valley furnishes a highway which is followed by canal, railway and waggon road.
Westward from Clyde the new channel, like the old but larger, will pass through Rochester and Lockport to the Niagara river at Tonawanda.
Within its limits from the upper Hudson westward to the Genesee river was the home of that powerful confederacy of Indian tribes, the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas, known to the French as the Iroquois and to the English as the Five (later Six) Nations.
16 1916; and the Russian armies advanced westward till they held 30,000 sq.
The eastern half of the state is occupied in the north by a westward extension of the Rocky Mountains, and in the centre and south by the north-western portion of the Columbia Plateau province.
East of the Cascade Mountains the Columbia and Spokane rivers mark the boundary between the Okanogan Highlands to the northward and the Columbia plateau to the southward; The Okanogan Highlands, an outlier of the Rocky Mountains extending westward from the Coeur d'Alene Mountains in Idaho, reach heights of 5000 to 6000 ft.
The Great Northern, running west from Spokane, crosses the state in nearly a straight line, and between this road and the Northern Pacific, and parallelingthe Great Northern, runs the recently constructed Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, the westward extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul.
Since the country was considered to be of little value the question of boundaries was not pressed either by Great Britain or the United States after the War of 1812, and by a treaty concluded on the 10th of October 1818 it was agreed that " any country that may be claimed by either party on the north-west coast of North America, westward of the Stony (Rocky) Mountains shall be free and open for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention to the vessels, citizens and subjects of the two powers."
Though rugged in places, with outlying spurs and secondary chains, the westward slopes of the Drakensberg are much gentler than the eastern or Natal versant of the chain.
From the mountainous eastern district the country dips gradually westward.
From a broad plateau overlooking the lake the land slopes gradually westward to the river, again rising on the north, west and south to a height of 125 ft.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
For a century the Appalachians were a barrier to the westward expansion of the English colonies; the continuity of the system, the bewildering multiplicity of its succeeding ridges, the tortuous courses and roughness of its transverse passes, a heavy forest and dense undergrowth all conspired to hold the settlers on the seaward-sloping plateaus and coastal plains.
By 1755 the obstacle to westward expansion had been thus reduced by half; outposts of the English colonists had penetrated the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus, threatening French monopoly in the transmontane region, and a conflict became inevitable.
It occupies nearly one half of the state, and rises gradually westward until it attains a general level of about 2700 ft.
The whole series accordingly shifts westward through the effect of precession by about one degree in seventy-two years.
The refined system of astrological prediction based upon the solar zodiac was invented in Chaldaea, obtained a second home and added elaborations in Egypt, and spread irresistibly westward about the beginning of the Christian era.
Meanwhile the Spanish government was considering whether the Moluccas did not fall within the Spanish sphere of influence as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494; and in August 1519 an expedition commanded by Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Seville to seek a westward passage to the archipelago.
At any rate the Astintagh, whether it is the principal continuation of the Kuen-lun or only a subsidiary flanking system, is itself the westward continuation of the Nan-shan or Southern Mountains, which reach down far into China (to 113° E.).
of Dublin, and the morasses extend westward almost to the Shannon.
None extend farther to the westward than the valley of the Indus,' which, considering the nature of the country in Baluchistan and Afghanistan, is perhaps intelligible enough; but it is not so easy to understand why none are found either in Cochin China or China proper; and they are also wanting in the Philippine Islands, which is the more remarkable and instructive when we find how abundant they are in the groups a little farther to the southward.
To the eastward it abounds in mountains and valleys; to the westward it is a rolling plateau.
On the decisive theatre the Federals made their way, little by little and at a heavy cost, to the Weldon railway, and beyond it to the westward.
One more attempt to outflank Lee to the westward was made by Grant without success, before winter came on, and the campaign closed with an expedition, under the direction of General Warren, which destroyed the Weldon line.
A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N.
The belief in the short and direct westward passage from Europe to the East Indies was thus shaken, but it was still held that some passage was to be found, and in1519-1521Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan) made the famous voyage in which he discovered the strait which bears his name.
In 1834 Dr Debell Bennett made scientific researches in the Society, Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, in 1835 Captain Robert Fitzroy was accompanied by Charles Darwin, and in 1836 sqq., Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars was carrying on the work of the French in the Pacific. During his voyage of 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville was again in Polynesia, working westward from the Paumotu and Marquesas Islands by Fiji and the Solomon, Loyalty and Louisiade groups to New Guinea.
Moreover the London Missionary Society, having worked westward from its headquarters in Tahiti to Tonga as early as 1797, founded a settlement in Fiji in 1835.
But on the borders of the region, often without real boundary lines, are grouped other peoples, the true Malays, the Indonesians or pre-Malays with the Negritos to the westward and the Australians, who are generally admitted to be a distinct race.
The Hissar range, a westward continuation of the Alai Mountains, separates the Zarafshan from the tributaries of the Oxus - the Surkhan, Kafirnihan and Vakhsh.
In the next year Christopher Gist, while on a similar mission for the Ohio Company, explored the country westward from the mouth of the Scioto river.
Hastening back to Italy he withdrew his three remaining legions from Aquileia, raised two more, and, crossing the Alps by forced marches, arrived in the neighbourhood of Lyons to find that three-fourths of the Helvetii had already crossed the Saone, marching westward.
Hearing that the Roman province was threatened, he marched westward, defeated Vercingetorix near Dijon and shut him up in Alesia (Mont-Auxois),which he surrounded with lines of circumvallation.
The hydrography of Mexico, therefore, is of the simplest description - a number of small streams flowing from the plateau or mountain slopes eastward to the Gulf of Mexico and westward to the Pacific. Most of these are little more than mountain torrents, but one has a course exceeding 500 m., and few have navigable channels.
The largest rivers of Mexico are: the Rio Grande de Santiago, called the Lerma above Lake Chapala, rising in the state of Mexico and flowing westward across Guanajuato, Jalisco and Tepic to the Pacific coast, with a total length of 540 m., celebrated for its deep canyons and waterfalls; the Rio de las Balsas, or Mescala, which rises in Tlaxcala and flows south and west to the Pacific with a course of 426 m.; the Yaqui, which rises in western Chihuahua and, after breaking through the northern ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental, flows south-westerly across Sonora to the Gulf of California, with a length of 390 m.; the Grijalva, also called the Chiapas on its upper course, which has its sources in the state of Chiapas and flows north-west and north across Tabasco to the Gulf of Mexico, with a total length of 350 m.; the Fuerte, which rises in southern Chihuahua and, after breaking through the sierras, flows south-west across Sinaloa to the Gulf of California, with a course of 340 m.; the Usumacinta, which is formed by the confluence of the Chixoy and Pasion on the east frontier of Chiapas, and flows north-west across Tabasco to the Grijalva, with a course of 330 m.; and the Panuco, which has its source in the north-west of the state of Mexico and flows north-eastward to the Gulf of Mexico.
An Aboriginal race called the Toltecs is said to have occupied Vera Cruz and Tabasco and to have extended its empire westward on the plateau to and perhaps beyond the present capital.
Important branches of these lines extend to Tampico on the Gulf coast, to Manzanillo on the Pacific coast, and westward and southward into Michoacan and Guerrero, with a coast terminus at or near Acapulco.
Thence Thorfinn revisited Hop, staying two months; and also made a voyage northward in search of Thorhall, rounding Keelness and sailing westward (along the north coast of Cape Breton Island?), and apparently southward also, till they came to the mouth of a river flowing from east to west.
The statement as to their Medic origin, regarded as incomprehensible by Herodotus, is doubtfully explained by Rawlinson as indicating that "the Sigynnae retained a better recollection than other European tribes of their migrations westward and Aryan origin"; R.
Barely half a mile westward down Dame Street, rises the Castle, and 300 yds.
Penn westward to the Schuylkill river, and therefore possesses excellent drainage facilities.
This was followed in 1828 by the Union Canal, running westward to Lebanon and Middletown, and in 1838 by the entrance into Reading of the Philadelphia & Reading railway.
before Mani, Zarvan accompanied Mithras in all his westward migrations.
In consequence of the general south-eastward slope of the highlands and uplands of New England, the divide between the Atlantic rivers and those which flow northward an~j westward D ~t into the lowland of the stratified belt in Canada and r New York is generally close to the boundary of these two physiographic districts.
The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.
in Georgia: there it turns westward and is continued in the Gulf coastal plain, described farther on.
The cuesta begins where its determining limcstone begins, in west-central New York; there it separates the lowlands that contain the basins of lakes Ontario and Erie; thence it curves to the north-west through the province of Ontario to the belt of islands that divide1 Georgian Bay from Lake Huron; then westward throtigh the land-arm between lakes Superior and Michigan, and south-westward into the narrow points that divide Green Bay from Lake Michigan, and at last westward to fade away again with the thinning out of the limestone; it is hardly traceable across the Mississippi river.
The Prairie States.The originally treeless prairies of the upper Mississippi basin began in Indiana and extended westward and north-westward until they merged with the drier region described Leyond as the Great Plains.
The Gulf Coastal Plain.The westward extension of the Atlantic coastal plain around the Gulf of Mexico carries with it a repetition of certain features already described, and the addition of several new ones.
A broad, low crustal arch extends southward at the junction of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains; the emerged half of the arch, constitutes the visible lowland peninsula of Florida; the submerged half extends westward under the shallow Florida.
In the same way the western side of the em- Mississippi ~ayment, trending south and south-west, passes along the Emba.vmeni.lower south-eastern side of the dissected Ozark plateau of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, which in many ways resembles the Appalachian plateau, and along the eastern end of the Massern ranges of the Ouachita mountain system in central Arkansas, which in geological history and topographical form present many analogies with the ridges and valleys of the Appalachians; and as the coastal plain turns westward to Texas it borders the Arbuckle hills in Oklahoma, a small analogue of the crystalline Appalachian belt.
The Great Plains.A broad stretch of country underlaid by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 in., and northward from the Mexican, boundary far into Canada.
This low range turns westward in a curve through the Rattlesnake Mountains towards the high Wind River Mountains (Gannett Peak, 3,775 ft.), an anticlinal range within the body of the mountain system, with flanking strata rising well on the slopes.
A few intermont areas in the north-west part of the province have outlet westward by Kla1nath river through the Cascade range and by Pitt river (upper part of the Sacramento) through the Sierra Nevada: a few basins in the south-east have outlet by the Rio Grande to the Gulf of Mexico; a much larger but still narrow medial area is drained south-westward by the Colorado to the head of the Gulf of California, where this large and very turbid river has formed an extensive delta, north of which the former head of the gulf is now cut off from the sea and laid bare by evaporation as a plain below sea-level.
or more, annually) on the Westward or windward slope, and there they are heavily forested; but the rainfall is light on the eastward slope and the piedmont district is dry; hence the forests thin out on that side of the range and treeless lava plains follow next eastward.
The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.
It seems probable that the Lafayette formation of the Gulf coastal plain is continuous northward and westward with gravel deposits on the Great Plains, washed out from the Rocky Mountains to the west.
So strong is the displacement of the area of highest interior temperatures westward from the middle of the continent that the Gulf of California almost rivals the Red Sea as an ocean-arm under a desert-hot atmosphere.
The depth of settlement, from the coast inland, varied greatly, ranging from what would be involved in the mere occupation of the shore for fishing purposes to a body of agricultural occupation extending back to the base of the great Atlantic chain, and averaged some 250 m.i Westward, beyonc the general line of continuous settlement, were four extensions of population through as many gaps in the Appalachian barrier, constituting the four main paths along which migration westward first took place: the Mohawk Valley in New York, the upper Potomac, the Appalachian Valley, and around the southern base of the Appalachian system.
The countrys centre of population in 110 years moved more than 5oo m westward, almost exactly along the 39th parallel of latitude: 9.5 degrees of longitude, with an extreme variation.
westward, are connected by a good carriage-road with the Somali settlement of Mala about midway.
As he states himself: " Westward I have journeyed to the parts of Etruria opposite Sardinia; towards the south from the Euxine to the borders of Ethiopia; and perhaps not one of those who have written geographies has visited more places than I have between those limits."
- Passing westward by rail from the forest-covered Archean with its rugged granite hills, the flat prairie of Manitoba with its rich grasses and multitude of flowers comes as a very striking contrast, introducing the Interior Continental plain in its most typical development.
On the westward slopes, especially of the Selkirks and Coast Ranges, vegetation is almost tropical in its density and luxuriance, the giant cedar and the Douglas fir sometimes having diameters of 10 ft.
As one goes westward the precipitation diminishes to 17.34 in.
There are large districts lying eastward of the Great Lakes and westward of the Rocky Mountains, where apples of fine quality can be grown; and there are other smaller Potts.
He passed southward from the St Lawrence to the beautiful lake which still bears his name and also westward, up the St Lawrence and the Ottawa, in the dim hope of reaching the shores of China.
Five years later Cavelier de la Salle was making his toilsome way westward from Quebec to discover the true character of the great river and to perform the feat, perilous in view of the probable hostility of the natives, of descending it to the sea.
With the organization of Manitoba and the opening of improved communication immigrants began to move rapidly westward, and government surveyors were soon busy laying off lands in the Saskatchewan valley.
The Canadian Northern railway, already constructed from the Great Lakes westward to the neighbourhood of the Rockies, and with water and rail connexions reaching eastward to Quebec, began to transform itself into a complete transcontinental system, with an extension to the Hudson Bay.
Entering the department of Gers, the Adour receives the Arros on the right bank and begins to describe the large westward curve which takes it through the department of Landes to the sea.
The greatest development has been northward and westward, where are to be found the suburbs of Cidade Nova, Sao Christovao, Engenho Novo, Praia Formoso, Pedregulho, Villa Isabel, Tijuca, and a number of smaller places extending far out on the line of the Central railway.
long, enclosed with stone walls, crossed by a number of iron bridges and bordered by lines of royal palms. The most famous street of the old city is the Rua do Ouvidor, running westward from the market-place to the Largo de Sao Francisco de Paula, and lined with retail shops, cafés and newspaper offices.
In the work of improving the city, the national government assumed the expense of the commercial quays, the filling of the Sao Christovao bay, the opening of the Mangue canal and its embellishment, the opening of the Avenida Central, the extension of the sewage system and the addition of new sources to the water supply, while the city was responsible for the Avenida Beira-Mar, the opening of a new avenue from the Largo da Lapa westward to Rua Frei Caneca, the removal of the Morro do Senado, the widening of some streets crossing the Avenida Central and the opening and straightening of other streets.
At a period probably little later a knowledge of the working of silk travelled westward, and the cultivation of the silkworm was established in India.
From the Ganges valley the silkworm was slowly carried westward and spread in Khotan, Persia and the states of Central Asia.
The attack to the westward was carried out by the other Austrian corps; Klenau, however, was still far distant.
Westward, however, it is sheltered by Cape St Blaize, on which is a lighthouse.
That those to the westward have long been inactive is shown by the destruction of craters by denudation, by deep ravines, valleys and tall cliffs eroded on the mountain sides, especially on the windward side, by the depth of soil formed from the disintegrated rocks, and by the amount as well as variety of vegetable life.
The Heath is continued eastward in Parliament Hill (borough of St Pancras), acquired for the public in 1890; and westward outside the county boundary in Golders Hill, owned by Sir Spenser Wells, Bart., until 1898.
Moving westward across Scythia, and hence called Metanastae, they were on the lower Danube by the time of Ovid, and about A.D.
It lies on the western side of the elevation of Stanedge, which here forms the watershed between streams flowing westward to the Irish Sea and eastward to the North Sea.
Another range of hills, known as the Trenton Prong, extends from the northern suburbs of Philadelphia both westward and southward through Chester, Delaware, Lancaster and York counties, but these rise only 400-600 ft.
But the state's iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1902, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72.2% of which was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742.
So long as charcoal only was used in the furnaces (until about 1840) and during the brief period in which this was replaced largely by anthracite, the industry was of chief importance in the eastern section, but with the gradual increase in the use of bituminous coal, or of coke made from it, the industry moved westward, where, especially in the Pittsburg district, it received a new impetus by The introduction of iron ore from the Lake Superior region.
Rejoining his caravan he turned westward, and passing through the country previously traversed by Bower and Littledale he reached Leh on the 10th of December Igo 1.
Three great rivers, the Douro, which traverses Old Castile, with the Tagus and Guadiana, which respectively drain the central and southern regions of New Castile, flow westward into Portugal, and finally reach the Atlantic; while the Ebro, which rises in the north of the kingdom, skirts the north-eastern frontier on its way to the Mediterranean.
The Erzerum vilayet extends from the Persian frontier at Bayazid, all along the Russian frontier and westward into Anatolia at Baiburt and Erzingan.
wide along the Massachusetts coast and extending westward to the Pacific Ocean.
A f'rm sandy beach extends westward to Redcar and the mouth of the Tees, while eastward towards Whitby the cliffs become very fine, Boulby Cliff (666 ft.) being the highest sea cliff in England.
These attain at places a height of from z oo to 150 ft., and are continually shifting to the westward.
Godsal steered to westward and then to eastward, and finally gave orders to CMB23 (Lt.
The Hermunduri had apparently belonged to the Suebi, but it is likely enough that reinforcements from new Suebic tribes had now moved westward.
It is a junction for lines westward to Killarney and Co.
Owing to a dangerous bar at the mouth of the Magdalena the trade of the extensive territory tributary to that river, which is about 60 ho of that of the entire country, must pass in great part through Barranquilla and its seaport, making it the principal commercial centre of the republic. Savanilla was used as a seaport until about 1890, when shoals caused by drifting sands compelled a removal to Puerto Colombia, a short distance westward, where a steel pier, 4000 ft.
Eastward and westward of Amsterdam, as well as southward, the Pliocene beds rise slowly to the surface, and gradually decrease in thickness.
The typical race of this species ranges from New York to Georgia and westward to the Dakotas, but it is represented by a second and darker race in Labrador, and by a third in Canada; while several other North American species have been named.
The older city, including both the Zealand and Amager portions, was formerly surrounded by a complete line of ramparts and moats; but pleasant boulevards and gardens now occupy the westward or landward site of fortifications.
The environs of Copenhagen to the north and west are interesting, and the country, both along the coast northward and inland westward is pleasant, though in no way remarkable.
He marched to the neighbourhood of Constantinople, but finding himself unable to undertake the siege of that superbly strong city, he retraced his steps westward and then marched southward through Thessaly and the unguarded pass of Thermopylae into Greece.
A series of heavy combats revealed his Pontefract in 1536, during the Pilgrimage of Grace, the archbishop, and Grant pursued the dwindling remnants of Lee's was compelled to join the rebels, but he did not sympathize with purpose army t o the westward.
Westward the chain lies buried beneath the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of Belgium and the north of France, but it reappears in the west of England and Ireland.
On the whole, Poland lies to the westward of the most frequented route of the migratory birds, and is less visited by them than the steppes of south-west Russia.
Westward they stretch down the Warta as far as Birnbaum (loo m.
The tributaries that flow westward to the Paraguay are consequently to some extent navigable, while those that run eastward to the Parana are interrupted by rapids and falls, often of a formidable description.
The descriptions of South American scenery in Westward Ho!, of the Egyptian desert in Hypatia, of the North Devon scenery in Two Years Ago, are among the most brilliant pieces of wordpainting in English prose-writing; and the American scenery is even more vividly and more truthfully described when he had seen it only by the eye of his imagination than in his work At Last, which was written after he had visited the tropics.
This group of mountains, occupying what may be regarded as ethnologically the centre of Germany, forms a hydrographical centre, whence the Naab flows southward to the Danube, the Main westward to the Rhine, the Eger eastward to the Elbe, and the Saale northward, also into the Elbe.
Westward lies as the last link of this series the Luneburger Heide or Heath, between the Weser and Elbe, north of Hanover.
The Burgundians made their appearance in the west shortly before the end of the 3rd century, settling in the basin of the Main, and it is probable that some portions of the north Suebic peoples, perhaps fhe ancient Semnones, had already moved westward.
We do not know how far northward the Hunnish power reached in the time of Attila, but the invasion of this nation was soon followed by a great westward movement of the Slays.
Salem is served by the Boston & Maine and by interurban electric railways westward to Peabody, Danvers and Lawrence, eastward to Beverly, and southward to Marblehead, Swampscott, Lynn and Boston.
Among other modern thoroughfares, the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, laid out since 1876 on the hills at the back of the town, leads by many curves from the Piazza Manin along the hill-tops westward, and finally descends into the Piazza Acquaverde; its entire length is traversed by an electric tramway, and it commands magnificent views of the town.
From Catania another line runs westward through the centre of the island via S.
8) indeed Themistocles seems to have been looking westward.
westward rises Clarence peak, the culminating point of Fernando Po.
Between Thebes and Khartum the western banks of the Nile are composed of Nubian Sandstone, which extends westward from the river to the edge of the great Libyan Desert, where it forms the bed rock.
Westward from Alexandria a railway, begun in 1904 by the khedive, Abbas II., runs parallel with the coast, and is intended to be continued to Tripoli.
From the Nile, caravan routes lead westward to the various oases and eastward to the Red Sea, the shortest (120 to.) and most used of the eastern routes being that from Kena to Kosseir.
He first sent an expedition westward conquest (Feb.
The 21st Lancers gallantly charged a body of 2000 dervishes which was unexpectedly met in a khor on the left flank, and drove them westward, the Lancers losing a fifth of their number in killed and wounded.
It is the principal outlet westward for S.
Formerly it extended westward into central Germany, but it is now very rare, if not extinct, in that country.
Westward, Vinnal Hill reaches 1235 ft., eastward lies Titterstone Clee (1749 ft.).
P. Banks in pushing the Confederates westward.
Westward again is Leigh-on-Sea (an urban district, pop. 3667); its lofty Perpendicular church tower is visible from afar.
The streams flowing westward, however, are still short, while those running to the north-east, east and south-east have long courses and drain wide areas.
Eastward of the Archean gneiss in the west of Sutherland the effect of enormous underground pressure has been to upraise masses of the ancient gneiss and Torridonian sandstone and thrust them westward over the younger rocks.
The city is built on the southern extremity of the sandy sea beach, on the island of Antonio Vaz, and on the mainland to the westward, the river channels being crossed by numerous bridges.
The three principal parishes of the city are known as Sao Jose do Recife, occupying the sandy peninsula or beach north of the outlet of the united rivers; Santo Antonio, on the island of Antonio Vaz, which was called Mauritia or Mauritzstad during the Dutch occupation; and Boa Vista, on the mainland to the westward, which is the most modern and the most rapidly growing part.
From this centre, the Scheldt, the viking raids extended on either side; sometimes eastward as far as the Rhine, and so into Germany proper, the territory assigned to Louis the German; at other times westward to the Somme, and thus into the territory of Charles the Bald, the future kingdom of France.
There are two distinct hydrographic systems in Ecuador - the streams that flow south-eastward to the Maranon, or Amazon, and those which flow westward to the Pacific. The southern Ravers.
Farther north the rainfall becomes heavier, the plateau is covered with vegetation, and a considerable number of small rivers flow westward through the Cordillera to the Pacific. The Eastern Cordillera, or Andes, forms the water-parting between the two systems. The largest of the eastward-flowing rivers is the Napo, which rises in the eastern defiles of Cotopaxi and Sincholagua - the principal source being the Rio del Valle, which traverses the Valle Vicioso.
Its course is north and north-west to the Colombian frontier, thence westward and north-west to the Pacific, breaking through the Western Cordillera on its way.
They were driven westward by pressure of the Tatars, and in 1228 had been called by the ruler of Damascus to his aid.
and Paseo de TacOn, runs westward through the city past the botanical gardens and the Quinta de los Molinos to the citadel of El Principe (1774-1794).
Westward they extended nearly to the shores of the Caspian; eastward he repeatedly entered India as a conqueror.
Their objective was not so much India as Japan (Cipangu), of which they only knew vaguely as a land of spices and silks, British and which they hoped to reach by sailing westward.
To the westward, after various disagreements and two military expeditions, the territories comprising the Zhob, Barhan and Bori valleys, occupied by Pathan tribes, were in 1890 finally incorporated in the general system of the Trans-Indus protectorate.
A large number of rivers make their way westward to the sea; they rise, mostly, in the mountain belt, and are unimportant, the only two of any size being the Kwanza and the Kunene, separately noticed.
The coastal zone is traversed by the Tumbes, Chira and Piura rivers, which have their sources in the melting snows of the higher Andes and flow westward across the desert to the coast.
The " Aurora " proceeded westward close along the Antarctic circle.
The drift lasted for 264 days and no land was sighted, although a sledge journey was made westward to long.
The attempt to sledge over the ice westward towards the E.
The old city (ciudad vieja) occupies a low rocky headland that projects westward between the estuary and an almost circular bay which forms the harbour; it was once enclosed with walls and defended by small forts, all of which have been removed.
From Parral, near the southern boundary, a branch railway extends westward to Cauquenes, the capital of Maule.
372, when under a leader named Balamir (or, according to some MSS., Balamber) they began a westward movement from their settlements in the steppes lying to the north of the Caspian.
Balamir now directed his victorious arms still farther westward against that portion of the Visigothic nation (or Tervingi) which acknowledged the authority of Athanaric. The latter entrenched himself on the frontier which had separated him from the Ostrogoths, behind the "Greutungrampart" and the Dniester; but he was surprised by the enemy, who forded the river in the night, fell suddenly upon his camp, and compelled him to abandon his position.
They also appear before the end of this interval to have pushed westward as far as to the Rhone, and to have come into conflict with the Burgundians.
Then followed, in 451, that westward movement across the Rhine which was only arrested at last, with terrible slaughter, on the Catalaunian plains (according to common belief, in the neighbourhood of the modern Chalons, but more probably at a point some 50 m.
With the mountain-traversed region he had been exploring acquired by the United States, Fremont was eager for a railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in October 1848 he set out at his own and Senator Benton's expense to find passes for such a railway along a line westward from the headwaters of the Rio Grande.
But he had not gone far when he was led astray by a guide, and after the loss of his entire outfit and several of his men, and intense suffering of the survivors from cold and hunger, he turned southward through the valley of the Rio Grande and then westward through the valley of the Gila into southern California.
Late in the year 1853, however, he returned to the place where the guide had led him astray, found passes through the mountains to the westward between latitudes 37° and 38° N., and arrived in San Francisco early in May 1854.
To the westward of this the northern boundary recedes a little from the mountain tract, and the tarai in this portion of the range has been for the most part ceded to Nepal.
is the spread of Greek scholarship and Greek manuscripts westward, which was consequent on the Latin occupation of Constantinople in 1204.
The flight of Byzantine scholarship westward in the 15th century revealed, and finally, that the philosophic content of the Scholastic teaching was as alien from Aristotle as from the spirit of the contemporary revolt of science, with its cry for a new medicine, a new nautical astronomy and the like.
His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.
In the campaign of February 1900, Cronje opposed Lord Roberts's army on the Magersfontein battleground, but he was unable to prevent the relief of Kimberley; retreating westward, he was surrounded near Paardeberg, and, after a most obstinate resistance, was forced to surrender with the remnant of his army (Feb.
Here, on Wallabout Bay at the bend of the East river to the westward, is the New York navy yard, the principal navy yard of the United States, established in 1801, and commonly but incorrectly called the Brooklyn navy yard.
above the valleys of the Arkansas and Red river; falling in elevation eastward (as westward) to 500-700 ft.
Near the Sierra Leone frontier this high land is continued westward to within 20 m.
the Sierra at its southern end turns westward toward the coast as the Tehachapi Range.
The Inyo range, on the east, is quite bare of timber, and its summits are only occasionally whitened with snow for a few days during the winter, as almost all precipitation is cut off by the higher ranges to the westward.
westward at Rocklin, which lies in the foothills about 250 ft.
After charting Chaun Bay the vessels separated, the " Vaigach " following the coast westward and the " Taimir " turning N.
The vessels being prevented by ice from going farther westward, returned eastward along the N.
Attempts to push westward failed, and by the middle of Sept.
At the same time the plague spread westward from the Danube to Transylvania and Styria, and (1713) appeared in Austria and Bohemia, causing great mortality in Vienna.
The enemy believed that Cadorna had been deceived by demonstrations made in the Trentino, and their belief was fortified by news that he was sending guns westward.
4 Cadorna ordered the retreat to the line of the Piave, and that night the troops holding the line of the Tagliamento resumed their march westward.
Passing westward across the "fall-line," the next province is the Piedmont, a part of the extensive Piedmont Belt reaching from Pennsylvania to Alabama.
The Coastal Plain of Virginia is covered with pine forests which merge westward with the hard woods of the Piedmont Belt, where oaks formerly prevailed, but where a second growth of pine now constitutes part of the forest.
To the north-west of the volcanic island of Zebayir the depth is less than 500 fathoms; the bottom of the channel rises to the ioofathom line at Hanish Island (also volcanic), then shoals to 45 fathoms, and sinks again in about the latitude of Mokha in a narrow channel which curves westward round the island of Perim (depth 170 fathoms), to lose itself in the Indian Ocean.
The officers were called to meet at Newburgh, and it was the avowed purpose of the leaders of the movement to march the army westward, appropriate vacant public lands as part compensation for arrears of pay, leave Congress to negotiate for peace without an army, and "mock at their calamity and laugh when their fear cometh."
It lies at the junction of the Great Plains - which in their upward slant to the westward attain an average elevation of about 4000 ft.
In 1888 the Colorado Midland started from Colorado Springs westward, up the Ute Pass, through the South Park to Leadville, and thence over the continental divide to Aspen and Glenwood Springs.
to Albuquerque and thence westward into Arizona.
The Southern Pacific crosses New Mexico westward from El Paso, Texas.
It thus grew into the principal city of an extensive province of the same name, stretching westward to the sea, and comprehending nearly the whole of the territory now comprised within the northern division of the presidency of Bombay.
Westward it reaches to Turkish Georgia and eastward to the island of Saghalin.
Some of them seem to have gone westward and settled on the Ural river.
The sons of Olafr Tretelgia moved westward into Norway, and if we may trust the saga, the Swedish kingdom never again came into the possession of their family.
(For map see Argentina.) It extends from the northern boundary of the province of Tacna, about 17° 25' S., to Cape Horn at the extreme southern point of the Fuegian archipelago in 55° 58' 40" S., with an extreme meridian length of 2661 m., and with a coast line considerably exceeding that figure owing to a westward curve of about 31° and an eastward trend south of 50° S.
The Taytao peninsula, incorrectly called the Tres Montes on some maps, is a westward projection of the mainland, with which it is connected by the narrow isthmus of Ofqui, over which the natives and early missionaries were accustomed to carry their boats between the Moraleda Channel and Gulf of Penas.
53° S., opens westward into the Gulf of Xaultegua, which transforms Ponsonby Land and Cordoba (or Croker) peninsula into an island, to which the name of Riesco has been given.
Andes and flowing westward to the Pacific. Their courses Rivers are necessarily short, and only a few have navigable channels, the aggregate length of which is only 705 m.
lat., and flowing south on an elevated plateau to Chiuchiu, and thence west and north in a great curve to Quillaga, whence its dry channel turns westward again and reaches the Pacific in lat.
and flows almost due west to the Bio-Bio; and the Cautin, which rises in the north-east corner of Cautin and after a tortuous course westward nearly across that province forms the principal confluent of the Imperial.
With one exception they all drain westward into the Pacific through short and partly navigable rivers, and some of the lakes are also utilized for steamship navigation.
From the region of the steppes the Aryans must have penetrated into the cultivable land of Eastern Iran: thence one part spread over the district of the Indus, then on again to the Ganges; another moved westward to Zagros and the borders of the Semitic world.
Thus for the first time since the Arab conquest of the Sassanian realm Persia was ruled by a single authority, which extended its conquests westward into Asia Minor, where it checked the rulers of Byzantium, and eastward to India and Central Asia.
In the later years of the 12th century the: Mongols began their westward march and, after the conquest of the ancient Mongols kingdom of the Kajakitai, reached the borders of the territory of the Khwarizm shahs, which was at once overwhelmed.
Sind was certainly included in the cession to him by Mahommed Shah of all the territories westward of the river Attok, but only that portion of it, such as Thattah (Tatta), situated on the right bank of the Indus.
In the year 406 they moved westward, according to some writers at the instigation of Stilicho, who is himself said to have been of Vandal origin, and crossing the Rhine at Mainz proceeded towards Gaul.
Passing to the westward, and viewing the flora of Kumaon, which province holds a central position on the chain, on the 80th meridian, we find that the gradual decrease of moisture and increase of high summer heat are accompanied by a marked change of the vegetation.
The town has suffered much from the periodical breaking of the Hindieh dam and the consequent deflection of the waters of the Euphrates to the westward, as a result of which at times the Euphrates at this point has been entirely dry.
From the extreme north to Cape Mondego and thence onward to Cape Carvoeiro the outline of the coast is a long and gradual curve; farther south is the prominent mass of rock and mountain terminating westward in Capes Roca and Espichel; south of this, again, there is another wide curve, broken by the headland of Sines, and extending to Cape St Vincent, the southeastern extremity of the country.
They began where the Arabs left off, by penetrating far into the Atlantic. The long littoral of their country, with its fine harbours and rivers flowing westward to the ocean, had been the training-ground of a race of adventurous seamen.
Pedro Alvares Cabral, sailing to India, but steering far westward to avoid the winds and currents of the Guinea coast, reached Brazil Woo) and claimed it for his sovereign.
To give effect to these terms, General Junot hastened westward across Spain, at the head of 30,000 French soldiers and a large body of Spanish auxiliaries.
For nearly its full extent, excepting the immediate water-front, and running westward to Van Ness Avenue, a distance of 2 m., the buildings lining it on both sides and covering the adjoining area, a total of some 2000 acres, or 514 blocks, equivalent to s of the city plan, were reduced to ruins in the fire following the earthquake; only a few large buildings of so-called " fire-proof " construction remained standing on the street, and these had their interiors completely " gutted."
In this way many fine mansions on Van Ness Avenue were destroyed, and the westward advance of the conflagration was stopped at Franklin Street, one block west.
Inhabiting the southern part of the Bolivian plain are the Chiriguanos, a detached tribe of the Guarani race which drifted westward to the vicinity of the Andes long ago.
Sailing steadily westward he entered Hudson Bay on the 3rd of August, and passing southward spent the next three months examining the eastern shore of the bay.
Commercially, however, this stream is less important than the Passaic. In the southern half of the state the drainage is simple, and the streams are unimportant, flowing straight to the Delaware or the Atlantic. The westward streams are only small creeks; the eastward and southward streams, however, on account of the wider slope, have greater length.
above highwater mark, erected in 1831 on the second cliff to the westward, in o° 10' 18" E., 5 0 ° 43' 30" N., has been superseded by a new lighthouse built in the sea at the foot of the head itself.
The French, who were not equally alert, did not and were carried westward.
The westward prolongation of the great south-western promontory of England, occupied by the county of Cornwall, continues as a rugged ridge broken by a succession of depressions, and exceeds a height of Boo ft., nearly as far as the point where it falls to the ocean in the cliffs of Land's End.
The coal-fields on the eastern side, from the Tyne nearly to the Trent, are sharply marked off on the east by the outcrop of Permian dolomite or Magnesian limestone, which forms a low terrace dipping towards the east under more recent rocks, and in many places giving rise to an escarpment facing westward towards the gentle slope of the Pennine dales.
There is also plenty of hillpasture in the south-western counties (from Hampshire and Berkshire westward), especially in Devonshire, Cornwall and Somersetshire, and also in Monmouthshire and along the Welsh marches, on the Cotteswold Hills, &c. In all these localities sheep are extensively reared, especially in Northumberland, but on the other hand in Lincolnshire the numbers of sheep are roughly equal to those in the northern county.
westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the peninsula of Kamchatka; they constitute part of the District of Alaska, U.S.A. The islands, of which an alternative collective name is the Catherine Archipelago, comprise four groups - the Fox, Andreanof, Rat and Near Islands.
This great plateau drains westward through broad, gently flowing streams, the network of whose tributary waters penetrates every corner of the interior and offers easy means of communication.
The Panhandle, along with the lisiere (foreland), westward to Cook Inlet might be called temperate Alaska, its climate being similar to that of the N.W.
coast of the United States; while to the westward and northward the winters become longer and more severe.
In passing from the Sitkan district westward toward Kodiak and the Aleutians the climate becomes even more equable, the temperature a little lower and the rainfall somewhat less; 1 the fogs at first less dense, especially near Cook Inlet, where the climate is extremely local, but more and more persistent along the Aleutians.
the Eger eastward and the Saale northward, both to the Elbe; the Weisser Main westward to the Rhine, and the Naab southward to the Danube.
Later on a chief named Kalambo carved out a new" empire in the central part of the Kasai basin, his authority extending westward from the upper Sankuru into the Lunda district of Angola.
But we may follow Godwin-Austen in accepting the main chain of the Murtagh as merging into the central mountain system of the Tibetan Chang, its axis being defined and divided by the transverse stream of the Shyok at its westward bend, whilst the Karakoram range, in which the Shyok rises, is a subsidiary northern branch.
The trail entered what is now Utah, just east of the Dolores river, crossed the Grand river near the Sierra La Salle and the Green river at the present crossing of the Denver & Rio Grande railway, proceeded thence to the Sevier river and southward along its valley to the headwaters of the Virgin river, which it followed southward, and then westward, so that its line' left the present state near its south-west corner.
The boundary between the United States and Canada runs up the middle of the outlet of the lake and follows a median line approximately to about mid-lake; thence it sweeps northwestward, so as to include Isle Royal within the territory of the United States, and continues near the north shore, to the mouth of Pigeon River, which it follows westward, leaving the whole west end of the lake in United States territory.
From the Apostle Islands to the eastward of Keweenaw point this current has great width, and towards the eastern end of the lake spreads out in the shape of a fan, a branch passing to the northward and westward reaching the north coast.
Eastward and northward the country is agricultural, but westward and southward lies a mass of manufacturing towns.
From this point the land slopes westward towards the central plain, a low-lying tract, which before the construction of the embankment known as the Hornby Vellard, used at high tide to be submerged by the sea.
Rumania begins on the seaward side with a band of territory called the Dobrudja; and broadens westward into the form of a blunted crescent, its northern horn being called Moldavia, its southern Walachia.
The climate in the valley of the Rhone is, in general, warm, and sometimes very hot; but westward, as the elevation increases, the cold becomes more intense and the winters longer.
Until the post-Mesozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountain region the north-western portion of the state drained westward.
By 1808 the Indian title was extinguished to two-thirds of the state, though actual settlement did not extend more than a few miles westward from the Mississippi; in 1825, by a treaty with the Shawnee made at St Louis on the 7th of November, the title to the rest of the state was cleared, and a general removal of the Indians followed.
First St Louis, and then other towns on the Missouri river in succession westward, as they were settled and became available as depots, served as the outfit points for the Indian trade up the Missouri and the trade with Mexico through Santa Fe.
If the line which formerly separated the Colombian departments of Cauca and Panama is taken as forming the international boundary, this line follows the water-parting between the streams which flow eastward to the Atrato, and those which flow westward to the Gulf of San Miguel, the terminal points being near Cape Tiburon on the Caribbean coast, and at about 7° so' N.
Thence the line runs north-west along the Napo, Coca and San Francisco rivers to the Andean watershed, which becomes the dividing line northward for a distance of nearly 80 m., where the line turns westward and reaches the Pacific at the head of Panguapi Bay, into which the southern outlet of the Mira river discharges (about 1° 34' N.
It is formed by the confluence of the Sotara and Guaitara at the point where the united streams turn westward to cut their way through the mountains to the sea.
It rises in the angle between the Western Cordillera and a low transverse ridge connecting it with the Baudo coast range, and flows westward down to the valley between the two ranges, and then southward through this valley to about lat.
4° 15' N., where it turns sharply westward and crosses a narrow belt of lowland to the coast.
above sea-level - the Magdalena in the Laguna del Buey (Ox Lake) on the Las Papas plateau, and the Cauca a short distance westward in the Laguna de Santiago on the Paramo de Guanacas - and flow northward in parallel courses with the great Central Cordillera, forming the waterparting between their drainage basins.
in height; the Sogamoso passes through some of the richest districts of the republic; and the Cesar rises on the elevated slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and flows southward across a low plain, in which are many lakes, to join the Magdalena where it bends westward to meet the Cauca.
of water alongside in 1907, but the silt brought down by the Magdalena is turned westward by the current along this coast, and may at any time fill the bay with dangerous shoals.
In 1508 Ojeda obtained from the Spanish crown a grant of the district from Cape Vela westward to the Gulf of Darien, while the rest of the country from the Gulf of Darien to Cape Gracias-a-Dios was bestowed on his fellow-adventurer, Nicuessa.
Going westward from the Drakensberg the rampart is known successively as the Stormberg, Zuurberg, Sneeuwberg and Nieuwveld mountains.
The slope of the plateau being also westward, the mountain rampart is less elevated, and north of 32° S.
The Calapooya Mountains, forming the water-parting between the Willamette and the Umpqua rivers, are a lateral spur of the Cascades, and extend westward as far as the Coast Range.
The United States was willing at the time to extend the north-western boundary along the forty-ninth parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Pacific, but to this the British government would not consent; and on the 20th of October 1818 both nations agreed to a convention providing for the "joint occupation" for ten years of the country "on the north-west coast of America, westward of the Stony [Rocky] Mountains."
By this instrument the northern boundary of Oregon was fixed at the fortyninth parallel, extending westward from the crest of the Rocky Mountains to the middle of the channel separating Vancouver's Island from the mainland, "and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits, to the Pacific Ocean."
The streams which, rising in the Sahyadri range, or Western Ghats, flow westward into the Arabian Sea, are of little importance.
Strong winds are frequent, as nearly every cyclonic depression traversing North America, either from the westward or the Gulf of Mexico, passes near enough to Lake Erie to be felt.
present Washington county, was originally marked with milestones brought from England, every fifth of which bore on one side the arms of Baltimore and on the opposite side those of Penn; but the difficulties in transporting them to the westward were so great that many of them were not set up. Owing to the removal of the stone marking the north-east corner of Maryland, this point was again determined and marked in1849-1850by Lieut.-Colonel J.
As so used it may be defined as not only the Mason and Dixon Line proper, but also the line formed by the Ohio River from its intersection with the Pennsylvania boundary to its mouth, thence the eastern, northern and western boundaries of Missouri, and thence westward the parallel 36° 30' - the line established by the Missouri Compromise to separate free and slave territory in the " Louisiana Purchase," except as regards Missouri.
P. Garrison, Westward Extension (New York and London, 1906).
The temperature over the state is much more uniform than is the precipitation, which diminishes somewhat regularly westward.
There is an increasing scarcity westward.
In the 'seventies, after a succession of wet seasons, and again in the 'eighties, settlement was pushed far westward, beyond the limits of safe agriculture, but hundreds of settlers - and indeed many entire communities - were literally starved out by the recurrence of droughts.
The westward advance of the invaders would have continued, if only there had remained to attract them lands as desirable as those they had already won.
Hoche himself, with the French admiral, had been driven far to the westward in an effort to avoid capture; the attempt of Grouchy, in his absence, to land a force was defeated by the weather, and by the end of the month the whole expedition was in full retreat for Brest.
There St Paul touched on his last journey westward (A.D.
A small Turkish village occupied the plain at the foot of the acropolis, and a little Greek monastery lay about a mile westward by the church of St Nicholas.
Railway building in Wisconsin began in 1851, when a track was laid from Milwaukee to Waukesha (20 m.), which was extended westward in 1854 to Madison and in 1857 to the Mississippi at Prairie du Chien.
The drainage is westward to the Parana, the rivers being tributaries of the Iguassu, which forms its northern boundary, and of the Uruguay, which forms its southern boundary.
The only railway of the state, the Dona Thereza Christina, runs from Laguna, at the mouth of a lagoon of that name on the southern coast, northward to the port of Imbituba (about 4 m.) and thence westward up the valley of the Rio Tubarao to the coal fields of that name (69 m.).
As far back as 1777-1799 the Georgsstollen was cut through the mountains from the east of Klausthal westward to Grund, a distance of 4 m.; but this proving insufficient, another sewer, the Ernst-Auguststollen, no less than 14 m.
The caravan routes mostly followed between China and the more populous centres (Kashgar and Yarkand) of East Turkestan start from An-si-chow and Sa-chow respectively, converge upon Hami on the north side of the Pe-shan swelling, and continue westward along the south foot of the Tian-shan Mountains through the oases of Turfan, Kara-shahr, Korla, Kucha, Ak-su and Uch-turfan.
above sea-level, and from a distance appears to be completely shut in by lofty ranges of hills, which are cut through to the westward by a deep gorge called "The Narrows," making a natural gateway of great beauty.
Henry, and fleeing westward was again decisively defeated on the Mississippi at the mouth of the Bad Axe river (on the 1st and 2nd of August) by General Henry Atkinson.
The ground-swell of the _Tatar invasion drove the Karelians westward in the 13th century, and for many years even Finmark was so unsettled that the Norsemen received no tribute from the Lapps.
Meanwhile Russian influence had been spreading westward; and in 1809, when Alexander I.
The eastern extremity of the state is served by a railway originally called the Conde d'Eu railway but now forming part of the Great Western of Brazil system, which runs westward and northward from Parahyba to Independencia (72 m.), where it connects with the extension of the Natal and Nova Cruz line, and a branch runs southward to Pilar, 15 m.
Another small branch runs westward from the station of Mulungu to Alagoa Grande (14 m.).
For some years after the completion of the Erie Canal, Schenectady, which had formerly been an important depot of the Mohawk river boat trade to the westward, suffered a decline.
Here the coast turns westward, changing suddenly to sheer cliffs, where the basaltic formation intrudes its strange regular columns, most finely developed in the famous Giant's Causeway.
The central plain and its offshoots are drained by rivers to all the coasts, but chiefly eastward and westward, and the waterpartings in its midst are sometimes impossible to define.
Henry's farthest point westward was Cashel, where he received the homage of Donald O'Brien, king of Thomond, but he does not appear to have been present at the famous synod.
by the western bank of the Nile (Bahr-el-Jebel) to the point where the river is intersected by 5° 30' N., which parallel forms its northern frontier from the Nile westward to 30° E.
The place was occupied by the Russians under General Paskevich during their invasion of 1829, and was the farthest point westward then reached by them.
Westward from Warasdin, and along the borders of Styria, Carniola, Istria, Dalmatia and north-western Bosnia, the frontier is generally mountainous and follows_ an irregular course.
The plateau of the Istrian Karst is prolonged in several of the bare and desolate mountain chains between the Save and the Adriatic, notably the Great and Little Kapella (or Kapela), which link together the Karst and the Dinaric Alps, culminating in Biela Lazica (5029 ft.); the Pljesevica or Plisevica Planina (5410 ft.), overlooking the valley of the river Una; and the Velebit Planina, which follows the westward curve of the coast, and rises above the sea in an abrupt wall, unbroken by any considerable bay or inlet.
Westward of and above these strata, the Middle and Upper Jurassic formations are found (Lias, Lower Oolite, Oxfordian, &c.), with well-marked and numerous fossils (Ammonites, Nerinaea, Natica, Astarte, Rhynchonella, Echinodermata, &c.); then the Cretaceous rocks, both these and the Jurassic series being largely developed, the Cretaceous fossils including Nautilus, Belemnites, Ostrea, Gryphaea, &c., and some very large Ammonites (Pachydiscus).
The rainfall diminishes as one goes westward and especially south-westward, there being very little rain in the south-west corner of the island.
Thus those qualities, physical and otherwise, in which the Bantu approach the Hamites gradually fade as we proceed westward through the Congo basin, while in the east, among the tribes to the west of Tanganyika and on the upper Zambezi, " transitional " forms of culture are found.
North of these, in the great bend of the Congo, are the Balolo, &c., the Balolo a nation of iron-workers; and westward, on the Kasai, the Bakuba, and a large number of tribes as yet imperfectly known.
The Inferior Oolite, somewhat narrower than the Lias, extends from the boundary with Rutland due north past Lincoln to the vicinity of the Humber; it forms the Cliff of Lincolnshire with a strong escarpment facing westward.
The Caucus in the south rises in Temnus, and from thence flows westward to the Aegean Sea, passing within a few miles of Pergamum.
The main canal of Seistan, confounded by some writers with the parent river, bears the waters of the Helmund westward into the heart of the country.
In the Atlantic Pyrenees the average altitude gradually diminishes westward; while in the eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrenees Ariegeoises, the mean elevation is maintained with remarkable uniformity, till at last a rather; sudden decline occurs in the portion of the chain known as the Alberes.
The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighborhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on.
Westward the mountains slope gradually to the Nile valley, which occupies the greater part of the country and has a general level of from 600 to 1600 ft.
Beyond the Nile westward extend vast plains, which in Kordofan and Dar Nuba (between 10° and 15° N.) are broken by hills reaching 2000 ft.
A remnant of Zobeir's troops under a chief named Rabah succeeded in escaping westward, (see Rabah).
The successes of Alyattes and of Croesus finally changed the Lydian kingdom into a Lydian empire, and all Asia Minor westward of the Halys, except Lycia, owned the supremacy of Sardis.
The cult may have been brought westward by the Hittites who have left memorials of themselves in the pseudo-Sesostris figures of Kara-bel (between Sardis and Ephesus) as well as in the figure of the Mothergoddess, the so-called Niobe.
It describes a wide curve eastwards past Soria, then flows westward across the Castilian table-land, passing south of Valladolid, with Toro and Zamora on its right bank; then from a point 3 m.
Thence the channel turns sharply westward, beginning the great zigzag mentioned.
Geographically, Armenia is a continuation westward of the great Iranian plateau.
This was, however, more probably due to the deterioration of the country through desiccation, which has forced the settled population farther westward, where Sana became the centre of the later Himyaritic kingdom.
A third line, intended ultimately to reach the Adriatic, extends westward from Salonica to Monastir.
Westward, falling into the ocean, are the Hellyer, Arthur and Pieman.
The elevation-divide between the western and eastern parts of the island rises generally to a height of between 3000 and 5000 ft., and consequently the parts to the east of such heights receive much less precipitation than those to the westward.
The view from the summit extends northward as far as the Grampians, with occasional glimpses of Ben Nevis; westward to Jura in the Atlantic; south-westward to Arran in the Firth of Clyde; southward to Tinto Hill, the Lowthers and Cairnsmore; and eastward to Edinburgh Castle and Arthur's Seat.
In 1820-22 Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan had been conquered by Egypt, and the authority of the Egyptians was subsequently extended southward, eastward to the Red Sea and westward over Darfur (conquered by Zobeir Pasha in 1874).