RECKLINGHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 22 m.
(the "Winter King") was driven from his dominions, the electoral privilege was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1648, by the Peace of Westphalia, an eighth electorate was created for the Wittelsbachs of the Palatinate, and was exercised by the senior branch of the family.
In 1646 she accompanied her husband to Minster, where he was sent by Mazarin as chief envoy, and where she charmed the German diplomatists who were making the treaty of Westphalia, and was addressed as the "goddess of peace and concord."
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
BOCHOLT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, near the frontier of Holland, 12 m.
A variety occurring as thin red scales at Siegen in Westphalia is known as Rubinglimmer or pyrrhosiderite (from Gr.
He remained in captivity for ten years, but was reinstated by the French in 1645 and confirmed in his possessions by the peace of Westphalia.
Though expected to take part in the negotiations which led in 1648 to the peace of Westphalia, he refused to deliberate with heretics, and protested against the treaties when completed.
In 1807 it was joined to Westphalia, in 1816 to Hanover and in 1866 it was, along with Hanover, re-united to Prussia.
Similar brother-houses soon sprang up in different places throughout the Low Countries and Westphalia, and even Saxony.
At the peace of Westphalia they claimed the duchy, in opposition to the elector of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to content himself with eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern), and to see the western part (Vorpommern) awarded to Sweden.
This state of things continued until 1648, when a large part of Alsace, comprising the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace and the prefecture of the ten free imperial towns, was ceded to France by the treaty of Westphalia.
During the Thirty Years' War it was formed into a fortress by the imperialists, but they vacated it in 1631 to the Swedes, in whose possession it remained after the peace of Westphalia.
ALEXANDER HEGIUS [VON HEEK] (c. 1 433 - 1 49 8), German humanist, so called from his birthplace Heek in Westphalia.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
His other works are mainly accounts of his travels: Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland (London, 1779), Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America (London, 1780), Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1781), Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1784), Travels in Switzerland (London, 1789), Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia (London, 1796), Historical Tour in Monmouthshire (London, 1801).
JOHANN CLAUBERG (1622-1665), German philosopher, was born at Solingen, in Westphalia, on the 24th of February 1622.
In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
Subsequent attempt,s of the princess to reinstate her son in his dominions were unsuccessful, and it was not till the peace of Westphalia in 1648 that he regained a portion of them,.
In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia.
BOCHUM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 11 m.
HATTINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Ruhr, 21 m.
After the peace of Amiens he had an interview with Napoleon at Paris, and received some territory adjoining the hereditary domains of the house of Nassau in Westphalia as a compensation for the abandonment of the stadtholderate and the domains of his house.
By the peace of Westphalia (1648) it was recognized as an independent ally of the Swiss League.
it came into the possession of Spain, although it remained formally a portion of the Empire until its cession at the peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Sweden, as one of the guarantors of the peace of Westphalia, and several north German states, protested against the injury thus done to their coreligionists.
It was replied that Hungary was outside the operation of the treaty of Westphalia, and that the Protestants had been condemned not ex odio religionis but crimine rebellions.
The lines of the treaty of Westphalia, six years later, were already laid down by Richelieu; and its epochal importance in European history is a measure of the genius who threw the balance of power from Habsburg to Bourbon.
JULIUS WELLHAUSEN (1844-), German biblical scholar and Orientalist, was born at Hameln on the Weser, Westphalia, on the 17th of May 1844.
By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 an eighth electorate was created for the count palatine, to which was added the office of treasurer.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but it was shorn of the upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as the prize of war.
The Thirty Years' War exercised a most prejudicial effect upon the district of the Rhine; and the peace of Westphalia gave France a footing on the left bank of the hitherto exclusively German river by the acquisition of Alsace.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
He next entered into relations with the family of Bonaparte, and in 1799, after the 18th Brumaire, again entered politics, becoming successively prefect of the lower Seine, councillor of state, and finance minister to Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia.
ALTENA, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Lenne, 38 m.
At first the merchant Hansas had shared these privileges with almost any German merchant, and thus many little villages, notably those in Westphalia, ultimately claimed membership. Later, under the Hansa of the towns, the struggle for the maintenance of a coveted position abroad led to a more exclusive policy.
SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE, a principality forming part of the German Empire, consisting of the western half of the old countship of Schaumburg, and surrounded by Westphalia, Hanover and the Prussian part of Schaumburg.
The treaty of Westphalia in 1648 restored the status quo, and the family rivalry gradually died out.
From 1644 to 1650 it was in the possession of France; but on the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia it was again joined to the Palatinate.
1806), and from whom he accepted (end of 1807) the office of secretary of state for the kingdom of Westphalia, exchanging this position early in 1808 for the posts of privy councillor and general director of public instruction.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 Metz, with Toul and Verdun, was formally ceded to France, in whose possession it remained for upwards of two centuries.
ENGELBRECHT KAEMPFER (1651-1716), German traveller and physician, was born on the 16th of November 1651 at Lemgo in Lippe-Detmold, Westphalia, where his father was a pastor.
The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past-master.
At the same time a corps under Marshal Luxemburg, composed of Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster) moved from Westphalia towards Over-Yssel and Groningen.
Turenne was therefore despatched to Westphalia and Conde to Alsace, while a corps of observation was formed on the Meuse to watch the Spanish Netherlands.
A century of ter the outbreak of the War of Independence the Dutch and the Spaniards are thus found making war as allies, a striking proof of the fact that all questions but those of dynastic interests had been effectually settled by the peace of Westphalia.
From 1807 to 1814 it belonged to the kingdom of Westphalia; and in 1866 passed with Hesse Cassel to Prussia.
After five years' negotiations, and a bitter quarrel with the comte d'Avaux, which ended in the latter's recall, Servien signed the two treaties of the 24th of October 1648 which were part of the general peace of Westphalia.
The see was governed by lay bishops until 1648, when it was formally converted by the treaty of Westphalia into a secular principality for the elector of Brandenburg.
By the treaty of Tilsit in 1807 it was annexed to the kingdom of Westphalia, but came again to Prussia on the downfall of Napoleon.
This school fell into decay under the regime of the kingdom of Westphalia, but was restored in 1817 by King Frederick William III.
Captured eight times during the Thirty Years' War the town was ceded to France by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, although with certain ill-defined reservations.
The Fronde was at an end by 1653; the peace of Westphalia (1648) and the peace of the Pyrenees (16J9) marked the success of the arms and of the diplomacy of France.
The principal field is that of the lower Rhine and Westphalia, which centres in the industrial region of the basin of the Ruhr, a right-bank tributary of the Rhine.
According to a calculation made by P. Frech in 1900, on the basis of the then rate of production, the coalfields of central France, central Bohemia, the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian province of Saxony and the north of England, would be exhausted in 100 to 200 years, the other British coalfields, the Waldenburg-Schatzlar and that of the north of France in 250 years, those of Saarbriicken, Belgium, Aachen and Westphalia in 600 to Boo years, and those of Upper Silesia in more than 1000 years.
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.
Meyer at the Shamrock colliery in Westphalia, where a body of men are kept in systematic training for its use at a special rescue station.
One of the earliest examples was erected at Llanbradack in South Wales in 1894, and they have been somewhat extensively used in Westphalia and the north of France.
In Westphalia it is.
In one of the best-known examples, the Zollern colliery in Westphalia, the Koepe system is used, the winding disk being driven by two motors of 1200 H.P. each on the same shaft.
One or two important treaties were signed in Hanover, which from 18ro to 1813 was part of the kingdom of Westphalia, and in 1866 was annexed by Prussia, after having been the capital of the kingdom of Hanover since its foundation in 1815.
the county of Waldeck, embedded in Prussian territory between the provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the principality of Pyrmont, farther to the north, between Lippe, Brunswick, Westphalia and Hanover.
when he threatened to transfer the kingdom of France to England; or the conduct of those later pontiffs who condemned the treaties of Westphalia, the Austrian constitution of 1867 and the establishment of the kingdom of Italy.
He was a director of many of the greatest industrial and mining companies of Westphalia, the Rhineland and Luxemburg.
In 1801 the bishopric was secularized and in 1803 was granted to Prussia; in 1807 it was incorporated with the kingdom of Westphalia and in 1813 was transferred to Hanover.
This treaty, which constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Warsaw, registers the nadir of Prussia's humiliation under Napoleon.
HEINRICH VON SYBEL (1817-1895), German historian, sprang from a Protestant family which had long been established at Soest, in Westphalia.
above sea-level; the most rapid fall in its course is between Karlshafen and Minden in Westphalia.
The Weser gave name to a department in the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia: the chief town was Osnabruck.
In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
When the war was ended by the peace of Westphalia in 1648, Saxony found that its influence had begun to decline in Germany.
In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.
when he pronounced the treaty of Westphalia null and void; of Pius IX.
HORDE, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, is 2 m.
An imperial decree having annulled the Patterson marriage, the emperor united Jerome to the princess Catherine of Wurttemberg; and in pursuance of the terms of the treaty of Tilsit (July 7, 1807) raised him to the throne of the new kingdom of Westphalia.
1851), younger son of the first Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, and a grandson of Jerome, king of Westphalia, attained a distinguished place in American politics.
In 1833 Pastor Fleidner founded "an order of deaconesses for the Rhenish provinces of Westphalia" at Kaiserswerth.
It was not, indeed, till the settlement of Westphalia in 1648, after the Thirty Years' War, that this territorial division of Christendom became stereotyped, but the process had been going on for a hundred years previously; in some states, as in England and Scotland, it had long been completed; in others, as in South Germany, Bohemia and Poland, it was defeated by the political and missionary efforts of the Jesuits and other agents of the counter-Reformation.
By the treaty of Westphalia (1648) the town was ceded to Louis XIV.
The peace of Westphalia (1648) marks a distinct epoch in the history of education in Germany.
In 1802 it lost its independence and passed to Prussia, in 1807 it was attached to the kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1815 it again became Prussian.
ISERLOHN, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Baar, in a bleak and hilly region, 17 m.
Iserlohn is one of the most important manufacturing towns in Westphalia.
Nearly half of Westphalia is an extension of the great NorthGerman plain, which here stretches S.E.
The triangular southern portion of Westphalia, most of which is included in Sauerland ("south land"), is a rugged region of slate hills and wooded valleys drained chiefly by the Ruhr with its affluents the Lenne, Mohne, &c., and in the S.
The distribution of the two communions still closely follows the lines of the settlement at the peace of Westphalia.
Thus the former duchy of Westphalia and the bishoprics of Munster and Paderborn which remained in ecclesiastical hands are almost entirely Roman Catholic, while the secularized bishopric of Minden and the former counties of Ravensberg and Mark, which fell or had fallen to Brandenburg, and the Siegen district, which belonged to Nassau, are predominantly Protestant.
Westphalia returns thirty-one members to the Prussian Lower House and seventeen to the Reichstag.
Westphalia, "the western plain" (in early records Westfalahi), was originally the name of the western province of the early duchy of Saxony, including the western portion of the modern province and extending north to the borders of Friesland.
the Sauerland and some other districts which became the duchy of Westphalia.
By Maximilian's administrative organization of the empire in 1500 the duchy of Westphalia was included as an appanage of Cologne in the scattered circle of the Lower Rhine.
Brandenburg laid the foundations of her dominion in Westphalia by obtaining the counties of Mark and Ravensberg in 1614 (confirmed 1666), to which the bishopric of Minden was added by the peace of Westphalia.
By the settlement of 1803 the church lands were secularized, and Prussia received the bishopric of Paderborn and the eastern part of Munster, while the electoral duchy of Westphalia was given to Hesse-Darmstadt.
After the peace of Tilsit the kingdom of Westphalia was created by Napoleon I.
There had already been serious revolts and raids, and after the battle of Leipzig the Russians drove the king from Cassel (October 1813), the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved and the old order was for a time re-established.
(1815) Hesse-Darmstadt surrendered her share of Westphalia to Prussia, and the present province was constituted.
Treaty Of Westphalia >>
During the Thirty Years' War it was captured by the Swedes in 1631, passing by the treaty of Westphalia to the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I., who strengthened its fortifications.
This roused the jealousy of the United Provinces, and they made a separate peace with Spain in January 1648; but the valour of the French generals made the skill of the Spanish diplomatists of no avail, for Turenne's victory at Zusmarshausen, and Conde's at Lens, caused the peace of Westphalia to be definitely signed in October 1648.
by the Prussian provinces of Hesse-Nassau and Westphalia, and W.
Still farther west is the Vecht, which, rising in Westphalia, flows to the Zuider Zee.
The Roman Catholics are mostly gathered around the episcopal sees of Hildesheim and Osnabruck and close to Munster (in Westphalia) on the western border, and the Jews in the towns.
The formation of the third coalition against France in 1805 induced Napoleon to purchase the support of Prussia by allowing her troops to seize Hanover; but in 1807, after the defeat of Prussia at Jena, he incorporated the southern part of the electorate in the kingdom of Westphalia, adding the northern portion to France in 1810.
SCHWERTE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 9 m.
The history of the papacy from 1590 to 1870 falls into four main periods: (i) 1590-1648; territorial expansion, definitely checked by the peace of Westphalia; (2) 1648-1789; waning prestige, financial embarrassments, futile reforms; (3) 1789-1814; revolution and Napoleonic reorganization; (4) 1814-1870; restoration and centralization.
In the overthrow of the Spanish Armada they had already received a great defeat; with the Peace of Westphalia the Catholic advance was baffled.
Thus by diplomacy as well as by force of arms Catholic France made possible the continued existence of a Protestant Germany, and helped to create the balance of power between Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed within the Empire, that, crystallized in the Peace of Westphalia, fixed the religious boundaries of central Europe for upwards of two centuries.
against Peace of Westphalia, at almost every important settlement of European boundaries the popes had been ignored or otherwise snubbed.
Raising an army he entered the service of Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, just after that prince had been driven from Bohemia; glorying in his chivalrous devotion to Frederick's wife Elizabeth, he attacked the lands of the elector of Mainz and the bishoprics of Westphalia.
(1637-1663), reconquered the country and, with the aid of the French and Swedes, held it, together with part of Westphalia.
At the peace of Westphalia (1648), accordingly, Hesse-Cassel was augmented by the larger part of the countship of Schaumburg and by the abbey of Hersfeld, secularized as a principality of the Empire.
Hesse-Cassel was then added to Jerome Bonaparte's new kingdom of Westphalia; but after the battle of Leipzig in 1813 the French were driven out and on the 21st of November the elector returned in triumph to his capital.
to S.E., along the borders of the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Westphalia and through the principality of Lippe, for a .distance of 70 m., with a width of 2 to 6 m.
the springs of the Pader), a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 63 m.
The chapel of St Bartholomew, although externally insignificant, dates from the earlier part of the 11th century, and is counted among the most interesting buildings in Westphalia; it was restored in 1852.
SCHWELM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, situated on the river of the same name, 4 m.
HERFORD, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, situated at the confluence of the Werre and Aa, on the Minden & Cologne railway, 9 m.
It came into the possession of Westphalia, in' 1807, and in 1813 into that of Prussia.
UNNA, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 15 m.
After the peace of Westphalia, which with regard to Saxony did little more than confirm the treaty of Prague, John George died on the 8th of October 1656.
In spite of subsequent reverses these gains were retained by Maximilian at the peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The pamphlet is supposed to have been written by Chrysostomus Dudulaeus of Westphalia and printed by one Christoff Crutzer, but as no such author or printer is known at this time - the latter name indeed refers directly to the legend - it has been conjectured that the whole story is a myth invented to support the Protestant contention of a continuous witness to the truth of Holy Writ in the person of this "eternal" Jew; he was to form, in his way, a counterpart to the apostolic tradition of the Catholic Church.
BIELEFELD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 68 m.
In many parts of the world there is no sharp line of demarcation between the Devonian and the Carboniferous rocks; neither can the fossil faunas and floras be clearly separated at any well-defined line; this is true in Britain, Belgium, Russia, Westphalia and parts of North America.
This clearer water extended from Ireland across north-central England and through South Wales and Somerset into Belgium and Westphalia; but a narrow ridge of elevated older rocks ran across the centre of England towards Belgium at this time.
The chief seat of his worship was Irminsal, or Ermensul, in Westphalia, destroyed in 772 by Charlemagne.
by the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the S.E.
In the Thirty Years' War Demmin was the object of frequent conflicts, and even after the peace of Westphalia was taken and retaken in the contest between the electoral prince and the Swedes.
FRANZ KARL MOVERS (1806-1856), German Roman Catholic divine and Orientalist, was born at Koesfeld in Westphalia, on the 17th of July 1806.
It was made the metropolitan see for the bishoprics of the Lower Rhine and part of Westphalia by Charlemagne, the first archbishop being Hildebold, who occupied the see from 785 to his death in 819.
The territorial power of the archbishops was already great when, in 1180, on the partition of the Saxon duchy, the duchy of Westphalia was assigned to them.
WESEL, a fortress town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia at the confluence of the Rhine and the Lippe, 46 m.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
To the north of this system, on the other hand, lies the great coal basin of Westphalia, the largest in Germany.
Along the northern border of the folded belt lies the coal basin of the Ruhr in Westphalia, which is the continuation of the Belgian coal-field, and bears much the same relation to the Rhenish Devonian area that the coal basin of Liege bears to the Ardennes.
Towards the north, in Hanover and Westphalia, the Triassic beds are followed by Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits, the latter being here the more important.
It is lowest in the Rhine Province and Westphalia (39 and 2~6 respectively).
The population is thickest in upper Silesia around Beuthen (coal-fields), around Ratibor, Neisse and Waldenburg (coal-fields), around Zittau (kingdom of Saxony), in the Elbe valley around Dresden, in the districts of Zwickau and Leipzig as far as the Saale, on the northern slopes of the Harz and around Bielefeld in Westphalia.
The main centre is in East and West Prussia, then follow the marsh districts on the Elbe and Weser, some parts of Westphalia, Oldenburg, Lippe, Saxony and upper Silesia, lower Bavaria and klsace-Lorraine.
Far more attention is accordingly given to sheep-farming in northern and north-eastern Germany than in Schleswig-Holstein, Westphalia, the Rhineland and south Germany.
The largest stock of pigs is in central Germany and Saxony, in Westphalia, on the lower Rhine, in Lorraine and Hesse.
Central Germany (especially Gotha and Brunswick) exports sausages and hams largely, as well as Westphalia, but here again considerable importation takes place from other countries.
The iron-fields of Germany fall into three main groups: those of the lower Rhine and Westphalia, of which Dortmund and Dsseldorf are the centres; those of Lorraine and the Saar; and those of upper Silesia.
A large salt-work is found at Strzalkowo (Posen), and smaller ones near Dortmund, Lippstadt and Minden (Westphalia).
Saxony is predominant in the production of textiles, though Silesia and Westphalia manufacture linen.
Its chief centres are in Westphalia and the Rhine province (auf roter Erde), in upper Silesia, htoi~
Ofthetotal production Engels of pig iron in 1905 amounting to over 10,000,000 tons, more than the half was produced in the Rhineland and Westphalia.
Furniture covers, table covers and plush are made in Elberfeld and Chemnitz, in Westphalia and the Rhine province (notably in Elberfeld and Barmen); shawls in Berlin and the Bavarian Vogtland; carpets in Berlin, Barmen and Silesia.
Although linen was formerly one of her most important articles of manufacture, Germany is now left far behind in this industry by Great Britain, France and Austria-Hungary, This branch of textile manufacture has its principal centres in Silesia, Westphalia, Saxony and Wurttemberg, while Hirschberg in Silesia, Bielefeld in Westphalia and Zittau in Saxony are noted for the excellence of theirproductions.
Westphalia and Silesia (Brieg).
The system which obtains in all the old Prussian provinces (with the exception of Rugen and Vorpommern or Hither Pomerania) and in Westphalia is that of Stein, modified by subsequent laws notably those of 1853 and 1856which gave the state a greater influence, while extending the powers of the Magistrat.
Voluntary enlistments of men who desired to become non-commissioned officers were most frequent in the provinces of the old Prussian monarchy, but in Berlin itself and in Westphalia the enlistments fell far short of the number of non-commissioned officers required for the territorial regiments.
MUnster (Westphalia); VIII.
corps at Colmar in Alsace, with the addition of two regiments from Westphalia and drafts of the XV.
A few minor operations followed, and then came the welcome news of the conclusion of the treaty of Westphalia.
In three years the many controversial questions were discussed and settled, and in October 1648 the treaty of Westphalia was signed and the Thirty Years War was at an end.
It is true that the peace of Westphalia formally recognized only ~ of the three creeds, Catholicism, Lutheranism and the Thirty Calvinism, but so much suffering had been caused Years by the interference of the state with individual con- War.
In the political constitution of Germany the peace of Westphalia did not so much make changes as sanction those already effected.
The state of things which actually existed the peace of Westphalia made legal.
Early in November i8ofi he had contemptuously deposed the elector of Hesse and added his dominions to Jeromes kingdom Napoleon of Westphalia; on the 21st of the same month he to power.
Their strength lay in Westphalia and on the Rhine, in Bavaria and the Polish provinces of Prussia.
The law, however, had to be interpreted so as to take into consideration later legislation by the kingdom of Westphalia, the electorate of Hesse, and any other state(and they are several) in which for a short time some of these villages might have been incorporated.
This is of great importance in Germany, as all the chief coal-fields and manufacturing districtsSilesia, Saxony, Westphalia and Alsaceare far removed from the sea.
These acts were, however, accompanied by language of great decision against the Social Democrats, especially on the occasion of a great strike in Westphalia, when the emperor Progress of Social- warned the men that for him every Social Democrat ism.
They successfully opposed the construction of the great canal from Westphalia to the Elbe, on the ground that it would facilitate the importation of foreign corn.
peace of Westphalia Austria suffered severe losses.
In 1490, the first printing press was set up at Copenhagen, by Gottfried of Gemen, who had brought it from Westphalia; and five years later the first Danish book was printed.
Later, in keeping with his position, he opposed all concessions to the Protestants; but still showed himself so vacillating that the papacy ceased to be regarded as a serious political factor, and was entirely ignored in the final settlement of Westphalia, 1648.
The salt of Bex in Switzerland is Jurassic, whilst Cretaceous salt occurs in Westphalia and Algiers.
The legend of Wayland probably had its home in the north, where he and his brother Egil l 2 were the types of the skilled workman, but there are abundant local traditions of the wonderful smith in Westphalia and in southern England.
By the peace of Westphalia (1648) the archbishopric was converted into a secular duchy, to fall to Brandenburg on the death of the last administrator, which happened in 1680.
In 1806 Magdeburg was taken by the French and annexed to the kingdom of Westphalia, but it was restored to Prussia in 1814, on the downfall of Napoleon.
Although the pontificate of Innocent witnessed the conversion of many Protestant princes, the most notable being Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless suffered a perceptible decline in prestige; it counted for little in the negotiations at Minster, and its solemn protest against the peace of Westphalia was entirely ignored.
DORTMUND, a town of Germany, the chief commercial centre of the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Emscher, in a fertile plain, 50 m.
The central part, however, with its winding narrow streets, is redolent of its historical past, when, as one of the leading cities of the Hanseatic League, it enjoyed commercial supremacy over all the towns of Westphalia.
Through the cession of Westphalia by the king of the Netherlands, on the 31st of May 1815, it became a Prussian town.
A second and more determined attempt to establish a theocracy was made at Munster, in Westphalia (1532-1535).
This category includes German places in the Prussian provinces of Westphalia, Rhineland, and Hesse-Nassau, in the Bavarian Palatinate, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and in the Principalities of Birkenfeld, Waldeck-Pyrmont, Lippe, and Schaumburg-Lippe.
After the peace of Westphalia (1648) the city was assigned by the emperor to the elector of Mainz, and, on its refusal to submit, it was placed under the ban of the Empire (1660).
of Russia, at which the kings of Bavaria, Saxony, Westphalia and Wurttemberg also assisted, which is known as the congress of Erfurt.
GELDERLAND, GELDERS, or GUELDERS, formerly a duchy of the Empire, on the lower Rhine and the Yssel, bounded by Friesland, Westphalia, Brabant, Holland and the Zuider Zee; part of which has become the province of Holland, dealt with separately below.
MINDEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 44 m.
From 1807 to 1814 Minden was included in the kingdom of Westphalia, and in the latter year it passed to Prussia.
In 1816 the fortifications, which had been razed by Frederick the Great after the Seven Years' War, were restored and strengthened, and as a fortress of the second rank it remained the chief military place of Westphalia down to 1873, when the works were finally demolished.
An excellent harbour, sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of the Baltic - the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon element.
Adopting the statutes of Soest in Westphalia as their code, Saxon merchants exclusively ruled the city.
Emigrants founded new cities and new sees of Low German speech among alien and pagan races; and thus in the course of a century the commerce of Lubeck had supplanted that of Westphalia.
Prussia having declared for the cellular system constructed the well-known Moabit prison in Berlin, also those of Ratibor in Silesia and of Herford in Westphalia, while those of Graudenz, Breslau, Werden and Cologne have been added since.
The principal treaties affecting the distribution of territory between the various states of Central Europe are those of Westphalia (Osnabruck and Miinster), 1648; Utrecht, 1713;1713; Paris and Hubertusburg, 1763; for the partition of Poland, 1772, 1793; Vienna, 1815; London, for the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, 1831, 1839; Zurich, for the cession of a portion of Lombardy to Sardinia, 1859; Vienna, as to SchleswigHolstein, 1864; Prague, whereby the German Confederation was dissolved, Austria recognizing the new North German Confederation, transferring to Prussia her rights over SchleswigHolstein, and ceding the remainder of Lombardy to Italy, 1866; Frankfort, between France and the new German Empire, 1871.
In 1632, during the Thirty Years' War, it was taken by the Swedes, and in 1635 by the French, who held it till after the Peace of Westphalia (1649).
ARNSBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, romantically situated on an eminence almost surrounded by the river Ruhr, 44 m.
The countship was incorporated by the archbishops in their duchy of Westphalia, which in 1802 was assigned to Hesse-Darmstadt and in 1815 to Prussia.
HAMM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Lippe, 19 m.
He died at Miihlheim in Westphalia on the 3rd of April 1769.
HASPE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, in the valley of the Ennepe, at the confluence of the Hasper, and on the railway from Dusseldorf to Dortmund, 10 m.
LIPPSTADT, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Lippe, 20 M.
FRIEDRICH ADOLF KRUMMACHER (1767-1845), German theologian, was born on the 13th of July 1767 at Tecklenburg, Westphalia.
ANDREI IVANOVICH, COUNT OSTERMAN (1686-1747), Russian statesman, was born at Bochum in Westphalia, of middle-class parents, his name being originally Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann.
JOHANN HEINRICH VAN ESS (1772-1847), German Catholic theologian, was born at Warburg, Westphalia, on the 15th of February 177 2.
On the European continent the Hagenau pine of Westphalia is esteemed for the straightness and good quality of its timber.
After forming for a few years part of the kingdom of Westphalia, the abbey lands were incorporated with Prussia in 1815.
RHEINE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, situated on the Ems, at the point where it becomes navigable, 29 m.
In 1648, at the peace of Westphalia, Heidelberg was given back to Frederick V.'s son, Charles Louis, who restored the castle to its former splendour.
By the peace of Westphalia it was restored to the elector Charles Louis.
Thus the see of Osnabruck (Osnaburgh) was occupied, from the peace of Westphalia to 1802, alternately by a Catholic and a Protestant prince.
It was founded in 1810, when Prussia had lost her celebrated university of Halle, which Napoleon had included in his newly created kingdom of Westphalia.
SIEGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, situated 63 m.
The actual duchy does not correspond exactly with the old bishopric. Salzburg embraced at the time of the peace of Westphalia (1648) an area of 3821 sq.
By the peace of Westphalia in 1648 it was given to Sweden, but in 1676 it was conquered.
The river is important for the transport facilities it affords to the rich agricultural districts of Westphalia.
CORVEY, a place in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Weser, a mile north of the town of Hoxter, with which it communicates by an avenue of lime trees.
OEYNHAUSEN, a town and watering-place of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Werre, situated just above its confluence with the Weser, 9 m.
GELSENKIRCHEN, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 27 m.
The great development of Amsterdam was due, however, to the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, by which its rival, Antwerp, was ruined, owing to the closing of the Scheldt.
KOESFELD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Berkel, 38 m.
After having beedsuccessively Repetent in Gottingen and teacher in the public schools of Dortmund (Westphalia) and Altdorf (Bavaria), he was, in 1785, appointed second professor of theology in the university of Altdorf, whence he was translated to a chair in Jena in 1804, where he succeeded Griesbach in 1812.
WITTEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, favourably situated among the coal-fields of the Ruhr, 14 m.
by the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Westphalia respectively; area 1291 sq.
In November the news of the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia reached Prague and put a stop to hostilities.
by the countship of La Marck and the duchy of Westphalia, and S.
HAGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia.
Hagen is one of the most flourishing commercial towns in Westphalia, and possesses extensive iron and steel works, large cotton print works, woollen and cotton factories, manufactures of leather, paper, tobacco, and iron and steel wares, breweries and distilleries.
Some historians also speak of a later or modern Pietism, characterizing thereby a party in the German Church which was probably at first influenced by some remains of Spener's Pietism in Westphalia, on the Rhine, in Wurttemberg, and at Halle and Berlin.
LIPPSPRINGE, a town and watering-place in the Prussian province of Westphalia, lying under the western slope of the Teutoburger Wald, 5 m.
As such an imperial organ, its composition and powers were fixed by the treaty of Westphalia of 1648.
EMS, a river of Germany, rising on the south slope of the Teutoburger Wald, at an altitude of 358 ft., and flowing generally north-west and north through Westphalia and Hanover to the east side of the Dollart, immediately south of Emden.
GUTERSLOH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, rr m.
Similarly, when it abolished feudal tenures in France, it ignored the fact that the rights of certain German princes over lands in Alsace were guaranteed by the treaties of Westphalia.
By the peace of Westphalia in 1648 it passed to Sweden, with a lordship to which it gives its name.
Erzberger's power in German politics was based upon his great influence with the Catholic working classes in the Rhineland and Westphalia, in central Germany and in Silesia.
They had wished to set up a centralized empire, Catholic and German; but the treaties of Westphalia kept Germany in its passive and fragmentary condition; while the Catholic and Protestant princes obtained formal recognition of their territorial independence and their religious equality.
Venice, the duchy of Milan and the duke of Modena were on his side; the pope and the grandduke of Tuscany were trembling, but the romantic expedition of the duke of Guise to Naples, and the outbreak of the Fronde, saved Spain, who had refused to take part in the treaties of Westphalia and whose ruin Mazarin wished to compass.
The peace Of IJtrecht was to France what the peace of Westphalia had been to Austria, and curtailed the former acquisitions of Louis XIV.
He was promoted to the rank of colonel in the regiment of Normandy in 1643, and three years later, after distinguishing himself at the siege of Orbitello, where he had an arm broken, he was made marechal de camp. His service seems to have been continuous until the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia in 1648, when he returned to his father's house in Paris and married, without the consent of her parents, Anne de la Grange-Trianon, a girl of great beauty, who later became the friend and confidante of Madame de Montpensier.
by the Prussian province of Westphalia.
The mineral occurs in metalliferous veins in the lead mines of Strontian in Argyllshire, Pateley Bridge in Yorkshire, Braunsdorf near Freiberg in Saxony; abundantly in veins in calcareous marl near Minster and Hamm in Westphalia; and in limestone at Schoharie in New York.
It was closed by Jerome, king of Westphalia, in 1809.
6 After Valmy he had to retire to Hamm in Westphalia, where, on the death of Louis XVI., he proclaimed himself regent; from here he went south, with the idea of encouraging the royalist feeling in the south of France, and settled at Verona, where on the death of Louis XVII.
Captured by the Protestants in 1632, and recovered by the Imperialists in 1633, the town was again captured by the Swedes in 1642, and continued in Protestant hands till the peace of Westphalia in 1648, when the emperor recovered it.
Langendreer in Westphalia; Ostrau in Moravia), calcareous nodules, crowded with vegetable fragments of every kind, occur in certain mines embedded in the substance of the coal and representing its raw material in a petrified condition..
The plant-bearing deposits next in age, which have yielded Angiosperms, appear to belong to the Cenomanian, though from Westphalia a few species belonging to the Cryptogams and Gymnosperms, found in deposits correlated with the Gault, have been described by Hosius and von der Marck.
The Cretaceous plant-beds of Westphalia include both Upper and Lower Senonian, the two floras being very distinct.
Four species of Dewalquea, a ranunculaceous genus allied to the hellebore, make their appearance in the Upper Senonian of Westphalia, other species occurring at Aix-la-Chapelle in deposits of about the same age.
Both of these floras suggest, however, that the climate of Greenland was somewhat colder than that of Westphalia, though scarcely colder than warm-temperate.
The terms of the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 are the best commentary on the general success of the elector's policy.
"ALEXANDER VON KLUCK (1846-), Prussian general, was born May 20 1846 at Munster in Westphalia.
The Counts family originated from Westphalia, where they held fiefs of the archbishop.
and W., successively by Westphalia, Waldeck, Hanover, the province of Saxony, the Thuringian States, Bavaria, Hesse and the Rhine Province.
m., and had a population in 1905 of 2,070,052, being the fourth most densely populated province in Prussia, after Berlin, the Rhine Province and Westphalia.
During the Thirty Years' War the depopulation of Moravia was so great that after the peace of Westphalia the states-general published an edict giving every man permission to take two wives, in order to "repeople the country."
On the capitulation of the Hanoverian army in 1803 Hameln fell into the hands of the French; it was retaken by the Prussians in 1806, but, after the battle of Jena, again passed to the French, who dismantled the fortifications and incorporated the town in the kingdom of Westphalia.
Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul, commonly known as Prince Napoleon, or by the sobriquet of "Plon-Plon," 1 (1822-1891), was the second son of Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, by his wife Catherine, princess of Wurttemberg, and was born at Trieste on the 9th of September 1822.
The man who could have had such success, who could have made the Treaties of Westphalia and the Pyrenees, who could have weathered the storm of the Fronde, and left France at peace with itself and with Europe to Louis XIV., must have been a great man; and historians, relying too much on the brilliant memoirs of his adversaries, like De Retz, are apt to rank him too low.
Herr von Schorlemer-Ast, a Catholic landed proprietor from Westphalia, formed similar associations among the peasants.
In the middle ages the Germans of Westphalia made the ass the symbol of St Thomas, the incredulous apostle; the boy who was last to enter school on St Thomas' day was called the "Ass Thomas" (Gubernatis's Zoological Mythology, i.
For the peace of Westphalia, Patter's Geist des westphalischen Friedens (1795) is useful; for the congress of Vienna Klaber's Acten des Wiener Congresses (1815-1819) and Le Congres de Vienne et les traites de 1815 precede des conferences de Dresde, de Prague et de Chatillon, suivi des Congres d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Troppau, Laybach et Verone, by Count Angeberg.
In 1849 he became aide-de-camp to Prince Jerome Bonaparte, ex-king of Westphalia, then governor of the Invalides, on whose commission he wrote Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la campagne de 1812 en Russie (1852).
He was restored by the peace of Westphalia, but it was to a depopulated and impoverished country, and he spent his remaining years in efforts to repair the disasters of the great war.
In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
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