Western-europe Sentence Examples
In many parts of western Europe the right of private war long remained the privilege of every noble, as it had once been the privilege of every freeman.
Apart from the above-mentioned division of the striped members of both groups into two types according to the pattern of their markings, the domesticated cats of western Europe are divided into a short-haired and a long-haired group. Of these, the former is the one which bears the closest relationship to the wild cats of Africa and of Europe, the latter being an importation from the East.
As to long-haired cats, there appear originally to have been two closely-allied strains, the Angora and the Persian, of which the former has been altogether replaced in western Europe by the latter.
It was upon Livonia that his eyes were fixed, which was comparatively near at hand and promised him a seaboard and direct communication with western Europe.
Flora and Fauna.The flora of southern France and the Mediterranean is distinct from that of the rest of the country, which does not differ in vegetation from western Europe generally.Advertisement
The recursus ad principem, in some form or other of appeal or application to the sovereign or his lay judges, was at the end of the middle ages well known over western Europe.
In the modern states of western Europe the existing nobility seems to have for the most part had its origin in personal service to the prince.
F o i Notwithstanding the efforts of the Poles and the Military Orders to exclude Russia from the shores of the Baltic and keep her in a state of isolation, she was coming slowly into closer relations with central and western Europe.
Peter had endeavoured to import from western Europe the essentials of good government and such of the useful arts as were required for the development of the natural resources of the country; Catherine did likewise, but she did not restrict herself to purely utilitarian aims in the narrower sense of the term.
During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.Advertisement
This naturally caused profound disappointment and dissatisfaction in the liberal section of the educated classes and especially among the young officers of the regiments which had spent some years in western Europe.
It propagated and spread with extraordinary rapidity, so that by Dominic's death in 1221, only five or six years after the first practical steps towards the execution of the idea, there were over 500 friars and 60 friaries, divided into 8 provinces embracing the whole of western Europe.
Of Coleopterous insects known to inhabit east Siberia, nearly one-third are found in western Europe.
It amounts to this, that Asiatics stand on a higher level than the natives of Africa or America, but do not possess the special material civilization of western Europe.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.Advertisement
But the case is quite different if one looks at the two continents as a whole, for improvement in means of communication has brought about strange vicissitudes, and western Europe has asserted her power in middle and eastern Asia.
He soon convinced himself that western Europe had nothing to fear from Charles, and that no bribes were necessary to turn the Swedish arms from Germany to Russia.
In addition to the native stuffs, an immense quantity of costly Oriental carpets, wall-hangings and other textiles was imported into Venice, partly for its own use, and partly for export throughout western Europe.
The lay basis of the Third Crusade made it, in one sense, the greatest of all Crusades, in which all the three great monarchs of western Europe participated; but it also made it a failure, for the kings of France and England, changing caelum, non animum, carried their political rivalries into the movement, in which it had been agreed that they should be sunk.
This last fact in particular caused western Europe to dream of an alliance with the great khan "Prester John," who should aid in the reconquest of Jerusalem and the final conversion to Christianity of the whole continent of Asia.Advertisement
All the princes of western Europe took the cross; not only so, but Gregory was successful in uniting the Eastern and Western churches for the moment, and in securing for the new Crusade the aid of the Palaeologi, now thoroughly alarmed by the plans of Charles of Anjou.
Indeed it may be said that his works, scientific, historical and theological, practically sum up all the learning of western Europe in his time, which he thus made available for his countrymen.
In the neighbourhood are the cave of Drach, containing several underground lakes, and the caves of Arta, one of the largest and finest groups of stalactite caverns in western Europe.
More intimate relations with western Europe and a pretty general study of the French language and literature, together with the steady progress of the reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmud II., resulted in the birth of the new or modern school, whose objects are truth and simplicity.
His importance in the history of Ireland and the Irish Church consists in the fact that he brought Ireland into touch with western Europe and more particularly with Rome, and that he introduced Latin into Ireland as the language of the Church.Advertisement
About the age of twenty the desire of increasing his stock of knowledge (c. 679) drew him to Ireland, which had so long been the headquarters of learning in western Europe.
The perils of dialectic are distinguish the genuine Aristotle from the questionable accompaniments with which he had made his first appearance in Western Europe.
This immigration was also stimulated by the terrible condition of western Europe between 987 and 1060, when it was visited by an endless succession of bad harvests and epidemics.
A more instructive subdivision must be one which corresponds to the separate currents of thought and mental preoccupation which have been historically manifested in western Europe in the gradual evolution of what is to-day the great river of zoological doctrine to which they have all been rendered contributory.
It was cultivated by the Arabs in Spain about 961, and is mentioned in an English leechbook of the 10th century, but seems to have disappeared from western Europe till reintroduced by the crusaders.
Through the Arabs the Galenical system found its way back again to western Europe.
Hence the description of the advance of medicine in western Europe and America may for the latest stage be taken as a whole, without that separate treatment, nation by nation, which in the history of earlier times was necessary.
But neither the British nor the French could afford to divert great military resources from the main theatre of war in western Europe to the Aegean, and so the struggle for the Straits ended in mortifying discomfiture for the Allies.
The tapeworm most frequently found in man in Western Europe is the Taenia solium, which is constant wherever pork is consumed, and is more common in parts where raw or imperfectly cooked pork is eaten.
Their organization and aims were in general the same throughout western Europe.
Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.
It is a vast summary of all the natural history known to western Europe towards the middle of the 13th century.
In its internal history the exarchate was subject to the influences which were everywhere, in central and western Europe at least, leading to the subdivision of sovereignty and the establishment of feudalism.
The two elements together composed the most important town of western Europe in Roman times.
The rest of his inglorious reign was spent by Baldwin in mendicant tours in western Europe.
The extent and glamour of his empire exercised a potent spell on western Europe.
In the Atlantic it is the characteristic deposit of the slopes of continental shelves of western Europe and of New England, being largely mixed with ice-borne material to the south of Newfoundland.
It dominated the intellectual and profoundly affected the social interests of western Europe.
In this manner Martin Luther, with the hearty sympathy of a considerable number of his countrymen, publicly proclaimed and illustrated his repudiation of the papal government under which western Europe had lived for centuries.
In practice the whole of western Europe was subject to the jurisdiction of one tribunal of last resort, the Roman Curia.
The chief external works achieved for western Europe by the Benedictines during the early middle ages may be summed up under the following heads.
It prevented food supplies from southern Russia reaching the peoples of western Europe who needed them.
Climbing the high mountain that overhangs the town, he established on the summit the monastery with which his name has ever since been associated, and which for centuries was a chief centre of religious life for western Europe.
Posen became a great depot for the trade between Germany and western Europe on the one hand and Poland and Russia on the other.
In the 12th century Toledo was the centre of the study of Aristotle in the West, and it was from Toledo that the knowledge of Aristotle spread to Paris and to other seats of learning in western Europe.
Being the only place within easy distance of western Europe where patients can take with safety a course of baths during the winter months, it has become a resort of invalids.
That of Mercury was actually seen by Gassendi in Paris on the 7th of November 1631 (being the first passage of a planet across the sun ever observed); that of Venus, predicted for the 6th of December following, was invisible in western Europe.
This transit of Venus is remarkable as the first ever observed, that of 1631 predicted by Kepler having been invisible in western Europe.
The aboriginal occupants of the greater part of North America were comparatively few in number, and except in Mexico were not advanced beyond the savage state, The geological processes that placed a much narrower ocean between North America and western Europe than between North America and eastern Asia secured to the New World the good fortune of being colonized by the leading peoples of the occidental Old World, instead of by the less developed races of the Orient.
An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
It is evident that had the fecundity of the American stock of 1790 been equal only to that of Belgium (the most fertile population of western Europe in the 19th century) then the additions of foreign elementg to the American people would have been, by I 900 in heavy preponderance over the original, mainly British., elements.
By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.
Thus arose a struggle between the youthful, hot-headed partisans of revolutionary physical science and the zealous official guardians of political order - a struggle which has made the strange term Nihilism a familiar word not only in Russia but also in western Europe.
In Rome, where he restored Pope Benedict VII., he held a splendid court, attended by princes and nobles from all parts of western Europe.
Just as in Italy the common weal of the different republics which were crowded within the limited area of the peninsula required that no one of them should become so powerful as to threaten the independence of the others, so western Europe had a similar danger to counteract.
By this time, with the exce p tion of Brittany and the southern part of the Balkan peninsula, practically the whole of southern and western Europe was under Teutonic government.
The above arrangements are found with scarcely any variation in all the charter-houses of western Europe.
The Arabic scholar Averroes gave Aristotle to western Europe in a pantheistic garb, and thus influenced medieval scientists.
At one time it was popular over western Europe under the name terra sigillata.
Northern and eastern Europe is inhabited by a larger form (P. major), which differs in nothing but size and more vivid tints from that which is common in the British Isles and western Europe.
In western Europe the advent of the Carboniferous period was accompanied by the production of a series of synclines which permitted the formation of organic limestones, free from the sediments which generally characterized the concluding phases of the preceding Devonian deposition.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
The knowledge of the monastic life was carried to western Europe by St Athanasius, who in 340 went to Rome accompanied by two monks.
But for a century (1125-1225) Citeaux supplanted Cluny as the spiritual centre of western Europe.
The method of compressing tea into tablets 8 or bricks is unfamiliar in western Europe.
Imbued by his mother with the extravagant ideas of the East Roman emperors he introduced into his court an amount of splendour and ceremonial hitherto unknown in western Europe.
The town, which is strongly fortified, holds a commanding strategic position on the route between western Europe and Brazil and South Africa, being situated in the Gulf of Goree on the eastern side of the peninsula of Cape Verde, the most westerly point of Africa.
In the 16th century the Ragusan merchants went even to India and America, but they were unable to compete with their rivals from western Europe.
Basil also took advantage of the difficult position of Sigismund of Poland to capture Smolensk, the great eastern fortress of Poland (1512), chiefly through the aid of the rebel Lithuanian, Prince Michael Glinsky, who provided him with artillery and engineers from western Europe.
With not less adroitness than Venice, Genoa saw and secured all the advantages of the great carrying trade which the crusades created between Western Europe and the East.
The treaties of Utrecht, Rastadt and Baden had also re-established and strengthened the position of the Austrian monarchy in western Europe.
His dominion is Italian as well as Sicilian; his influence, as an ally of Sparta, is important in old Greece; while, as a hirer of mercenaries everywhere, he had wider relations than any earlier Greek with the nations of western Europe.
Greek and Arabic were antiquated, or at least isolated, in a land which Norman conquest had made part of western Europe and Latin Christendom.
Latin now held in western Europe the place which Greek had held there.
Events in western Europe gave him an earlier opportunity of becoming master of most of the coast towns.
And though for the present the north-eastern half of England, including London, remained in the hands of the Danes, in reality the tide had turned, and western Europe was saved from the danger of becoming a heathen Scandinavian power.
Malocello's enterprise not only marks the beginning of the oversea expansion of western Europe in exploration, conquest and colonization (after the age of Scandinavian world-roving had passed); it is also probably not unconnected with the great Genoese venture of 1291 (in search of a waterway to India, which soon follows), with which this attempt at Canarian discovery and dominion has been by some unjustifiably identified.
All the states of western Europe were being brought within the web of his diplomacy.
His industry, his remarkable political insight, his lack of scruple, and his combined strength of will and subtlety of intellect enabled him to utilize all the forces which tended at that time towards strong government throughout western Europe.
It was the English-speaking south-east part of Scotland, gradually extended so as to comprise Fife and the south-west (Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, Stirlingshire, Dumbartonshire, Ayrshire and Renfrewshire), which learned to adopt the ideas of western Europe in matters political, municipal and ecclesiastical, while it never would submit to the domination of the English crown.
Historians of the north have distinguished as the " Viking Age " (Vikingertiden) the time when the Scandinavian folk first by their widespread piracies brought themselves forcibly into the notice of all the Christian peoples of western Europe.
We have to content ourselves with what is for the greater part of this age a mere catalogue of embarkations and plunderings along all the coasts of western Europe without distinctive characteristics.
Keary, The Vikings in Western Europe (1891) is a history of the viking raids on all the western lands, but ends A.D.
Surveying the questions connected with landed property, with the game laws, the poor, the Established Church, especially in Ireland, he expressed grave doubt on the legislative capacity of the English parliament as compared with the power of renovation manifested in other states of western Europe.
Fear seemed to brood over the peoples of Western Europe.
The third, gathering together the more revolutionary impulses, expanded into that complex movement called Anabaptism - which spread over western Europe from England to Poland and from Scandinavia to northern Italy, and endured a long and sanguinary persecution at the hands of the civil authorities in most European countries.
But in India the bravery of the Rajputs and the devotion of the Brahmans seem to have afforded a stronger national bulwark than existed in western Europe.
Thenceforward he devoted his whole time to a systematic examination of the French caves, his first publication on the subject being The Antiquity of Man in Western Europe (1860), followed in 1861 by New Researches on the Coexistence of Man and of the Great Fossil Mammifers characteristic of the Last Geological Period.
The geological processes that placed a much narrower ocean between North America and western Europe than between North America and eastern Asia secured to the New World the good fortune of being colonized by the leading peoples of the occidental Old World, instead of by the less developed races of the Orient.
Scholasticism is the Aristotelianism of medieval orthodoxy as taught in the " schools " or universities of Western Europe.
Further, there is a marked likeness between the Cambrian of western Europe and eastern America; many fossils of this period are common to Britain, Sweden and eastern Canada; therefore it is likely that a north Atlantic basin existed.
Though the chronology of the period is somewhat uncertain, the date must be in the first half of the 9th century B.C. It is to be remembered, however, that important as this monument is for the development of the alphabet, and because it can be dated with tolerable accuracy, the dialect and alphabet of Moab are not in themselves proof for the Phoenician forms which influenced the peoples of the Aegean, and through them Western Europe.
The name is, however, also applied to the alphabet on the coins of the Parthian or Arsacid dynasty, which in its beginnings was clearly under Greek influence; while later, when a knowledge of Greek had disappeared, the attempts to imitate the old legends are as grotesque as those in western Europe to copy the inscriptions on Roman coins.
In the second half a still greater decline is observable, and by the third quarter the disease had disappeared or was disappearing from a great part of western Europe.
A similar cessation of plague was noted soon after in the greater part of western Europe.
Manufactured wares, groceries and wines are the goods principally imported from western Europe.
At the same time, it must be admitted that those which have recently taken place amongst most of the communities of western Europe are remarkable for both their rapidity and their extent; and are probably attributable, in part at least, to influences which were almost inoperative at the time when Babbage wrote.
Countries of Oriental and semi-Oriental habits have not been shown, owing to the difference in their marriage system from that of western Europe.
Q the letter which immediately succeeds P in the alphabet of Latin and the modern languages of western Europe.
All over western Europe the elaborate devices of the census and the stations for the collection of customs crumbled away; taxation as such disappeared, through the hostility of the clergy and the exemptions accorded to powerful subjects.
Guy ruled from 1192 till his death in 1194; his brother Amaury took the title of king, and from this time Cyprus was governed for nearly three centuries by a succession of kings of the same dynasty, who introduced into the island the feudal system and other institutions of western Europe.
Its naturalization in western Europe is very ancient, but the race supposed to have been introduced by the Romans (Phasianus colchicus) has been much modified within the last century or two by the introduction of the ring-necked Chinese form (P. torquatus), which produces fertile hybrids with the old breed.
In the summer of 1787, a year after the marriage, the elder Schopenhauer, whom commercial experiences had made a cosmopolitan in heart, took his wife on a tour to western Europe.
At a time when Western Europe was rich in men of wide knowledge and intellectual eminence, he gained so high a reputation that he was described by Vincent de Beauvais as Philosophus Anglorum.
The artistic sense of the nation is perhaps greatest among the peasantry, although Portugal has the most illiterate peasantry in western Europe.
Paul and his wife were allowed to travel through western Europe in 1781-1782.
On the other hand, for the history of Italy and western Europe he falls back on Roman annalists, especially, it seems, on Claudius Quadrigarius and Valerius Antias - a most unfortunate choice - and from them too he takes the annalistic mould into which his matter is cast.
The troops nearest the enemy, however, which have to be maintained in a state of constant readiness for battle, cannot as a rule afford the time either for dispersing into quarters or for rallying on an alarm, and in western Europe at any rate they are required to bivouac. In India, the term "cantonment" means more generally a military station or standing camp. The troops live, not in private houses, but in barracks, huts, forts or occasionally camps.
It is a port of call for many lines trading between Western Europe and South America.
He conducted the negotiations which led to the shelving of the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi and to the alliance between Russia and Great Britain which, issuing ultimately in the Straits Convention of 1841 - to which France also was a party - healed the breach which had so long divided the powers of eastern and western Europe.
The word is variously derived from the Persian padshah, Turkish padishah, equivalent to king or emperor, and from the Turkish bash, in some dialects gash, a head, chief, &c. In old Turkish there was no fixed distinction between b and p. As first used in western Europe the title was written with the initial b.
In all the great cities of Western Europe friaries were established, and in the universities theological chairs were held by Dominicans and Franciscans.
There was this in common among the Cathari, Waldenses, Albigenses and other heretical bodies that overran so many parts of Western Europe in the second half of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th, that they all inveighed against the wealth of the clergy, and preached the practice of austere poverty and a return to the simple life of Christ and the Apostles.
No woman may ascend the throne; and, in default of a male heir, the representatives of the people can choose a king among the royal families of western Europe.
When he accepted office the country was on the eve of a great disaster in India; it was engaged in a serious dispute with the United States; and its relations with France were so strained that the two great countries of western Europe seemed unlikely to be able to settle their differences without war.
At Amsterdam was published (1665-1669) the Bibliotheca fratrum polonorum, embracing the works of Hans Krell, their leading theologian, of Jonas Schlichting, their chief commentator, of Sozzini and of Johann Ludwig Wolzogen; the title-page of this collection, bearing the words quos Unitarios vocant, introduced this term to Western Europe.
The bushel of wheat, or an equivalent amount of flour, can be shipped from Minneapolis or Duluth to almost any point in western Europe for from 20 to 25 cents.
This hostility was due to the almost universal opinion of western Europe that Stephen was a semi-pagan.
The term is specially applied to that movement of thought which in western Europe in the 15th century broke through the medieval traditions of scholastic theology and philosophy, and devoted itself to the rediscovery and direct study of the ancient classics.
It has been maintained that they were formerly spread over the whole of the Scandinavian peninsula, and they have even been considered the remnants of that primeval race of cave-dwellers which hunted the reindeer over the snow-fields of central and western Europe.
The medieval religious literature of Western Europe also influenced Iceland, and the Homilies (like the Laws) were, according to Thorodd, the earliest books written in the vernacular, antedating even Ari's histories.
From 1843 in 1868 the Servian government undertook the carriage of letters in Servia itself, while the Austro-Hungarian consulate in Belgrade forwarded correspondence to and from central and western Europe.
Charlemagne had for the moment succeeded in uniting western Europe under his sway, but he had not been able to arrest its evolution towards feudal dismemberment.
Their chief claim to the notice of the historian of speculation comes from their warm reception of Greek philosophy when it had been banished from its original soil, and whilst western Europe was still too rude and ignorant to be its home (9th to 12th century).
To complete his education he then travelled in Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Egypt, and northern and western Europe.
They were wholly inadequate, and the result of the attempt to dominate all western Europe was to Character of produce bankruptcy and exhaustion.
These discoveries were unknown in western Europe for many centuries, and were re-invented and developed by many European mathematicians.
In March 1916 he visited the capitals of western Europe as one of the leaders of the Russian parliamentary delegation.
The discovery of the New World, and the opening out of fresh trading routes to the Indies, gave an extraordinary impulse to shipping, commerce and industrial enterprise throughout western Europe.
What was the latter's impact on North America and Western Europe?
Nearly 650 thousand tones of drink cartons containing aluminum are produced annually in Western Europe.
There is no evidence that the EU has succeeded in overcoming the national antagonisms between the major capitalist classes in Western Europe.
The impact on Germany is especially high, since the country has the lowest birthrate in Western Europe.
The tone was otherwise set by Thorez, one of the most important Stalinist bureaucrats in Western Europe.
However, governments in Western Europe have been slow to meet these requirements, making it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal caviar.
As an integral part of the cold war, western Europe slowly coagulated into a single economic zone.
Weakening demand, rapid consolidation and a greater internationalization of styles are several factors are transforming apparel retailing in Western Europe like never before.
The tiny Vatican State is all that is left of the once omnipotent Papal Empire which had governed most of Western Europe.
These factors have caused significant overcapacity in the United Kingdom and in Western Europe generally.
The problems of the deterrent posture for Western Europe have given rise to two schools of thought.
The notion that the utterly reactionary counter-revolutionary Stalinist dictatorship of the USSR was likely to invade western Europe was, of course, absurd.
Pollan is a fish unique in Western Europe being a glacial relict from the last ice age.
With a 27 mile shoreline, Kielder Water is the largest man-made lake in Western Europe.
The common sturgeon once spawned in all the major rivers of Western Europe.
It was at this time that the voice of Peter the Hermit roused the whole of western Europe to enthusiasm by his preaching of the first crusade.
It seems most probable, therefore, that the name Cassiterides represents the first vague knowledge of the Greeks that tin was found overseas somewhere in or off western Europe.
To reach the Baltic he had to overcome the resistance, not only of the Lithuanians and the Poles, but also of the Teutonic and Livonian military orders, the Swedes and the Danes, who all had possessions in the intervening territory and who all objected to the barbarous Muscovites, already sufficiently formidable, strengthening themselves by direct foreign trade with western Europe and especially by the importation of arms and cunning with foreign artificers.
In addition to these great and beneficent changes, means were taken for developing more rapidly the vast natural resources of the country, public instruction received an unprecedented impetus, a considerable amount of liberty was accorded to the press, a strong spirit of liberalism pervaded rapidly all sections of the educated classes, a new imaginative and critical literature dealing with economic, philosophical and political questions sprang into existence, and for a time the young generation fondly imagined that Russia, awakening from her traditional lethargy, was about to overtake, and soon to surpass, on the path of national progress, the older nations of western Europe.
To this day there are many Arabic words in the vocabulary of the languages of western Europe which are a standing witness of the Crusades - words relating to trade and seafaring, like tariff and corvette, or words for musical instruments, like lute or the Elizabethan word "naker."
He published in 1551 Regola generale per sollevare ogni affondata nave, intitolata la Travagliata Invenzione (an allusion to his personal troubles at Brescia), setting forth a method for raising sunken ships, and describing the diving-bell, then little known in western Europe.
The finances of Turkey now collapsed, and the inevitable bankruptcy was declared, whereby more than through any other cause she lost such Deposition sympathies as she possessed in western Europe.
The Renaissance and Protestantism had their effect in producing that Enlightenment which swept over western Europe in the 18th century.
The valley of the Po formed the main artery of trade between western Europe and the East, Milan being besides the point of convergence for all Alpine passes west of the Brenner (the St Gotthard, however, was not made accessible until early in the 13th century).
On the twelfth of June, 1812, the forces of Western Europe crossed the Russian frontier and war began, that is, an event took place opposed to human reason and to human nature.
The Common sturgeon once spawned in all the major rivers of Western Europe.
Viking warriors from Scandinavia began to attack the coasts of western Europe toward the end of the eighth century.
As ritual and decorative body modifications increased, the practice spread across the planet to Indonesia, India, Thailand, Greece, Rome, Western Europe and eventually to North America.
Consequently, the practice of TM and Maharishi's other teachings spread rapidly through Western Europe and the United States.
On November 11, 1918, a treaty was signed in Rethondes, France between German military officials and officials of the allied forces defending Western Europe.
Rai is Algerian folk music, a blend of Middle Eastern and French influences, which is popular both across the Middle East and Western Europe.