There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.
Here was a display, not only of Englishmen, Scotsmen, Irishmen, Welshmen, but of Mounted Rifles from Victoria and New South Wales, from the Cape and from Natal, and from the Dominion of Canada.
Blome in 1673 speaks of Warrington market as an important one "for linen cloth, corn, cattle, provisions and fish, being much resorted to by the Welshmen," and in 1730 Defoe says the market was especially famous for "a sort of table linen called Huk-a-back or Huk-abuk."
It is characteristic in this connexion that the West Saxon laws do not make any distinction between ceorls and laets or halffreemen as the Kentish laws had done: this means that the half-free people were, if not Welshmen, reckoned as members of the ceorl class.
Another distinguishing mark of Edward's policy towards Wales is to be found in the commercial and administrative powers given to the fortified towns, inhabited solely by people of English birth and by Welshmen who acquiesced in English rule.
For Owen's brilliant but brief career and ruthless treatment of English settlers and Anglophil Welshmen, his countrymen had not unnaturally to pay a heavy penalty in the severe statutes which the affrighted parliaments of Henry IV.
It was also particularly stated that all legal procedure must henceforth be conducted in the English tongue, an arrangement which fell very heavily on poor monoglot Welshmen and appears an especially harsh and ungracious enactment when coming from a sovereign who was himself a genuine Welshman by birth.
There were, however, to be found at court and in the universities a number of ardent and talented young Welshmen, adherents mostly of the reforming party in Church and State, who were destined to bring about a brilliant literary revival in their native land during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.
At the tercentenary of " Bishop Morgan's Bible " in 1888 a national movement of appreciation was set on foot amongst Welshmen of all denominations both at home and abroad, with the result that XXVIII.
During the years prior to the Great Rebellion, however, in spite of the preaching and writings of Vicar Prichard, Wroth and others, the vast mass of Welshmen of all classes remained friendly to the High Church policy of Laud and staunch supporters of the king's prerogative.
Meanwhile the writings and personal example of the pious rector of Llanddowror were stirring other Welshmen in the work of revival, chief amongst them being Howell Harris of Trevecca (1713-1773), a layman of brilliant abilities but erratic temperament; and Daniel Rowland (1713-1790), curate of Llangeitho in Mid-Cardiganshire, who became in time the most eloquent and popular preacher throughout all Wales.
The Cambro-British language, in spite of the disappearance of a court, continued to be spoken by Welshmen of all classes residing west of Severn, and the 14th and 15th centuries are remarkable for producing some of the finest Welsh bards and historians.
On more than one occasion the newly-founded town was captured, sacked and destroyed by marauding bands of Welshmen, notably in 1152; but on each occasion the place was rebuilt and refortified by the earls-palatine of Pembroke, who greatly favoured this important settlement.