How to use Welsh in a sentence
The Welsh were unsubdued; the French were plundering the southern coast; Northumberland was fomenting trouble in the north.
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church had a total membership of 1 3, 280.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers.
In Welsh and Cornish the name is cath.
The Welsh and Scottish kings, however, both submitted to lEthelstan, and Guthfrith was again driven into exile.Advertisement
In the slow process of time they drove them into the most southerly corner of Australia, just as the Saxons drove the Celts into Cornwall and the Welsh hills.
The nucleus of the township lies on high ground to the east of the Edgware road, which crosses the Welsh Harp reservoir of Regent's Canal, a favourite fishing and skating resort.
Then in rapid succession came several independent bodies - the Midland Counties (1895), the London and Southern Counties (1896), the Imperial (1899), the English (1903) and the Irish and Welsh (1904).
It should be noted that the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are only slightly connected with the original body.
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are now a branch of the Presbyterian Church.Advertisement
The appetite of the Welsh people for sermons is enormous, and the preachers are characterized by an exceptionally high order of pulpit power.
In 1908 a Welsh eisteddfod was held here in Earlington Park.
Welsh law is to be used in Wales, and in the marches the law of the marches is to be employed.
Rhayader has for some centuries been an important centre for Welsh mutton and wool, and its sheep fairs are largely attended by drovers and buyers from all parts.
In Wales the Norman came as a conqueror, more strictly a conqueror than in England; he could not claim Welsh crowns or Welsh estates under any fiction of Welsh law.Advertisement
At least Giraldus Cambrensis, the Norman Welshman or Welsh Norman, was certainly more alive to the distinction between Normans and English than any other of his contemporaries.
Gemina against the Welsh hill-tribes, its garrison was soon removed and it became a flourishing town with stately town hall, baths and other appurtenances of a thoroughly civilized and Romanized city.
Meantime a more serious trouble had arisen through the outbreak of the Welsh revolt under Owen Glendower.
His mother was one of a family named Winston, of Welsh descent, noted for conversational and musical talent.
In 1920, after the disestablishment of the Welsh Church, of which measure he had been one of the most active opponents, he was created Archbishop of Wales, and was enthroned by the Archbishop of Canterbury at St.Advertisement
Amongst his publications may be mentioned The Church in Wales (1888); Common-Sense Patriotism (1894); and Landmarks Welsh Church History (1912).
Can we change English writers and Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers and other categories into this;
Both these kings were slain by .Ceadwalla in the following year, but shortly afterwards the Welsh king was overthrown by Oswald, brother of Eanfrith, who reunited the whole of Northumbria under his sway and acquired a supremacy analogous to that previously held by Edwin.
An account of his Welsh campaigns is given in the Vitae duorum Off arum, but it is difficult to determine how far the stories there given have an historical basis.
After the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century the northern Britons seem to have shown greater determination in maintaining their independence than any of the southern kingdoms and, according to Welsh tradition, Cunedda, the ancestor of the kings of Gwynedd, had himself come from the north.Advertisement
In 916 she sent an expedition against the Welsh, which advanced as far as Brecknock.
The sections provided for cattle are properly restricted to what may be termed the beef breeds; in the catalogue order they are Devon, South Devon, Hereford, Shorthorn, Sussex, Red Polled, Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Welsh, Highland, Cross-bred, Kerry and Dexter, and Small Cross-bred.
Other cattle societies, all well caring for the interest of their respective breeds, are the Shorthorn Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn Association, the Hereford Herd Book Society, the Devon Cattle Breeders' Society, the South Devon Herd Book Society, the Sussex Herd Book Society, the Longhorned Cattle Society, the Red Polled Society, the English Guernsey Cattle Society, the English Kerry and Dexter Cattle Society, the Welsh Bla.
Milford Haven itself, designated by the Welsh Aberdaugleddau, as the estuary of the united East and West Cleddy rivers, has played an important part on several occasions in the course of history.
Frau Holda; others, like the Welsh Pwck, the Lancashire boggarts or the more widely found Jack-o'-Lantern (Will o' the Wisp), are sprites who do no jmore harm than leading the wanderer astray.
From Prince Cadell's days to the death of the Lord Rhys, last reigning prince of South Wales, in 1196, Dinefawr continued to be the recognized abode of South Welsh royalty.
The lands of the family lay chiefly on the Welsh Marches, and from this date the Bohuns take a foremost place among the Marcher barons.
The skull is I There are no native names either in Teutonic or Celtic languages; such words as German Kaninchen or English cony are from the Latin cuniculus, while the Irish, Welsh and Gaelic are adaptations from English.
The familiar name for toasted cheese, "Welsh rabbit," is merely a joke, and the alteration to "Welsh rare-bit" is due to a failure to see the joke, such as it is.
The Cockers are smaller spaniels, brown, or brown-and-white in the Welsh variety, black in the more common modern English form.
Henry Percy (Hotspur) and his father, the earl of Northumberland, thought their services ill-requited, and finally made common cause with the partisans of Mortimer and the Welsh.
Its territory is said to have stretched from the Tyne northwards, ultimately reaching the Forth, while its western frontier was gradually extended at the expense of the Welsh.
During William's absence in 1067, Fitz-Osbern was left as his deputy in central England, to guard it from the Welsh on one side, and the Danes on the other.
Catherine's name soon began to be coupled with that of Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, and in 1428 Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, secured the passing of an act to prevent her from marrying without the consent of the king and council.
The town was in the manor of English Talgarth, there being also a manor of Welsh Talgarth, in which Welsh laws prevailed.
This was enough to make him unpopular with many of the Welsh clergy, and being denied the privilege of preaching for nothing at two churches, he helped his old Oxford friend John Mayor, now vicar of Shawbury, Shropshire, from October until January 11th, 1784.
The scarcity of Welsh bibles was Charles's greatest difficulty in his work.
The Welsh causes at Manchester and London, too, gave him much uneasiness, and burdened him with great responsibilities at this juncture.
The first Welsh testament issued by that Society appeared on the 6th of May 1806, the bible on the 7th of May 1807 - both being edited by Charles.
Between 1805 and 1811 he issued his Biblical Dictionary in four volumes, which still remains the standard work of its kind in Welsh.
Three editions of his Welsh catechism were published for the use of his schools (1789, 1791 and 1794); an English catechism for the use of schools in Lady Huntingdon's Connexion was drawn up by him in 1797; his shorter catechism in Welsh appeared in 1799, and passed through several editions, in Welsh and English, before 1807, when his Instructor (still the Connexional catechism) appeared.
His last work was a corrected edition of the Welsh Bible issued in small pica by the Bible Society.
In 1909 Jennings was the chief field in Louisiana, lesser fields being at Welsh, Anse la Butte, Caddo and Vinton.
The whole area was united as one civil parish in 1903, and the population in 1901 was 16 4,333, of whom only about 8% spoke Welsh.
These comprise the Welsh portion of the MSS.
A catalogue of the printed books in the Welsh department, which soon became a standard work of reference, was published in 1898, while a calendar of the Welsh MSS.
The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
The Welsh form of the name, Caerdydd (pronounced Caerdeeth, with the accent on the second syllable) suggests that the name means "the fort of (Aulus ?) Didius," rather than Caer Daf ("the fortress on the Taff"), which is nowhere found (except in Leland), though Caer Dyv once existed as a variant.
About 1153, Ivor Bach (or the Little), a neighbouring Welsh chieftain, seized the castle and for a time held William, earl of Gloucester, and the countess prisoners in the hills.
Welsh hygad, " warlike," corresponds.
There is, comparatively speaking, no great distance of time between the leges barbarorum and the Laws of Wales, while the contents of the latter show a similar, nay almost the same, idea of law as the former; and, apart from the fact that Wales became permanently connected at the end of the 13th century with a Teutonic people, the English, it has been noticed that in Wales Roman and Germanic, but no traces of a specific Welsh, law are found.
An English translation by the side of the Welsh text of the so-called triads of Dyvnwal Moel Mud is given by Owen, in the The Ancient Laws of Wales.
The code was originally compiled in Welsh, but we have no older MSS.
The Latin text is much shorter than the Welsh, but we do not know whether this abridgment was made on purpose, or whether the translation is an imitation of an earlier text.
The whole body of Welsh laws was published in one volume by Aneurin Owen under the direction of the commissioners on the public records as Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales (London, 1841).
The Welsh mines are chiefly in Flint, Cardigan and Montgomery shires; the Scottish in Dumfries, Lanark and Argyll; and the Irish in Wicklow, Waterford and Down.
The weekly Saturday market is well attended, and affords interesting scenes of modern Welsh agricultural life.
Some vestiges of this celebrated monastic house, which formerly owned the famous Welsh MS. known as the "Black Book of Carmarthen," are visible between the present Priory Street and the river.
Towards the close of the 11th century a castle was built here by the Normans, and for the next two hundred years town and castle were frequently taken and retaken by Welsh or English.
Edward III., by the Statute Staple of 1353, declared Carmarthen the sole staple for Wales, ordering that every bale of Welsh wool should be sealed or "cocketed" here before it left the Principality.
Disturbances at once occurred in Northumbria, on the Welsh marches and in Kent; and he was compelled to return in December.
His father, Samuel Davis (1756-1824), who served in the War of Independence, was of Welsh, and his mother, Jane Cook, of Scotch-Irish descent; during his infancy the family moved to Wilkinson county, Mississippi.
His father, Spence Monroe, was of Scotch, and his mother, Elizabeth Jones, was of Welsh descent.
Cobden had married in 1840 Miss Catherine Anne Williams, a Welsh lady, and left five surviving daughters, of whom Mrs Cobden-Unwin (wife of the publisher Mr Fisher Unwin), Mrs Walter Sickert (wife of the painter) and Mrs Cobden-Sanderson (wife of the well-known artist in bookbinding), afterwards became prominent in various spheres, and inherited their father's political interest.
The medicinal properties of the sulphur water were discovered, or perhaps rediscovered, in 1732 by a famous Welsh writer, the Rev. Theophilus Evans, then vicar of Llangammarch (to which living Llanwrtyd was a chapelry till 1871).
Welsh is the predominant language of the district.
He wrote and spoke vigorously against Welsh disestablishment (1893); and in the following year, under his guidance, the existing agencies for Church defence were consolidated.
The "Cycle of the White Rose" - the white rose being the badge of the Stuarts - composed of members of the principal Welsh families around Wrexham, including the Williams-Wynns of Wynnstay, lasted from 1710 until some time between 1850 and 1860.
About this time (the exact chronology is uncertain) Ethelstan expelled Sihtric's brother Guthfrith, destroyed the Danish fortress at York, received the submission of the Welsh at Hereford, fixing their boundary along the line of the Wye, and drove the Cornishmen west of the Tamar, fortifying Exeter as an English city.
This confederacy of 937 was joined by Constantine, king of Scotland, the Welsh of Strathclyde, and the Norwegian chieftains Anlaf Sihtricsson and Anlaf Godfredsson, who, though they came from Ireland, had powerful English connexions.
This was not merely an idle flourish, for some of his charters are signed by Welsh and Scottish kings as subreguli.
The second division is formed by the convention between the English and the Welsh Dunsaetas, the law of the Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the fragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book.
Another castle, built in the same century, on the east bank, was held direct by the lords of Glamorgan, as the westernmost outpost of their lordship. It was frequently attacked by the Welsh, notably in 1231 when it was taken, and the town demolished by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth.
Its date is not certainly known, 450-455 being given by the English authorities, 428 by the Welsh (see Kent).
Powis Castle, being of red sandstone, is usually called in Welsh Castell Coch (red castle).
The keep is doubtfully assigned to a date previous to the Conquest; the important position on the Welsh March led to several subsequent additions, especially in the 14th century, and the castle was only dismantled by order of the Parliamentarians after it had strongly resisted their arms on behalf of Charles I.
The Celtic heroic saga in the British islands may be divided into the two principal groups of Gaelic (Irish) and Brython (Welsh), the first, excluding the purely mythological, into the Ultonian (connected with Ulster) and the Ossianic. The Ultonianis grouped round the names of King Conchobar and the heroCuchulainn, " the Irish Achilles," the defender of Ulster against all Ireland, regarded by some as a solar hero.
The original Welsh legend was spread by British refugees in Brittany, and was thus celebrated by both English and French Celts.
Take, for instance, the description of some of Arthur's knights in the Welsh tale of Kilhwch and Olwen (in the Mabinogion).
Perceval (Parzival, Parsifal), the Welsh Peredur, " the seeker of the basin," the most intimately connected with the quest of the Grail (q.v.).
Gawain (Welwain, Welsh Gwalchmai), Arthur's nephew, who in medieval romance remains the type of knightly courage and chivalry, until his character is degraded in order to exalt that of Lancelot.
Pop. (1890) 44,007; (I goo) 56,383, of whom 13,470 were foreign-born, including 3696 Germans, 2458 Irish, 1661 Italians and 1165 Welsh; (1910, census) 74,419.
It is a curious fact that the printed editions always give it in conjunction with this latter and that the two have also been preserved together in a Welsh manuscript translation.
We also possess in one of the so-called Mabinogi a Welsh version of the tale, Peredur, son of Evrawc. This appears to be a free rendering of the adventures found in Chretien combined with incidents drawn from Welsh tradition.
The Welsh text, with translation, has been edited by Canon Williams. A fine translation by Dr Sebastian Evans is published in "The Temple Classics," under the title of The High History of the Holy Grail.
Old Oswestry, also called Old Fort (Welsh Hen Dinas), is a British earthwork about a mile from the modern town.
The town was walled by the time of Edward I., but was several times burnt during Welsh invasions.
In Great Britain there is the South Welsh field, extending westward from the march of Monmouth shire to Kidwelly, and northward to Merthyr Tydfil.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
In modern times Aberystwyth has become a Welsh educational centre, owing to the erection here of one of the three colleges of the university of Wales (1872), and of a hostel for women in connexion with it.
In 1905 it was decided to fix here the site of the proposed Welsh National Library.
In most essential points he was a model bishop, and he acquainted himself with Welsh, so as to preach and conduct service in that language.
A return was also prepared in 1891, for Wales, of those who could speak only Welsh, only English, and both languages, but, owing to the inclusion of infants, the results were of little value.
The question was somewhat expanded at the next census, and in 1901 was brought into harmony with the similar inquiry as to Welsh and Manx.
A small brook named Barri runs here into the sea, whence the place was formerly known in Welsh as Aber-Barri, but the name of both the river and the island is supposed to be derived from Baruch, a Welsh saint of the 7th century, who had a cell on the island.
Besides the small old parish churches of MerthyrDovan and Cadoxton, and the rebuilt parish church of Barry, there are four modern churches (in one of which Welsh services are held).
There are about thirty nonconformist chapels, in nearly a third of which the services are Welsh.
The compositions of Haydn include 104 symphonies, 16 overtures, 76 quartets, 68 trios, 54 sonatas, 31 concertos and a large number of divertimentos, cassations and other instrumental pieces; 24 operas and dramatic pieces, 16 Masses, a Stabat Mater, interludes for the " Seven Words," 3 oratorios, 2 Te Deums and many smaller pieces for the church, over 40 songs, over 50 canons and arrangements of Scottish and Welsh national melodies.
He was constantly at war with the Welsh.
Her father, Thomas Gwyn, appears to have been a broken-down soldier of a family of Welsh origin.
The pamphlets were printed at a secret press established by John Penry, a Welsh puritan, with the help of the printer Robert Waldegrave, about midsummer 1588, for the issue of puritan literature forbidden by the authorities.
Two old camps on the Welsh border are now called Caer Caradoc, but the names seem to be the invention of antiquaries and not genuinely ancient memorials of the Celtic hero.
He was one of Carlyle's literary executors, and brought some sharp criticism upon himself by publishing Carlyle's Reminiscences and the Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle, for they exhibited the domestic life and character of his old friend in an unpleasant light.
For an exhaustive study of the Tristan legend and literature, see the recent work by Professor Golther; also an examination of the Welsh fragments by Ivor John in the Grimm Library.
A notable event in the history of Welsh Methodism was the publication in 1770, of a 4to annotated Welsh Bible by the Rev. Peter Williams, a forceful preacher, and an indefatigable worker, who had joined the Methodists in 1746, after being driven from several curacies.
The London degree largely figures on the Connexional Diary; and now the Welsh degrees, in arts and divinity, are being increasingly achieved.
It is a remarkable fact that every Welsh revival, since 1735, has broken out among the Calvinistic Methodists.
The Connexion provides for English residents wherever required, and the English ministers are oftener in their own pulpits than their Welsh brethren.
In England the 9th century closes with Alfred, who, with the aid of the Welsh monk, Asser, produced a series of free translations from Latin texts, including Boethius and Orosius and Bede, and the Cura Pastoralis of Gregory the Great.
Such in particular were the Greek Isles of the Blest, or Fortunate Islands, the Welsh Avalon, the Portuguese Antilia or Isle of Seven Cities, and St Brendan's island, the subject of many sagas in many languages.
He held his seat successfully at the contests in 1892, 1895 and 1900, his reputation as a champion of Welsh nationalism, Welsh nonconformity and extreme Radicalism becoming thoroughly established both in parliament and in the country.
At the beginning of the 19th century Mountain Ash was a small village known only by its Welsh name of Aberpenar, but from 1850, with the development of its collieries, the population rapidly increased.
Already in 1201 he was chamberlain to King John, the sheriff of three shires, the constable of Dover and Windsor castles, the warden of the Cinque Ports and of the Welsh Marches.
Thus the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (founded 1698), besides its other activities, has done much to cheapen and multiply copies of the Scriptures, not only in English and Welsh, but in many foreign languages.
It originated in a proposal made to the committee of the Religious Tract Society, by the Rev. Thomas Charles of Bala, who found that his evangelistic and philanthropic labours in Wales were sorely hindered by the dearth of Welsh Bibles.
Of the whole 1,921,000 volumes were issued from the Bible House, London, and 1,331,000 were in English or Welsh, circulating chiefly in England and the British colonies.
The name Brecknock is an anglicized form of Brycheiniog, the Welsh name of the territory of Brychan (whence the alternative form of Brecon), a Goidelic chieftain, who gained possession of the Usk valley in the 5th century.
The Welsh name of the town, on the other hand, has always been Aber-Honddu (the estuary of the Honddu).
This breed is peculiar to Ireland, the Welsh being of a similar type, but more often white.
Keightley's Fairy Mythology is full of interesting matter; Rhys's Celtic Mythology is especially copious about Welsh fairies, which are practically identical with those of Ireland and Scotland.
The Welsh texts never call Arthur gwledig (prince), but amheradawr (Latin imperator) or emperor, a title which would be bestowed on the highest official in the island.
Professor Rhys' Studies in the Arthurian Legend are largely based on Welsh material, and may be consulted for details, though the conclusions drawn are not in harmony with recent research.
Much inferior in elevation to Snowdon or Cader Idris, Plinlimmon is certainly the most dangerous of the Welsh hills because of its quaking bogs.
Here also Owen Glendower unfurled the banner of Welsh independence; from here, in 1401, he harassed the country, sacking Montgomery, burningWelshpool, and destroying Cwm Hir (long "combe," or valley) abbey, of which some columns are said to be now in Llanidloes old church..
The tree generally succeeds on the Welsh hills.
In 1809 he graduated M.A.; and in 1810, on the recommendation of Sir John Leslie, he was chosen master of an academy newly established at Haddington, where he became the tutor of Jane Welsh, afterwards famous as Mrs Carlyle.
He became engaged in 1812 to Isabella Martin, whom in 1823 he married; but it may be at once stated here that meanwhile he gradually fell in love with Jane Welsh, and she with him.
If he had married Miss Welsh, his life, as well as hers, would have been very different.
The Welsh Onion or Ciboule, Allium fistulosum, is a hardy perennial, native of Siberia.
Legionary fortresses were established at Wroxeter (for a time only), Chester and Caerleon, facing the Welsh hills, and at Lincoln in the northeast.
Forts of this kind were dotted all along the military roads of the Welsh and northern hill-districts.
Even Wroxeter on the Welsh border may have been finally destroyed before the end of the 5th century.
The story is in itself by no means improbable, while the dates assigned to the first invasion by various Welsh, Gaulish and English authorities, with one exception all fall within about a quarter of a century, viz.
To these we find nothing analogous in the other kingdoms, though the poorer classes of Welsh freemen had wergilds varying from r 20 to 60 shillings.
Most probably it was introduced by the Irish missionaries who evangelized the north of England, though Welsh influence is scarcely impossible.
By the treaty of Shrewsbury (1265) he was recognized as overlord of Wales; and in return Simon de Montfort was supplied with Welsh troops for his last campaign.
There were Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Welsh, Irish and Scotch-Irish; Quakers, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics, Lutherans (Reformed), Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, and Moravians.
Capel Curig means "chapel of Curig," a British saint mentioned in Welsh poetry.
Seafisheries are prosecuted, and there are oyster-beds on the coast, but the produce requires to be freed from a peculiar flavour by the purer waters of the Welsh and English coast before it is fit for food.
The Baptists have also stations in Arakan and Assam where they link up with the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists (1845).
At this "Seven Days' Battle" (q.v.) in which he stopped McClellan's time the Welsh marches were in a very disorderly condition.
The bishop's career and on the lawless condition of the Welsh marches Lee tremendous struggle of 1864 between Lee and Grant included in his time.
In the middle of the r9th century William Rees of Tonn published at Llandovery many important works dealing with early Welsh history and archaeology.
After several successful battles against the Welsh they became kings in 519.
Suspicion likewise attaches to the name Cerdic, which seems to be Welsh, while we learn from Bede that the Isle of Wight, together with part at least of the Hampshire coast, was colonized by Jutes, who apparently had a kingdom distinct from that of Wessex.
In his reign the Chronicle mentions two great victories over the Welsh, one at a place called Bedcanford in 571, by which Aylesbury and the upper part of the Thames valley fell into the hands of the West Saxons, and another at Deorham in 577, which led to the capture of Cirencester, Bath and Gloucester.
After his return he gained a victory over the Welsh near Pen-Selwood, by which a large part of Somerset came into his hands.
His fame as a preacher increased, and under the direction of Thomas Charles of Bala he established numerous Sunday schools, and gave and secured considerable Welsh support to the founding of the London Missionary Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society and the Religious Tract Society.
His eloquence was so remarkable that he was known as "the Welsh Demosthenes."
Several of his sermons were published in Welsh.
Besides these important constitutional changes Hubert negotiated a peace with Scotland in 1195, and in 1197 another with the Welsh.
Mention of Cader Idris and its legends is frequent in Welsh literature, old and modern.
The Welsh triads know no fewer than three Gwenhwyfars; Giraldus Cambrensis, relating the discovery of the royal tombs at Glastonbury, speaks of the body found as that of Arthur's second wife; the prose Merlin gives Guenevere a bastard half-sister of the same name, who strongly resembles her; and the Lancelot relates how this lady, trading on the likeness, persuaded Arthur that she was the true daughter of Leodegrance, and the queen the bastard interloper.
A fragment of a Welsh poem seems to confirm this tradition, which certainly lies at the root of her later abduction by Meleagaunt.
A curious fragment of Welsh dialogues, printed by Professor Rhys in his Studies on the Arthurian Legend, appears to represent Kay as the abductor, In the pseudo-Chronicles and the romances based upon them the abductor is Mordred, and in the chronicles there is no doubt that the lady was no unwilling victim.
The Welsh poppy belongs to an allied genus, Meconopsis; it is a perennial herb with a yellow juice and pale yellow poppy-like flowers.
The Welsh have the banshee under the name gwrach y Rhibyn (witch of Rhibyn).
Comparatively early in his reign the South Welsh princes, owing to the pressure on them of North Wales and Mercia, commended themselves to Alfred.
Later in the reign the North Welsh followed their example, and the latter co-operated with the English in the campaign of 8 93 (894).
In the eastern parts and along the Wye valley, English has become the predominant language, but in the rest of the county, especially north of the Eppynt range, Welsh occupies that position.
In 1901 about 51% of the population above three years could speak both English and Welsh, 38% could speak English only and 11% Welsh only.
Besides an endowed grammar-school (Christ College) at Brecon, there are in the county four secondary schools, established under the Welsh Intermediate Education Act 1899, viz.
On the departure of the Romans, the Goidelic hill-tribes, probably with help from Gower and Ireland, seem to have regained possession of the Usk valley under the leadership of a chieftain of their own race, Brychan, who became the ancestor of one of the three chief tribes of hereditary Welsh saints.
The Welsh revolt absorbed his energies till 1408.
Local Veto and Disestablishment of the Welsh Church were put in the forefront of the party programme, but the government was already to all appearances riding for a fall, when on the 24th of June 1895 it was beaten upon an adverse vote in the Commons in regard to a question of the supply and reserve of small arms ammunition.
Cantref y Gwaelod (the hundred of the bottom) is the Welsh literary name of this bay, on the shores of which geological depression has certainly taken place.
Jane Baillie Welsh, born 1801, was the only child of Dr Welsh of Haddington.
He visited Haddington occasionally in the following years, and a strong mutual regard arose between him and Miss Welsh.
The Martin family held him to his word, and he took a final leave of Miss Welsh in 1822.
A friend of Irving's, Mrs Basil Montague, wrote to Miss Welsh, to exhort her to suppress her love for Irving, who had married Miss Martin in 1823.
Miss Welsh replied by announcing her intention to marry Carlyle; and then told him the whole story, of which he had previously been ignorant.
His brother, Alexander, had now taken the farm at Craigenputtock, and the Carlyles decided to settle at the separate dwelling-house there, which would bring them nearer to Mrs Welsh.
S.) The chief authorities for Carlyle's life are his own Reminiscences, the Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle, the Love Letters of Thomas Carlyle and Jane Welsh (ed.
The town has long been known as a Welsh publishing centre, the vernacular newspaper, Baner, being edited and printed here.
Welsh nationality was most marked in Motherwell (with 0.250%).
That they were non-Aryan, the theory of Sir John Rhys, seems improbable; for the non-English placenames of Scotland are either Gaelic or Brythonic (more or less Welsh), and the names of Pictish kings are either common to Gaelic and Welsh (or Cymric, or Brythonic), or are Welsh in their phonetics.
The withdrawal of the Romans from Britain (410) left the northern part of the island as a prey to be fought for by warlike tribes, of whom the most notable were the Picts in the north, the Scots or Dalriads from Ireland in the west (Argyll), the Cymric or Welsh peoples in the south-west and between Forth and Tay, and the Teutonic invaders, Angles or English, in the south-east.
On the west of the northern part of the English kingdom of Bernicia, severed from that by the Forest of Ettrick, and perhaps by the mysterious work of which traces remain in the " Catrail," was the Brython or Welsh kingdom of Strathclyde, which then included the territory and population, later anglicized, of Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, and, south of the historic border, Cumberland and Westmoreland to the Derwent.
A marriage of the daughter of Kenneth MacAlpine with the Welsh prince of Strathclyde gives Scotland a footing in that region; in short, Scotland slowly advances towards and even across the historic border.
But Douglas and Percy left Cocklaw before Albany came up, and hurried to join hands with the Welsh rebel, Glendower.
The castle, at first called Lydbury Castle, was built by one of the bishops of Hereford between 1085 and 1154, to protect his manor from the Welsh, and the town which sprang up round the castle walls acquired the name of Bishop's Castle in the 13th century.
His father was called Gruffydd Vychan, and his mother Helen; on both sides he had pretensions to be descended from the old Welsh princes.
Welsh sympathies were, however, on Richard's side, and combined with a personal quarrel to make Owen the leader of a national revolt.
A second campaign by the king in the autumn was defeated, like that of the previous year, through bad weather and the Fabian tactics of the Welsh.
Still the Welsh revolt was never so formidable.
Later English writers allege that he died of starvation in the mountains; but Welsh legend represents him as spending a peaceful old age with his sons-in-law at Ewyas and Monington in Herefordshire, till his death and burial at the latter place.
On the Welsh side something is given by the bards Iolo Goch and Lewis Glyn Cothi.
Nunna is probably to be identified with Nun, described in the Chronicle as the kinsman of Ine of Wessex who fought with him against Gerent, king of the West Welsh, in 710.
In 1562 an act of parliament had made provision for translating the Bible into Welsh, and the New Testament was issued in 1567; but the number printed would barely supply a copy for each parish church.
At the coronation in that year his growing reputation in Parliament was recognized by his admission to the Privy Council; and in 191 2 he appeared as an acknowledged leader of the party, moving the Opposition amendment to the Address, and the rejection of the Welsh Disestablishment bill on second reading.
But Edward, who had now joined the bishop with the centre or "main battle," peremptorily ordered the cavalry to stand fast, and, taught by his experience in the Welsh wars, brought up his archers.
After the change of government the last years of his life were spent in taking his due share in the vigorous opposition which the Unionists offered to the Liberal Education bills the budget of 190g, the Parliament bill, the Home Rule bill, and the Welsh Disestablishment bill.
In the first half of the 19th century other exports were lime, freestone, and grain; West Indian, American and Baltic produce, Irish flax and Welsh pig iron were imported, and shipbuilding was a growing industry.
Among the fir-clad slopes of the neighbourhood, which command a fine view of the Welsh hills across the Channel, there are many beautiful walks and drives.
Further evidence to the same effect is found in the fact that the ancient Breton and Welsh names for Ireland were Ywerddon or Iverdon.
The Cambrian rocks of Ireland, a great series of purple and green shales, slates and grits with beds of quartzite, have not yet yielded sufficient fossil evidence to permit of a correlation with the Welsh rocks, and possibly some parts of the series may be transferred in the future to the overlying Ordovician.
In 1850 came the " restoration of the hierarchy " by Pope Pius IX., when England was mapped out into an archbishopric of Westminster 4 and twelve suffragan sees, since increased to fifteen (sixteen including the Welsh see of Menevia).
Later in his reign, probably in 614, he defeated the Welsh in a great battle at Chester and massacred the monks of Bangor who were assembled to aid them by their prayers.
This war may have been due partly to Ã†thelfrith's persecution of Edwin, but it had a strategic importance in the separation of the North Welsh from the Strathclyde Britons.
It is most probably the British Cadman, intermediate between the Old Celtic Catumanus and the modern Welsh Cadfan.
In other languages, like Oscan and Umbrian which are closely akin to Latin, or the Welsh branch of the Celtic languages, p occurs regularly without regard to the nature of the vowel following.
Thus, corresponding to the Latin quattuor, we find the Oscan petora, the Gaulish petor-ritum, " four-wheeler," the Welsh pedwar, " four," &c., while the Irish cethir, " four," corresponds more closely to the Latin.
The longest river in Wales is the Severn (180 m.), in Welsh Hafren, which rises in Plinlimmon, and takes a north-easterly direction through Montgomeryshire before reaching the English border.
Anglicized in spelling and even to some extent changed in sound are Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin); Pembroke (Penfro); Kidwelly (Cydweli); Cardif f (Caerdydd); Llandovery (Llanymddyfri); while Lampeter, in Welsh Llanbedrpont-Stephan, affords an example of a Celtic place-name both Anglicized and abbreviated.
In not a few instances modern English nomenclature has supplanted the old Welsh placenames in popular usage, although the town's original appellation is retained in Welsh literature and conversation, e.g.
Holyhead is Caergybi (fort of Cybi, a Celtic missionary of the 6th century); Presteign is Llanandras (church of St Andrew, or Andras); St Asaph is Llanelwy; the English name commemorating the reputed founder of the see, and the Welsh name recalling the church's original foundation on the banks of the Elwy.
Cardigan, in Welsh Aberteifi, from its situation near the mouth of the Teifi, and Brecon, in Welsh Aberhonddu, from its site near the confluence of the Usk and Honddu, are examples of corrupted Welsh names in common use - Ceredigion, Brychan - which possess in addition pure Celtic forms. In the third division, English place-names are tolerably frequent everywhere and predominate in the Marches and on the South Wales coast.
Even in so thoroughly Welsh a county as Cardiganshire, English placenames are often to be encountered, e.g.
Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.
Wy, or gwy, an obsolete Celtic word for water, preserved in the names of many Welsh rivers - Elwy, Gwili, Wye or Gwy.
The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep, the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.
The great herds of goats, which in medieval times subsisted on the Welsh hills, have entirely disappeared since the general adoption of the sheep-farming industry.
The Wye, the Usk, the Dee, the Dovey, the Teifi, the Towy and most of the Welsh rivers and lakes are frequented by anglers for salmon and trout.
The extinction of the Welsh Court of Great Sessions in 1830 served to remove the last relic of separate jurisdiction in Wales itself, but in 1881 special legislation was once more inaugurated by the Welsh Sunday Closing Act (46 Victoria), forbidding the sale of spirituous liquors by all inn-keepers on Sundays to any but bona fide travellers throughout Wales and Monmouthshire.
A separate act on behalf of Welsh education was likewise passed in 1889, when the Welsh Intermediate Education Act made special provision for intermediate and technical education throughout the Principality and Monmouthshire.
Royal commissions dealing with questions peculiar to Wales have been issued from time to time, notably of recent years, in the Welsh Land Tenure Commission of 1893, and the Welsh Church Commission of 1906 (see History).
The four Welsh sees, however, extend beyond the borders of the twelve counties, for they include the whole of Monmouthshire and some portions of the English border shires; on the other hand, the sees of Hereford and Chester encroach upon the existing Welsh counties.
Universally accepted statistics as to the various religious bodies it has been found impossible to obtain, but the Report (1910) of the Welsh Church Commission stated that, exclusive of Roman Catholics, there were 743,361 communicants or fully admitted members of some denomination, of whom 193,081 were Churchmen and 550,280 Nonconformists.
It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.
It was during these disastrous Mercian wars that there first appeared on the Welsh coasts the Norse and Danish pirates, who harried and burnt the small towns and flourishing monasteries on the shores of Cardigan Bay and the Bristol Channel.
In the 9th century, however, the Welsh, attacked by land and sea, by Saxons and by Danes, at length obtained a prince capable of bringing the turbulent chieftains of his country into obedience, and of opposing the two sets of invaders of his realm.
Howel, son of Cadell, commonly known as Howel Dda the Good, is ever celebrated in Welsh history as the framer, or rather the codifier, of the ancient laws of his country, which were promulgated to the people at his hunting lodge, Ty Gwyn ar Taf, near the modern Whitland.
The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places.
By first connecting himself with John through his marriage with the English king's daughter Joan, by straining every nerve to repress dissensions and enforce obedience amongst the Welsh chieftains, and later by allying himself with the English barons against his suzerain, this prince during a reign of 44 years was enabled to give a considerable amount of peace and prosperity to his country, which he persistently sought to rule as an independent sovereign, although acknowledging a personal vassalage to the king of England.
As part of the Roman Upper Province of Britain, Wales would naturally have fallen under the primacy of York, but the Welsh sees had continued practically independent of outside control during Saxon times.
In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished train, whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales.
This enthusiastic priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years1199-1203paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of Pope Innocent III.
Innocent was inclined to temporize, whilst the Welsh chieftains, and especially Gwenwynwyn of Powys, loudly applauded Gerald's action, but Llewelyn ap Iorwerth himself prudently held aloof from the controversy.
Finally, in 1203, Gerald was compelled to make complete submission to the king and archbishop at Westminster, and henceforth Canterbury remained in undisputed possession of the Welsh sees, a circumstance that undoubtedly tended towards the later union of the two countries.
Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway.
Of Griffith's three sons, Owen, Llewelyn and David, the most popular and influential was undoubtedly Llewelyn, whose deeds and qualities were celebrated in extravagant terms by the bards of his own day, and whose evil fate has ever been a favourite theme of Welsh poets.
For Edward, Henry III.'s son and heir, who had been created earl of Chester by his father and put in possession of all the royal claims in Wales, was generally credited with a strong determination to crush for ever Welsh independence, should a fitting opportunity to do so present itself.
For after the battle of Evesham a treaty was concluded between the English king and the Welsh prince at Montgomery, whereby the latter was confirmed in his principality of Gwynedd and was permitted to receive the homage of all the Welsh barons, save that of the head of the house of Dynevor, which the king reserved to himself; whilst the four fertile cantrefs of Perfeddwlad, lying between Gwynedd and the earldom of Chester, were granted to the prince.
Llewelyn was, however, foolish enough to lose the results of this very favourable treaty by intriguing with the de Montfort family, and in 1273 he became betrothed to Eleanor de Montfort, the old Earl's only daughter, a piece of political folly which may possibly in some degree account for Edward's harsh treatment of the Welsh prince.
Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy, in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London.
With David's capture practically all serious Welsh resistance to the English arms ceased, if we except the unsuccessful attempt made to rouse the crushed nation in 1293 by Llewelyn's natural son, Madoc, who ended his days as a prisoner in the Tower of London.
The old Welsh land tenure by gavelkind was, however, still permitted to remain in force amongst the natives of all Wales, whilst it was henceforth arranged to administer justice in the eight counties by special royal judges, and in the Marches by the officers appointed by the various lords-marchers according to the terms of their tenure.
Many of the turbulent Welsh warriors having now become mercenaries on the continent or else enlisted under the English king, and the whole of the land west of Severn at last enjoying internal peace, the commercial resources of Wales were developed in a manner that had hitherto not been possible.
Coal, copper, timber, iron, and especially wool, were exported from the Principality, and by the Statute Staple of 1353 Carmarthen was declared the sole staple for the whole Welsh wool trade, every bale of wool having first to be sealed or " cocketed " at this important town, which during the 14th century may almost be accounted as the English capital of the Principality, so greatly was it favoured by the Plantagenet monarchs.
In this letter Owen, who was holding his court in Llanbadarn near Aberystwith, demands his own acknowledgment as sovereign of Wales; the calling of a free Welsh parliament on the English model; the independence of the Welsh Church from the control of Canterbury; and the founding of national colleges in Wales itself.
An assembly of Welsh nobles was actually summoned to meet in 1406 at Machynlleth in an ancient building still standing and known to this day as " Owen Glendower's Parliament House."
Of the part played by the Cymry during the wars of the Roses it is needless to speak, since the period forms a part of English rather than of Welsh history.
The Yorkist faction seems to have been strongest in the eastern portion of the Principality, where the Mortimers were all-powerful, but later the close connexion of the house of Lancaster with Owen Tudor, a gentleman of Anglesea (beheaded in 1461) who had married Catherine of France, widow of Henry V., did much to invite Welsh sympathy on behalf of the claims of Henry Tudor his grandson, who claimed the English throne by right of his grandmother.
Through the instrumentality of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap Thomas (1451-1527), the wealthiest and the most powerful personage in South Wales, Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, on his landing at Milford Haven in 1485 found the Welsh ready to rise in his behalf against the usurper Richard III.
With the Tudor dynasty firmly seated on the throne, a number of constitutional changes intended to place Welsh subjects on a complete social and political equality with Englishmen have to be recorded.
At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.
It is probable that Welsh members attended the parliaments of 1536 and 1539, and certain it is that they were present at the parliament of 1541 and every parliament subsequently held.
At the same time all ancient Welsh laws and customs, which were at variance with the recognized law of England, were now declared illegal, and Cymric land tenure by gavelkind, which had been respected by Edward I., was expressly abolished and its place taken by the ordinary practice of primogeniture.
Under the system of the Great Sessions justice was administered throughout the twelve counties of Wales for nearly three hundred years, and it was not until 1830 that this system of jurisdiction was abolished (not without some protest from Welsh members at Westminster), and the existing North and_South Wales circuits were brought into being.
With the peaceful absorption of the Principality into the realm of the Tudor sovereigns, the subsequent course of Welsh history assumes mainly a religious and educational character.
The influence of the Renaissance seems to have been tardy in penetrating into Wales itself, nor did the numerous ecclesiastical changes during the period of the Reformation cause any marked signs either of resentment or approval amongst the mass of the Welsh people, although some of the ancient Catholic customs lingered on obstinately.
Of this distinguished band the most memorable names are those of Bishop Richard Davies (c. 1501-1581) and of William Salesbury, the squire-scholar of Llanrwst (c. 1520-c. 1600) in Denbighshire, who is commonly credited with the honour of having produced the first printed book in the Welsh language, a small volume of proverbs published in London about the year 1545.
With the accession of Elizabeth a novel and vigorous ecclesiastical policy on truly national lines was now inaugurated in Wales itself, chiefly through the instrumentality of Richard Davies, nominated bishop of St Asaph in 1559 and translated thence to St Davids in 1561, who was mainly responsible for the act of parliament of 1563, commanding the bishops of St Davids, Llandaff, Bangor, St Asaph and Hereford to prepare with all speed for public use Welsh translations of the Scriptures and the Book of Common Prayer.
The honour of presenting his countrymen with a complete Welsh version of the Bible was reserved for William Morgan (c. 1547-1604), vicar of Llanrhayader, in Denbighshire, and afterwards bishop successively of Llandaff and of St Asaph.
In December 1588 the first complete Welsh Bible, commonly known as " Bishop Morgan's Bible," was issued from the royal press at Westminster under the patronage of queen and primate, about Boo copies being supplied for distribution amongst the parish churches of Wales.
This famous editio princeps of the Welsh Bible, first and foremost of Welsh classics, was further supplemented under James I.
It would be well-nigh impossible to exaggerate the services rendered to the ancient British tongue, and consequently to the national spirit of Wales, by these Elizabethan and Jacobean translations, issued in 1567, 1588 and 1620, which were able definitely to fix the standard of classical Welsh, and to embody the contending dialects of Gwynedd, Dyfed and Gwent for all time in one literary storehouse.
The old ecclesiastical policy of Elizabeth, which had hitherto borne such good fruit in Wales, was now gradually relaxed under the later Stuarts and definitely abandoned under Anne, during whose reign only Englishmen were appointed to the vacant Welsh sees.
The Church, which had so long played a prominent and valuable part in the moral and literary education of the Welsh people, was now gradually forced out of touch with the nation through the action of alien and unsympathetic Whig prelates in Wales itself, which still remained mainly High Church and Jacobite in feeling.
All writers agree in stating that the mass of the Welsh people at the close of the 17th century were illiterate, and many divines of Cymric nationality charge their countrymen also with immorality and religious apathy.
English was little spoken or understood amongst the peasant population, and there was a great dearth of Welsh educational works.
With this newly acquired ability to read the Bible in their own tongue, the many persons so taught were not slow to express a general demand for Cymric literature, which was met by a supply from local presses in the small country towns; the marvellous success of the Welsh circulating charity schools caused in fact the birth of the Welsh vernacular press.
Two other clergymen, who figure prominently in the Methodist movement, and whose influence has proved lasting, were Peter Williams of Carmarthen (1722-1796), the Welsh Bible commentator, and William Williams of I j antycelyn (1717-1791), the celebrated Welsh hymn-writer.
Towards the close of the, 8th century the Methodist revival spread to North Wales under the influence of the celebrated Thomas Charles, commonly called Charles of Bala (1755-1814), formerly curate of Llanymowddwy and the founder of Welsh Sunday schools.
The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered.
An honourable exception to the indolent and rapacious divines of this stamp was Thomas Burgess (bishop of St Davids), to whose exertions is mainly due the foundation of St David's College at Lampeter in 1822, an institution erected to provide a better and cheaper education for intending Welsh clergymen.
The foundation of Lampeter College was one of the earliest signs of a new era of revived vigour and better government within the Church, although it was not till 1870 that, by Mr Gladstone's appointment of Dr Joshua Hughes to the see of St Asaph, the special claims of the Welsh Church were officially recognized, and the old Elizabethan policy was one more reverted to after a lapse of nearly two hundred years.
After 1870 Welsh ecclesiastical appointments were made in a more truly national spirit, and this official acknowledgment of the peculiar duties and claims of the Church in Wales largely helped to win back no small amount of the strength and popularity that had been lost during Georgian times.
Although primary education was largely supplied by the many Church schools in all parts of Wales, yet it was in the three most important denominations - the Congregationalists, the Baptists and the Calvinistic Methodists (that new-born sect of which the Church herself was the unwilling parent) - that almost all Welsh spiritual development was to be found during the first half of the 19th century.
In the year 1870 - a date that for many reasons marks the opening of an important era in modern Welsh history - the dissenting bodies of Wales were supporting two quarterly, sixteen monthly and ten weekly papers, all published in the vernacular and all read largely by peasants, colliers and artisans.
Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet appointed the Welsh Church Commission (21st June 1906).
But the most remarkable phenomenon in modern Wales has been the evident growth of a strong national sentiment, the evolution of a new Welsh Renaissance, which demanded special recognition of the Principality's claims by the Imperial parliament.
This revived spirit of nationalism was by outsiders sometimes associated, quite erroneously, with the aims and actions of the Welsh parliamentary party, the spokesmen of political dissent in Wales; yet in reality this sentiment was shared equally by the clergy of the Established Church, and by a large number of the laity within its fold.
Nor are the Welsh landowners and gentry devoid of this new spirit of nationalism, and although some generations ago they ceased as a body to speak the native tongue, they have shown a strong disposition to study once more the ancient language and literature of their country.
It is true that a Young Wales party has arisen, which seeks to narrow this movement to the exclusion of English ideas and influences; and it is also true that there is a party which is abnormally suspicious of and hostile to this Welsh Renaissance; but in the main it is correct to say that the bulk of the Welsh nation remains content to assert its views and requirements in a reasonable manner.
How wide-spread and enthusiastic is this true spirit of nationalism amongst all classes and sects of Welsh society to-day may be observed at the great meetings of the National Eisteddfod, which is held on alternate years in North and South Wales at some important centre, and at which the immense crowds collected and the interest displayed make a deep impression on the Anglo-Saxon or foreign visitors.
Welsh, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons, is the domestic tongue of the majority of the inhabitants of the Principality.
Although the assertion of the celebrated Rhys Prichard of Llandovery that in his time (c. 1630) only 1% of the people of Wales could read the native language is probably an exaggeration, yet the number of persons who could read and write Welsh must have been extremely small outside the ranks of the clergy.
During the earlier half of the 17th century the number of Welsh Bibles distributed throughout the Principality could hardly have exceeded 8000 in all, and except the Bible there was scarcely any Welsh work of importance in circulation.
The enthusiastic course of the Methodist movement under Howell Harris, Daniel Rowland and William Williams; the establishment of Welsh Sunday Schools; the founding of the Bible Society under Thomas Charles of Bala; and the revival early in the 19th century of the Eisteddfodau (the ancient bardic contests of music, poetry and learning), have all contributed to extend the use of the Welsh language and to strengthen its hold as a popular medium of education throughout the Principality.
Welsh had the sound of French u, but now has the clear sound of y described above, which is similar to the ear, and has the same pitch.
In the Goidelic group qu appears as c, thus Irish cethir, " four "; in the Brythonic group it is changed into p, as in Welsh pedwar, " four."
Aryan e became i, as in Irish fir, Welsh gwir, " true," cognate with Latin ver-us.
Probably also Celtic u was advancing or had advanced to a forward position, for it appears in Welsh as I, as in din, " stronghold," from Celtic *dun-on, cognate with Eng.
The development of Brythonic into Welsh is analogous to that of Latin into French.
Unfortunately, the extant remains of Brythonic are scanty; but in the Roman period it borrowed a large number of Latin words, which, as we know their original forms, and as they underwent the same modifications as other words in the language, enable us to trace the phonetic changes by which Brythonic became Welsh.
The accusative is often the case represented in Welsh; but we have also the nominative, and sometimes both, as in cawed from civit-as, and ciwdod from civitat-em, now two words, not two cases of the same word.
Prepositions also are " conjugated " in Welsh, their objects, if pronominal, being expressed by endings.
When a noun comes first, it is followed by a relative pronoun, thus, Dafydd a brynodd lyfr yno, which really means " (it is) David who bought a book there," and is never used in any other sense in the spoken language, though in literary Welsh it is used rhetorically for the simple statement which is properly expressed by putting the verb first.
In Welsh the name is Ynys yr Afallon, usually interpreted "Isle of Apples," but possibly connected with the Celtic tradition of a king over the dead named Avalloc (in Welsh Afallach).
If the traditional derivation is correct, the name is derived from the Welsh afal, an apple, and, as no other large fruit was well known to the races of northern Europe, is probably intended to symbolize the feasting and enjoyments of elysium.
In 1663 John Myles (1621-1683), a Welsh Baptist who had been one of Cromwell's Tryers, with his congregation, took refuge in Massachusetts from the intolerance of the government of Charles II.
They have been reinforced by considerable numbers of English, Welsh and Scottish Baptists.
The " Welsh process " closely resembles the English method; the main difference consists in the enrichment of the matte by smelting with the rich copper-bearing slags obtained in subsequent operations.
When Swansea was the centre of the copper-smelting industry in Europe, many varieties of ores from different mines were smelted in the same furnaces, and the Welsh reverberatory furnaces were used.
The Welsh method finds adherents only in Wales and Chile.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Scottish, Irish and Welsh poets.
This story is partially attested by Welsh documents, in which Kentigern appears as the bishop of Garthmwl, apparently the ruler of the region about Glasgow.
Pop. (1890), 3284; (1900), 5165, of whom 2645 were foreign-born, many being Welsh.
They were of Norman, Saxon or Welsh descent, and became so exclusive in their relationships that dispensations were frequently requisite for the canonical legality of marriages among them.
Part of it is now used as the headquarters of the 4th Welsh (Howitzer) Brigade R.F.A.
There are 26 other churches and io mission rooms belonging to the Church of England, besides 2 Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue and 84 Nonconformist chapels (31 Welsh and 53 English) and zo mission rooms, but all are modern buildings.
Its library is rich in historical and scientific works relating to Wales and Welsh industries and contains the collection of historical MSS.
The free library and art gallery of the corporation, a fourstoreyed building in Italian style erected in 1887, contains the library of the Rev. Rowland Williams (one of the authors of Essays and Reviews), the rich Welsh collection of the Rev. Robert Jones of Rotherhithe, a small Devonian section (presented by the Swansea Devonian Society), and about 8000 volumes and 2500 prints and engravings, intended to be mutually illustrative, given by the Swansea portrait-painter and art critic, John Deffett Francis, from 1876 to 1881, to receive whose first gift the library was established in 1876.
The grammar school founded in 1682 by Hugh Gore (1613-1691), bishop of Waterford, is now carried on by the town council under the Welsh Intermediate Education Act of 1889, and there is a similar school for girls.
Of those who were three years of age and upwards, nearly 67% were returned as speaking English only, 29% as speaking both English and Welsh, and A-% as speaking Welsh only.
An attempt has been made to derive the name from Sein Henydd, the Welsh name of a Gower castle which has been plausibly identified with the first castle built at Swansea, but that derivation is etymologically impossible.
The Welsh name, Aber Tawy, first appears in Welsh poems of the beginning of the 13th century.
The castle was frequently attacked and on several occasions more or less demolished, in the 12th and 13th centuries by the Welsh under the princes of Dynevor.
A similar account of its origin is given in the triads of the Welsh bards, where its erection is attributed to Aurelius Ambrosius, the successor of Vortigern.
On the other hand, the Welsh bard Aneurin states that Stonehenge existed before the time of Aurelius, whose title of Ambrosius may, as suggested by Davies, have been derived from Stonehenge.
Edwards, however, proved a skilful pilot, and his hold on the affection of the Welsh people enabled him to raise the college to a high level of efficiency.
Erddig Hall was noted for its Welsh MSS.
The submerged "bells of Aberdovey" (since Seithennin "the drunkard" caused the formation of Cardigan Bay) are famous in a Welsh song.
We do not know when the legion was finally withdrawn, nor what succeeded, But Welsh legend has made the site very famous with tales of Arthur (revived by Tennyson in his Idylls), of Christian martyrs, Aaron and Julius, and of an archbishopric held by St Dubric and shifted to St David's in the 6th century.
On the west there are Solway Firth, Morecambe Bay, the estuaries of the Mersey and Dee, Cardigan Bay of the Welsh coast, and the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary.
The shores of the Severn estuary are low, but the Welsh coast, sharing the general character of the land, is more or less elevated throughout, though none of the higher mountain-masses directly approaches the sea.
The outer rim of the Welsh area contains a broken series of coal-fields, where patches of Carboniferous strata come to the surface on the edge of the New Red Sandstone plain.
Of these, excluding Welsh ones, we may with some certainty identify Canterbury (Caint), Caerleonon-Usk, Leicester (Lerion), Penzelwood, Carlisle, Colchester, Grantchester (Granth), London, Worcester (Guveirangon), Doncaster (Daun), Wroxeter (Guoricon), Chester (Legion - this is Roman), Lichfield (Licitcsith) and Gloucester (Gloui).
During the period 1891-1901 five English and five Welsh counties showed a decrease per cent in the population.
Numerous additional main lines - Reading to Newbury, Weymouth and the west, a new line opened in 1906 between Castle Cary and Langport effecting a great reduction in mileage between London and Exeter and places beyond; Didcot, Oxford, Birmingham, Shrewsbury, Chester with connexions northward, and to North Wales; Oxford to Worcester, and Swindon to Gloucester and the west of England; South Welsh system (through route from London via Wootton Bassett or via Bristol, and the Severn tunnel), Newport, Cardiff, Swansea, Milford.
There is also plenty of hillpasture in the south-western counties (from Hampshire and Berkshire westward), especially in Devonshire, Cornwall and Somersetshire, and also in Monmouthshire and along the Welsh marches, on the Cotteswold Hills, &c. In all these localities sheep are extensively reared, especially in Northumberland, but on the other hand in Lincolnshire the numbers of sheep are roughly equal to those in the northern county.
Of the whole amount of coal received coastwise at English and Welsh ports (about 132 million tons), London received considerably over one-half (nearly 8 million tons in 1903).
The railways having the heaviest coal traffic are the North-Eastern, which monopolizes the traffic of Northumberland and Durham; the Midland, commanding the Derbyshire, Yorkshire and East Midland traffic, and some of the Welsh; the London & North Western, whose principal sources are the Lancashire, Staffordshire 1 The figure 17.76 is the percentage for the whole of Yorkshire.
In Wales eight smaller or less populous counties form each one parliamentary constituency, while the four larger are divided, the number of Welsh county parliamentary areas being 19.
Each Welsh borough constituency returns one member, except Merthyr Tydfil, which returns two, so that there are eleven Welsh borough members.