He spent the rest of his life in retirement, dying at Wellington on the 16th of May 1862.
Massena failed to dislodge the Allies, and on the 8th of May withdrew to Salamanca, Almeida falling to Wellington on the r ith of May 181 r.
Grey, Polynesian Mythology and Maori Legends (Wellington, 1885); A.
to send the duke of Wellington to St Petersburg in order to concert joint measures.
Wellington then brought up Hill to Madrid.
Continuing in a north-easterly direction Oxley struck the Macquarie river at a place he called Wellington, and from this place in the following year he organized a second expedition in hopes of discovering an inland sea.
The fortress was finally stormed on the 6th of April 1812, by the British under Lord Wellington, and carried with terrible loss.
MINEHEAD, a market town and seaside resort in the Wellington parliamentary division of Somersetshire, England, 188 m.
He kept in touch, however, with foreign politics, and having refused to join the ministry of George Canning in 1827, became a member of the cabinet of the duke of Wellington as 'chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in January 1828.
To continue the strife when Wellington was firmly established on the line of the Garonne, and Lyons and Bordeaux had hoisted the Bourbonfleur de lys, was seen by all but Napoleon to be sheer madness; but it needed the pressure of his marshals in painful interviews at Fontainebleau to bring him to reason.
It is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway, and by the Cleveland & South-Western (electric) railway, which furnishes connexions directly with Cleveland and Elyria, and at the village of Wellington (about io m.
This was ultimately expanded, after the fall of the Wellington ministry, into the Treaty of London of the 7th of May 1832, by which Greece was made an independent kingdom under the Bavarian prince Otto.
To meet these forces the emperor could not collect men in all, of whom upwards of 10o,000 were held by Wellington on the Spanish frontier, and more were required to watch the debouches from the Alps.
Now, however, they began to realize the weakness of their opponent, and perhaps actuated by the fear that Wellington from Toulouse might, after all, reach Paris first, they determined Seinojse
of their day, were immeasurably ahead of their times, and both also understood to the full the strategic art of binding and restraining the independent will power of their opponents, an art of which Marlborough and Frederick, Wellington, Lee and Moltke do not seem ever even to have grasped the fringe.
Wellington fell back before him down the left bank, ordering up Rowland Hill's force from the Badajoz road, the peasantry having been previously called upon to destroy their crops and retire within the lines of Torres Vedras.
A little north of Coimbra, the road which Massena followed crossed the Sierra de Bussaco (Busaco), a very strong position where Wellington resolved to offer him battle.
The next day Massena turned the Sierra by the Boyalva Pass and Sardao, which latter place, owing to an error, had not been occupied by the Portuguese, and Wellington then retreated by Coimbra and Leiria to the lines, which he entered on the 11th of October, having within them fully ioo,000 able-bodied men.
On the other hand Wellington still held Lisbon with parts of Portugal, Elvas and Badajoz, for Soult had not felt disposed to attempt the capture of the last two fortresses.
Wellington followed, directing the Portuguese to remove all boats from the Mondego and Douro, and to break up roads north of the former river.
In the pursuit, Wellington adhered to his policy of husbanding his troops for future offensive operations, and let sickness and hunger do the work of the sword.
Wellington now sent off Beresford with a force to retake Badajoz; and Massena, sacrificing much of his baggage and ammunition, reached Celorico and Guarda (March 21).
Here he was attacked by Wellington (March 29) and, after a further engagement at Sabugal (April 3, 1811), he fell back through Ciudad to Salamanca, having lost in Portugal nearly 30,000 men, chiefly from want and disease, and 6000 in the retreat alone.
Wellington, on the 9th of April 1811, directed General Spencer to invest Almeida; he then set off himself to join Beresford before Badajoz, but after reconnoitring the fortress with his lieutenant he had at once to return north on the news that Massena was moving to relieve Almeida.
After this Wellington from Almeida rejoined Beresford and the siege of Badajoz was continued: but now Marshal Marmont, having succeeded Massena, was marching southwards to join Soult, and, two allied assaults of Badajoz having failed, Wellington withdrew.
Before so superior a force, Wellington had not attempted to maintain the blockade; but on Marmont afterwards advancing towards him, he fought a rearguard action with him at El Bodon (Sept.
27), but Wellington taking up a strong position near Sabugal, Marmont and Dorsenne withdrew once more to the valley of the Tagus and Salamanca respectively, and Wellington again blockaded Ciudad Rodrigo.
Napoleon, with the Russian War in prospect, had early in the year withdrawn 30,000 men from Spain; and Wellington had begun to carry on what he termed a war of "magazines."
Wellington was hampered by want of time, and had to assault prematurely.
Wellington then, ostentatiously making preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more turned northward, crossed the Tormes (June 17, 1812), and advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost him 600 men.
The river was high, and Wellington hoped that want of supplies would compel Marmont to retire, but in this he was disappointed.
Some interesting manoeuvres now took place, Wellington moving parallel and close to Marmont, but more to the north, making for the fords of Aldea Lengua and Santa Marta on the Tormes nearer to Salamanca, and being under the belief that the Spaniards held the castle and ford at Alba on that river.
But Marmont's manoeuvring and marching power had been underestimated, and on the 21st of July while Wellington's position covered Salamanca, and but indirectly his line of communications through Ciudad Rodrigo, Marmont had reached a point from which he hoped to interpose between Wellington and Portugal, on the Ciudad Rodrigo road.
This he endeavoured to do on the 22nd of July 1812, which brought on the important battle of Salamanca (q.v.) in which Battle of Wellington gained a decisive victory, the French Salamanca, falling back to Valladolid and thence to Burgos.
Joseph retired before him, and Wellington entered Madrid (Aug.
On the 1st of September 1812, the French armies having begun once more to collect together, Wellington marched against the of the Army of the North, now under General Clause], and Siege Castle of laid siege to the castle of Burgos (Sept.
Wellington had insufficient siege equipment and transport for heavy guns; five assaults failed, and Soult (having left Suchet in Valencia) and also the Army of Portugal were both approaching, so Wellington withdrew on the night of the Retreat 21st of October, and, directing the evacuation of from Madrid, commenced the "Retreat from Burgos."
By November 1812, Hill having joined him at Salamanca, Wellington once more had gone into cantonments near Ciudad Rodrigo, and the French armies had again scattered for convenience of supply.
One important result of the campaign was that the Spanish Cortes nominated Wellington (Sept.
For the operations of this campaign Wellington was created earl, and subsequently marquess of Wellington; duke of Ciudad Rodrigo by Spain, and marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal.
Of these about 60,000 under Joseph were more immediately opposed to Wellington, and posted, in scattered detachments, from Toledo and Madrid behind the Tormes to the Douro, and along that river to the Esla.
Wellington had further organized the Spanish forces - Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and northern Spain; Copons (io,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell (15,000) in Andalusia.
But the passports which the provisional government asked from Wellington were refused, and as the country was declaring for the Bourbons, his position soon became precarious.
See also the Memoirs of Bausset, Mme Durand Meneval and Metternich; and Max Billard, The Marriage Ventures of Marie Louise, English version by Evelyn duchess of Wellington (1910).
WENLOCK, a municipal borough in the Ludlow and Wellington parliamentary divisions of Shropshire, England, extending on both sides of the river Severn.
It was by the ford opposite Fuenterrabia that the duke of Wellington, on the 8th of October 1813, successfully forced a passage into France in the face of an opposing army commanded by Marshal Soult.
There are numerous modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington.
17, and is called a " Goliath " or " Wellington."
There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.
Delbri ck began in 1883 to edit the Preussische Jahrbilcher, in which he has written many articles, including one on "General Wolseley fiber Napoleon, Wellington and Gneisenau," and he has contributed to the Europeiischer Geschichtskalender of H.
In 1849 he commanded the Russian artillery in the war against the Hungarians, and in 1852 he visited London as a representative of the Russian army at the funeral of the duke of Wellington.
- On economics of construction and of operation, see Wellington, The Economic Theory of Railway Location (5th ed., New York, 1896).
France had subjected half the continent; but her hold on Spain was weakened by Wellington's blow at Salamanca; and now Frenchmen heard that their army in Russia was "dead."
Yet during the armistice which ensued (June 4th - July loth; afterwards prolonged to August loth) Napoleon did nothing to soothe the Viennese government, and that, too, despite the encouragement which the allies received from the news of Wellington's victory at Vittoria and the entry of Bernadotte with a Swedish contingent on the scene.
John Oxtoby, who evangelized Filey and became known as "Praying, Johnny," Viscount Goderich (afterwards Earl of Ripon) Duke of Wellington.
Finney carried ' A runaway slave, Littlejohn, was taken at Oberlin in September 1858 by a United States marshal, but was rescued at Wellington.
Sir Arthur Wellesley was for this campaign created Baron Douro and Viscount Wellington.
Wellington's policy was thus cautious and defensive, and he had already commenced the since famous lines of Torres Vedras round Lisbon.
This practically closed Wellington's operations for the year 1810, his policy now being not to lose men in battle, but to reduce Massena by hunger and distress.
The district of the Trasos-Montes, north of the Douro, about the Tamega, Tua and Sabor, was so rugged that Wellington was convinced that Joseph would expect him to advance by the south of the river.
Once more Wellington turned his right, by a sweeping movement through Rocamunde and Puente Arenas near the source of the Ebro, when he retreated behind the Zadorra near the town of Vitoria.
On the 10th of June Wellington encamped along the river Bayas, and the next day attacked Joseph.
For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory 1 by the Portuguese government in Brazil.
Wellington then suspended the siege in order to meet Soult, who endeavoured (July 25) to turn the allied right, and reach Pampeluna.
A struggle, described by Wellington as "bludgeon work," now ensued, but all efforts to dislodge the Allies having failed, Soult, withdrawing, manoeuvred to his right towards San Sebastian.
Wellington now assumed the offensive, and, in a series of engagements, drove the French back (Aug.
After this, Wellington renewing the siege of San Sebastian carried the place, excepting the castle, after a heavy expenditure of life (Aug.
Wellington next determined to throw his left across the river Bidassoa to strengthen his own position, and secure the port of Fuenterrabia.
On the 31st of October Pampeluna surrendered, and Wellington was now anxious to drive Suchet from Catalonia before further invading France.
Each army had with it about 100 guns; and, during a heavy cannonade, Wellington on the 10th of November 1813 attacked this extended Passage of position of 16 m.
The next day Wellington closed in upon Bayonne from the sea to the left bank of the Nive.
Wellington had also difficulties of a similar kind with his own government, and also the Spanish soldiers, in revenge for many French outrages, had become guilty of grave excesses in France, so that Wellington took the extreme step of sending 25,000 of them back to Spain and resigning the command of their army, though his resignation was subsequently withdrawn.
These matters, however, having been at length adjusted, Wellington, who in his cramped position between the sea and the Nive could not use his cavalry or artillery effectively, or interfere with the French supplies coming through St Jean Pied de Port, determined to occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Nive.
Desperate fighting now ensued, but fortunately, owing to the intersected ground, Soult was compelled to advance slowly, and in the end, Wellington coming up with Beresford from the right bank, the French retired baffled.
The conflict about St Pierre (Lostenia) was one of the most bloody of the war; but for hours Hill maintained his ground, and finally repulsed the French before Wellington, delayed by his pontoon bridge over the Nive having been swept away, arrived to his aid.
Wellington's left, under Hope, watched Bayonne, while Beresford, with Hill, observed the Adour and the Joyeuse, the right trending back till it reached Urcuray on the St Jean Pied de Port road.
It had now become Wellington's object to draw Soult away from Bayonne, in order that the allied army might, with less loss, cross the Adour and lay siege to the place on both banks of the river.
Wellington, convinced that no effort to bridge below Bayonne would be expected, decided to attempt it there, and collected at St Jean Pied de Port and Passages a large number of country vessels (termed chasse-marees).
Hill on the 14th and 15th of February, after a combat at Garris, drove the French posts beyond the Joyeuse; and Wellington then pressed these troops back over the Bidouze and Gave' de Mauleon to the Gave d'Oleron.
Wellington's object in this was at once attained, for Soult, leaving only 10,000 men in Bayonne, came out and concentrated at Orthes on the Pau.
Then Wellington (Feb.
On the 27th of February Wellington, having with little loss effected the passage of the Pau below Orthes, attacked Soult.
Beresford's attack, after hard fighting over difficult ground, was repulsed, when Wellington, perceiving that the pursuing French had left a central part of the heights unoccupied, thrust up the Light Division into it, between Soult's right and centre.
He endeavoured also to rouse the French peasantry against the Allies, but in vain, for Wellington's justice and moderation afforded them no grievances.
Wellington wished to pass the Garonne above Toulouse in order to attack the city from the south - its weakest side - and interpose between Soult and Suchet.
When Beresford, who had now rejoined Wellington, had passed over, the bridge was swept away, which left him isolated on the right bank.
But Soult did not attack; the bridge (April 8) was restored; Wellington crossed the Garonne and the Ers, and attacked Soult on the 10th of April.
Wellington's columns, under Beresford, were now called upon to make a flank march of some two miles, under artillery, and occasionally musketry, fire, being threatened also by cavalry, and then, while the Spanish troops assaulted the north of the ridge, to wheel up, mount the eastern slope, and carry the works.
On the 12th of April Wellington advanced to invest Toulouse from the south, but Soult on the night of the nth had retreated towards Villefranque, and Wellington then entered the city.
On the 13th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announcement to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 18th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered into between Wellington and Soult.
For the operations of this campaign Wellington was created marquess of Douro and duke of Wellington, and peerages were conferred upon Beresford, Graham and Hill.
The events of the Peninsular War, especially as narrated in the Wellington Despatches, are replete with instruction not only for the soldier, but also for the civil administrator.
Even in a brief summary of the war one salient fact is noticeable, that all Wellington's reverses were in connexion with his sieges, for which his means were never adequate.
For the siege of Burgos heavy guns were available in store on the coast; but he neither had, nor could procure, the transport to bring them up. By resource and dogged determination Wellington rose superior to almost every difficulty, but he could not overcome all; and the main teaching of the Peninsular War turns upon the value of an army that is completely organized in its various branches before hostilities break out.
R.)/n==Authorities== - The Wellington Despatches, ed.
Gurwood (London, 1834-1839); Supplementary Wellington Despatches (London, 1858-1861 and 1867-1872); Sir W.
Robinson, Wellington's Campaigns (London, 1907); Sir A.
Butler, Wellington's Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-14 (London, 1904); Batty, Campaign of the Left Wing of the Allied Army in the Western Pyrenees and South of France, 1813-14 (London, 1823); Foy, Histoire de la guerre de la Peninsule, F&c., sous Napoleon (Paris and London, 1827); Lord Londonderry, Narrative of the Peninsular War, 1808-13 (London, 1829); R.
The village is memorable for an action which took place on the 28th of November 1803 between the British army, commanded by Major-General Wellesley (afterwards duke of Wellington), and the Mahrattas under Sindhia and the raja of Berar, in which the latter were defeated with great loss.
From 1808 it was occupied by the French until taken by Wellington in 1813.
Sir John Steell's equestrian statue of the duke of Wellington stands in front of the Register House, and in Princes Street Gardens are statues of Livingstone, Christopher North, Allan Ramsay, Adam Black and Sir J.
Oxford Street, with its handsome shops, bounds the borough on the south, crossing Regent Street at Oxford Circus; Edgware Road on the west; Marylebone Road crosses from east to west, .and from this Upper Baker Street gives access to Park, Wellington, and Finchley Roads; and Baker Street leads southward.
About this time he married Emily Harriet, daughter of the 3rd efrl of Mornington, and Wellington's niece.
In 1819 he was appointed secretary to the duke of Wellington as master-general of the ordnance, and from 1827 till the death of the duke in 1852 was military secretary to him as commander-in-chief.
Here the advantage of his training under the duke of Wellington was seen in the soundness of his generalship, and his diplomatic experience stood him in good stead in dealing with the generals and admirals, British, French and Turkish, who were associated with him.
In 1875 his " Warrior Bearing a Wounded Youth from the Field of Battle " gained the gold medal at the Royal Academy schools, and when exhibited in 1876 it divided public attention with the "Tennyson " of Woolner and " Wellington monument " sculptures of Alfred Stevens, now in St Paul's Cathedral.
From Rugby he went to be first headmaster of Wellington College, which was opened in January 1859; and in the course of the same year he married his cousin, Mary'Sidgwick.
But this control does not meet the problem of actually lessening the number of vehicles in the main arteries of traffic. At such crossings as that of the Strand and Wellington Street, Ludgate Circus and south of the Thames, the Elephant and Castle, as also in the narrow streets of the City, congestion is often exceedingly severe, and is aggravated when any main street is under repair, and diversion of traffic through narrow side streets becomes necessary.
It ceased to be the official residence in 1905, when the prince of Wales (afterwards George V.) was appointed Lord Warden, and the public was given access to those rooms which possess historical associations with former holders of the office, such as the duke of Wellington, who died here in 1852, William Pitt and others.
Of 1852 the principal events were the birth of his eldest son Hallam, the second Lord Tennyson, in August, and in November the publication of the Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington.
Brought up in the nurture and admonition of Canning, he defended Roman Catholic emancipation, and thought the duke of Wellington's government unworthy of national confidence.
The prime minister, Lord Melbourne, submitted to the king a choice of names for the chancellorship of the exchequer and leadership of the House of Commons; but his majesty announced that, having lost the services of Lord Althorp as leader of the House of Commons, he could feel no confidence in the stability of Lord Melbourne's government, and that it was his intention to send for the duke of Wellington.
C. Wickham, headmaster of Wellington, 1873-1893, and later Dean of Lincoln.
BROSELEY, a market town in the municipal borough of Wenlock and the Wellington (Mid) parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, on the right bank of the Severn.
New Zealand.-The New Zealand Magazine, a quarterly, was published at Wellington in 1850.
Public monuments are few, but include a statue of Queen Victoria (1903) and a South African War memorial (1905) in front of the city hall; the Albert Memorial (1870), in the form of a clock-tower, in Queen Street; a monument to the same prince in High Street; and a statue in Wellington Place to Dr Henry Cooke, a prominent Presbyterian minister who died in 1868.
This devastation has usually been considered as a grave stain on the character of the commander who ordered it, but Turenne's conception of duty did not differ in this respect from that of Cromwell, Marlborough, Wellington and the generals of the American Civil War.
Trajan's notions of civil government were, like those of the duke of Wellington, strongly tinged with military prepossessions.
of Wellington by rail.
They contain barracks for the Royal Engineers and Army Service Corps, the general parade, which stretches east and west, and five infantry barracks called after battles (other than those of Wellington), of the wars with France, 1 793181 5.
The old permanent barracks (which were built for the most part about 1857) have been renamed Wellington Lines, with cavalry and artillery barracks; and three infantry barracks called after Wellington's victories in the Peninsula.
For the sick there are the Connaught Hospital in the Marlborough Lines, the Cambridge Hospital in Stanhope Lines, and the Union Hospital in Wellington Lines, besides the Louise Margaret Hospital for women and children and the isolated infection hospital.
But the king was piqued by Austria's interference, and as both the grand-duke of Tuscany and the duke of Wellington supported him, Charles Albert's claims were respected.
In Belgium, across an almost open frontier, lay an ever-increasing force of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian troops under Wellington and Blucher.
It was accordingly arranged that Wellington and Blucher should await in Belgium the arrival of the Austrian and Russian masses on the Rhine, about July 1, before the general invasion of France was begun.
Consequently he determined to advance swiftly and secretly against Wellington and Blucher, whose forces, as Napoleon knew, were dispersed over the country of their unenthusiastic ally.
Once Wellington and Blucher were destroyed he would move southwards and meet the other allies on the Rhine.
His information showed that Wellington held the western half of Belgium from the Brussels-Charleroi road to the Scheldt, that his base of operations was Ostend, and that his headquarters were at Brussels.
Wellington and Blucher were disposed as follows in the early days of June (Map I.).
The reserve (under Wellington himself) 25,500, lay around Brussels.
Wellington on the other hand was far less satisfactorily placed; for in advance of Gosselies he had placed only a cavalry screen, which would naturally be too weak to gain him the requisite time to mass there.
Blucher's army was undoubtedly more homogeneous, and though it is doubtful if he possessed any troops of the same quality as Wellington's best, on the other hand he had no specially weak elements.
As the foe would lie away to his right and left front after he had passed the Sambre, one wing would be pushed up towards Wellington and another towards Blucher; whilst the mass of the reserve would be centrally placed so as to strike on either side, as soon as a force of the enemy worth destroying was encountered and gripped.
But on the r 5th the critical nature of the situation dawned on them, and naturally on Blucher first, as his headquarters were nearer to the frontier than Wellington's, and Blucher had had previous experience of Napoleon's powers.
Wellington's position at nightfall was very different, and can hardly be termed safe or even satisfactory.
Hence the first orders he issued were for his divisions to concentrate at their respective alarm-posts, intending later to send them further orders when the situation had somewhat cleared up. For whatever reasons, Wellington thought Napoleon would attempt to turn his right and cut his line of communications.
Failing to appreciate this fully, Wellington omitted to order an immediate concentration on his inner (left) flank as Blucher had done, and the danger of Blucher's position was thus enormously increased.
Wellington's subordinates at the critical point, however, acted with admirable boldness.
It was due to their presence of mind that Wellington maintained his hold on the important strategical point of Quatre Bras on June 15 and 16.
Wellington, owing to his original dispositions and the slowness of his concentration, had only retained a grip on Quatre Bras thanks to the boldness of his subordinates on the spot.
Thus Wellington did not even yet realize the full significance of the emperor's opening moves.
On June 15 Grant wrote to Wellington stating that the French were advancing, and that French officers spoke freely about a decisive action being fought within three days.
Early on the morning of June r6 Prince Bernard was reinforced at Quatre Bras by the rest of his division (Perponcher's); and Wellington's other troops were now all on the march eastward except the reserve, who were heading southwards and halted at the cross-road of Mt.
Blucher meanwhile was making his arrangements to hold a position to the south of the Namur-Nivelles road and thus maintain uninterrupted communication with Wellington at Quatre Bras.
He at once wrote to Ney saying that these could only be some of Wellington's troops, and that Ney was to concentrate his force and crush what was in front of him, adding that he was to send all reports to Fleurus.
Meanwhile, Wellington, having reached Quatre Bras in the morning, wrote to him to concert the day's operations; then, as all was quiet in his front, he rode over to meet Blucher at Brye.
The two chiefs, surveying the French army in their front, considered that no serious force was in front of Quatre Bras, and Wellington terminated the interview with the conditional promise that he would bring his army to Blucher's assistance at Ligny, if he was not attacked himself.
timely succour reached the field - Van Merlen's cavalry from Nivelles, Picton and the 5th division from Brussels - and Wellington returned and took over the command.
further reinforcements reached Wellington, Alten's (3rd) division coming in from Nivelles.
Ney's duty was merely to hold Wellington for certain at Quatre Bras and allow D'Erlon to carry out the movement which must ensure a decisive result at Ligny, in accordance with Napoleon's plan of campaign.
Shortly afterwards (about 7 P.M.) Wellington received further reinforcements (Cooke's division of the British Guards), which brought his force up to 33,000 against Ney's 22,000 men.
Corps been thrown into the doubtful struggle at Quatre Bras, it must have crushed Wellington; had it been used at Ligny it would have entailed Blucher's annihilation.
Wellington and Billow on arrival would act as general reserve.
when Napoleon, hearing the sound of Ney's cannon to the westward and realizing that Wellington was attacked and neutralized, commenced the battle at Ligny.
But neither order made it sufficiently clear to Ney that co-operation at Ligny was the essential, provided that Wellington was held fast at Quatre Bras.
In other words, Ney had merely to hold Wellington with part of the French left wing all day, and detach the remainder of his force to co-operate in the deathblow at Ligny.
The execution had again fallen short of the conception; Blucher though beaten was not destroyed, nor was his line with Wellington cut.
If the Prussians now retired northwards, parallel to the direction which Wellington would follow perforce on the morrow, the chance of co-operating in a decisive battle would still remain to the allies; and Gneisenau's order issued by moonlight, directing the retreat on Tilly and Wavre, went far to ensuring the possibility of such combined action.
Probably Wellington's failure to co-operate at Ligny had heightened the Prussian chief-of-staff's unworthy suspicions of the good faith and soldierly qualifications of the British marshal; and it was well for the allies that Blucher was able to resume command before Napoleon had time to profit from the dissensions that would probably have arisen had Gneisenau remained in control.
Wellington was by no means so well acquainted with the details of the Prussian defeat at Ligny as he ought to have been.
During the night more reinforcements arrived for Wellington, and on the morning of June 17 the duke had most of his army about Quatre Bras.
Early in the morning Wellington (still ignorant of the exact position of his ally) sent out an officer, with an adequate escort, to establish touch with the Prussians.
a Prussian orderly officer arrived from Gneisenau to explain the situation and learn Wellington's plans.
If confronted by a rear-guard he would drive it off and occupy Quatre Bras; and if Wellington was still there the marshal would promptly engage and hold fast the Anglo-Dutch army, and report to the emperor.
Wellington in fact was there; but Ney did nothing whatever to retain him, and the duke began his withdrawal to Mt.
Corps), a force of 33,000 men and 11o guns, to follow the Prussians, penetrate their intentions and discover if they meditated uniting with Wellington in front of Brussels.
Had Blucher gone eastwards, Grouchy, holding the Dyle, could easily have held back any future Prussian advance towards Wellington.
On the other flank, too, things had gone all in favour of Wellington.
Although the emperor wrote to Ney again at noon, from Ligny, that troops had now been placed in position at Marbais to second the marshal's attack on Quatre Bras, yet Ney remained quiescent, and Wellington effected so rapid and skilful a retreat that, on Napoleon's arrival at the head of his supporting corps, 1 There appears to be no reason to believe that Grouchy pushed any reconnaissances to the northward and westward of Gentinnes on June 17; had he done so, touch with Blucher's retiring columns must have been established, and the direction of the Prussian retreat made clear.
smouldering fires of his old energy flamed out once more and Napoleon began a rapid pursuit of the cavalry screen, which crumpled up and decamped as he advanced, yet all his efforts were powerless to entangle the Anglo-Dutch rearguard to such an extent that Wellington must turn back to its assistance.
It was not until the light was failing that Napoleon reached the heights of Rossomme opposite to Wellington's position and, by a masterly reconnaissance in force, compelled the duke to disclose the presence of practically the whole Anglo-Dutch army.
During the night Wellington received the reassuring news that Blucher would bring two corps certainly, and possibly four, to Waterloo, and determined to accept battle.
Yet so far was Wellington from divining Napoleon's object that he stationed 17,000 men (including Colville's British division) at Hal and Tubize, 8 m.
Wellington occupied Hougoumont in strength, chiefly with detachments of the British Guards; and he also placed a garrison of the K.G.L.
The duke was to stand fast to receive the attack, whilst the Prussians should close round Napoleon's exposed right and support Wellington's left.
The Prussians were thus the real general reserve, and it was Wellington's task to receive Napoleon's attack and prepare him for the decisive counter-stroke.
Meanwhile Napoleon formed his army for the attack on Wellington's position.
Grouchy added that if he found that the bulk of the Prussians were moving on Wavre he would follow them and separate them from Wellington.
The lateness of the hour at which the attack was delivered, and the emperor's determination to break Wellington's centre instead of outflanking the Anglo-Dutch left and further separating the allies, deprived him of whatever chance he still possessed of beating Wellington before Blucher could intervene.
This was a mere side-issue, destined to draw Wellington's attention waterloo: to his right, and in this it failed.
It was soon discovered that this was Billow's corps marching to Wellington's assistance.
He was still determined to play the game out to the bitter end, and involve Wellington and Billow's corps in a common ruin.
Scale, i :36,000 English Miles Ney was therefore ordered to attack Wellington's centre with D'Erlon's corps.
The key of the duke's position was now in Napoleon's hands, Wellington's centre was dangerously shaken, the troops were exhausted, and the reserves inadequate.
But Napoleon could not turn now on Wellington.
The French army now fiercely attacked Wellington all along the line; and the culminating point of this phase was reached when Napoleon sent forward the Guard, less 5 battalions, Fifth .
to attack Wellington's centre.
But Lobau's heroic efforts had not been in vain; they had given his master time to make his last effort against Wellington; and when the Guard was beaten back the French troops holding Plancenoit kept free the Charleroi road, and prevented the Prussians from seizing Napoleon's line of retreat.
When Wellington and Blucher met about 9.15 P.M.
The French had lost over 40,000 men and almost all their artillery on June 18; the Prussians lost 7000, and Wellington over 15,000 men.
Ney failed to grasp and hold Wellington on the critical 17th June; and on the 17th and 18th Grouchy's feeble and false manoeuvres enabled Blucher to march and j oin Wellington at Waterloo.
Nor must we overlook Wellington's unswerving determination to co-operate with Blucher at all costs, and his firmness on June 18; or the invincible steadiness shown by the British troops and those of the King's German Legion.
Siborne, R.E., Waterloo Letters; Colonel Chesney, Waterloo Lectures; Wellington, Despatches and Memorandum on the Battle of Waterloo; Correspondance and Cornmentaires of Napoleon.
The group is situated eastward of Tasmania and Victoria, and Wellington, its capital and central seaport, is 1204 m.
Elsewhere, sheltered Nelson has a more genial air than the Wellington side of Cook Strait.
Meteorological statistics are collected at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin and eight other stations; and observations of rainfall, temperature, and wind-directions are received from eighteen stations of the second class.
A system of inter-colonial weather exchanges has been agreed upon, and telegrams are daily exchanged between Sydney and Wellington.
of the east and south-east coasts; in the North Island the eastern and northern parts of Wellington province, and the southern and broadest part of Auckland province are still very scantily peopled.
There were in its early years six distinct settlements - Auckland, Wellington, Nelson, New Plymouth, Canterbury and Otago - between which communication was for several years irregular and infrequent.
For twenty years thereafter the political history of the colony consisted of two long, intermittent struggles - one constitutional between the central government (first seated in Auckland, but after 1864 in Wellington) and the powerful provincial councils, of which there were nine charged with important functions and endowed with the land revenues and certain rating powers.
In 1896 municipal and rural local bodies were allowed to levy rates upon unimproved land values if authorized to do so by a vote of their electors, and by the end of 1901 some sixty bodies, amongst them the city of Wellington, had made use:of this permission.
Soult, Wellington's old foe, received a hearty popular welcome as a military hero; Prince Esterhazy, who represented Austria,.
The duke of Wellington was first sent for, but he advised that the task of forming an administration should be entrusted to Sir Robert Peel.
Sir Robert was ready to form a cabinet in which the duke of Wellington, Lords Lyndhurst, Aberdeen and Stanley, and Sir James Graham would have served; but he stipulated that the mistress of the robes and the ladies of the bedchamber appointed by the Whig administration should be removed, and to this the queen would not consent.
The death of the duke of Wellington in 1852 deeply affected the queen.
He had declined (1850) to accept the post of commander-in-chief at the duke of Wellington's suggestion, and he always refused to let himself be placed in any situation which would have modified ever so slightly his proper relations with the queen.
Wellington's victory at Salamanca (July 22, 1812) compelled Joseph to leave his capital; and despite the retirement of the British in the autumn of that year, Joseph's authority never fully recovered from that blow.
The end of his nominal rule came in the next year, when Wellington utterly overthrew the chief French army, commanded by King Joseph and Marshal Jourdan, at Vittoria (June 21, 1813).
In warfare carried on in such a country as Greece, sea-girt and with a coast deeply indented, inland without roads and intersected with rugged mountains, victory - as Wellington was quick to observe - must rest with the side that has command of the sea.
February 1815, the duke of Wellington filled his place with adequate dignity and statesmanship until the war broke out.
For the diplomacy, Wellington's Supplementary Despatches, vols.
1863), bishop of Norwich, and previously head master of Wellington College from 1893 till 1910.
There are Zoological Gardens at Melbourne (founded in 1857), Adelaide, Sydney and Perth, and small gardens at Wellington, New Zealand, supported partly by private societies and partly by the municipalities.
He was also employed by the prince consort to prepare a design for the Kensington Museum; and he made the drawings for the Wellington funeral car.
Arthur Wellesley Wellington >>
Here, besides the viceregal demesne and lodge and the magazine, are a zoological garden, a people's garden, the Wellington monument, two barracks, the Hibernian military school, the "Fifteen Acres," a natural amphitheatre (of much greater extent than its name implies) used as a review ground, and a racecourse.
There is a bronze statue of the duke of Wellington (erected in 1854) by John Evan Thomas, a native of the town.
A considerable portion of the forest in the neighbourhood of Waterloo was assigned in 1815 to the duke of Wellington, and to the holder of the title as long a s it endured.
William Hamilton Maxwell (1792-1850), the Irish novelist, wrote, in addition to several novels, a Life of the Duke of Wellington (1839-1841 and again 1883), and a History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798 (1845 and 1891).
Smith (1893); Life of the Duke of Wellington (1899); The House of Douglas (1902); Robert the Bruce (1897) and A Duke of Britain (1895).
"There is no such thing as political experience," wrote Wellington, certainly no friend of Liberalism; "with the warning of James II.
ARTHUR WELLESLEY WELLINGTON, 1ST Duke Of (1769-1852), was the fourth son of Garrett (1735-1781) Wellesley or Wesley, 2nd baron and 1st earl of Mornington, now remembered only as a musician.
In Wellington's early letters the family name is spelt Wesley; the change to Wellesley seems to have been made about 1790.
It was to the completeness of his practical knowledge that Wellington ascribed in great part his later success.
A peerage, with the title of Viscount Wellington and Baron Douro, was conferred upon him for Talavera.
Even on the defensive, Wellington's task was exceedingly difficult.
As summer approached Wellington's anticipations were realized.
Wellington, unable to save Ciudad Rodrigo, retreated down the valley of the Mondego, devastating the country, and at length halted at Busaco and gave battle.
The French attack was repelled, but other roads were open to the invader, and Wellington continued his retreat.
At length, when the country was exhausted, he fell back to Santarem, where, Wellington being still too weak to attack, he maintained himself during the winter.
But in the spring of 1811 Wellington received reinforcements and moved forward.
Public opinion in England, lately so hostile, now became confident, and Wellington, whose rewards for Talavera had been opposed in both Houses, began to gain extraordinary popularity.
Wellington, freed from pressure on this side, and believing Massena to be thoroughly disabled, considered that the time had come for an advance into Spain.
Almeida was besieged, and Wellington was preparing to attack Badajoz when Massena again took the field, and marched to the relief of Almeida.
Wellington had from the first seen that, whatever number of men Napoleon might send against him, it was impossible, owing to the poverty of the country, that any great mass of troops could long be held together, and that the French, used to "making war support war," would fare worse in such conditions than his own troops with their organized supply service.
Wellington resumed the offensive, and on the 19th of January 1812 Ciudad Rodrigo was taken by storm.
Again, suddenly altering the centre of gravity, Wellington invested Badajoz in the middle of March.
It was necessary at whatever cost to anticipate the arrival of Soult with a relieving army, and on the 6th of April Wellington o p dered the assault.
The fearful slaughter which took place before the British were masters of the defences caused Wellington to be charged with indifference to loss, but a postponement of the attack would merely have resulted in more battles against Soult.
Of all generals Wellington was the last to waste a single trained man, and the sight of the breaches of Badajoz after the storm for a moment unnerved even his iron sternness.
Wellington retreated as far as Salamanca, and there extricated himself from his peril by a most brilliant victory (July 22).
Instead of immediately following them, Wellington thought it wise to advance upon the Spanish capital.
"The vigorous following of a beaten enemy was not a prominent characteristic of Lord Wellington's warfare," as Napier says.
Wellington was compelled once more to retire into Portugal.
Such wholesale criticism was bitterly resented, but indeed throughout his career Wellington, cold and punctilious, never secured to himself the affections of officers and men as Marlborough or Napoleon did.
Wellington had been made an earl after the fall of Ciudad Rodrigo, and the Spanish government created him duke of Ciudad Rodrigo about the same time.
adversary Wellington took the field with greatly increased numbers and with the utmost confidence.
Position after position was evacuated by the French, until Wellington, driving everything before him, came up with the retreating enemy at Vittoria, and won an overwhelming victory (June 21st).
Both armies now rested for some weeks, during which interval Wellington gained the confidence of the inhabitants by his unsparing repression of marauding, his business-like payment for supplies, and the excellent discipline which he maintained.
Peace being proclaimed, Wellington took leave of his army at Bordeaux, and returned to England, where he was received with extraordinary honours, created duke of Wellington, and awarded a fresh grant of £400,000.
After the treaty of Paris (May 30) Wellington was appointed British ambassador at the French capital.
All the great questions of the congress had already been settled, and Wellington's diplomatic work here was not of importance.
Almost before Wellington's unfortunate prediction could reach London, Louis had fled, and France was at Napoleon's feet.
The ban of the congress, however, went out against the common enemy, and the presence of Wellington at Vienna enabled the allies at once to decide upon their plans for the campaign.
To Wellington and Blucher were committed the invasion of France from the north, while the Russians and Austrians entered it from the east.
Wellington, with the English troops and their Dutch, German and Belgian allies, took his post in the Netherlands, guarding the country west of the Charleroi road.
Wellington's reward was a fresh grant of £ 200,000 from parliament, the title of prince of Waterloo and great estates from the king of Holland, and the order of the Saint-Esprit from Louis XVIII.
Not only the prestige of his victories, but the chance circumstances of the moment, now made Wellington the most influential personality in Europe.
The emperors of Russia and Austria were still far away at the time of Napoleon's second abdication, and it was with Wellington that the commissioners of the provisional government opened negotiations preliminary to the surrender of Paris.
and the Bourbons generally; the emperor Francis might have been tempted to support the cause of Napoleon's son and his own grandson, who had been proclaimed in Paris as Napoleon II.; and if the restoration of Louis - which Wellington believed would alone restore permanent peace to France and to Europe - was to be effected, the allies must be confronted on their arrival in Paris with the accomplished fact.
At the same time the opposition of the most influential member of the commission and the most powerful man in France, Fouche, was overcome by his appointment, on Wellington's suggestion, as minister of police.
In the solution of this problem the common sense of Wellington and of Castlereagh, with whom the duke worked throughout in complete harmony, played a determining part; it was mainly owing to their influence that France escaped the dismemberment for which the German powers clamoured, and which was advocated for a while by Lord Liverpool and the majority of the British cabinet.
Wellington realized the supreme necessity, in the interests not only of France but of Europe, of confirming and maintaining the prestige of the restored monarchy, which such a dismemberment would have irretrievably damaged.
The length of time during which France was to be occupied by the allies practically depended upon Wellington's judgment.
On the 10th of December 1816 Pozzo di Borgo wrote to the duke enclosing a memorandum in which the emperor Alexander of Russia suggested a reduction in the army of occupation: "no mere question of finance, but one of general policy, based on reason, equity and a severe morality"; at the same time he left the question of its postponement entirely to Wellington.
Wellington the proposal seemed premature; he would prefer to wait till "the assembly had published its conduct by its acts"; for if the new chambers were to prove as intractable as the dissolved Chambre introuvable, the monarchy would not be able to dispense with its foreign tutors.
Wellington now pressed for the total evacuation of France, pointing out that popular irritation had grown to such a pitch that, if the occupation were to be prolonged, he must concentrate the army between the Scheldt and the Meuse, as the forces, stretched in a thin line across France, were no longer safe in the event of a popular rising.
Here Wellington supported the proposal for the immediate evacuation of France, and it was owing to his common-sense criticism that the proposal of Prussia, supported by the emperor Alexander and Metternich, to establish an "army of observation" at Brussels, was nipped in the bud.
On Wellington's first entry into Paris he had been received with popular enthusiasm, 2 but he had soon become intensely unpopular.
Continent; Paris; Wellington (No.
Londonderry had been on the eve of starting for the conference at Vienna, and the instructions which he had drawn up for his own guidance were handed over by Canning, the new foreign secretary, to Wellington, who proceeded in September to Vienna, and thence in October to Verona, whither the conference had been adjourned.
Wellington's intimate association for several years with the sovereigns and statesmen of the Grand Alliance, and his experience of the evils which the Alliance existed to hold in check, naturally led him to dislike Canning's aggressive attitude towards the autocratic powers, and to view with some apprehension his determination to break with the European concert.
Canning and Wellington' were anxious to preserve the integrity of Turkey, and therefore to prevent any isolated intervention of Russia; and Wellington seemed to Canning the most suitable instrument for the purpose of securing an arrangement between Great Britain and Russia on the Greek question, through which it was hoped to assure peace in the East.
on his accession, but more especially - to use Wellington's own words - "to induce the emperor of Russia to put himself in our hands."
As for the Greeks, the emperor said bluntly that he took no interest in "ces messieurs," whom he regarded as "rebels"; his own particular quarrel with Turkey, arising out of the non-fulfilment of the treaty of Bucharest, was the concern of Russia alone; the ultimatum to Turkey had, indeed, been prepared before Wellington's arrival, and was despatched during his visit.
Canning, freed from Wellington's restraint, carried his intervention on behalf of Greece a step further, and 6 Memorandum to Canning of January 26, 1826 (Well.
Desp. iii.) 7 An interesting account of Wellington's negotiations in St Petersburg, based on unpublished documents in the Russian archives, is given - in T.
Against this treaty Wellington protested, on the ground that it "specified means of compulsion which were neither more nor less than measures of war."
On the fall of Lord Goderich's cabinet five months later Wellington became prime minister.
The repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts having been carried in the House of Commons in the session of 1828, Wellington, to the great disappointment of Tories like Lord Eldon, recommended the House of Lords not to offer further resistance, and the measure was accordingly carried through.
It was now hoped by the so-called Protestant party that Wellington, at the head of a more united cabinet, would offer a steady resistance to Catholic emancipation.
The Clare election and the progress of the Catholic Association convinced both Wellington and Peel that the time had come when Catholic emancipation must be granted; and, submitting when further resistance would have led to civil war, the ministry itself brought in at the beginning of the session of 1829 a bill for the relief of the Catholics.
Wellington, who had hitherto always opposed Catholic emancipation, explained and justified his change of front in simple and impressive language.
Catholic emancipation was the great act of Wellington's ministry; in other respects his tenure of office was not marked by much success.
There might have been good reason, from Wellington's point of view, for condemning Canning's treaty of London; but when, in consequence of this treaty, the battle of Navarino had been fought, the Turkish fleet sunk, and the independence of Greece practically established, it was the weakest of all possible courses to withdraw England from its active intervention, and to leave to Russia the gains of a private and isolated war.
The result was the renunciation of the Greek crown by Prince Leopold; and, although, after the fall of Wellington's ministry, a somewhat better frontier was given to Greece, it was then too late to establish this kingdom in adequate strength, and to make it, as it might have been made, a counterpoise to Russia's influence in the Levant.
That Wellington actively assisted despotic governments against the constitutional movements of the time is not true.
Lord Grey, the chief of the new ministry, brought in the Reform Bill, which was resisted by Wellington as long as anything was to be gained by resistance.
When the creation of new peers was known to be imminent, however, Wellington was among those who counselled the abandonment of a hopeless struggle.
unexpectedly dismissed the Whig ministry and requested Wellington to form a cabinet.
On Peel's later return to power in 1841 Wellington was again in the cabinet, but without departmental office beyond that of commander-in-chief.
But the general character of Wellington's last years was rather that of the old age of a great man idealized.
The Wellington Despatches, edited by Gurwood; Supplementary Despatches; and Wellington Despatches, New Series, edited by the second duke of Wellington.
Unlike Napoleon's despatches and correspondence, everything from Wellington's pen is absolutely trustworthy: not a word is written for effect, and no fact is misrepresented.
Almost all the political memoirs of the period 1830-1850 contain more or less about Wellington in his later life.
See also Sir Herbert Maxwell, Life of Wellington (2 vols., London, 1900), and the literature of the Peninsular War, Waterloo Campaign.
Wellington, Australia >>
A misapprehension between Huskisson and the duke of Wellington led to the duke proposing an amendment, the success of which caused the abandonment of the measure by the government.
After the death of Canning in the same year Huskisson accepted the secretaryship of the colonies under Lord Goderich, an office which he continued to hold in the new cabinet formed by the duke of Wellington in the following year.
No change occurred till 1859, when the system of Belgian defence was radically altered by the dismantlement of seventeen of the twenty-two fortresses constructed under Wellington's supervision in 1815-1818.
At the Roberts hotel is shown on a window pane the supposed signature of Wellington.
- Missions: Fiji, Navigator's Island, New Caledonia, Central Oceania, Solomon Islands, parts of New Zealand (dioceses of Wellington and Christchurch).
This work centred at Wellington Valley and Moreton Bay, but was given up in 1842.
In the Mahratta War the army under General Wellesley, afterwards the duke of Wellington, took Burhanpur (1803), but the treaty of the same year restored it to Sindhia.
There is more than one meaning of Wellington discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Some five years later, on the nomination of the duke of Wellington, William Broughton was sent out to work in this enormous jurisdiction as archdeacon of Australia.
de Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie, &c. (St Petersb., 1874, &c.); Wellington Despatches; Castlereagh Correspondence; Prince Adam Czartoryski, Memoires et correspondance avec l'empereur Alexandre I.
The park (Alameda de la Alhambra), which in spring is overgrown with wild-flowers and grass, was planted by the Moors with roses, oranges and myrtles; its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought hither in 1812 by the duke of Wellington.
Stevens's designs certainly directly raised the standard of production in several metal-working firms by whom he was employed; whilst in the Wellington Memorial in St Paul's Cathedral, and in Dorchester House, his work is seen unfettered by commercial considerations.
In 1888 the gates of Wellington dock were widened to admit a larger type of Channel steamers; new coal stores were erected on the Northampton quay; the slipway was lengthened 40 ft., and widened for the reception of vessels up to 800 tons.
The armies were led by General Arthur Wellesley (afterwards duke of Wellington) and General (afterwards Lord) Lake.
AMELIA EDWARDS ANN BLANDFORD (1831-1892), English author and Egyptologist, the daughter of one of Wellington's officers, was born in London on the 7th of June 1831.
Subsequently the revenues of Albufera were conferred upon the duke of Wellington in token of the gratitude of the Spanish nation.
Sometimes, however, a player is allowed to go "Wellington" over "Nap," and even "Blucher" over "Wellington."
In these cases the caller of "Wellington" wins four times the stake and loses twice the stake, the caller of "Blucher" receives six times and loses three times the stake.
Cathedral Peak on Wellington Island rises to a height of 3838 ft.
Among the islands which thickly fringe this part of the coast, the largest are Azopardo (lying within Baker Inlet), Prince Henry, Campana, Little Wellington, Great Wellington and Mornington (of the Wellington archipelago), Madre de Dios, Duke of York, Chatham, Hanover, Cambridge, Contreras, Rennell and the Queen Adelaide group of small barren rocks and islands lying immediately north of the Pacific entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
None of these islands is inhabited, although some of them are of large size, the largest (Great Wellington) being about ioo m.
In January 1828 he was made chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Wellington; like his leader he disliked Roman Catholic emancipation, which he voted against in 1828.
In the domain of finance Goulburn's chief achievements were to reduce the rate of interest on part of the national debt, and to allow any one to sell beer upon payment of a small annual fee, a complete change of policy with regard to the drink traffic. Leaving office with Wellington in November 1830, Goulburn was home secretary under Sir Robert Peel for four months in 1835, and when this statesman returned to office in September 1841 he became chancellor of the exchequer for the second time.
It was not till April 1827, when the premiership, vacant through the paralysis of Lord Liverpool, fell to Canning, the chief advocate of Roman Catholic emancipation, that Lord Eldon, in the seventy-sixth year of his age, finally resigned the chancellorship. When, after the two short administrations of Canning and Goderich, it fell to the duke of Wellington to construct a cabinet, Lord Eldon expected to be included, if not as chancellor, at least in some important office, but he was overlooked, at which he was much chagrined.
Wellesley, who had now become Viscount Wellington, opposed his march south wards, and won a victory at Bussaco on the 27th of September; but Massena subsequently turned the position of the allied army on the Serra de Bussaco, and caused Wellington to fall back upon the fortified lines which he had already constructed at Torres Vedras.
The Portuguese troops cut Massena's communications; the peasants, under instructions from Wellington, had already laid waste their own farms, destroyed the roads and bridges by which Massena might retreat, and burned their boats on the Tagus.
The Portuguese troops remained under Wellington's command until 1814, and distinguished themselves in many actions, notably at Salamanca and on the Nivelle.
But as the regency was corrupt and unable to co-operate with Wellington and Beresford, the British government had demanded that Sir Charles Stuart (son of the Sir Charles Stuart mentioned above) should be appointed one of its members.
In April the Tory ministry under Wellington withdrew Clinton's division, which was the mainstay of the charter.
The first steam navigation company was established in Dumbarton in 1815, when the "Duke of Wellington" (built in the town) plied between Dumbarton and Glasgow.
He was accompanied on that occasion by the duke of Wellington and Lord Howard of Effingham.
Until far on in the 18th century the malarial jungle and paddy fields closely hemmed in the European mansions; the vast plain (maiddn), now covered with gardens and promenades, was then a swamp during three months of each year; the spacious quadrangle known as Wellington Square was built upon a filthy creek.
In 1812, however, he was obliged, after Wellington's great victory of Salamanca, to evacuate Andalusia, and was soon after recalled from Spain at the request of Joseph Bonaparte, with whom, as with the other marshals, he had always disagreed.
His campaign there is the finest proof of his genius as a general, although he was repeatedly defeated by the English under Wellington, for his soldiers were but raw conscripts, while those of Wellington were the veterans of many campaigns.
The parks and open spaces include Wellington Park, Well Park in the heart of the town (these were the gift of Sir Michael Shaw-Stewart), Whin Hill, Lyle Road - a broad drive winding over the heights towards Gourock, constructed as a "relief work" in the severe winter of 1879-1880.
But the " Canningites," as they were termed, remained, and the duke of Wellington hastened to include Palmerston, Huskisson, Charles Grant, Lamb (Lord Melbourne) and Dudley in his government.
From that moment he appears to have directed his attention closely to foreign affairs; indeed he had already urged on the duke of Wellington a more active interference in the affairs of Greece; he had made several visits to Paris, where he foresaw with great accuracy the impending revolution; and on the 1st of June 1829 he made his first great speech on foreign affairs.
An attempt was made by the duke of Wellington in September 1830 to induce Palmerston to re-enter the cabinet,which he refused to do without Lord Lansdowne and Lord Grey, and from that time forward he may be said to have associated his political fortunes with those of the Whig party.
These instructions were handed on without change by Canning to the duke of Wellington, who went as representative, and they contain all the principles which have been said to have been peculiarly Canning's.
It is served by the Great Northern railway (Central station), the Midland (Wellington station), North-Eastern and London & North-Western (New station), and Great Central and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways (Central station).
ORANGE, a town of Wellington and Bathurst counties, New South Wales, Australia, 192 m.
Of the other towns Somerset West (2613), Somerset West Strand (3059), Stellenbosch (4969), Paarl (11,293), Wellington (4881), Ceres (2410), Malmesbury (3811), Caledon (3508), Worcester (7885), Robertson (3244) and Swellendam (2406) are named in the order of proximity to Cape Town, from which Swellendam is distant 134 m.
Railway construction began in 1859 when a private company built a line from Cape Town to Wellington.
In the same year the Cape Town - Wellington line was bought by the state.
These are the South African College at Cape Town (founded in 1829), the Victoria College at Stellenbosch, the Diocesan College at Rondebosch, Rhodes University College, Graham's Town, Gill College at Somerset East, the School of Mines at Kimberley and the Huguenot Ladies' College at Wellington.
In April 1852 Sir Harry Smith was recalled by Earl Grey, who accused him - unjustly, in the opinion of the duke of Wellington - of a want of energy and judgment in conducting the war, and he was succeeded by Lieutenant-General Cathcart.
The opening, in November 1863, of the railway from Cape Town to Wellington, begun in 1859, and the construction in 1860 of the great breakwater in Table Bay, long needed on that perilous coast, marked the beginning in the colony of public works on a large scale.
==Bridges== The Dee is crossed by four bridges, - the old bridge, the Wellington suspension bridge, the railway bridge, and Victoria Bridge, opposite Market Street.
During the short ministry of Canning in 1827 he was chief secretary for Ireland, but he afterwards for a time adhered to the small remnant of the party who supported the duke of Wellington.
Disagreeing with the duke of Wellington on the question of parliamentary reform, he entered the ministry of Grey as home secretary in 1830.
Wellington, Eldon, Melville, Bathurst, Westmorland and Peel, the latter of whom resigned on account of his opposition to Catholic emancipation.
The short-lived Goderich administration followed; and in January 1828 the king, weary of the effort to arrange a coalition, summoned the duke of Wellington to office as head of a purely Iuiu,g.
In May 1828, on the initiative of Lord John Russell, the Test and Corporation Acts were repealed; in the same session a Corn Bill, differing but little from those that Wellington had hitherto opposed, was passed; and finally, after a strenuous agitation which culminated in the election of OConnell for Clare, and in spite of the obstinate resistance of King George IV., the Catholic Emancipation Bill was passed (April 10, 18 29) by a large majority.
The Wellington ministry, hated by the Liberals, denounced even by the Tories as traitorous for the few concessions made, resigned on the 16th of November; and the Whigs at last came into office under Lord whig Grey, the ministry also including a few of the more ministry Liberal Tories.
An attempt to divert some of the revenues of the Irish Church led in the autumn to serious differences of opinion in the cabinet; the king, as tenacious as his father of the exact obligations of his coronation oath, dismissed the ministry, and called the Tories to office under Sir Robert Peel and the duke of Wellington.
By the judicious arrangements, however, which were made by the duke of Wellington, the peace of the metropolis was secured.
Lord Palmerston, speaking in 1845, had declared that steam had bridged theChannel; and the duke of Wellington had addressed a letter to Sir John Burgoyne, in which he had demonstrated that the country was not in a position to resist an.
WELLINGTON, the capital of New Zealand, the seat of government and of a bishop. Pop. (1901) 43,638; (1906) 58,563, and including suburbs, 63,807.
Wellington was founded in 1840, being the first settlement of New Zealand colonists, and the seat of government was transferred here from Auckland in 1865.
It occupies a site of great beauty, standing on a series of low hills at the foot of Mount Wellington, a lofty peak (4166 ft.) which is snow-clad for many months in the year.
The chief suburbs are Newton, Sandy Bay, Wellington, Risdon, Glenorchy, Bellerive and Beltana.
I he last and most memorable was in August 1813, when the allied British, Portuguese and Spanish armies under Lord Wellington captured the city from the French, and then sacked and burned it.
The place is celebrated as the site of a battle fought on the 23rd of September 1803 between the combined Mahratta forces under Sindhia and the rajah of Berar and the British under Major-General Wellesley, afterwards the duke of Wellington.
Not for a minute did he forget his mission: "Would you believe it," the duke of Wellington wrote of him, "this young man will not have it said that he is not going to be emperor of the French.
The brigadier was particularly mentioned in Wellington's despatches, and received the thanks of parliament as well as the Maria Theresa and other much-prized foreign orders.
After the loss of Spain, ff15 reconquered by Wellington, the rising in Holland preliminary to the invasion and the manifesto of Frankfort which proclaimed it, he had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1795; and then later was driven yet farther back upon.
In the same year (1828) the duke of Wellington appointed him to the regius professorship of Hebrew with the attached canonry of Christ Church.
The capture of Seville resulted in the dissolution of the central junta, and the Peninsula was only saved from final submission by the obstinate resistance of Wellington in Portugal and by dissensions among the French.
In 1812 Wellington determined on a great effort.
But further advance was prevented by the concentration of the French forces in the east, and Wellington found it advisable to retire for the third time to winter quarters on.
For the first time Wellington found himself opposed by fairly equal forces.
Joseph retired altogether from his kingdom, and Wellington, eager to take his part in the great European contest, fought his way through the Pyrenees into France.
de Maistre, the Wellington Dispatches, &c., and such collections as Corr.
Ridges and plateaus of a similar character, but more or less isolated, such as Ben Lomond (5010 feet) and Mount Wellington (4166(4166 feet), are to be found in the north-east and south-west of the island.
These rocks form the prominent scarps, known as the Tiers, on the edge of the plateau, and its outliers, such at Mount Wellington near Hobart, and the Eldon Range.
The duke of Wellington was sent to St Petersburg in 1826 to 1 Nicholas remained in Russia in 1829, and Diabitsch had a free hand.
Mail was delivered to Palmerston North on December 24 including airmail from Wellington and from Gisborne.
On 5 July Wellington was appointed ambassador at Paris - a strange choice.
Arthur Wellington deal exclusively with were by the.
We have classes at Wellington street boxing gym for total beginners.
The Finnish company Nokia produces not only mobile phones, but also tires and Wellington boots.
So Asian children have that golf brolly, they've got that raincoat and Wellington boots, but most of our kids don't.
disembarking the ferry at Wellington always comes as a huge culture shock.
In 1814 he was created 1st duke of Wellington.
The Wellington served primarily in the North Atlantic on convoy escort duties.
From here, we will join an inter-island ferry to Wellington - New Zealand's capital city.
inaccurate to claim that Wellington Dock is in the " Working Docks " area.
jostleling for a bench place Gareth Thomas Wellington, 80 Did enough to justify the faith Woodward has in him.
odium incurred by all opponents of the bill fastened especially on Wellington.
Congratulations on the beef wellington, fish pie, pear tart and chocolate roulade.
salver presented in 1991 by the Duke of Wellington's Regiment on the occasion of them receiving Honorary Citizenship of Skipton.
stallion ridden by the first Duke of Wellington at Waterloo.
Says arthur Wellington allow users of big businesses games as you.
Wellington boots against the wall of the shop next door.
Found it in Tesco and it went down well with the beef Wellington.
Says Arthur Wellington deal exclusively with were by the.
Firefighters gloves The boots The boots are large rubber Wellington boots.
Dining Wellington 's steak more than new two are available the tiny town.
The university of Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree of D.C.L.; and in the following year he was sworn of the privy council, and took a prominent part in the reception given to the duke of Wellington and the allied sovereigns.
He entered the English army, and in 1811, as aide-de-camp to the duke of Wellington, took part in several campaigns of the Peninsula War.
Wellington assumed the offensive, and by various movements and feints, aided the guerrilla bands by forcing the French corps to assemble in their districts, which not only greatly harassed them but also materially hindered the combination of their corps for concerted action.
Then, after a feint of passing on into Spain, Wellington rapidly marched south and, with 2 2,000 men, laid siege to Badajoz (March 17, 1812), Hill with 30,000 covering the siege near Merida.
On the 15th of July 1812, Marmont, after a feint against Wellington's left, suddenly, by a forced march, turned his right, and made rapidly towards the fords of Huerta and Alba on the Tormes.
Griffiths, Wellington and Waterloo (illustrated; London, 1898); Thiers, Histoire du consulat et de l'empire (Paris, 1845-1847; and translated by D.
On the renewal of the war he again became aide-de-camp and military secretary to the duke of Wellington.
Thus Sir John Wolfe Barry, as chairman of the Council of the Society of Arts in 1899, proposed to alleviate congestion of traffic by bridges over and tunnels under the streets at six points, namely - Hyde Park Corner, Piccadilly Circus, Ludgate Circus, Oxford Street and Tottenham Court Road, Strand and Wellington Street, and Southwark Bridge and Upper Thames Street.
Wellington's was a collection of many nationalities; the kernel being composed of his trusty and tenacious British and King's German Legion troops, numbering only 42,000 men.
In any case D'Erlon could not come back in time to give him effectual help. But incapable of grasping the situation, and beside himself with rage, Ney sent imperative orders to D'Erlon to return at once, and immediately afterwards he ordered Kellermann to lead his one available cuirassier brigade and break through Wellington's line.
Gneisenau at this crisis in the affairs of the allies does not appear to have subordinated everything to co-operation at all cost with Wellington, and he allowed supply considerations and the re-establishment of his communications to overweigh the paramount necessity of arranging concerted action with his ally.
The emperor having beaten Blucher, the latter must fall back to rally and re-form, and call in Billow, who had only reached the neighbourhood of Gembloux on June 16; whilst on the other flank Ney, reinforced by D'Erlon's fresh corps, lay in front of Wellington, and the marshal could fasten upon the Anglo-Dutch army and hold it fast during the early morning of June 17, sufficiently long to allow the emperor to close round his foe's open left flank and deal him a deathblow.
But it was clearly essential to deal with Wellington on the morrow, ere Blucher could again appear on the scene.
Napoleon would in this case hasten up with the reserve and crush Wellington.
The French army proceeded to form up in an imposing array some 1300 yards from Wellington's position, and if some misgivings as to the result filled the minds of men like Soult, Reille and Foy, who had had previous experience of Wellington in the field, none at any rate dwelt in Napoleon's mind.
A letter was now awaiting despatch to Grouchy, and to it was added a postscript that the battle was raging with Wellington, that Billow's corps had been sighted by the emperor, and that the marshal was to hasten to the field and crush Billow.
So far no success against Wellington had been achieved, and Billow was still an onlooker.
For all that, Auckland and Wellington are the most populous of the -larger districts, while Nelson, Westland and Marlborough have for a long time shown the slowest increase.
Between this and North Wall the river is crossed by twelve bridges, which, in order from west to east, are these: - Sarah Bridge, the bridge of the North Wall extension railway; King's, commemorating a visit of George IV.; Victoria or Barrack; Queen's; Whitworth, of interest as occupying the site where a bridge has stood since the 12th century; Richmond, Grattan and Wellington; O'Connell, Butt and a swivel bridge carrying a loop railway.
He entered the army as ensign in the 73rd Highlanders in 1787, passed rapidly through the lower ranks (in five different regiments), became major of the 33rd (now duke of Wellington's West Riding), and purchased the lieutenant-colonelcy of that regiment in 1793 with money advanced to him by his eldest brother: But in all these changes he did little regimental duty, for he was aide-de-camp to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland for practically the whole of these years.
Wellington, foreseeing that Portugal would now be invaded by a very powerful army, began the fortification of the celebrated lines of Torres Vedras (see Fortification).
The battle of Fuentes d'Onoro followed, in which Wellington was only able to extricate the army from a dangerous predicament which "if Boney had been there" would have been a disaster.
Wellington's official part at the congress is outlined elsewhere (see Verona, Congress Of).
On the 4th of April was signed the Protocol of St Petersburg, an instrument which - as events were to prove - fettered the free initiative not of Russia, but of Great Britain (see Turkey: History; Greece: HistOry).7 After the death of the duke of York on the 5th of December 1826 the post of commander-in-chief was conferred upon Wellington.
This, however, was Wellington's policy; and, having permitted Russia to go to war alone in 1828, nothing remained for him but to treat Greece as a pawn in Russia's hands, and to cut down the territory of the Greek kingdom to the narrowest possible limits, as if the restoration to the sultan of an inaccessible mountain-tract, inhabited by the bitterest of his enemies, could permanently add to the strength of the Ottoman empire.
Thomson on Mount Wellington, in Tasmania, the gills are not arborescent, and there are seven segments of the trunk free of the carapace (fig.
Fearing an attack by Portuguese auxiliaries and the arrival of British reinforcements under Sir John Moore, Junot signed the convention of Cintra by which, on the 30th of August 1808, he agreed to evacuate Portugal (see Wellington).
The duke of Wellington, Sir Robert Peel and several other members of the ministry, moved perhaps by personal animosity, and certainly by dislike of his known and consistent advocacy of the claims of the Roman Catholics, refused to serve with him.
Among its members were somelike the lord chancellor Eldon, the duke of Wellington, and the premier, Lord Liverpool, himselfwhose Toryism was of the type crystallized under the influence of the Revolution, adamant against change.
Silver salver presented in 1991 by the Duke of Wellington 's Regiment on the occasion of them receiving Honorary Citizenship of Skipton.
Notable exceptions include that of Copenhagen, the chestnut stallion ridden by the first Duke of Wellington at Waterloo.
Astonishing Splashes of Color Kitty Wellington, the depressed and unhinged narrator of Clare Morrall 's novel, has a strong and compelling voice.
Says arthur wellington allow users of big businesses games as you.
The boy was still there, kicking his wellington boots against the wall of the shop next door.
Found it in Tesco and it went down well with the beef wellington.
Firefighters gloves The boots The boots are large rubber wellington boots.
Dining wellington 's steak more than new two are available the tiny town.
Over the years, Crowe, who was born in 1964 in Wellington, New Zealand, has gained a reputation for having a temper, including an altercation at a New York City hotel in 2005.
The strawberry bisque, beef Wellington, chocolate melting cake, and other appetizers, entrees, and desserts are superbly prepared and presented.
The 30-day fall voyage starts in the "City by the Bay" and travels to Sydney, Australia, with stops in Honolulu and Maui before heading across the Pacific to Bora Bora, Pago Pago, Fiji, Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch.
What's more, most major cruise lines, including Holland America offer at least one meatless dish on both its lunch and dinner menus, such as Roasted Portobello Triangoli Pasta, Vegetable Wellington or Asiago and Asparagus Risotto.
The best are those raised years ago, such as Cheshire Favourite, George the Fourth, Formosa, Duke of Wellington, Black Prince, Lancashire Hero, and others, and they are mentioned in most florists catalogues of hardy plants.