He spent the rest of his life in retirement, dying at Wellington on the 16th of May 1862.
Massena failed to dislodge the Allies, and on the 8th of May withdrew to Salamanca, Almeida falling to Wellington on the r ith of May 181 r.
Grey, Polynesian Mythology and Maori Legends (Wellington, 1885); A.
Continuing in a north-easterly direction Oxley struck the Macquarie river at a place he called Wellington, and from this place in the following year he organized a second expedition in hopes of discovering an inland sea.
The fortress was finally stormed on the 6th of April 1812, by the British under Lord Wellington, and carried with terrible loss.
Delbri ck began in 1883 to edit the Preussische Jahrbilcher, in which he has written many articles, including one on "General Wolseley fiber Napoleon, Wellington and Gneisenau," and he has contributed to the Europeiischer Geschichtskalender of H.
MINEHEAD, a market town and seaside resort in the Wellington parliamentary division of Somersetshire, England, 188 m.
He kept in touch, however, with foreign politics, and having refused to join the ministry of George Canning in 1827, became a member of the cabinet of the duke of Wellington as 'chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in January 1828.
To continue the strife when Wellington was firmly established on the line of the Garonne, and Lyons and Bordeaux had hoisted the Bourbonfleur de lys, was seen by all but Napoleon to be sheer madness; but it needed the pressure of his marshals in painful interviews at Fontainebleau to bring him to reason.
It is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway, and by the Cleveland & South-Western (electric) railway, which furnishes connexions directly with Cleveland and Elyria, and at the village of Wellington (about io m.
To send the duke of Wellington to St Petersburg in order to concert joint measures.
This was ultimately expanded, after the fall of the Wellington ministry, into the Treaty of London of the 7th of May 1832, by which Greece was made an independent kingdom under the Bavarian prince Otto.
To meet these forces the emperor could not collect men in all, of whom upwards of 10o,000 were held by Wellington on the Spanish frontier, and more were required to watch the debouches from the Alps.
Now, however, they began to realize the weakness of their opponent, and perhaps actuated by the fear that Wellington from Toulouse might, after all, reach Paris first, they determined Seinojse
Of their day, were immeasurably ahead of their times, and both also understood to the full the strategic art of binding and restraining the independent will power of their opponents, an art of which Marlborough and Frederick, Wellington, Lee and Moltke do not seem ever even to have grasped the fringe.
Wellington fell back before him down the left bank, ordering up Rowland Hill's force from the Badajoz road, the peasantry having been previously called upon to destroy their crops and retire within the lines of Torres Vedras.
A little north of Coimbra, the road which Massena followed crossed the Sierra de Bussaco (Busaco), a very strong position where Wellington resolved to offer him battle.
The next day Massena turned the Sierra by the Boyalva Pass and Sardao, which latter place, owing to an error, had not been occupied by the Portuguese, and Wellington then retreated by Coimbra and Leiria to the lines, which he entered on the 11th of October, having within them fully ioo,000 able-bodied men.
On the other hand Wellington still held Lisbon with parts of Portugal, Elvas and Badajoz, for Soult had not felt disposed to attempt the capture of the last two fortresses.
Wellington followed, directing the Portuguese to remove all boats from the Mondego and Douro, and to break up roads north of the former river.
In the pursuit, Wellington adhered to his policy of husbanding his troops for future offensive operations, and let sickness and hunger do the work of the sword.
Wellington now sent off Beresford with a force to retake Badajoz; and Massena, sacrificing much of his baggage and ammunition, reached Celorico and Guarda (March 21).
Here he was attacked by Wellington (March 29) and, after a further engagement at Sabugal (April 3, 1811), he fell back through Ciudad to Salamanca, having lost in Portugal nearly 30,000 men, chiefly from want and disease, and 6000 in the retreat alone.
Wellington, on the 9th of April 1811, directed General Spencer to invest Almeida; he then set off himself to join Beresford before Badajoz, but after reconnoitring the fortress with his lieutenant he had at once to return north on the news that Massena was moving to relieve Almeida.
After this Wellington from Almeida rejoined Beresford and the siege of Badajoz was continued: but now Marshal Marmont, having succeeded Massena, was marching southwards to join Soult, and, two allied assaults of Badajoz having failed, Wellington withdrew.
Before so superior a force, Wellington had not attempted to maintain the blockade; but on Marmont afterwards advancing towards him, he fought a rearguard action with him at El Bodon (Sept.
27), but Wellington taking up a strong position near Sabugal, Marmont and Dorsenne withdrew once more to the valley of the Tagus and Salamanca respectively, and Wellington again blockaded Ciudad Rodrigo.
Napoleon, with the Russian War in prospect, had early in the year withdrawn 30,000 men from Spain; and Wellington had begun to carry on what he termed a war of "magazines."
Wellington was hampered by want of time, and had to assault prematurely.
Wellington then, ostentatiously making preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more turned northward, crossed the Tormes (June 17, 1812), and advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost him 600 men.
The river was high, and Wellington hoped that want of supplies would compel Marmont to retire, but in this he was disappointed.
Some interesting manoeuvres now took place, Wellington moving parallel and close to Marmont, but more to the north, making for the fords of Aldea Lengua and Santa Marta on the Tormes nearer to Salamanca, and being under the belief that the Spaniards held the castle and ford at Alba on that river.
But Marmont's manoeuvring and marching power had been underestimated, and on the 21st of July while Wellington's position covered Salamanca, and but indirectly his line of communications through Ciudad Rodrigo, Marmont had reached a point from which he hoped to interpose between Wellington and Portugal, on the Ciudad Rodrigo road.
This he endeavoured to do on the 22nd of July 1812, which brought on the important battle of Salamanca (q.v.) in which Battle of Wellington gained a decisive victory, the French Salamanca, falling back to Valladolid and thence to Burgos.
Joseph retired before him, and Wellington entered Madrid (Aug.
Wellington then brought up Hill to Madrid.
On the 1st of September 1812, the French armies having begun once more to collect together, Wellington marched against the of the Army of the North, now under General Clause], and Siege Castle of laid siege to the castle of Burgos (Sept.
Wellington had insufficient siege equipment and transport for heavy guns; five assaults failed, and Soult (having left Suchet in Valencia) and also the Army of Portugal were both approaching, so Wellington withdrew on the night of the Retreat 21st of October, and, directing the evacuation of from Madrid, commenced the "Retreat from Burgos."
By November 1812, Hill having joined him at Salamanca, Wellington once more had gone into cantonments near Ciudad Rodrigo, and the French armies had again scattered for convenience of supply.
One important result of the campaign was that the Spanish Cortes nominated Wellington (Sept.
For the operations of this campaign Wellington was created earl, and subsequently marquess of Wellington; duke of Ciudad Rodrigo by Spain, and marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal.
Of these about 60,000 under Joseph were more immediately opposed to Wellington, and posted, in scattered detachments, from Toledo and Madrid behind the Tormes to the Douro, and along that river to the Esla.
Wellington had further organized the Spanish forces - Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and northern Spain; Copons (io,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell (15,000) in Andalusia.
The district of the Trasos-Montes, north of the Douro, about the Tamega, Tua and Sabor, was so rugged that Wellington was convinced that Joseph would expect him to advance by the south of the river.
Once more Wellington turned his right, by a sweeping movement through Rocamunde and Puente Arenas near the source of the Ebro, when he retreated behind the Zadorra near the town of Vitoria.
On the 10th of June Wellington encamped along the river Bayas, and the next day attacked Joseph.
For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory 1 by the Portuguese government in Brazil.
Wellington then suspended the siege in order to meet Soult, who endeavoured (July 25) to turn the allied right, and reach Pampeluna.
A struggle, described by Wellington as "bludgeon work," now ensued, but all efforts to dislodge the Allies having failed, Soult, withdrawing, manoeuvred to his right towards San Sebastian.
Wellington now assumed the offensive, and, in a series of engagements, drove the French back (Aug.
After this, Wellington renewing the siege of San Sebastian carried the place, excepting the castle, after a heavy expenditure of life (Aug.
Wellington next determined to throw his left across the river Bidassoa to strengthen his own position, and secure the port of Fuenterrabia.
On the 31st of October Pampeluna surrendered, and Wellington was now anxious to drive Suchet from Catalonia before further invading France.
Each army had with it about 100 guns; and, during a heavy cannonade, Wellington on the 10th of November 1813 attacked this extended Passage of position of 16 m.
In the following June he was transferred to the office of secretary of state for foreign affairs, and having acquitted himself with credit with regard to the war between Russia and Turkey, and to affairs in Greece, Portugal and France, he resigned with Wellington in November 1830, and shared his leader's attitude towards the Reform Bill of 1832.
But the passports which the provisional government asked from Wellington were refused, and as the country was declaring for the Bourbons, his position soon became precarious.
See also the Memoirs of Bausset, Mme Durand Meneval and Metternich; and Max Billard, The Marriage Ventures of Marie Louise, English version by Evelyn duchess of Wellington (1910).
WENLOCK, a municipal borough in the Ludlow and Wellington parliamentary divisions of Shropshire, England, extending on both sides of the river Severn.
Wellington entered Valladolid (July 30), and thence 1812.
It was by the ford opposite Fuenterrabia that the duke of Wellington, on the 8th of October 1813, successfully forced a passage into France in the face of an opposing army commanded by Marshal Soult.