Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of weights and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.
The results obtained from equal weights of rain and snow seem of the same order.
the tax on property in mortmain, dues for the verification of weights and measures, the tax on royalties from mines, on horses, mules and carriages, on cycles, &c.
Since leaving college, she'd stayed in shape through the local gym, where she lifted weights and forced herself onto a cardio machine twice a week.
The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.
His treatise on numerical divisions, weights and measures (Distributio) is extant, with the exception of the concluding portion.
The paddle was driven by weights, and the temperature of the water was observed by thermometers which could indicate 2 kuth of a degree Fahrenheit.
More important is his deduction of equivalent weights, i.e.
equal changes in temperature and pressure occasion equal changes in equal volumes of all gases and vapours - Avogadro deduced the law: Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules; and he showed that the relative weights of the molecules are determined as the ratios of the weights of equal volumes, or densities.
The vamp growled again and flung down the free weights.
and 8 ft.; their respective weights being 81, 80 and 90 lb.
The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.
In water and in ethylene experiment shows that 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 6 parts of carbon, respectively, are in union with one part of hydrogen; also, if the diagrams are correct, these numbers must be in the ratio of the atomic weights of oxygen and carbon.
In each of a number of experiments he found that the weight of the silver iodide did not differ by one twenty-thousandth of the whole from the sum of the weights of the silver and the iodine used.
One section of the law expresses the fact that the weights of two substances, not necessarily elements, that are equivalent in one reaction, are often found to be equivalent in a number of other reactions.
It is universally found that the weights of two bases which neutralize the same weight of one acid are equivalent in their power of neutralizing other acids.
The Daltonian would say that each of these weights represents a certain group of atoms, and that these groups can replace, or combine with, each other, to form new molecules.
On account of this difficulty, the atomic weights published by Dalton, and the more accurate ones of Berzelius, were not always identical with the values now accepted, but were often simple multiples or submultiples of these.
necessary to determine the specific gravities of the various gases referred to some one of them, say hydrogen; the numbers so obtained giving the weights of the molecules referred to that of the hydrogen molecule.
With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
With portable cranes means must be provided to ensure the requisite stability against overturning; this is done by weighting the tail of the revolving part with heavy weights, and in steam cranes the FIG.
Finally, it may be noted that many immoral acts, such as the use of false weights, lying, &c., which could not be brought into court, are severely denounced in the Omen Tablets as likely to bring the offender into " the hand of God " as opposed to " the hand of the king."
The sizes of copper wire employed have weights of too, 150, 200 and 400 lb per statute mile, and have electrical resistances (at 60° F.) of 8.782, 5.8 55, 4.39 1 and 2.195 standard ohms respectively.
One of the electrodes was attached to a sounding board capable of being vibrated by sound-waves and the other was held either by springs or weights in delicate contact with it.
provides for the uniformity of weights and measures throughout the kingdom.
The metric system of weights and measures has been officially adopted, but the old Spanish system is still in general use.
The practical effect of this opposite couple is slightly to tilt the frame and thus to redistribute slightly the weights on the wheels carrying the vehicle.
Motors may be applied to every axle in the train, and their individual torques adjusted to values suitable to the weights naturally carried by the several axles.
The revolving masses are truly balanced by balance weights placed between ' the spokes of the wheels, or sometimes by prolonging the crank-webs and forming the prolongation into balance weights.
It is also the custom to balance a proportion of the reciprocating masses by balance weights placed between the spokes of the wheels, and the actual balance weight seen in a driving-wheel is the resultant of the separate weights required for the balancing of the revolving parts and the reciprocating parts.
When the four cranks are placed with two pairs at 180°, the pairs being at 90°, the forces are balanced without the introduction of a hammer-blow, but there remain large unbalanced couples, which if balanced by means of revolving weights in the wheels again reintroduce the hammerblow, and if left unbalanced tend to make the engine oscillate in a horizontal plane at high speed.
The weights are governed by what the railway has to carry Italy.
The relative weights of the sources have been more nicely determined by critical investigation.
He was continually being fined for allowing his pigs to stray in the street, selling bad meat, letting his house to doubtful characters for illegal purposes, and generally infringing the by-laws respecting weights and measures (extracts from the Ipswich records, printed in the Athenaeum, 1900, i.
As illustrating heavy weights, there were in the 1893 show, out of 310 entries of cattle, four beasts which weighed over a ton.
The cattle and sheep entered for this competition are shown alive on the first day, at the close of which they are slaughtered and the carcases hung up for exhibition, with details of live and dead weights.
In 1889, at Windsor, prizes were awarded for a fruit and vegetable evaporator, a paring and coring machine, a dairy thermometer, parcel post butter-boxes to carry different weights, and a vessel to contain preserved butter.
No traces of currency have come to light, unless certain axe-heads, too slight for practical use, had that character; but standard weights have been found, and representations of ingots.
The approximate weights of some of the principal bales on the English market are as follows: United States.
In Germany, the law prescribes a close-test of 21° C., equal to about 70° F., whilst in Russia the standard is 28° C., equal to 84.4° F., by the close-test; in both these countries the weights of petroleum which may be stored in specified buildings are determined by law.
His book on Die modernen Theorien der Chemie, which was first published in Breslau in 1864, contains a discussion of relations between the atomic weights and the properties of the elements.
He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed; however a chemical system be changed, the weights before and after are equal.'
the relative weights of atoms. He took hydrogen, the lightest substance known, to be the standard.
In place of the relative molecular weights, attention was concentrated on relative atomic or equivalent weights.
Chemists gradually tired of the notion of atomic weights on account of the uncertainty which surrounded them; and the suggestion made by W.
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
At the conclusion of the sitting, Lothar Meyer obtained a paper written by Stanislas Cannizzaro in 1858 wherein was found the final link required for the determination of atomic weights.
From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent weights.
The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.
Elements.-The following table gives the names, symbols and atomic weights of the perfectly characterized elements: International Atomic Weights, 1910.
This law states that: - gases combine with one another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are simply related to their combining weights.
1 Approximate values of the atomic weights are employed here.
Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.
One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.
In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the weights of the substance engaged in the reaction.
Considerable uncertainty existed as to the atomic weights of these metals, the values obtained by Berzelius being doubtful.
Of great importance is the chemical identity of the diamond, graphite and charcoal, a fact demonstrated in part by Lavoisier in 1773, Smithson Tennant in 1796, and by Sir George Steuart-Mackenzie (1780-1848), who showed that equal weights.
the molecular weights were the same as in use to-day.) This connecting link, C2, was regarded as essential, while the methyl, ethyl, &c. was but a sort of appendage; but Kolbe could not clearly conceive the manner of copulation.
isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of time.
When this is done, such densities are measures of the molecular weights of the substances in question.
The relation between the atomic volumes and the atomic weights of the solid elements exhibits the periodicity which generally characterizes the elements.
Specific Heats of Solids.-The development of the atomic theory and the subsequent determination of atomic weights in the opening decades of the 19th century inspired A.
Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.
To take an example: 38 parts of indium combine with 35.4 parts of chlorine; hence, if the formula of the chloride be InCI, InC1 2 or InC1 3, indium has the atomic weights 38, 76 or 114.
The specific heat of indium is o 057; and the atomic heats corresponding to the atomic weights 38, 76 and 114 are 3.2, 4.3, 6.5.
This fact finds a parallel in the atomic weights of these metals.
He found that the amounts of the substances liberated in each cell were proportional to the chemical equivalent weights of those substances.
The charter of Canute (1032) contains a reference to "hustings" weights, which points to the early establishment of the court.
If the successive weights of the separates w 1, w 2, w 3, ...
(1n), are all of the first degree, and are of weights I, 2, 3,...n respectively.
His great reputation led to his being entrusted by the government with several missions; in 1865 he represented Prussia in the conference called at Frankfort to introduce a uniform metric system of weights and measures into Germany.
With suitable arrangements of iron and coil and a sufficiently strong current, the intensity of the temporary magnetization may be very high, and electromagnets capable of lifting weights of several tons are in daily use in engineering works.
What actually happens when an iron wire is loaded with various weights is clearly shown in Fig.
So far, the best results have been attained with aluminium, and the permeability was greatest when the percentages of manganese and aluminium were approximately proportional to the atomic weights of the two metals.
Nominated president of the Academical commission for the reform of weights and measures, his services were retained when its "purification" by the Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues.
During an access of revolutionary suspicion, he was removed from the commission of weights and measures; but the slight was quickly effaced by new honours.
X is, in general, a determinate point, the barycentre of aA, 3B, &c. (or of A, B, &c. for the weights a, 0, &c.).
Marignac's name is well known for the careful and exact determinations of atomic weights which he carried out for twenty-eight of the elements.
Herodotus further states that Pheidon established a system of weights and measures throughout Peloponnesus, to which Ephorus and the Parian Chronicle add that he was the first to coin silver money, and that his mint was at Aegina.
No such difficulty occurs in regard to the weights and measures; it is generally agreed that a system was already in existence in the time of Pheidon, into which he introduced certain changes.
The metric weights and measures have been officially adopted by Venezuela, but the old Spanish units are still popularly used throughout the country.
In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.
The manufacture had then no doubt attained considerable proportions: in 1268 the glass-workers became an incorporated body; in their processions they exhibited decanters, scent-bottles and the like; in 1279 they made, among other things, weights and measures.
(2) Care of provisions: investigation of the quality of the articles supplied and the correctness of weights and measures; the purchase of corn for disposal at a low price in case of necessity.
So also a balloon begins to rise when the weight of air displaced is greater than the weight of the balloon, and it is in equilibrium when the weights are equal.
The conditions of equilibrium of a body, floating like a ship on the surface of a liquid, are therefore: (i.) the weight of the body must be less than the weight of the total volume of liquid it can displace; or else the body will sink to the bottom of the liquid; the difference of the weights is called the " reserve of buoyancy."
tan 0; but if weights inside the ship are raised to bring G above B, the righting couple is diminished by W.BG.
He was recalled to Paris for a time in order to take part in the new determination of weights and measures, which had been decreed by the Revolutionary government.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
==Seals, Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems. The seals are inscribed with Sabaean writing and are of bronze, copper, silver and stone.
One or two weights are also in existence.
The weights and measures are those of France.
In 1892 he was a member of the Bureau Internationale des Poids et Mesures and in 1897 of the International Committee of Weights and Measures.
The French metric system is the official standard of weights and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people.
The composition of the distillate is determinate (by Avogadro's law) if the molecular weights and vapour pressure of the components at the temperature of distillation be known.
If M 1, M2, and P 1, P 2 be the molecular weights and vapour pressures of the components A and B, then the ratio of A to B in the distillate is M 1 P 1 /M 2 P 2.
is given up to mathematics, under which head are included music, geometry, astronomy, astrology, weights and measures, and metaphysics.
Ths construction of the framework of the Japanese roof is such that thc weights all act vertically; there is no thrust on the outer walls and every available point of the interior is used as a means of support.
The weights and measures were still Russian, but the introduction of the metric system was contemplated in 1921.
On his return to Europe he visited a second time several parts of Italy, and during his stay at Rome instituted inquiries into the ancient weights and measures.
Local weights and measures include the cantar, 175 lb; salm, one imperial quarter; cafiso, 42 gallons; canna, 6 ft.
Since the weights used in conjunction with a balance are really standard masses, the word "weight" may be substituted for the word "mass" in the preceding definitions; and we may symbolically express the relations thus: - If M be the weight of substance occupying a volume V, then the absolute density O = M/V; and if m, m 1 be the weights of the substance and of the standard substance which occupy the same volume, the relative density or specific gravity S = m/m l; or more generally if m i be the weight of a volume v of the substance, and m l the weight of a volume v l of the standard, then S = mv l /m l v.
The density gives very important information as to the molecular weight, since by the law of Avogadro it is seen that the relative density is the ratio of the molecular weights of the experimental and standard gases.
(16.6 C.); a reason for this is that the gallon of water is defined by statute as weighing Io lb at 62° F., and hence the densities so expressed admit of the ready conversion of volumes to weights.
In the group where the principles of hydrostatics are not employed the method consists in determining the weight and volume of a certain quantity of the substance, or the weights of equal volumes of the substance and of the standard.
Calling the weight of the empty vessel w, when filled with the liquid W, and when filled with the standard substance W l, it is obvious that W - w, and W1 - w, are the weights of equal volumes of the liquid and standard, and hence the relative density is (W - w)/(Wi - w).
The difference in the weights corresponds to the volume of gas at a pressure equal to the difference of the recorded pressures.
The principle is readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, W, and W2 its weights when immersed in the liquids, then W - W, and W - W 2 are the weights of equal volumes of the liquids, and therefore the relative density is the quotient (W - W,)/(W - W2).
It may be assumed that the weighing is made with brass weights in air at 1° and p mm.
To determine the true weight in vacuo at 0°, account must be taken of the different buoyancies, or losses of true weight, due to the different volumes of the solids and weights.
Similarly in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the buoyancy of the weights, and also, if absolute densities be required, of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment.
The other arm is graduated in ten divisions and carries riders - bent pieces of wire of determined weights - and at its extremity a hook from FIG.
Biltz, Practical Methods for determining Molecular Weights (1899).
Sci., 1909 (iv.), 28, p. 347) claim to have separated two substances (of atomic weights 126.49 and 128.85 respectively) from tellurium, by fractional precipitation of tellurium chloride with water, but in the opinion of H.
He introduced a new system of weights and measures, which he ordered should be used throughout his kingdom, and took steps to reform the coinage.
When the cage arrives at the surface, or rather the platform forming the working top above the mouth of the pit, it is received upon the keeps, a pair of hinged gratings which are kept in an inclined position over the pit-top by counterbalance weights, so that they are pushed aside to allow the cage to pass upwards, but fall back and receive it when the engine is reversed.
Weights W and w are adjusted to the torque.
The casing is held from turning by weights hanging on an attached arm.
If, therefore, the motor is mounted on a cradle free to turn about knife-edges, the reacting torque is the only torque tending to turn the cradle when it is in a vertical position, and may therefore be measured by adjusting weights to hold the cradle in a vertical position.
Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining weights; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e.
He was associated with Henry Williams Chisholm and others as a member of the Royal Commission of1868-1869for standardizing weights and measures.
(ii) This assignment of different coefficients means that different weights are given to different ordinates; and the relative weights may not agree with the relative accuracies of measurement.
The beam is released and in the course of a second or so takes up a certain position dependent on the relative weights of the coin and counterpoise.
The coin is balanced by the brass counterpoise J on the lefthand hanger and by little weights made of wire attached to the right-hand hanger at K.
a tuning-fork or a bell-glass, a silk or cotton thread, the other extremity being either fixed or passing over a pulley and supporting weights by which the thread may be stretched to any degree required.
The weights of engines and wagons are now greater, and in addition it is recognized that the concentration of the loading at the axles gives rise to greater straining action, especially in short bridges, than the same load uniformly distributed along the span.
Let w 1, w 2 be the weights of main girders per ft.
Now let w1', w 2 ' be the girder weights per ft.
Professor Claxton Fidler (Treatise on Bridge Construction, 1887) has made a very careful theoretical analysis of the weights of bridges of different types, and has obtained the following values for the limiting spans.
An ancient Chinese law, moreover, prescribed the regularization of weights and measures at the spring equinox.
In 1799 he proved that carbonate of copper, whether natural or artificial, always has the same composition, and later he showed that the two oxides of tin and the two sulphides of iron always contain the same relative weights of their components and that no intermediate indeterminate compounds exist.
They maintained order in the markets, settled disputes, examined the quality of the articles exposed for sale, tested weights and measures, collected the harbour dues and enforced the shipping regulations.
Priscian's three short treatises dedicated to Symmachus are on weights and measures, the metres of Terence, and some rhetorical elements (exercises translated from the Hpoyvµvaaµara of Hermogenes).
On ignition the reaction, 8A1+3Fe 3 O 4 =9Fe+4Al 2 O 3, gives a temperature estimated to be between 2,300° and 2,700°C. The reaction, stated in weights, means that 217 parts of aluminium plus 732 parts magnetite (iron oxide) equals 540 parts steel plus 409 parts slag, or approximately 3 parts of aluminium plus 10 parts of magnetite will produce, on combustion, 7 parts of steel.
The metric system of weights and measures was introduced by law in 1884, but the old Spanish system is still in use.
The legal theory of the British system of weights and measures is:
(b) the standard pound of 7000 grains, with all weights based upon that, with the troy pound of 5760 grains for trade purposes;
in., which contain each 252.724 grains of water in a vacuum at 62°, or 252.458 grains of water weighed with brass weights in air of 62° with the barometer at 30 in.
The kilogram (kg.) is represented by an iridio-platinum standard weight, of cylindrical form, by which all other metric weights, and all measures having reference to metric weight, are ascertained in the United Kingdom.
From the above four units are derived all other weights and measures (W.
In the measurement of the cubic inch it has been found that 2 the specific mass of the cubic inch of distilled water freed from air, and weighed in air against brass weights (= 8.13), at the temperature of 62° F., and under an atmospheric pressure equal to 30 in.
In all countries the national standards of weights and measures are in the custody of the state, or of some authority administering the government of the country.
For the care of these national standards the Standards Department was developed, under the direction of a Royal Commission -- See: Report Standards Commission, 1870 -- (of which the late Henry Williams Chisholm was a leading member), to conduct all comparisons and other operations with reference to weights and measures in aid of scientific research or otherwise, which it may be the duty of the state to undertake.
= 30 in., weighed in air against brass weights.
There appears, however, to be some objection to the use of iridio-platinum for weights, as, owing to its great density (Î”=21.57), the slightest abrasion will make an appreciable difference in a weight; sometimes, therefore, quartz or rock-crystal is used; but to this also there is some objection, as owing to its low density (Î”=2.65) there is a large exposed surface of the mass.
For small standard weights platinum (Î”=21.45) and aluminium (Î”=2.67) are used, and also an alloy of palladium (60%) and silver (40%) (Î”=11.00).
Besides the State departments dealing with weights and measures, there are other standardizing institutions of recent date.
It may here be mentioned that the expression "imperial" first occurs in the Weights and Measures Act of 1824.
English Weights and Measures Abolished.
Troy weight was abolished, from the 1st of January 1879, by the Weights and Measures Act 1878, with the exception only of the Troy ounce, its decimal parts and multiples, legalized in 1853, 16 Vict.
French Weights and Measures Abolished
Author of Treatise on Weights and Measures.
BÃ¶ckh, to the study of water-volumes and weights, even deriving linear measures therefrom; V.
Brandis, to the basis of Assyrian standards; Mommsen, to coin weights; and P. Bortolotti to Egyptian units; but F.
In this article the tendency will be to trust far more to actual measures and weights than to the statements of ancient writers; and this position seems to be justified by the great increase in materials, and their more accurate means of study.
These authors are of great value for connecting the monumental information, but must yield more and more to the increasing evidence of actual weights and measures.
2: Weights and measures actually remaining.
The number of published weights did not exceed 600 of all standards in 1880; but the collections from Naucratis (28), Defenneh (29) and Memphis (44) have supplied over six times this quantity, and of an earlier age than most other examples, while existing collections have been more thoroughly examined.
(Note: these figures refer to the authorities at the end of this section.) It is above all desirable to make allowances for the changes which weights have undergone; and, as this has only been done for the above Egyptian collections and that of the British Museum, conclusions as to the accurate values of different standards will here be drawn from these rather than continental sources.
Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.
-- Unfortunately, so very little is known of the ages of weights and measures that this datum -- most essential in considering their history -- has been scarcely considered.
In weights of the same place and age there is a far wider range; at Defenneh (29), within a century probably, the average variation of different units is 1/36, 1/60, and 1/67, the range being just the same as in all times and places taken together.
Even in a set of weights all found together, the average variation is only reduced to 1/60 in place of 1/36 (29).
Altogether, we see that weights have descended from original varieties with so little intercomparison that no rectification of their values has been made, and hence there is as much variety in any one place and time as in all together.
Of weights there are scarce any dated, excepting coins, which nearly all decrease; the Attic tetradrachm, however, increased in three centuries (28), owing probably to its being below the average trade weight to begin with.
Roughly dividing the Roman weights, there appears a decrease of 1/40 from imperial to Byzantine times (43).
Probably measures tend to increase and weights to decrease in transmission from time to time or place to place.
The great spread of the Phoenician weight on the Mediterranean, of the Persian in Asia Minor and of the Assyrian in Egypt are evident cases; and that the decimal weights of the laws of Manu (43) are decidedly not Assyrian or Persian, but on exactly the Phoenician standard, is a curious evidence of trade by water and not overland.
6: Connexions of Lengths, Volumes and Weights -- This is the most difficult branch of metrology, owing to the variety of connexions which can be suggested, to the vague information we have, especially on volumes, and to the liability of writers to rationalize connexions which were never intended.
Again, there are many theories of the equivalence of different cubic cubits of water with various multiples of talents (2, 3, 18, 24, 33); but connexion by lesser units would be far more probable, as the primary use of weights is not to weigh large cubical vessels of liquid, but rather small portions of precious metals.
He shows that the length of the cubit arose through the weights; that is to say, the original cubit of Egypt was based on the cubic double -- cubit of water -- and from this the several nations branched off with their measures and weights.
So far this later research appears to confirm the opinion of BÃ¶ckh (2) that fundamental units of measure were at one time derived from weights and capacities.
It is curious, however, to find that an ancient nation of the East, so wise in geometrical proportions, should have followed what by modern experience may be regarded as an inverse method, that of obtaining a unit of length by deducing it through weights and cubic measure, rather than by deriving cubic measure through the unit of length.
That this mode of originating standards was greatly promoted, if not started, by the use of coinage we may see by the rarity of the Persian silver weight (derived from the Assyrian standard), soon after the introduction of coinage, as shown in the weights of Defenneh (29).
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
Many weights have been found in the temenos of Demeter at Cnidus, the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and in a temple of Aphrodite at Byblus (44); and the making or sale of weights may have been a business of the custodians of the temple standards.
The name "Babylonian foot" used by BÃ¶ckh (2) is only a theory of his, from which to derive volumes and weights; and no evidence for this name, or connexion with Babylon, is to be found.
by the actual weights, which have tended to decrease.
The original places and dates of these cannot yet be fixed, except for the lowest type of 138-140 grains; this belonged to Heliopolis (7), as two weights (35) inscribed of "the treasury of An" show 139.9 and 140.4, while a plain one from there gives 138.8; the variety 147-149 may belong to Hermopolis (35), according to an inscribed weight.
The names of the kat and tema are fixed by being found on weights, the uten by inscriptions; the series was --
(This result is from a larger number than other students have used, and study by diagrams.) The theory (3) of the derivation of the uten from 1/1500 cubic cubit of water would fix it at 1472, which is accordant; but there seems no authority either in volumes or weights for taking 1500 utens.
The kat is not unusual in Syria (44), and among the haematite weights of Troy (44) are nine examples, average 144, but not of extreme varieties.
These two systems are distinctly named on the weights, and are known now as the light and heavy Assyrian systems (19, 24).
(It is better to avoid the name Babylonian, as it has other meanings also.) There are no weights dated before the Assyrian bronze lion weights (9, 17, 19, 38) of the 11th to 8th centuries B.C. Thirteen of this class average 127.2 for the shekel; 9 haematite barrel-shaped weights (38) give 128.2; 16 stone duck-weights (38), 126.5.
Nine weights from Syria (44) average 128.8.
A few barrel weights are found at Karnak, and several egg-shaped shekel weights at Gebelen (44); also two cuboid weights from there (44) of 1 and 10 utens are marked as 6 and 60, which can hardly refer to any unit but the heavy shekel, giving 245.
and, considering that the two Hebrew cubits are the Babylonian and Persian units, and the volumes are also Babylonian, it is the more likely that the weights should have come with these.
127) are found among the haematite weights of Troy (44), including the oldest of them.
On the Aegean coast it often occurs in early coinage (17) -- at Lampsacus 131-129, Phocaea 256-254, Cyzicus 252-247, Methymna 124.6, &c. In later times it was a main unit of North Syria, and also on the Euxine, leaden weights of Antioch,(3), Callatia and Tomis being known (38).
The mean of these eastern weights is 7700 for the mina, or 128.
But the leaden weights of the west (44) from Corfu, &c., average 7580, or 126.3; this standard was kept up at Cyzicus in trade long after it was lost in coinage.
Six disk weights from Carthage (44) show 126.
Eleven weights from Syria and Cnidus (44) (of the curious type with two breasts on a rectangular block) show a mina of 6250 (125.0); and it is singular that this class is exactly like weights of the 224 system found with it, but yet quite distinct in standard.
And a strange division of the shekel in 10 (probably therefore connected with this decimal mina) is shown by a series of bronze weights (44) with four curved sides and marked with circles (British Museum, place unknown), which may be Romano-Gallic, averaging 125/10.
Two haematite weights from Troy (44) show 86 and 87.2.
The mean from leaden weights of Chios, Tenedos (44), &c., is 8430.
By the Romans it was used on the Danube (18), two weights of the first legion there showing 8610; and this is the mina of 20 unciae (8400) named by Roman writers.
The relation is 258: 229 :: 9:8; but the exact form in which the descent took place is not settled: 1/60 or 129 of gold is worth 57 of silver or a drachm, 1/4 of 230 (or by trade weights 127 and 226); otherwise, deriving it from the silver weight of 86 already formed, the drachm is 1/3 of the stater, 172, or double of the Persian danak of 28.7, and the sacred unit of Didyma in Ionia was this half-drachm, 27; or thirdly, what is indicated by the Lydian coinage (17), 86 of gold was equal to 1150 of silver, 5 shekels or 1/10th mina.
In Phoenicia and Asia Minor the mina was specially made in the form with two breasts (44), 19 such weights averaging 5600 (=224); and thence it passed into Greece, more in a double value of 11,200 (=224).
In Spain it was 236 to 216 in different series (17), and it is a question whether the Massiliote drachmae of 58-55 are not Phoenician rather than Phocaic. In Italy this mina became naturalized, and formed the "Italic mina" of Hero, Priscian, &c.; also its double, the mina of 26 unciae or 10,800, = 50 shekels of 216; the average of 42 weights gives 5390 (=215.6), and it was divided both into 100 drachmae, and also in the Italic mode of 12 unciae and 288 scripulae (44).
4000; 400,000 Another unit, which has scarcely been recognized in metrology hitherto, is prominent in the weights from Egypt -- some 50 weights from Naucratis and 15 from 400 Defenneh plainly agreeing on this and on no other basis.
That this unit is quite distinct from the Persian 86 grains is clear in the Egyptian weights, which maintain a wide gap between the two systems. Next, in Syria three inscribed weights of Antioch and Berytus (18) show a mina of about 16,400, or 200 x 82.
Farther west the same unit occurs in several Greek weights (44) which show a mina of 7800 to 8310, mean 8050/100 = 80.5.
This evidence is too distinct to be set aside; and, exactly confirming as it does the Egyptian weights and coin weights, and agreeing with the early Asiatic tribute, it cannot be overlooked in future.
But we are now able to prove that it was an independent system -- (1) by its not ranging usually over 200 grains in Egypt before it passed to Greece; (2) by its earliest example, perhaps before the 224 unit existed, not being over 208; and (3) by there being no intermediate linking on of this to the Phoenician unit in the large number of Egyptian weights, nor in the Ptolemaic coinage, in which both standards are used.
Two other marked weights are from Memphis (44), showing 201.8 and 196.4, and another Egyptian 191.4.
The range of the (34) Naucratis weights is 186 to 199, divided in two groups averaging 190 and 196, equal to the Greek monetary and trade varieties.
In Syria haematite weights are found (30) averaging 198.5, divided into 99.2, 49.6 and 24.8; and the same division is shown by gold rings from Egypt (38) of 24.9.
In the medical papyrus (38) a weight of 2/3rds kat is used, which is thought to be Syrian; now 2/3 kat = 92 to 101 grains, or just this weight which we have found in Syria; and the weights of 2/3 and 1/3 kat are very rare in Egypt except at Defenneh (29), on the Syrian road, where they abound.
So we have thus a weight of 207-191 in Egypt on marked weights, joining therefore completely with the Aeginetan unit in Egypt of 199 to 186, and coinage of 199, and strongly connected with Syria, where a double mina of Sidon (18) is 10,460 or 50 x 209.2.
Probably before any Greek coinage we find this among the haematite weights of Troy (44), ranging from 208 to 193.2 (or 104-96.6), i.e.
The Greek mina weights show (44), on an average of 37,9650 (= stater of 193), varying from 186 to.
It also passed into Italy, but in a smaller multiple of 35 drachmae, or 1/4th of the Greek mina; 12 Italian weights (44) bearing value marks (which cannot therefore be differently attributed) show a libra of 2400 or 1/4th of 9600, which was divided in unciae and sextulae, and the full-sized mina is known as the 24 uncia mina, or talent of 120 librae of Vitruvius and Isidore (18) = 9900.
At Athens it was 2 x 4900, and on the average of all the Greek weights it is 2 x 4825, so that 4950 -- the libra -- is as close as we need expect.
In the Libra, as in most other standards, the value which happened to be first at hand for the coinage was not the mean of the whole of the weights in the country; the Phoenician coin weight is below the trade average, the Assyrian is above, the Aeginetan is below, but the Roman coinage is above the average of trade weights, or the mean standard.
Rejecting all weights of the lower empire, the average (44) of about l00 is 4956; while 42 later Greek weights (nomisma, &c.) average 4857, and 16 later Latin ones (solidus, &c.) show 4819.
BÃ¶ckh has remarked the great diversity between weights of the same age -- those marked "Ad Augusti Temp" ranging 4971 to 5535, those tested by the fussy praefect Q.
Other weights were added to these from the Greek system --
and the sextula after Constantine had the name of solidus as a coin weight, or nomisma in Greek, marked N on the weights.
But the Egyptian weights render this view impossible.
Next it is found at Troy (44) in three cases, all high examples of 68.2 to 68.7; and these are very important, since they cannot be dissociated from the Greek Attic unit, and yet they are of a variety as far removed as may be from the half of the Assyrian, which ranges there from 123.5 to 131; thus the difference of unit between Assyrian and Attic in these earliest of all Greek weights is very strongly marked.
At Athens a low variety of the unit was adopted for the coinage, true to the object of Solon in depreciating debts; and the first coinage is of only 65.2, or scarcely within the range of the trade weights (28); this seems to have been felt, as, contrary to all other states, Athens slowly increased its coin weight up to 66.6, or but little under the trade average.
Turning now to its usual trade values in Greece (44), the mean of 113 gives 67.15; but they vary more than the Egyptian examples, having a sub-variety both above and below the main body, which itself exactly coincides with the Egyptian weights.
The greater part of those weights which bear names indicate a mina of double the usual reckoning, so that there was a light and a heavy system, a mina of the drachma and a mina of the stater, as in the Phoenician and Assyrian weights.
(1881), 177 (Egyptian weights);
(17) Id., Historia numorum (1887) (essential for coin weights and history of systems);
(1886) (principles, lists, and curves of weights);
(1883), 419 (weights, Egyptian, &c.);
(1881) (many papers on Egyptian weights, measures, and coins);
(1873) (Arab glass weights);
Soc. (1877), translation of Elias of Nisibis, with notes (remarkable for history of balance); Schillbach (lists of weights, all in next);
C. Soutzo, Etalons ponderaux primitifs (1884) (lists of all weights published to date);
(1881), 171 (Egyptian weights);
(44) a great amount of material of weighings of weights of Troy (supplied by Dr Schliemann's kindness), Memphis, at the British Museum, Turin, &c.
-- The denominations of trade weights and measures at present used in the United Kingdom are represented by "Board of Trade standards," by which are regulated the accuracy of the common weights and measures handled in shops, &c.: (Board of Trade Model Regulations, 1892; Weights and Measures Acts, 1878.1889, 1892, 1893.)
2: The international trade metric weights and measures (1897) handled in shops, &c., of which there are also Board of Trade standards, are set out as follows: --
Pl is the weight of the brass weights (10 lb) Î”=8.143.
The equivalents of the Russian weights and measures, in terms also of the imperial and metric weights and measures, were re-calculated in 1897.
-- The necessary local inspection and verification of weights and measures in use for trade (as distinct from the verbal and written use of weights and measures) is in the United Kingdom undertaken by inspectors of weights and measures, who are appointed by the local authorities, as the county and borough councils.
An inspector is required to hold a certificate of qualification, and for his guidance general regulations are made by his local authority as to modes of testing weights, measures and weighing instruments.
In the verification of weights and measures a margin of error is permitted to manufacturers and scale-makers, as it is found to be impossible to make two weights, or two measures, so identical that between them some difference may not be found either by the balance or the microscope.
For common weights and measures this margin (tolerance, remedy or allowance, as it is also called) has been set out by the Board of Trade for all the various kinds of weights and measures in use for commercial purposes in the United Kingdom, and similar margins of error are recognized in other countries.
6: Foreign Weights and Measures.
-- Throughout the British Empire the imperial system of weights and measures is legal.
In Russia, as in the United Kingdom and the United States, the national weights and measures are followed (paragraph 3 above), although the use of metric weights and measures is permissive.
In India the native weights, &c., ancient and arbitrary, are still followed.
7: Customary Weights and Measures.
-- In some districts of the United Kingdom, as well as in provincial districts of other countries, old local and customary denominations of weights and measures are still found to be in use, although their use may have been prohibited by law.
-- In everyday transactions with reference to weights and measures, the British legislature also exercises control in industrial pursuits.
The Merchandise Marks Act 1887 makes it an offence also to apply in trade a false description, as to the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of goods sold; and this Act appears to reach offences that the Weights and Measures Acts may perhaps not reach.
9: Pharmaceutical Weights and Measures.
-- By the Medical Act of 1585, and the Act of 1862, the General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom are authorized to issue a "Pharmacopoeia" with reference to the weights and measures used in the preparation and dispensing of drugs, &c. The British Pharmacopoeia issued by the Council in 1898 makes no alteration in the imperial weights and measures required to be used by the Pharmacopoeia of 1864.
It appears to be desirable, as the Committee of Council on Education have done, to recognize only the legal systems of weights and measures -- the imperial and metric. The Education Code of Regulations for 1900 prescribes that the tables of weights and measures to be learned include those only which are in ordinary use, viz.
Table of the Principal Foreign Weights and Measures now in use, and of their Equivalents in Imperial or in Metric Weights and Measures.
The old Spanish weights and measures, modified in many particulars, continued in private use, however, and in 1895 it became necessary to declare the metric system the only legal system and to make;its use compulsory after the 16th of September 1896.
These officers always include three selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer and one or more auditors, and they may include any or all of the following: assessors, who together with the selectmen constitute a board for the assessment of taxes, one or more collectors of taxes, overseers of the poor, constables, surveyors of highways, fence-viewers, sealers of weights and measures, measurers of wood and bark, surveyors of lumber, cullers of staves, a chief fireward or engineer and one or more assistants, a clerk of the market and a pound keeper.
The lord mayor is clerk of the markets and supervises weights and measures and deals with cases of adulteration.
In 1815 he published anonymously in the Annals of Philosophy a paper "On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms," in which he calculated that the atomic weights of a number of the elements are multiples of that of hydrogen; and in a second paper published in the same periodical the following year he suggested that the rrpcbrn iiXrl of the ancients is realized in hydrogen, from which the other elements are formed by some process of condensation or grouping.
This view, generally known as "Prout's hypothesis," at least had the merit of stimulating inquiry, and many of the most careful determinations of atomic weights undertaken since its promulgation have been provoked by the desire to test its validity.
In 1890 he resigned the professorship, and in 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures, a post which he occupied till his death.
Various chemists had traced numerical sequences among the atomic weights of some of the elements and noted connexions between them and the properties of the different substances; but it was left to him to give a full expression to the generalization, and to treat it not merely as a system of classifying the elements according to certan observed facts, but as a "law of nature" which could be relied upon to predict new facts and to disclose errors in what were supposed to be old facts.
Again, in several cases he ventured to question the correctness of the "accepted atomic weights," on the ground that they did not correspond with the Periodic Law, and here also he was justified by subsequent investigation.
The metric system of weights and measures has been adopted, but the old Spanish standards remain in general use.
How great their commerce was is shown by the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was in use at Athens (until Solon, q.v.) and among the Ionic cities generally.
In his earlier years he devoted himself to chemistry, both theoretical and applied, publishing papers on the preparation of gold and platinum, numerical relations between the atomic weights of analogous elements, the formation of aventurine glass, the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, the preservation of oil-paintings, &c. The reaction known by his name for the detection of bile acids was published in 1844.
The following table is extracted from Woolhouse's Measures, Weights and Moneys of all Nations: TABLE VII.
The Following Table, Taken From Woolhouse'S Measures, Weights And Moneys Of All Nations, Shows The Dates Of Commencement Of Mahommedan Years From 1845 Up To 2047, Or From The 43Rd To The 49Th Cycle Inclusive, Which Form The Whole Of The Seventh Period Of Seven Cycles.
Woolhouse, Measures, Weights, and Moneys of all Nations (1869).
It is upon this principle that the hydrometer is constructed, and it obviously admits of two modes of application in the case of fluids: either we may compare the weights of floating bodies which are capable of displacing the same volume of different fluids, or we may compare the volumes of the different fluids which are displaced by the same weight.
w n be the weights of unit volume of the liquids in which the hydrometer sinks to the divisions o, I, 2 ...
But, instead of employing a number of instruments differing only in the weights with which they are loaded, we may employ the same instrument, and alter its weight either by adding mercury or shot to the interior (if it can be opened) or by attaching weights to the exterior.
These two operations are not quite equivalent, since a weight added to the interior does not affect the volume of liquid displaced when the instrument is immersed up to a given division of the scale, while the addition of weights to the exterior increases the displacement.
This difficulty may be met, as in Keene's hydrometer, by having all the weights of precisely the same volume but of different masses, and never using the instrument except with one of these weights attached.
emerges to B), when a brass weight such as C has been screwed on to the bottom at There are a great many such weights, of different sizes, and marked to be screwed on instead of C, for liquors that differ more than nth from proof, so as to serve for the specific gravities in all such proportions as relate to the mixture of spirituous liquors, in all the variety made use of in trade.
The weights were adjusted for successive intervals of 5° F., but for degrees intermediate between these no additional correction was applied.
Deparcieux added a small dish on the top of the stem for the reception of the weights necessary to sink the instrument to a convenient depth.
The effect of weights placed in such a dish or pan is of course the same as if they were placed within the bulb of the instrument, since they do not alter the volume of that part which is immersed.
Instead of a scale, only a single mark is placed upon the stem, which is very slender, and bears at the top a small scale pan into which weights are placed until the instrument sinks to the mark upon its stem.
The volume of the displaced liquid being then always the same, its density will be proportional to the whole weight supported, that is, to the weight of the instrument together with the weights required to be placed in the scale pan.
In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner, weights being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the weights in the scale.
The above example illustrates how Nicholson's or Fahrenheit's hydrometer may be employed as a weighing machine for small weights.
To use the instrument for liquids of much greater density than water additional weights must be placed in the upper pan, and the "plongeur" is then placed in the lower pan for the purpose of giving to the instrument the requisite stability.
Between the bulb and counterpoise is placed a thermometer, which serves to indicate the temperature of the liquid, and the instrument is provided with three weights which can be attached to the top of the stem.
It is provided with thirty-six different weights which, with the ten divisions on the stem, form a scale from o to 370.
The employment of so many weights renders the instrument ill-adapted for practical work where speed is an object.
The need of adjustable weights is avoided by employing a set of five instruments, graduated respectivelyo°- 1000, 80 0 -120°, 100°- 140°,130°-170°, 160°-20o°.
The four weights are so adjusted that, if the instrument floats with the stem emerging as far as the lower division o with one of the weights attached, then replacing the weight by the next heavier causes the instrument to sink through the whole length of the scale to the upper division o, and the first weight produces the same effect when applied to the naked instrument.
The instrument is provided with a sliding rule, with scales corresponding to the several weights, which indicate the specific gravity corresponding to the several divisions of the hydrometer scale compared with water at 55° F.
By applying the several weights in succession in addition to No.
50) by constructing the different weights of different shapes, viz.
The addition to the top of the stem of successive weights, each th of the weight of the instrument itself, serves to determine the successive degrees.
the other 90 being provided for by the addition of 9 weights to the bottom of the instrument as in Clarke's hydrometer.
As in Bories's instrument, a series of 9 weights, each of the form shown at E, serves to extend the scale FIG.
The weights are marked 10, 20,.
In the above table for Sikes's hydrometer two densities are given corresponding to each of the degrees 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, indicating that the successive weights belonging to the particular instrument for which the table has been calculated do not quite agree.
Keene, of the Hydrometer Office, London, has constructed an instrument after the model of Sikes's, but provided with twelve weights of different masses but equal volumes, and the instrument is never used without having one of these attached.
When loaded with either of the lightest two weights the instrument is specifically lighter than Sikes's hydrometer when unloaded, and it may thus be used for specific gravities as low as that of absolute alcohol.
It resembles Sikes's hydrometer in other respects, but is provided with eight weights.
Towards the end of his life he adopted the view that the elements have been formed by some process of condensation from one primordial substance of extremely small atomic weight, and he expressed the conviction that atomic weights within narrow limits are variable and modified according to the physical conditions in which a compound is formed.
The metric system of weights and measures has been adopted so widely that it forms the most suitable basis for the titrage or counts of yarns.
The silk-waste spinner receives his silk in quite a different form: merely the raw material, packed in bales of various sizes and weights, the contents being a much-tangled mass of all lengths of fibre mixed with much foreign matter, such as ends of straws, twigs, leaves, worms and chrysalis.
the weights and measures union in Paris and the agricultural institute at Rome.
The international bureau of weights and measures at Paris was created by a convention signed there in 1875, for the purpose of comparing and verifying weights and measures on the metric system, and preserving their identity for the contracting states.
The true order of discovery, however, was as follows: (a) Sir Christo p her Wren made many experiments before the Royal Society, which were afterwards repeated in a corrected form by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia, experimentally proving that bodies of ascertained comparative weights, when suspended and impelled against one another, forced one another back by impressing on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights and therefore masses; that is, by impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum.
(b) Wallis showed that such bodies reduce one another to a joint mass with a common velocity equal to their joint momentum divided by their joint weights or masses.
(d) Hence, first inductively and then deductively, the third law was originally discovered only as a law of collision or impact between bodies of ascertained weights and therefore masses, impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum, and always reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity to begin with, apart from the subsequent effects of elasticity.
from the experiments of Wren on bodies of ascertained comparative weights or masses, which are not material points or mass-points.
It shows that the bodies impress on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights or masses; and that in doing so they always begin by reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity, whatever they may do afterwards in consequence of their elasticities.
In an actual observation the deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while different weights would be used to deflect the needle b..
Weights with Aramaic inscriptions (the oldest from the reign of Shalmaneser IV., 727-22) were found at Calah.
The weights and measures in use are practically those of China; the dry measures, the most commonly employed, are the bre or bo of about four pints and the bchal of twenty bo; the capacity of the bo varies according to localities.
He proceeds to give what has been quoted as his first table of atomic weights, but on p. 248 of his laboratory notebooks for 1802-1804, under the date 6th of September 1803, there is an earlier one in which he sets forth the relative weights of the ultimate atoms of a number of substances, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon-dioxide, &c. by chemists of the time.
Assisted by the assumption that combination always takes place in the simplest possible way, he thus arrived at the idea that chemical combination takes place between particles of different weights, and this it was which differentiated his theory from the historic speculations of the Greeks.
Thus he distrusted, and probably never fully accepted, Gay-Lussac's conclusions as to the combining volumes of gases; he held peculiar and quite unfounded views about chlorine, even after its elementary character had been settled by Davy; he persisted in using the atomic weights he himself had adopted, even when they had been superseded by the more accurate determinations of other chemists; and he always objected to the chemical notation devised by J.
Its electrical conductivity, determined on 99.6% metal, is 60.5% that of copper for equal volumes, or double that of copper for equal weights, and when chemically pure it exhibits a somewhat higher relative efficiency.
See that the ornamental plants and trees are not injured by heavy weights of ice or snow.
The best of the lighter weights are frequently insufficiently strong in the hair to stand the friction of wear in a coat lining.
(For purposes of conversion the gold dollar has been taken at 5 =£1 throughout this article, and the currency dollar at 50 = £1.) Weights and Measures.
African mines the diamonds are not only crystals of various weights from fractions of a carat to 150 carats, but also occur as microscopic crystals disseminated through the blue ground.
He wrote rude, coarse satires, crude verse, and compositions on the American government, temperance, &c. At the age of seventeen he had attained his full height, and began to be known as a wrestler, runner and lifter of great weights.
This office is divided into four departments, dealing with (i.) the business of the Bundesrat, the Rcichstag, the elections, citizenship, passports, the press, and military and naval matters, so far as the last concern the civil authorities; (ii.) purely social matters, such as old age pensions, accident insurance, migration, settlement, poor law administration, &c.; (iii.) sanitary matters, patents, canals, steamship lines, weights and measures; and (iv.) commercial and economic relationssuch as agriculture, industry, commercial treaties and statistics.
While the proportion of like weights of fine gold and fine silver in 1866-1870 averaged J to 1555, it was I to 17-79 in 1876, I to 17.18 in 1877, and, in 1902, in consequence of the heavy fall in silver, the ratio became as much as I to 39.
A commo~n system of weights and measures was introduced in 1868.
Pigs of this breed are very prolific, and they may be grown to enormous weights - over 11 cwt.
That the Sicels spoke a tongue closely akin to Latin is plain from several Sicel words which crept into Sicilian Greek, and from the Siceliot system of weights and measures - utterly unlike anything in old Greece.
Other elected officers are: city clerk, comptroller, treasurer, counsel, receiver of taxes, engineer, inspector of buildings, overseer of poor, street commissioner and sealer of weights and measures.
(The architect being at that time also the contractor.) The chapters are -- (1) on various machines, such as scaling-ladders, windmills, &c.; (2) on windlasses, axles, pulleys and cranes for moving heavy weights, such as those used by Chersiphron in building the great temple of Diana at Ephesus, and on the discovery by a shepherd of a quarry of marble required to build the same temple; (3) on dynamics; (4) on machines for drawing water; (5) on wheels for irrigation worked by a river; (6) on raising water by a revolving spiral tube; (7) on the machine of Ctesibius for raising water to a height; (8) on a very complicated water engine, the description of which is not intelligible, though Vitruvius remarks that he has tried to make the matter clear; (9) on machines with wheels to register the distance travelled, either by land or water; (10) on the construction of scorpiones for hurling stones; (11) and (12) on balistae and catapults; (13) on battering rams and other machines for the attack of a fortress; (14) on shields (testudines) to enable soldiers to fill up the enemy's ditches; (15) on other kinds of testudines; (16) on machines for defence, and examples of their use in ancient times.
Since the movements of the ground are frequently accompanied by a slight tilting, which would cause b or b' to swing or wander away from its normal position, a sufficient stability is given to the weights by inclining the axis of the instrument slightly forwards.
Weights of to lb each are carried at a distance of to in.
in vertical height, which carry near their outer ends weights exceeding half a hundredweight.
Weighis and Measures.The metrical system of weights and measures is in official but not in popular use, except in the foreign quarters of Cairo, Alexandria, &c. The most common Egyptian measures are the fitr, or space measured by the extension of the thumb and first finger; the shibr, or span; and the cubit (of three kinds 224, 25 and 263/4 in.).
They drew the plough, trampled the corn sheaves round the circular threshing floor, and were sometimes employed to drag heavy weights.
Weights and measures proceeded generally on.
A distinctively late Egyptian use of glass was for weights and vase-stamps, to receive an impress stating the amount of the weight or measure.
The large weights of ounces and pounds are disks or cuboid blocks; they are dated from 720 to 785 for the lesser, and to A.D.
915 for larger, weights~ The greater number are, however, small weights for testing gold and silver coins of later caliphs from A.D.
The system was not, however, Arab, as there are a few Roman vasestamps and weights.
Under a law of the 4th of May 1907 it was enacted that the metric system of weights and measures should come into official use in three years from that date, and into general use in five years.
Through this space the fresh surface water finds its way, and dissolving the salt below rises in the inner tube as brine, but only to such a level that the two columns bear to one another the relation of ten to twelve, this being the inverse ratio of the respective weights of saturated brine and fresh water.
Flint implements, exactly like those of Siberia and Russia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like the European ones, primitive pottery with decorations like those of Olonets and stone weights for nets.
The atomic weight of oxygen is now generally taken as 16, and as such is used as the standard by which the atomic weights of the other elements are determined, owing to the fact that most elements combine with oxygen more readily than with hydrogen (see ELE Ment).
The democratic Urbina now became practically dictator, and as the attempt of Flores to reinstate Noboa proved a total failure, he was quickly succeeded in 1856 by General Francisco Robles, who, among other progressive measures, secured the adoption of the French system of coinage, weights and measures.
He was also asked by the national assembly to draw up a new scheme of taxation in connexion with which he produced a report De la richesse territoriale de la France, and he was further associated with committees on hygiene, coinage, the casting of cannon, &c., and was secretary and treasurer of the commission appointed in 1790 to secure uniformity of weights and measures.
Next year, on the 1st of August, the convention passed a decree for the uniformity of weights and measures, and requested the Academy to take measures for carrying it out, but a week later Fourcroy persuaded the same convention to suppress the Academy together with other literary societies patentees et dotees by the nation.
In November it ordered the arrest of the ex-farmers-general, and on the advice of the committee of public instruction, of which Guyton de Morveau and Fourcroy were members, the names of Lavoisier and others were struck off from the commission of weights and measures.
The wheel W is therefore mounted on a guided rod, which is forced upwards by suitable levers and weights, and this relief of pressure is precisely proportional to the pressure on the respective bearings.
The eye end presents an refractor appearance too complicated to be figured here; it has a micrometer and its illumination for the position circle, a micrometer head, and a bright or dark field, clamps in right ascension and declination and quick and slow motion in the same, a finder, microscopes for reading the hour and declination circles, an illuminated dial showing sidereal time and driven by an electric current from the sidereal clock, and counter weights which can be removed when a spectroscope or other heavy appliance is added.
The metric system of weights and measures has been in force since 1878.
4) the paddles were revolved by hand at such a speed as to produce a constant torque on the calorimeter h, which was supported on a float w in a vessel of water v, but was kept at rest by the couple due to a pair of equal weights k suspended from fine strings passing round the circumference of a horizontal wheel attached to the calorimeter.
The Torque Was Measured By Weights 0 And P Suspended By Silk Ribbons Passing Over The Pulleys N And Round The Disk Kl.
Lever To Which The Weights Are Suspended.
With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.
The social intercourse of the world is facilitated by conventions, such as those establishing the Latin monetary union, 1865; the international telegraphic union, 1865; the universal postal union, 1874; the international bureau of weights and measures, 1875; providing for the protection of submarine cables in time of peace, 1884; the railway traffic union, 1890.
In the succeeding year he showed, in the same journal, that if the elements be arranged in the order of their atomic weights, those having consecutive numbers frequently either belong to the same group or occupy similar positions in different groups, and he pointed out that each eighth element starting from a given one is in this arrangement a kind of repetition of the first, like the eighth note of an octave in music. The Law of Octaves thus enunciated was at first ignored or treated with ridicule as a fantastic notion unworthy of serious consideration, but the idea, subsequently elaborated by D.
Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
This jurisdiction is undoubtedly extensive, comprising among others, power to legislate concerning trade and industry, criminal law, taxation, quarantine, marriage and divorce, weights and measures, legal tender, copyrights and patents, and naturalization and aliens.
The metric system of weights and measures was legalized in January 1893.
In a third, " On some important points in the theory of heat " (1819), they stated that the specific heats of thirteen solid elements which they had investigated were nearly proportional to their atomic weights - a fact otherwise expressed in the " law of Dulong and Petit " that the atoms of simple substances have equal capacities for heat.
they may be the weights of the several particles.
interest to note that if the weights be all equal, FIG.
be the weights of a system of particles, whose depths below a fixed horizontal plane of reference are z~, 12,..
If weights be suspended from various points of a hang ing chain, the intervening por tions will form arcs of equal ~ catenaries, since the horizontal tension (wa) is the same for all.
For in the second structure the weights, external pressures, and resistances will balance each other as in the first structure; the weights of the pieces and all other parallel systems of forces will have the same ratios as in the first structure; and the severa] centres of resistance will divide the depths of the joints in the same proportions as in the first structure.
The prejudicial resistances are generally functions of the useful resistances of the weights of the pieces of the mechanism, and of their form and arrangement; and, having been determined, they serve for the computation of the lost work, which, being added to the useful work, gives the expenditure of energy required.
* Method of computing the position and magnitudes of balance weights which must be added to a given system of arbitrarily chosen rotating masses in order to make the common axis of rotation a permanent axis.The method here briefly explained, is taken from a paper by W.
In order that OX may be a permanent axis it is necessary that there should ne a suffIcient number of weights attached to the shaft and so distributed that when each is referred to the point 0
Hence finally the conditions which must be satisfied by the system of weights in order that the axis of rotation may be a permanent axis is (I) (Wiri+W2r2+Wsr,)=o (2) (~Vja1r1+\Via1ri+)=o (c)
For the vector representing a couple of the type War, if the masses are all on the same side of the reference plane, the direction of drawing is from the axis outwards; if the masses are some on one side of the reference plane and some on the other side, the direction of drawing is from the axis outwards towards the weight for all masses on the one side, and from the mass inwards towards the axis for all weights on the other side, drawing always parallel to the direction defined by the radius r.
The general problem in practice is, given a system of weights attached to a shaft, to find the respective weights and positions of two balance weights or counterpoises which must hi added to the system in order to make the shaft a permanent axis, the planes in which the balance weights are to revolve also beinf given.
To solve this the reference plane must be chosen so that ii coincides with the plane of revolution of one of the as yet unknowr balance weights.
Hence by drawing a couple polygor for the given weights the vector which is required to close the polygor is at once found and from it the magnitude and position of the balanci weight which must be added to the system to balance the couplo follow at once.
The vector required to close it will determine the second balance weight, the work may be checked by taking the reference plane to coincide with the plane of revolution of the second balance weight and then re-determining them, or by taking a reference plane anywhere and including the two balance weights trying if condition (c) is satisfied.
Using this principle the method of finding the balance weights to be added to a given system of reciprocating weights in order to produce a system of forces on the frame continuously in equilibrium is exactly the same as that just explained for a system of revolving weights, because for the purpose of finding the balance weights each reciprocating weight may be supposed attached to the crank pin which operates it, thus forming an equivalent revolving system.
The balance weights found as part of the equivalent revolving system when reciprocated by their respective crank pins form the balance weights for the given reciprocating system.
These conditions may be exactly realized by a system of weights reciprocated by slotted bars, the crank shaft driving the slotted bars rotating uniformly.
The moving parts of the engine are then divided into two complete and independent systems, namely, one system of revolving weights consisting of crank pins, crank arms, &c., attached to and revolving with the crank shaft, and a second system of reciprocating weights consisting of the pistons, cross-heads, &c., supposed to be moving each in its line of stroke with simple harmonic motion.
The balance weights are to be separately calculated for each system, the one set being added to the crank shaft as revolving weights, and the second set being included with the reciprocating weights and operated by a properly placed crank on the crank shaft.
Balance weights added in this way to a set of reciprocating weights are sometimes called bob-weights.
In the case of locomotives the balance weights required to balance the pistons are added as revolving weights to the crank shaft system, and in fact are generally combined with the weights required to balance the revolving system so as to form one weight, the counterpoise referred to in the preceding section, which is seen between the spokes of the wheels of a locomotive.
The conditions regulating the balancing of a system of weights reciprocating under the action of accelerating forces given by the above expression are investigated in a paper by Otto Schlick, On Balancing of Steam Engines, Trans, Inst.
To express this symbolically, let Wi, W2 be the weights of the bodies; P the effort exerted between them; S the distance through which it acts; R1, Rf the resistances opposed to the effort overcome by Wi, ~AT2 respectively; E1, Ef the shares of the whole energy E exerted upon Wi, W2 respectively.
Then by slow degrees a proportion of " dryers " is added - usually equal weights of litharge and minium being used to the extent of 3% of the charge of oil; and with these a small proportion of umber is generally thrown in.
Under this head fall the following: - Fasting, or abstention from certain meats and drinks; denial of sexual instinct; subjection of the body to physical discomforts, such as nakedness, vigils, sleeping on the bare ground, tattooing, deformation of skull, teeth, feet, &c., vows of silence to be observed throughout life or during pilgrimages, avoidance of baths, of hair-cutting and of clean raiment, living in a cave; actual self-infliction of pain, by scourging, branding, cutting with knives, wearing of hair shirts, fire-walking, burial alive, hanging up of oneself by hooks plunged into the skin, suspension of weights by such hooks to the tenderer parts of the body, self-mutilation and numerous other, often ingenious, modes of torture.
The preparation of the fibre as conducted in Egypt is illustrated by Pliny, who says: " The stalks themselves are immersed in water, warmed by the heat of the sun, and are kept down by weights placed upon them, for nothing is lighter than flax.
Turkish weights and measures are used.
Two of these rollers are supported in the same horizontal plane of the framework, while the third or top roller is kept in close contact by means of weights and springs acting on each end of the arbor.
He was also much interested in ancient weights and measures, and in 1875 published a work on Inductive Metrology.
The metric system of weights and measures is the legal standard in Chile, but the old Spanish standards are still widely used, especially in handling mining and farm produce.
Coinage, Weights and Measures.The monetary unit is the kran, a silver coin, formerly weighing 28 nakhods (88 grains), then reduced to 26 nakhods (77 grains), and now weighing only 24 nakhods (71 grains) or somewhat less.
Larger weights, again, are the sir (i6 miskals)
He established a permanent staff to deal with legal, financial and military affairs, put on a firm basis the monetary system and the system of weights and measures, and perfected the mounted postal service.
A number of Dutch weights and measures are also in general use.
The wardens of the grocers are to "assayen weights, powders, confeccions, platers, oyntments and all other things belonging to the same crafte."
1-7, 18-22), weights and measures (xix.
AVOIRDUPOIS, or Averdupois (from the French avoir de pois, goods of weight), the name of a system of weights used in Great Britain and America for all commodities except the precious metals, gems and medicines.
Of this grain 7000 now (see Weights And Measures) make a pound avoirdupois.
One of the customs which has grown out of our peculiar system of weights is the form of statement of the results of such an assay.
To simplify calculation and to enable the assayer to use the metric system of weights employed in all chemical calculations, the "assay ton" ("A.T."
But the real auxiliary sciences to history are those which deal with those traces of the past that still exist, the science of language (philology), of writing (palaeography), of documents (diplomatic), of seals (sphragistics), of coins (numismatics), of weights and measures, and archaeology in the widest sense of the word.
elevating weights much greater than the area of the wings would seem to warrant " (figs.
From this it follows that when the wing rises the body falls, and vice versa - the wing describing the arc of a large circle (f f), the body (b), or the weights (w, w') representing it, describing the arc of a small circle.
Nadar, who exhibited models driven by clock-work springs, which ascended with graduated weights a distance of from io to 12 ft.
The acts referred to include those relating to the diseases of animals, destructive insects, explosives, fish conservancy, gas meters, margarine, police, reformatory and industrial schools, riot (damages), sale of food and drugs, weights and measures.
And in a borough, whether a quarter sessions borough or not, which had in 1881 a population of less than io,000, all the powers which the borough council formerly possessed as to police, analysts, diseases of animals, gas meters, and weights and measures cease and are transferred to the county council, the boroughs becoming in fact part of the area of the county for these purposes.
For example, fees received by the clerk of the peace, inspectors of weights and measures, and the like.
weights and measures, fertilizing and feeding stuffs, wild birds' protection, land transfer, locomotives on highways and the acquisition of small dwellings.
These terms may be defined as follows: In "skeleton" construction the columns and girders are built without proper or adequate inter-connexion and would not be able to carry the required weights without the support afforded by the walls; or, as in more recent construction, the walls are self-supporting and the other portions of the building are carried on by the skeleton steelwork.
He tried hard to procure a unification of coinage and weights and measures, but failed owing to the opposition of the estates, who were afraid of the new taxation necessary to meet the loss involved in raising the standard of the coinage, and who held to their local measures and currency partly from conservatism, partly as a relic of local liberty.
Several of the varieties are cut into gems and ornaments, balance weights, pivot supports for delicate instruments, agate mortars, &c.; or used for engraving, for instance, cameos and the elaborately carved crystal vases of ancient and medieval times.
The French decimal system is in use for weights and measures, together with Turkish standards.
The metric system of weights and measures has.
In the interior and in all domestic transactions the old Spanish weights and measures are still used - including the Spanish libra of 1.102 lb avoirdupois, the arroba of 25 libras (122 kilogrammes), the quintal of Too libras (50 kilog.), the carga of 250 libras (125 kilogs.), the vara of 80 centimetres, and the fanega.
The following table gives statistics of the banks under trust laws: - Standard Time, Money, Weights and Measures.
Though all the standard weights and measures are British, the following old Dutch measures are still used: - Liquid Measure: Leaguer = about 128 imperial gallons; half aum =15 z imperial gallons; anker = 71 imperial gallons.
The weights being known, the principal stresses may be determined.