# Weights sentence example

Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of

**weights**and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.Since leaving college, she'd stayed in shape through the local gym, where she lifted

**weights**and forced herself onto a cardio machine twice a week.The vamp growled again and flung down the free

**weights**.In water and in ethylene experiment shows that 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 6 parts of carbon, respectively, are in union with one part of hydrogen; also, if the diagrams are correct, these numbers must be in the ratio of the atomic

**weights**of oxygen and carbon.In each of a number of experiments he found that the weight of the silver iodide did not differ by one twenty-thousandth of the whole from the sum of the

**weights**of the silver and the iodine used.AdvertisementOne section of the law expresses the fact that the

**weights**of two substances, not necessarily elements, that are equivalent in one reaction, are often found to be equivalent in a number of other reactions.It is universally found that the

**weights**of two bases which neutralize the same weight of one acid are equivalent in their power of neutralizing other acids.The Daltonian would say that each of these

**weights**represents a certain group of atoms, and that these groups can replace, or combine with, each other, to form new molecules.On account of this difficulty, the atomic

**weights**published by Dalton, and the more accurate ones of Berzelius, were not always identical with the values now accepted, but were often simple multiples or submultiples of these.With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving

**weights**of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving**weights**were only about 192 lb.AdvertisementBy ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy

**weights**were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving**weights**.With portable cranes means must be provided to ensure the requisite stability against overturning; this is done by weighting the tail of the revolving part with heavy

**weights**, and in steam cranes the FIG.Finally, it may be noted that many immoral acts, such as the use of false

**weights**, lying, &c., which could not be brought into court, are severely denounced in the Omen Tablets as likely to bring the offender into " the hand of God " as opposed to " the hand of the king."One of the electrodes was attached to a sounding board capable of being vibrated by sound-waves and the other was held either by springs or

**weights**in delicate contact with it.The metric system of

**weights**and measures has been officially adopted, but the old Spanish system is still in general use.AdvertisementThe practical effect of this opposite couple is slightly to tilt the frame and thus to redistribute slightly the

**weights**on the wheels carrying the vehicle.Motors may be applied to every axle in the train, and their individual torques adjusted to values suitable to the

**weights**naturally carried by the several axles.The revolving masses are truly balanced by balance

**weights**placed between ' the spokes of the wheels, or sometimes by prolonging the crank-webs and forming the prolongation into balance**weights**.It is also the custom to balance a proportion of the reciprocating masses by balance

**weights**placed between the spokes of the wheels, and the actual balance weight seen in a driving-wheel is the resultant of the separate**weights**required for the balancing of the revolving parts and the reciprocating parts.The

**weights**are governed by what the railway has to carry Italy.AdvertisementThe relative

**weights**of the sources have been more nicely determined by critical investigation.As illustrating heavy

**weights**, there were in the 1893 show, out of 310 entries of cattle, four beasts which weighed over a ton.The cattle and sheep entered for this competition are shown alive on the first day, at the close of which they are slaughtered and the carcases hung up for exhibition, with details of live and dead

**weights**.In 1889, at Windsor, prizes were awarded for a fruit and vegetable evaporator, a paring and coring machine, a dairy thermometer, parcel post butter-boxes to carry different

**weights**, and a vessel to contain preserved butter.No traces of currency have come to light, unless certain axe-heads, too slight for practical use, had that character; but standard

**weights**have been found, and representations of ingots.AdvertisementHis book on Die modernen Theorien der Chemie, which was first published in Breslau in 1864, contains a discussion of relations between the atomic

**weights**and the properties of the elements.He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the

**weights**of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.Matter can neither be created nor destroyed; however a chemical system be changed, the

**weights**before and after are equal.'In place of the relative molecular

**weights**, attention was concentrated on relative atomic or equivalent**weights**.Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit

**weights**of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.At the conclusion of the sitting, Lothar Meyer obtained a paper written by Stanislas Cannizzaro in 1858 wherein was found the final link required for the determination of atomic

**weights**.From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent

**weights**.The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic

**weights**, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite

**weights**of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative

**weights**of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative**weights**of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative

**weights**of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the

**weights**of the substance engaged in the reaction.Considerable uncertainty existed as to the atomic

**weights**of these metals, the values obtained by Berzelius being doubtful.Of great importance is the chemical identity of the diamond, graphite and charcoal, a fact demonstrated in part by Lavoisier in 1773, Smithson Tennant in 1796, and by Sir George Steuart-Mackenzie (1780-1848), who showed that equal

**weights**.When this is done, such densities are measures of the molecular

**weights**of the substances in question.The relation between the atomic volumes and the atomic

**weights**of the solid elements exhibits the periodicity which generally characterizes the elements.Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular

**weights**) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.The specific heat of indium is o 057; and the atomic heats corresponding to the atomic

**weights**38, 76 and 114 are 3.2, 4.3, 6.5.This fact finds a parallel in the atomic

**weights**of these metals.He found that the amounts of the substances liberated in each cell were proportional to the chemical equivalent

**weights**of those substances.The charter of Canute (1032) contains a reference to "hustings"

**weights**, which points to the early establishment of the court.His great reputation led to his being entrusted by the government with several missions; in 1865 he represented Prussia in the conference called at Frankfort to introduce a uniform metric system of

**weights**and measures into Germany.With suitable arrangements of iron and coil and a sufficiently strong current, the intensity of the temporary magnetization may be very high, and electromagnets capable of lifting

**weights**of several tons are in daily use in engineering works.What actually happens when an iron wire is loaded with various

**weights**is clearly shown in Fig.So far, the best results have been attained with aluminium, and the permeability was greatest when the percentages of manganese and aluminium were approximately proportional to the atomic

**weights**of the two metals.Nominated president of the Academical commission for the reform of

**weights**and measures, his services were retained when its "purification" by the Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues.During an access of revolutionary suspicion, he was removed from the commission of

**weights**and measures; but the slight was quickly effaced by new honours.X is, in general, a determinate point, the barycentre of aA, 3B, &c. (or of A, B, &c. for the

**weights**a, 0, &c.).Marignac's name is well known for the careful and exact determinations of atomic

**weights**which he carried out for twenty-eight of the elements.Herodotus further states that Pheidon established a system of

**weights**and measures throughout Peloponnesus, to which Ephorus and the Parian Chronicle add that he was the first to coin silver money, and that his mint was at Aegina.No such difficulty occurs in regard to the

**weights**and measures; it is generally agreed that a system was already in existence in the time of Pheidon, into which he introduced certain changes.The metric

**weights**and measures have been officially adopted by Venezuela, but the old Spanish units are still popularly used throughout the country.In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great

**weights**of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.So also a balloon begins to rise when the weight of air displaced is greater than the weight of the balloon, and it is in equilibrium when the

**weights**are equal.He was recalled to Paris for a time in order to take part in the new determination of

**weights**and measures, which had been decreed by the Revolutionary government.In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular

**weights**of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.One or two

**weights**are also in existence.The

**weights**and measures are those of France.In 1892 he was a member of the Bureau Internationale des Poids et Mesures and in 1897 of the International Committee of

**Weights**and Measures.The French metric system is the official standard of

**weights**and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people.The composition of the distillate is determinate (by Avogadro's law) if the molecular

**weights**and vapour pressure of the components at the temperature of distillation be known.If M 1, M2, and P 1, P 2 be the molecular

**weights**and vapour pressures of the components A and B, then the ratio of A to B in the distillate is M 1 P 1 /M 2 P 2.Ths construction of the framework of the Japanese roof is such that thc

**weights**all act vertically; there is no thrust on the outer walls and every available point of the interior is used as a means of support.The

**weights**and measures were still Russian, but the introduction of the metric system was contemplated in 1921.On his return to Europe he visited a second time several parts of Italy, and during his stay at Rome instituted inquiries into the ancient

**weights**and measures.Local

**weights**and measures include the cantar, 175 lb; salm, one imperial quarter; cafiso, 42 gallons; canna, 6 ft.The density gives very important information as to the molecular weight, since by the law of Avogadro it is seen that the relative density is the ratio of the molecular

**weights**of the experimental and standard gases.In the group where the principles of hydrostatics are not employed the method consists in determining the weight and volume of a certain quantity of the substance, or the

**weights**of equal volumes of the substance and of the standard.Calling the weight of the empty vessel w, when filled with the liquid W, and when filled with the standard substance W l, it is obvious that W - w, and W1 - w, are the

**weights**of equal volumes of the liquid and standard, and hence the relative density is (W - w)/(Wi - w).The difference in the

**weights**corresponds to the volume of gas at a pressure equal to the difference of the recorded pressures.The principle is readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, W, and W2 its

**weights**when immersed in the liquids, then W - W, and W - W 2 are the**weights**of equal volumes of the liquids, and therefore the relative density is the quotient (W - W,)/(W - W2).Similarly in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the buoyancy of the

**weights**, and also, if absolute densities be required, of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment.The other arm is graduated in ten divisions and carries riders - bent pieces of wire of determined

**weights**- and at its extremity a hook from FIG.Biltz, Practical Methods for determining Molecular

**Weights**(1899).He introduced a new system of

**weights**and measures, which he ordered should be used throughout his kingdom, and took steps to reform the coinage.When the cage arrives at the surface, or rather the platform forming the working top above the mouth of the pit, it is received upon the keeps, a pair of hinged gratings which are kept in an inclined position over the pit-top by counterbalance

**weights**, so that they are pushed aside to allow the cage to pass upwards, but fall back and receive it when the engine is reversed.**Weights**W and w are adjusted to the torque.The casing is held from turning by

**weights**hanging on an attached arm.If, therefore, the motor is mounted on a cradle free to turn about knife-edges, the reacting torque is the only torque tending to turn the cradle when it is in a vertical position, and may therefore be measured by adjusting

**weights**to hold the cradle in a vertical position.Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining

**weights**; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e.He was associated with Henry Williams Chisholm and others as a member of the Royal Commission of1868-1869for standardizing

**weights**and measures.The beam is released and in the course of a second or so takes up a certain position dependent on the relative

**weights**of the coin and counterpoise.The

**weights**of engines and wagons are now greater, and in addition it is recognized that the concentration of the loading at the axles gives rise to greater straining action, especially in short bridges, than the same load uniformly distributed along the span.Let w 1, w 2 be the

**weights**of main girders per ft.Now let w1', w 2 ' be the girder

**weights**per ft.Professor Claxton Fidler (Treatise on Bridge Construction, 1887) has made a very careful theoretical analysis of the

**weights**of bridges of different types, and has obtained the following values for the limiting spans.An ancient Chinese law, moreover, prescribed the regularization of

**weights**and measures at the spring equinox.In 1799 he proved that carbonate of copper, whether natural or artificial, always has the same composition, and later he showed that the two oxides of tin and the two sulphides of iron always contain the same relative

**weights**of their components and that no intermediate indeterminate compounds exist.They maintained order in the markets, settled disputes, examined the quality of the articles exposed for sale, tested

**weights**and measures, collected the harbour dues and enforced the shipping regulations.Priscian's three short treatises dedicated to Symmachus are on

**weights**and measures, the metres of Terence, and some rhetorical elements (exercises translated from the Hpoyvµvaaµara of Hermogenes).The metric system of

**weights**and measures was introduced by law in 1884, but the old Spanish system is still in use.The kilogram (kg.) is represented by an iridio-platinum standard weight, of cylindrical form, by which all other metric

**weights**, and all measures having reference to metric weight, are ascertained in the United Kingdom.In all countries the national standards of

**weights**and measures are in the custody of the state, or of some authority administering the government of the country.There appears, however, to be some objection to the use of iridio-platinum for

**weights**, as, owing to its great density (Î”=21.57), the slightest abrasion will make an appreciable difference in a weight; sometimes, therefore, quartz or rock-crystal is used; but to this also there is some objection, as owing to its low density (Î”=2.65) there is a large exposed surface of the mass.For small standard

**weights**platinum (Î”=21.45) and aluminium (Î”=2.67) are used, and also an alloy of palladium (60%) and silver (40%) (Î”=11.00).Besides the State departments dealing with

**weights**and measures, there are other standardizing institutions of recent date.It may here be mentioned that the expression "imperial" first occurs in the

**Weights**and Measures Act of 1824.Troy weight was abolished, from the 1st of January 1879, by the

**Weights**and Measures Act 1878, with the exception only of the Troy ounce, its decimal parts and multiples, legalized in 1853, 16 Vict.In this article the tendency will be to trust far more to actual measures and

**weights**than to the statements of ancient writers; and this position seems to be justified by the great increase in materials, and their more accurate means of study.These authors are of great value for connecting the monumental information, but must yield more and more to the increasing evidence of actual

**weights**and measures.The number of published

**weights**did not exceed 600 of all standards in 1880; but the collections from Naucratis (28), Defenneh (29) and Memphis (44) have supplied over six times this quantity, and of an earlier age than most other examples, while existing collections have been more thoroughly examined.Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial

**weights**.In

**weights**of the same place and age there is a far wider range; at Defenneh (29), within a century probably, the average variation of different units is 1/36, 1/60, and 1/67, the range being just the same as in all times and places taken together.Even in a set of

**weights**all found together, the average variation is only reduced to 1/60 in place of 1/36 (29).Altogether, we see that

**weights**have descended from original varieties with so little intercomparison that no rectification of their values has been made, and hence there is as much variety in any one place and time as in all together.Of

**weights**there are scarce any dated, excepting coins, which nearly all decrease; the Attic tetradrachm, however, increased in three centuries (28), owing probably to its being below the average trade weight to begin with.Roughly dividing the Roman

**weights**, there appears a decrease of 1/40 from imperial to Byzantine times (43).Probably measures tend to increase and

**weights**to decrease in transmission from time to time or place to place.The great spread of the Phoenician weight on the Mediterranean, of the Persian in Asia Minor and of the Assyrian in Egypt are evident cases; and that the decimal

**weights**of the laws of Manu (43) are decidedly not Assyrian or Persian, but on exactly the Phoenician standard, is a curious evidence of trade by water and not overland.Again, there are many theories of the equivalence of different cubic cubits of water with various multiples of talents (2, 3, 18, 24, 33); but connexion by lesser units would be far more probable, as the primary use of

**weights**is not to weigh large cubical vessels of liquid, but rather small portions of precious metals.He shows that the length of the cubit arose through the

**weights**; that is to say, the original cubit of Egypt was based on the cubic double -- cubit of water -- and from this the several nations branched off with their measures and**weights**.So far this later research appears to confirm the opinion of BÃ¶ckh (2) that fundamental units of measure were at one time derived from

**weights**and capacities.It is curious, however, to find that an ancient nation of the East, so wise in geometrical proportions, should have followed what by modern experience may be regarded as an inverse method, that of obtaining a unit of length by deducing it through

**weights**and cubic measure, rather than by deriving cubic measure through the unit of length.That this mode of originating standards was greatly promoted, if not started, by the use of coinage we may see by the rarity of the Persian silver weight (derived from the Assyrian standard), soon after the introduction of coinage, as shown in the

**weights**of Defenneh (29).The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and

**weights**also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).Many

**weights**have been found in the temenos of Demeter at Cnidus, the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and in a temple of Aphrodite at Byblus (44); and the making or sale of**weights**may have been a business of the custodians of the temple standards.The name "Babylonian foot" used by BÃ¶ckh (2) is only a theory of his, from which to derive volumes and

**weights**; and no evidence for this name, or connexion with Babylon, is to be found.The original places and dates of these cannot yet be fixed, except for the lowest type of 138-140 grains; this belonged to Heliopolis (7), as two

**weights**(35) inscribed of "the treasury of An" show 139.9 and 140.4, while a plain one from there gives 138.8; the variety 147-149 may belong to Hermopolis (35), according to an inscribed weight.The names of the kat and tema are fixed by being found on

**weights**, the uten by inscriptions; the series was --The kat is not unusual in Syria (44), and among the haematite

**weights**of Troy (44) are nine examples, average 144, but not of extreme varieties.These two systems are distinctly named on the

**weights**, and are known now as the light and heavy Assyrian systems (19, 24).A few barrel

**weights**are found at Karnak, and several egg-shaped shekel**weights**at Gebelen (44); also two cuboid**weights**from there (44) of 1 and 10 utens are marked as 6 and 60, which can hardly refer to any unit but the heavy shekel, giving 245.On the Aegean coast it often occurs in early coinage (17) -- at Lampsacus 131-129, Phocaea 256-254, Cyzicus 252-247, Methymna 124.6, &c. In later times it was a main unit of North Syria, and also on the Euxine, leaden

**weights**of Antioch,(3), Callatia and Tomis being known (38).The mean of these eastern

**weights**is 7700 for the mina, or 128.But the leaden

**weights**of the west (44) from Corfu, &c., average 7580, or 126.3; this standard was kept up at Cyzicus in trade long after it was lost in coinage.Eleven

**weights**from Syria and Cnidus (44) (of the curious type with two breasts on a rectangular block) show a mina of 6250 (125.0); and it is singular that this class is exactly like**weights**of the 224 system found with it, but yet quite distinct in standard.And a strange division of the shekel in 10 (probably therefore connected with this decimal mina) is shown by a series of bronze

**weights**(44) with four curved sides and marked with circles (British Museum, place unknown), which may be Romano-Gallic, averaging 125/10.The mean from leaden

**weights**of Chios, Tenedos (44), &c., is 8430.By the Romans it was used on the Danube (18), two

**weights**of the first legion there showing 8610; and this is the mina of 20 unciae (8400) named by Roman writers.In Phoenicia and Asia Minor the mina was specially made in the form with two breasts (44), 19 such

**weights**averaging 5600 (=224); and thence it passed into Greece, more in a double value of 11,200 (=224).In Spain it was 236 to 216 in different series (17), and it is a question whether the Massiliote drachmae of 58-55 are not Phoenician rather than Phocaic. In Italy this mina became naturalized, and formed the "Italic mina" of Hero, Priscian, &c.; also its double, the mina of 26 unciae or 10,800, = 50 shekels of 216; the average of 42

**weights**gives 5390 (=215.6), and it was divided both into 100 drachmae, and also in the Italic mode of 12 unciae and 288 scripulae (44).That this unit is quite distinct from the Persian 86 grains is clear in the Egyptian

**weights**, which maintain a wide gap between the two systems. Next, in Syria three inscribed**weights**of Antioch and Berytus (18) show a mina of about 16,400, or 200 x 82.Farther west the same unit occurs in several Greek

**weights**(44) which show a mina of 7800 to 8310, mean 8050/100 = 80.5.This evidence is too distinct to be set aside; and, exactly confirming as it does the Egyptian

**weights**and coin**weights**, and agreeing with the early Asiatic tribute, it cannot be overlooked in future.But we are now able to prove that it was an independent system -- (1) by its not ranging usually over 200 grains in Egypt before it passed to Greece; (2) by its earliest example, perhaps before the 224 unit existed, not being over 208; and (3) by there being no intermediate linking on of this to the Phoenician unit in the large number of Egyptian

**weights**, nor in the Ptolemaic coinage, in which both standards are used.Two other marked

**weights**are from Memphis (44), showing 201.8 and 196.4, and another Egyptian 191.4.The range of the (34) Naucratis

**weights**is 186 to 199, divided in two groups averaging 190 and 196, equal to the Greek monetary and trade varieties.In Syria haematite

**weights**are found (30) averaging 198.5, divided into 99.2, 49.6 and 24.8; and the same division is shown by gold rings from Egypt (38) of 24.9.In the medical papyrus (38) a weight of 2/3rds kat is used, which is thought to be Syrian; now 2/3 kat = 92 to 101 grains, or just this weight which we have found in Syria; and the

**weights**of 2/3 and 1/3 kat are very rare in Egypt except at Defenneh (29), on the Syrian road, where they abound.So we have thus a weight of 207-191 in Egypt on marked

**weights**, joining therefore completely with the Aeginetan unit in Egypt of 199 to 186, and coinage of 199, and strongly connected with Syria, where a double mina of Sidon (18) is 10,460 or 50 x 209.2.Probably before any Greek coinage we find this among the haematite

**weights**of Troy (44), ranging from 208 to 193.2 (or 104-96.6), i.e.The Greek mina

**weights**show (44), on an average of 37,9650 (= stater of 193), varying from 186 to.It also passed into Italy, but in a smaller multiple of 35 drachmae, or 1/4th of the Greek mina; 12 Italian

**weights**(44) bearing value marks (which cannot therefore be differently attributed) show a libra of 2400 or 1/4th of 9600, which was divided in unciae and sextulae, and the full-sized mina is known as the 24 uncia mina, or talent of 120 librae of Vitruvius and Isidore (18) = 9900.At Athens it was 2 x 4900, and on the average of all the Greek

**weights**it is 2 x 4825, so that 4950 -- the libra -- is as close as we need expect.In the Libra, as in most other standards, the value which happened to be first at hand for the coinage was not the mean of the whole of the

**weights**in the country; the Phoenician coin weight is below the trade average, the Assyrian is above, the Aeginetan is below, but the Roman coinage is above the average of trade**weights**, or the mean standard.Rejecting all

**weights**of the lower empire, the average (44) of about l00 is 4956; while 42 later Greek**weights**(nomisma, &c.) average 4857, and 16 later Latin ones (solidus, &c.) show 4819.Other

**weights**were added to these from the Greek system --But the Egyptian

**weights**render this view impossible.Next it is found at Troy (44) in three cases, all high examples of 68.2 to 68.7; and these are very important, since they cannot be dissociated from the Greek Attic unit, and yet they are of a variety as far removed as may be from the half of the Assyrian, which ranges there from 123.5 to 131; thus the difference of unit between Assyrian and Attic in these earliest of all Greek

**weights**is very strongly marked.At Athens a low variety of the unit was adopted for the coinage, true to the object of Solon in depreciating debts; and the first coinage is of only 65.2, or scarcely within the range of the trade

**weights**(28); this seems to have been felt, as, contrary to all other states, Athens slowly increased its coin weight up to 66.6, or but little under the trade average.Turning now to its usual trade values in Greece (44), the mean of 113 gives 67.15; but they vary more than the Egyptian examples, having a sub-variety both above and below the main body, which itself exactly coincides with the Egyptian

**weights**.The greater part of those

**weights**which bear names indicate a mina of double the usual reckoning, so that there was a light and a heavy system, a mina of the drachma and a mina of the stater, as in the Phoenician and Assyrian**weights**.C. Soutzo, Etalons ponderaux primitifs (1884) (lists of all

**weights**published to date);Pl is the weight of the brass

**weights**(10 lb) Î”=8.143.The equivalents of the Russian

**weights**and measures, in terms also of the imperial and metric**weights**and measures, were re-calculated in 1897.An inspector is required to hold a certificate of qualification, and for his guidance general regulations are made by his local authority as to modes of testing

**weights**, measures and weighing instruments.In the verification of

**weights**and measures a margin of error is permitted to manufacturers and scale-makers, as it is found to be impossible to make two**weights**, or two measures, so identical that between them some difference may not be found either by the balance or the microscope.For common

**weights**and measures this margin (tolerance, remedy or allowance, as it is also called) has been set out by the Board of Trade for all the various kinds of**weights**and measures in use for commercial purposes in the United Kingdom, and similar margins of error are recognized in other countries.In Russia, as in the United Kingdom and the United States, the national

**weights**and measures are followed (paragraph 3 above), although the use of metric**weights**and measures is permissive.In India the native

**weights**, &c., ancient and arbitrary, are still followed.The Merchandise Marks Act 1887 makes it an offence also to apply in trade a false description, as to the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of goods sold; and this Act appears to reach offences that the

**Weights**and Measures Acts may perhaps not reach.It appears to be desirable, as the Committee of Council on Education have done, to recognize only the legal systems of

**weights**and measures -- the imperial and metric. The Education Code of Regulations for 1900 prescribes that the tables of**weights**and measures to be learned include those only which are in ordinary use, viz.The old Spanish

**weights**and measures, modified in many particulars, continued in private use, however, and in 1895 it became necessary to declare the metric system the only legal system and to make;its use compulsory after the 16th of September 1896.The lord mayor is clerk of the markets and supervises

**weights**and measures and deals with cases of adulteration.In 1815 he published anonymously in the Annals of Philosophy a paper "On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the

**weights**of their atoms," in which he calculated that the atomic**weights**of a number of the elements are multiples of that of hydrogen; and in a second paper published in the same periodical the following year he suggested that the rrpcbrn iiXrl of the ancients is realized in hydrogen, from which the other elements are formed by some process of condensation or grouping.This view, generally known as "Prout's hypothesis," at least had the merit of stimulating inquiry, and many of the most careful determinations of atomic

**weights**undertaken since its promulgation have been provoked by the desire to test its validity.In 1890 he resigned the professorship, and in 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of

**Weights**and Measures, a post which he occupied till his death.Various chemists had traced numerical sequences among the atomic

**weights**of some of the elements and noted connexions between them and the properties of the different substances; but it was left to him to give a full expression to the generalization, and to treat it not merely as a system of classifying the elements according to certan observed facts, but as a "law of nature" which could be relied upon to predict new facts and to disclose errors in what were supposed to be old facts.Again, in several cases he ventured to question the correctness of the "accepted atomic

**weights**," on the ground that they did not correspond with the Periodic Law, and here also he was justified by subsequent investigation.The metric system of

**weights**and measures has been adopted, but the old Spanish standards remain in general use.How great their commerce was is shown by the fact that the Euboic scale of

**weights**and measures was in use at Athens (until Solon, q.v.) and among the Ionic cities generally.In his earlier years he devoted himself to chemistry, both theoretical and applied, publishing papers on the preparation of gold and platinum, numerical relations between the atomic

**weights**of analogous elements, the formation of aventurine glass, the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, the preservation of oil-paintings, &c. The reaction known by his name for the detection of bile acids was published in 1844.The Following Table, Taken From Woolhouse'S Measures,

**Weights**And Moneys Of All Nations, Shows The Dates Of Commencement Of Mahommedan Years From 1845 Up To 2047, Or From The 43Rd To The 49Th Cycle Inclusive, Which Form The Whole Of The Seventh Period Of Seven Cycles.But, instead of employing a number of instruments differing only in the

**weights**with which they are loaded, we may employ the same instrument, and alter its weight either by adding mercury or shot to the interior (if it can be opened) or by attaching**weights**to the exterior.These two operations are not quite equivalent, since a weight added to the interior does not affect the volume of liquid displaced when the instrument is immersed up to a given division of the scale, while the addition of

**weights**to the exterior increases the displacement.This difficulty may be met, as in Keene's hydrometer, by having all the

**weights**of precisely the same volume but of different masses, and never using the instrument except with one of these**weights**attached.Deparcieux added a small dish on the top of the stem for the reception of the

**weights**necessary to sink the instrument to a convenient depth.The effect of

**weights**placed in such a dish or pan is of course the same as if they were placed within the bulb of the instrument, since they do not alter the volume of that part which is immersed.Instead of a scale, only a single mark is placed upon the stem, which is very slender, and bears at the top a small scale pan into which

**weights**are placed until the instrument sinks to the mark upon its stem.The volume of the displaced liquid being then always the same, its density will be proportional to the whole weight supported, that is, to the weight of the instrument together with the

**weights**required to be placed in the scale pan.In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner,

**weights**being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the**weights**in the scale.The above example illustrates how Nicholson's or Fahrenheit's hydrometer may be employed as a weighing machine for small

**weights**.To use the instrument for liquids of much greater density than water additional

**weights**must be placed in the upper pan, and the "plongeur" is then placed in the lower pan for the purpose of giving to the instrument the requisite stability.Between the bulb and counterpoise is placed a thermometer, which serves to indicate the temperature of the liquid, and the instrument is provided with three

**weights**which can be attached to the top of the stem.It is provided with thirty-six different

**weights**which, with the ten divisions on the stem, form a scale from o to 370.The employment of so many

**weights**renders the instrument ill-adapted for practical work where speed is an object.The four

**weights**are so adjusted that, if the instrument floats with the stem emerging as far as the lower division o with one of the**weights**attached, then replacing the weight by the next heavier causes the instrument to sink through the whole length of the scale to the upper division o, and the first weight produces the same effect when applied to the naked instrument.By applying the several

**weights**in succession in addition to No.The addition to the top of the stem of successive

**weights**, each th of the weight of the instrument itself, serves to determine the successive degrees.As in Bories's instrument, a series of 9

**weights**, each of the form shown at E, serves to extend the scale FIG.The

**weights**are marked 10, 20,.In the above table for Sikes's hydrometer two densities are given corresponding to each of the degrees 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, indicating that the successive

**weights**belonging to the particular instrument for which the table has been calculated do not quite agree.Keene, of the Hydrometer Office, London, has constructed an instrument after the model of Sikes's, but provided with twelve

**weights**of different masses but equal volumes, and the instrument is never used without having one of these attached.When loaded with either of the lightest two

**weights**the instrument is specifically lighter than Sikes's hydrometer when unloaded, and it may thus be used for specific gravities as low as that of absolute alcohol.It resembles Sikes's hydrometer in other respects, but is provided with eight

**weights**.Towards the end of his life he adopted the view that the elements have been formed by some process of condensation from one primordial substance of extremely small atomic weight, and he expressed the conviction that atomic

**weights**within narrow limits are variable and modified according to the physical conditions in which a compound is formed.The metric system of

**weights**and measures has been adopted so widely that it forms the most suitable basis for the titrage or counts of yarns.The international bureau of

**weights**and measures at Paris was created by a convention signed there in 1875, for the purpose of comparing and verifying**weights**and measures on the metric system, and preserving their identity for the contracting states.It shows that the bodies impress on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their

**weights**or masses; and that in doing so they always begin by reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity, whatever they may do afterwards in consequence of their elasticities.In an actual observation the deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while different

**weights**would be used to deflect the needle b..**Weights**with Aramaic inscriptions (the oldest from the reign of Shalmaneser IV., 727-22) were found at Calah.The

**weights**and measures in use are practically those of China; the dry measures, the most commonly employed, are the bre or bo of about four pints and the bchal of twenty bo; the capacity of the bo varies according to localities.He proceeds to give what has been quoted as his first table of atomic

**weights**, but on p. 248 of his laboratory notebooks for 1802-1804, under the date 6th of September 1803, there is an earlier one in which he sets forth the relative**weights**of the ultimate atoms of a number of substances, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon-dioxide, &c. by chemists of the time.Assisted by the assumption that combination always takes place in the simplest possible way, he thus arrived at the idea that chemical combination takes place between particles of different

**weights**, and this it was which differentiated his theory from the historic speculations of the Greeks.Its electrical conductivity, determined on 99.6% metal, is 60.5% that of copper for equal volumes, or double that of copper for equal

**weights**, and when chemically pure it exhibits a somewhat higher relative efficiency.See that the ornamental plants and trees are not injured by heavy

**weights**of ice or snow.The best of the lighter

**weights**are frequently insufficiently strong in the hair to stand the friction of wear in a coat lining.African mines the diamonds are not only crystals of various

**weights**from fractions of a carat to 150 carats, but also occur as microscopic crystals disseminated through the blue ground.He wrote rude, coarse satires, crude verse, and compositions on the American government, temperance, &c. At the age of seventeen he had attained his full height, and began to be known as a wrestler, runner and lifter of great

**weights**.This office is divided into four departments, dealing with (i.) the business of the Bundesrat, the Rcichstag, the elections, citizenship, passports, the press, and military and naval matters, so far as the last concern the civil authorities; (ii.) purely social matters, such as old age pensions, accident insurance, migration, settlement, poor law administration, &c.; (iii.) sanitary matters, patents, canals, steamship lines,

**weights**and measures; and (iv.) commercial and economic relationssuch as agriculture, industry, commercial treaties and statistics.While the proportion of like

**weights**of fine gold and fine silver in 1866-1870 averaged J to 1555, it was I to 17-79 in 1876, I to 17.18 in 1877, and, in 1902, in consequence of the heavy fall in silver, the ratio became as much as I to 39.Pigs of this breed are very prolific, and they may be grown to enormous

**weights**- over 11 cwt.That the Sicels spoke a tongue closely akin to Latin is plain from several Sicel words which crept into Sicilian Greek, and from the Siceliot system of

**weights**and measures - utterly unlike anything in old Greece.Since the movements of the ground are frequently accompanied by a slight tilting, which would cause b or b' to swing or wander away from its normal position, a sufficient stability is given to the

**weights**by inclining the axis of the instrument slightly forwards.**Weights**of to lb each are carried at a distance of to in.Weighis and Measures.The metrical system of

**weights**and measures is in official but not in popular use, except in the foreign quarters of Cairo, Alexandria, &c. The most common Egyptian measures are the fitr, or space measured by the extension of the thumb and first finger; the shibr, or span; and the cubit (of three kinds 224, 25 and 263/4 in.).They drew the plough, trampled the corn sheaves round the circular threshing floor, and were sometimes employed to drag heavy

**weights**.**Weights**and measures proceeded generally on.A distinctively late Egyptian use of glass was for

**weights**and vase-stamps, to receive an impress stating the amount of the weight or measure.The large

**weights**of ounces and pounds are disks or cuboid blocks; they are dated from 720 to 785 for the lesser, and to A.D.The system was not, however, Arab, as there are a few Roman vasestamps and

**weights**.Under a law of the 4th of May 1907 it was enacted that the metric system of

**weights**and measures should come into official use in three years from that date, and into general use in five years.Through this space the fresh surface water finds its way, and dissolving the salt below rises in the inner tube as brine, but only to such a level that the two columns bear to one another the relation of ten to twelve, this being the inverse ratio of the respective

**weights**of saturated brine and fresh water.Flint implements, exactly like those of Siberia and Russia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like the European ones, primitive pottery with decorations like those of Olonets and stone

**weights**for nets.The atomic weight of oxygen is now generally taken as 16, and as such is used as the standard by which the atomic

**weights**of the other elements are determined, owing to the fact that most elements combine with oxygen more readily than with hydrogen (see ELE Ment).The democratic Urbina now became practically dictator, and as the attempt of Flores to reinstate Noboa proved a total failure, he was quickly succeeded in 1856 by General Francisco Robles, who, among other progressive measures, secured the adoption of the French system of coinage,

**weights**and measures.He was also asked by the national assembly to draw up a new scheme of taxation in connexion with which he produced a report De la richesse territoriale de la France, and he was further associated with committees on hygiene, coinage, the casting of cannon, &c., and was secretary and treasurer of the commission appointed in 1790 to secure uniformity of

**weights**and measures.Next year, on the 1st of August, the convention passed a decree for the uniformity of

**weights**and measures, and requested the Academy to take measures for carrying it out, but a week later Fourcroy persuaded the same convention to suppress the Academy together with other literary societies patentees et dotees by the nation.In November it ordered the arrest of the ex-farmers-general, and on the advice of the committee of public instruction, of which Guyton de Morveau and Fourcroy were members, the names of Lavoisier and others were struck off from the commission of

**weights**and measures.The wheel W is therefore mounted on a guided rod, which is forced upwards by suitable levers and

**weights**, and this relief of pressure is precisely proportional to the pressure on the respective bearings.The eye end presents an refractor appearance too complicated to be figured here; it has a micrometer and its illumination for the position circle, a micrometer head, and a bright or dark field, clamps in right ascension and declination and quick and slow motion in the same, a finder, microscopes for reading the hour and declination circles, an illuminated dial showing sidereal time and driven by an electric current from the sidereal clock, and counter

**weights**which can be removed when a spectroscope or other heavy appliance is added.The metric system of

**weights**and measures has been in force since 1878.The Torque Was Measured By

**Weights**0 And P Suspended By Silk Ribbons Passing Over The Pulleys N And Round The Disk Kl.Lever To Which The

**Weights**Are Suspended.With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and

**weights**and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.The social intercourse of the world is facilitated by conventions, such as those establishing the Latin monetary union, 1865; the international telegraphic union, 1865; the universal postal union, 1874; the international bureau of

**weights**and measures, 1875; providing for the protection of submarine cables in time of peace, 1884; the railway traffic union, 1890.Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic

**weights**.This jurisdiction is undoubtedly extensive, comprising among others, power to legislate concerning trade and industry, criminal law, taxation, quarantine, marriage and divorce,

**weights**and measures, legal tender, copyrights and patents, and naturalization and aliens.The metric system of

**weights**and measures was legalized in January 1893.In a third, " On some important points in the theory of heat " (1819), they stated that the specific heats of thirteen solid elements which they had investigated were nearly proportional to their atomic

**weights**- a fact otherwise expressed in the " law of Dulong and Petit " that the atoms of simple substances have equal capacities for heat.The prejudicial resistances are generally functions of the useful resistances of the

**weights**of the pieces of the mechanism, and of their form and arrangement; and, having been determined, they serve for the computation of the lost work, which, being added to the useful work, gives the expenditure of energy required.In order that OX may be a permanent axis it is necessary that there should ne a suffIcient number of

**weights**attached to the shaft and so distributed that when each is referred to the point 0For the vector representing a couple of the type War, if the masses are all on the same side of the reference plane, the direction of drawing is from the axis outwards; if the masses are some on one side of the reference plane and some on the other side, the direction of drawing is from the axis outwards towards the weight for all masses on the one side, and from the mass inwards towards the axis for all

**weights**on the other side, drawing always parallel to the direction defined by the radius r.The general problem in practice is, given a system of

**weights**attached to a shaft, to find the respective**weights**and positions of two balance**weights**or counterpoises which must hi added to the system in order to make the shaft a permanent axis, the planes in which the balance**weights**are to revolve also beinf given.To solve this the reference plane must be chosen so that ii coincides with the plane of revolution of one of the as yet unknowr balance

**weights**.Hence by drawing a couple polygor for the given

**weights**the vector which is required to close the polygor is at once found and from it the magnitude and position of the balanci weight which must be added to the system to balance the couplo follow at once.The vector required to close it will determine the second balance weight, the work may be checked by taking the reference plane to coincide with the plane of revolution of the second balance weight and then re-determining them, or by taking a reference plane anywhere and including the two balance

**weights**trying if condition (c) is satisfied.Using this principle the method of finding the balance

**weights**to be added to a given system of reciprocating**weights**in order to produce a system of forces on the frame continuously in equilibrium is exactly the same as that just explained for a system of revolving**weights**, because for the purpose of finding the balance**weights**each reciprocating weight may be supposed attached to the crank pin which operates it, thus forming an equivalent revolving system.The balance

**weights**found as part of the equivalent revolving system when reciprocated by their respective crank pins form the balance**weights**for the given reciprocating system.These conditions may be exactly realized by a system of

**weights**reciprocated by slotted bars, the crank shaft driving the slotted bars rotating uniformly.The moving parts of the engine are then divided into two complete and independent systems, namely, one system of revolving

**weights**consisting of crank pins, crank arms, &c., attached to and revolving with the crank shaft, and a second system of reciprocating**weights**consisting of the pistons, cross-heads, &c., supposed to be moving each in its line of stroke with simple harmonic motion.The balance

**weights**are to be separately calculated for each system, the one set being added to the crank shaft as revolving**weights**, and the second set being included with the reciprocating**weights**and operated by a properly placed crank on the crank shaft.Balance

**weights**added in this way to a set of reciprocating**weights**are sometimes called bob-**weights**.In the case of locomotives the balance

**weights**required to balance the pistons are added as revolving**weights**to the crank shaft system, and in fact are generally combined with the**weights**required to balance the revolving system so as to form one weight, the counterpoise referred to in the preceding section, which is seen between the spokes of the wheels of a locomotive.The conditions regulating the balancing of a system of

**weights**reciprocating under the action of accelerating forces given by the above expression are investigated in a paper by Otto Schlick, On Balancing of Steam Engines, Trans, Inst.Then by slow degrees a proportion of " dryers " is added - usually equal

**weights**of litharge and minium being used to the extent of 3% of the charge of oil; and with these a small proportion of umber is generally thrown in.Turkish

**weights**and measures are used.Two of these rollers are supported in the same horizontal plane of the framework, while the third or top roller is kept in close contact by means of

**weights**and springs acting on each end of the arbor.He was also much interested in ancient

**weights**and measures, and in 1875 published a work on Inductive Metrology.The metric system of

**weights**and measures is the legal standard in Chile, but the old Spanish standards are still widely used, especially in handling mining and farm produce.Coinage,

**Weights**and Measures.The monetary unit is the kran, a silver coin, formerly weighing 28 nakhods (88 grains), then reduced to 26 nakhods (77 grains), and now weighing only 24 nakhods (71 grains) or somewhat less.Larger

**weights**, again, are the sir (i6 miskals)He established a permanent staff to deal with legal, financial and military affairs, put on a firm basis the monetary system and the system of

**weights**and measures, and perfected the mounted postal service.A number of Dutch

**weights**and measures are also in general use.The wardens of the grocers are to "assayen

**weights**, powders, confeccions, platers, oyntments and all other things belonging to the same crafte."Of this grain 7000 now (see

**Weights**And Measures) make a pound avoirdupois.One of the customs which has grown out of our peculiar system of

**weights**is the form of statement of the results of such an assay.But the real auxiliary sciences to history are those which deal with those traces of the past that still exist, the science of language (philology), of writing (palaeography), of documents (diplomatic), of seals (sphragistics), of coins (numismatics), of

**weights**and measures, and archaeology in the widest sense of the word.From this it follows that when the wing rises the body falls, and vice versa - the wing describing the arc of a large circle (f f), the body (b), or the

**weights**(w, w') representing it, describing the arc of a small circle.Nadar, who exhibited models driven by clock-work springs, which ascended with graduated

**weights**a distance of from io to 12 ft.The acts referred to include those relating to the diseases of animals, destructive insects, explosives, fish conservancy, gas meters, margarine, police, reformatory and industrial schools, riot (damages), sale of food and drugs,

**weights**and measures.And in a borough, whether a quarter sessions borough or not, which had in 1881 a population of less than io,000, all the powers which the borough council formerly possessed as to police, analysts, diseases of animals, gas meters, and

**weights**and measures cease and are transferred to the county council, the boroughs becoming in fact part of the area of the county for these purposes.For example, fees received by the clerk of the peace, inspectors of

**weights**and measures, and the like.He tried hard to procure a unification of coinage and

**weights**and measures, but failed owing to the opposition of the estates, who were afraid of the new taxation necessary to meet the loss involved in raising the standard of the coinage, and who held to their local measures and currency partly from conservatism, partly as a relic of local liberty.Several of the varieties are cut into gems and ornaments, balance

**weights**, pivot supports for delicate instruments, agate mortars, &c.; or used for engraving, for instance, cameos and the elaborately carved crystal vases of ancient and medieval times.The French decimal system is in use for

**weights**and measures, together with Turkish standards.The metric system of

**weights**and measures has.In the interior and in all domestic transactions the old Spanish

**weights**and measures are still used - including the Spanish libra of 1.102 lb avoirdupois, the arroba of 25 libras (122 kilogrammes), the quintal of Too libras (50 kilog.), the carga of 250 libras (125 kilogs.), the vara of 80 centimetres, and the fanega.The

**weights**being known, the principal stresses may be determined.Mechanical devices for determining

**weights**or comparing the masses of bodies may be classified as (a) equal-armed balances, (b) unequal-armed balances, (c) spring balances and (d) automatic machines.The theory of the scale-beam is stated by Weisbach in his Mechanics of Machinery and Engineering, as follows - In fig I D is the fulcrum of the balance, S the centre of gravity of the beam alone without the scales, chains or

**weights**; A and B the points of suspension of the chains.Therefore with equal

**weights**a balance vibrates more slowly the more sensitive it is, and therefore weighing by a sensitive balance is a slower process than with a less sensitive one.By testing the beam with the scale-pans attached and equal

**weights**in the pans, and noting carefully the position which it takes up; and then interchanging the scale-pans, &c., and again noting the position which the beam takes up, a correct inference can be drawn as to the causes of error; and if after slightly altering or adjusting the knife-edges and scale-pans in the direction indicated by the experiment, the operation is repeated, any required degree of accuracy may be ob - tained by successive approximations.The chief reason for testing balances with

**weights**in the scale-pans rather than with the scale - pans empty, is that the balance might be unstable with the**weights**though stable without them.The addition of

**weights**in the scales will have the effect of raising the point H till it gets above Z, and the balance, becoming unstable, will turn till it is brought up by a stop of some kind.The end knife-edges are adjusted and tightly jammed into exact position by means of wedge pieces and set screws, and the beam is furnished with delicate adjusting

**weights**at its top. The position of the beam with respect to the horizontal is shown by a horizontal pointer (not shown) projecting from one end of it, which plays past a scale, each division of which corresponds to the i l oth or i hth of a grain according to the size and delicacy of the machine.In the comparison of standard

**weights**, or in any weighing opera - tions where great accuracy is required, it is necessary to use many precautions.The comparison of standard

**weights**has to be con - ducted at the standard temperature, and the room must be brought to that temperature and maintained at it.And the operations of placing and shifting the

**weights**must be effected by mechanism which will enable this to be done without opening the case or exposing the machine.When the

**weights**which are to be compared are of different metals further complications arise, for the volumes of equal**weights**of different metals will be different, and therefore the quantity of air displaced by them will be different, and the difference of the**weights**of air displaced by the two**weights**must be allowed for.In this way an exact comparison of the

**weights**in vacuo can be computed, but of course the simplest way of arriving at the result would be by the construction of a strong air-tight case which can be completely exhausted of air by an air-pump, and in which the weighing can then be effected in vacuo.So that if, for example, a fishmonger uses such a machine to ascertain the weight of a piece of fish which he places in the goods - pan, and thereby depresses it down upon its stop, and then places

**weights**in the**weights**-pan till the goods-pan rises, the customer is charged for more than the real weight of the fish.Secondly, in using them out of level, with the goods end of the machine lower than the

**weights**end.When 0 is negative, as it is when the goods end of the machine is lower than the

**weights**end, the value of w may be very appreciable.When the case which holds the machine is adjusted hori - zontally by means of its foot - screws, and the

**weights**in the pans are equal, the beams remain perfectly horizontal; but with the slightest difference of weight in the pans the beams are tilted, and the elastic resistance of the springs to torsion allows the beams to take up a definite position of equi - librium.The ordinary way of using a steelyard is to bring it into a horizontal position by means of movable

**weights**, and to infer the amount of the load from the positions of these.The more elaborate ones are made either with a heavy travelling poise to measure the bulk of the load with a light travelling poise for the remainder, or else with a knife-edge at the end of the steelyard, on which loose

**weights**are hung to measure the bulk of the load, the remainder being measured with a light travelling poise.When a platform machine is in true adjustment, and the loose

**weights**which are intended to be hung at the end of the steelyard are correct and consistent among themselves, a good and new machine, whose capacity is 4 cwt., should not show a greater error than 4 oz.A useful application of weighbridges is to ascertain the exact

**weights**on the separate wheels of locomotive engines, so that they may be properly adjusted.They are rapid in action, the indication is in general clear, and there is no need of loose

**weights**except for testing the machine occasionally.Their indications also vary with the temperature, so that for good work it is advisable that spring balances should be frequently checked with standard

**weights**.To deaden the vibration of the springs after a load has been placed on the platform, and thus to enable the

**weights**and values of the goods to be read rapidly, the piston of a glycerin cylinder is attached to the end of the lever which pulls upon the hook of the horizontal bar and is worked by it in the glycerin.The

**weights**and money values are arranged on a vertical chart, the sides of which converge towards the pivoting centre of an index arm which is actuated by the weighing mechanism.When the load exceeds 2 lb one or more 2-lb

**weights**are placed in the**weights**-pan, and the value of the portion of the goods corresponding to these 2-lb**weights**is computed, at the rate per lb, in the ordinary manner; and the value of the balance of the weight of the goods is read off the chart, and the two are added together.Thus, for weighing up to the full load of 14 lb, six 2-lb

**weights**are required and no others.As the uppermost compartment fills, the

**weights**end of the beam rises, and by means of a vertical rod suc - cessively operates on detents connected with the rotation of the two brushes, and stops them in turn.And the long arm of the indicator lever pulls vertically upon the spring of an ordinary spring balance, which registers the load, and with the addition of suitable counting mechanism sums up the

**weights**of any number of successive loads.A pulley carried on a rotating shaft and connected to another pulley on a second shaft by an endless band consisting of a flat belt, rope, chain or similar connector serves for the transmission of power from the one shaft to the other and is known as a driving pulley; while combinations of pulleys or "sheaves," mounted in fixed or movable frames or "blocks," constitute mechanisms used to facilitate the raising of heavy

**weights**.Poulain was used of a rope to let casks down into a cellar or to raise heavy

**weights**.Frames or blocks containing pulleys or sheaves are used in combination for lifting heavy

**weights**.Blocks, for lifting very heavy

**weights**, are sometimes provided with an electric motor for driving the worm.It is supplanting the Border Leicester as a sire of mutton sheep; for, although its progeny is slower in reaching maturity, tegs can be fed to greater

**weights**in spring - 65 to 68 lb per carcass - without becoming too fat to be classed as finest quality.Thus the

**weights**ordinarily in use for measuring from 4 oz.**Weights**come in this class.The ounce, for instance, is one-sixteenth of the pound, but it is impossible to find 16 objects such that their

**weights**shall be exactly equal and that the sum of their**weights**shall be exactly equal to the weight of the standard pound.When Regiomontanus settled at Nuremberg in 1471, Walther built for their common use an observatory at which in 1484 clocks driven by

**weights**were first used in astronomical determinations.The imports consist principally of cereals and flour, coffee, sugar, ale, wines and spirits, tobacco, manufactured wares, iron and metal wares, timber, salt, coal, &c. The money,

**weights**and measures in use are the same as in Denmark.Another commission was also appointed to draw up a system of

**weights**and measures based on the length of the metre and to fix the nomenclature, which on the report of the commission was established in 1795.In 1875 there was constituted at Paris the International Bureau of

**Weights**and Measures, which is managed by an international committee.It was, however, repealed by the

**Weights**and Measures Act 1878.But in 1897 a statute was passed, the

**Weights**and Measures (Metric System) Act, which legalized the use in trade of the metric system, and abolished the penalty for using or having in one's possession a weight or measure of that system.Bernhard Walther of Nuremberg (1430-1504), who fitted up an observatory with clocks driven by

**weights**, and developed many improvements in practical astronomy.The currency and

**weights**and measures are British.There was no native coinage, the French 5-franc piece or dollar being the standard, and all sums under that amount were obtained by cutting up those coins into all shapes and sizes, which were weighed with small

**weights**and scales into halves, quarters, eighths, twelfths and twenty-fourths of a dollar, and even reckoned down to the seven hundred and twentieth fraction of the same amount.Once more Colbert failed; with regard to internal affairs, he was unable to unify

**weights**and measures, or to suppress the many custom-houses which made France into a miniature Europe; nor could he in external affairs reform the consulates of the Levant.