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weight

weight

weight Sentence Examples

  • The boxes were heavy, so carrying two of them was too much weight to handle.

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  • They needed to gain a little weight before they would be released from the hospital, though.

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  • He exercised enough and his weight was perfect.

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  • Deidre let her full weight settle against him.

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  • Darian shouted, staggering beneath the weight of his magic.

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  • He was suffering physically at that moment, there was a weight on his chest and he could not breathe.

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  • She had gained enough weight to fill out the bodice completely.

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  • Lana felt the weight lifted, and she wrenched the straps as tight as she could.

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  • I give you my word of honor," said Napoleon, forgetting that his word of honor could carry no weight--"I give you my word of honor that I have five hundred and thirty thousand men this side of the Vistula.

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  • He made his way through the crowded halls, grunting under the weight of the man.

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  • Arnie's weight dropped, and Lana and Brady landed in a heap.

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  • His horse by habit made as if to nip his leg, but Petya leaped quickly into the saddle unconscious of his own weight and, turning to look at the hussars starting in the darkness behind him, rode up to Denisov.

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  • Daniel rose a little, took a step, and with his whole weight, as if lying down to rest, fell on the wolf, seizing her by the ears.

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  • He'd been as gentle with her as he'd known how, and still she suffered under the weight of the visions.

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  • The weight of those secrets robbed her of her appetite and made her feel tired again, even after a full night of rest.

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  • He had lost weight and his skin had a sallow look.

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  • Here! exclaimed different voices; and the heavy breathing of the bearers and the shuffling of their feet grew more hurried, as if the weight they were carrying were too much for them.

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  • The cedar tree was bent over with the weight of a heavy load of wet snow.

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  • Snaking her upper torso over the back of the seat, she began to shift her weight toward the back of the car.

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  • The young college-aged waitress inserted the tack, placed a quarter beneath it for weight and sounded a horn to call attention.

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  • A sergeant of the battalion ran up and took the flag that was swaying from its weight in Prince Andrew's hands, but he was immediately killed.

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  • What appeared to be red wine was squeezed out of the bath mat at the weight of her step.

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  • She strained under the weight of his body, and they staggered to her car.

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  • "He'd just shave his mustache off, maybe dye his hair and lose weight," Betsy grumbled.

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  • This doesn't have anything to do with you fretting about my weight, does it?

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  • She staggered under the weight of them, dropping to her knees.

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  • "You're putting on a little weight, there, aren't you?" he teased.

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  • The rope was taut with his evil weight and she could hear his movements as he carefully climbed down the sheer wall to his ice-bound lair below.

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  • We all pull our own weight around here.

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  • The bed shifted under the weight of Darkyn's frame as he settled in beside her.

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  • As if sensing the weight of the word, he turned, brow furrowed.

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  • Her added weight, though slight, caused the parking lot gravel to cut even deeper into his aching feet.

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  • Carmen felt the full weight of a question that had no answer.

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  • Are you saying he's the dead weight and not me?

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  • She was slower than he expected her to be in identifying them by their relative weight and size.

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  • Perhaps I'm the dead weight in this relationship.

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  • She put the offending foot on the ground, tentatively applying a little weight, clamping a hand over her mouth to stop the cry of pain.

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  • She turned it again, and this time put her weight against the door.

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  • He felt the weight of his brother.s death on his shoulders again.

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  • Kutuzov was impatiently urging on his horse, which ambled smoothly under his weight, and he raised his hand to his white Horse Guard's cap with a red band and no peak, nodding his head continually.

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  • She was looking him over, noting that he had gained back the weight and muscle tone, and that he looked delightful again.

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  • She woke when the bed sank with the weight of a person sitting down.

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  • She had decided to let it grow long, even though she feared the weight of it would remove the curls.

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  • He was supporting her entire weight in addition to his own.

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  • He snatched her hands and pinned them above her head with one hand, settling his weight atop her as he reached down to undo the buttons of his trousers.

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  • I'm of above average height by an inch and above average weight by ten pounds.

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  • The ice bore him but it swayed and creaked, and it was plain that it would give way not only under a cannon or a crowd, but very soon even under his weight alone.

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  • Unaccustomed to the weight of the rucksack on her back, she almost toppled over at the first step of the stairwell and caught the banister with both hands.

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  • Cade had put on enough weight to take the hollows out of his cheeks, making him look a good ten years younger.

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  • By the time she reached the beach house, her face was Smurf blue and she was laboring under the weight of the treasures she'd found.

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  • None were an issue with either of them, nor were exercise or body weight – too much or too little.

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  • Our stories have some weight, not like the stories of those fellows on the staff who get rewards without doing anything!

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  • In August, the large masses of berries, which, when in flower, had attracted many wild bees, gradually assumed their bright velvety crimson hue, and by their weight again bent down and broke the tender limbs.

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  • Dusty looked up from the computer screen as Toni walked in, staggering under the weight of a massive box.

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  • Sweating already from the effort, she braided her hair to keep it out of her face and then leaned her full weight on the rope.

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  • The twins were healthy and acceptable weight, so they released Katie.

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  • He felt the weight of that resolute and affectionate scrutiny and glanced at her occasionally.

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  • One buffet table sagged beneath the weight of five kegs while another held food wrapped in cellophane and tinfoil.

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  • And yet, he couldn't help feeling as if he alone bore the weight of his planet on his back as he struggled to pay for food, water, and weapons.

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  • But at the same time, his left arm felt as heavy as if a seventy-pound weight were tied to it.

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  • "Does the air bear up your weight?" asked the girl.

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  • To further enhance yield, at the same time Borlaug bred wheat strains with short, stubby stalks, which were able to better handle more weight of grain.

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  • If we found they were destroyed, it would take a big weight off our minds.

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  • Still I could not shut my eyes to the force and weight of their arguments, and I saw plainly that I must abandon--'s scheme as impracticable.

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  • No point in adding my weight to what you already have to push.

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  • You'd look fine, said a corporal, chaffing a thin little soldier who bent under the weight of his knapsack.

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  • Lana smiled, amused at such hardcore words from a woman whose frail frame would struggle under the weight of a laser shotgun.

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  • She hadn't put much weight into Wynn's response, but she considered it now.

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  • Lankha was nearly buckling under the weight of Toby.

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  • Though the weight of sadness from the past few days was still in evidence, she was obviously brightened by Fred O'Connor, the per­fect host.

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  • He's about the same height and weight but he's younger.

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  • After Metivier's departure the old prince called his daughter in, and the whole weight of his wrath fell on her.

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  • His voice was even, as if he tried to ease some of the weight of her decision.

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  • Then she started gaining weight.

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  • I'm afraid I've been putting on weight.

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  • "You're stuck with a deadbeat boyfriend who doesn't carry his own weight and beats you because he's some sort of control freak," he guessed.

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  • He was heavy, though most of his weight was on the hips squeezed between her thighs.

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  • The tray was too much for her hurt arm, which could support no weight.

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  • The bed sank beneath his weight.

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  • Healthy options will leave you feeling light, strong, ready to face the weight of your pack, leaving you far better prepared than fried foods and french fries.

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  • The menu is practically a primer on fine dining, with each steak - aged five to eight weeks - described in terms of thickness, weight, doneness, color, juice and serving size.

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  • She'd always had problems putting on weight.

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  • A hawk made a wide swing across the grassland and then suddenly dived, jerking up at the last second, its great wings straining as it pumped back into the air with added weight.

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  • He wrenched the attacker across his body and pinned him beneath his own body weight.

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  • She was still too pale and her frame slender enough to indicate she needed some food to bring her back to a healthy weight.

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  • There was nothing wrong with Katie's figure except that she was a little over weight.

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  • This leash, attached to your wrist, bears most of your weight.

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  • His gloves, adequate for snow shoveling, were poor equipment to safely grasp a rope that supported his full weight.

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  • He forced the picture from his mind and leaned backward, testing the rope against his weight.

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  • She didn't cut the rope all the way through, but enough that it wouldn't bear her husband's full weight.

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  • I think he actually lost weight.

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  • "Go get Bianca," Jenn ordered, struggling out from Darian's weight.

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  • Jenn shifted her weight and rolled into a somersault, leaping up before he could pin her.

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  • His weight kept her from moving.

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  • She'd lost too much weight over the past couple of weeks.

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  • She clambered forward to drag Darian out of the way of one, only to feel the crushing weight of another as it slammed across her legs.

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  • The weight from her legs lifted suddenly, and fresh pain jarred her back into the imploding world.

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  • Rissa grunted at the impact of his weight and squirmed.

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  • She wanted to melt against him, to let him help her shoulder the weight on her shoulders.

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  • He stumbled, his body straining beneath her weight and his speed.

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  • Shifting her weight off the injured ankle, she pushed away from him.

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  • Hesitantly she urged the car forward, catching her breath as the bridge creaked and groaned under the weight of the tiny car.

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  • Let the weight of the whip work for you, not against you.

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  • The atomic weight of the element has been determined by analysis.

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  • and a weight of 2262 lb; but a still longer, although lighter, tusk was brought to London in 1905.

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  • If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.

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  • Certain difficulties that he met with in his speculations led him to the conclusion that the particles of any one kind of gas, though all of them alike, must differ from those of another gas both in size and weight.

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  • The conclusion that each element had a definite atomic weight, peculiar to it, was the new idea that made his speculations fruitful, because it allowed of quantitative deduction and verification.

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  • The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.

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  • In water and in ethylene experiment shows that 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 6 parts of carbon, respectively, are in union with one part of hydrogen; also, if the diagrams are correct, these numbers must be in the ratio of the atomic weights of oxygen and carbon.

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  • But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.

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  • In each of a number of experiments he found that the weight of the silver iodide did not differ by one twenty-thousandth of the whole from the sum of the weights of the silver and the iodine used.

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  • Landolt and others, made it at first appear that the change in weight, if there is any, consequent on a chemical change can rarely exceed one-millionth of the weight of the reacting substances, and that it must often be much less.

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  • He concluded that no change of weight can be detected.

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  • But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.

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  • It is universally found that the weights of two bases which neutralize the same weight of one acid are equivalent in their power of neutralizing other acids.

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  • It is now agreed that the molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, so that the atomic weight of oxygen becomes 16, and similarly that the molecule of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen and one of nitrogen, and that consequently the atomic weight of nitrogen is 14.

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  • According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.

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  • Hiero asked him to give an illustration of his contention that a very great weight could be moved by a very small force.

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  • Now, if CD is pressed by its weight or by a spring on the surface AB, the effect of wear will be to produce a symmetrical grinding away of both surfaces, which may be represented thus, fig.

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  • The jactus lapidum of which he speaks was probably more akin to the modern "putting the weight," once even called "putting the stone."

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  • The resolutions of the Lambeth Conferences have never been regarded as synodical decrees, but their weight has increased with each conference.

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  • Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.

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  • In 1878, 65,000,000 sheep yielded 230,000,000 lb weight of wool, or an average per sheep of about 32 lb.

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  • In the season of 1899-1900 the wool exports weighed 420,000,000 lb, and averaged more than 5 lb per sheep. The extra weight of fleece was owing to the large importation of better breeds.

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  • Of discoveries superficially sensational there are few or none to record, and the weight of his work is for the most part to be appreciated only by professed physicists.

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  • One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.

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  • BORON (symbol B, atomic weight ii), one of the non-metallic elements, occurring in nature in the form of boracic (boric) acid, and in various borates such as borax, tincal,.

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  • The atomic weight of boron has been determined by estimating the water content of pure borax (J.

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  • Of the larger kangaroos, which attain a weight of 200 lb and more, eight species are named, only one of which is found in Western Australia.

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  • Among the sea fish, the schnapper is of great value as an article of food, and its weight comes up to 50 lb.

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  • During the same period, owing to the efforts of pastoralists to improve their flocks, there was a gradual increase in the weight of wool produced per sheep from 341b to an average of over 71b.

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  • 31 a strength of the flocks, great improvements in the quality and weight of fleeces, this item is likely to show permanent advancement.

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  • Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.

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  • The theory which meets this difficulty is that which has in its favour the greatest weight of evidence, viz.

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  • In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.

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  • These great magnates, all of them Knights of the Fleece and men of peculiar weight and authority in the country, were disgusted to find that, though nominally councillors of state, their advice was never asked, and that all power was placed in the hands of the Consulta.

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  • He supported John with all the weight of papal authority.

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  • Its weight varies from 48 to about 55lb the cubic foot, but in very hard slowly-grown trunks sometimes approaches 60 lb.

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  • YTTRIUM [[[symbol]], Y; atomic weight, 89 o (0= 16)], a metallic chemical element.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Cleve.

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  • They are brief, yet not wanting in that element of practical edification on which Chrysostom lays special weight as characteristic of the Antiochenes.

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  • Grant threw the whole weight of his great influence in favour of confederation, and his oratory played an important part in securing the success of the movement.

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  • His plan was to replace coined gold dollars by " gold bullion dollar certificates " which should command such weight of gold bullion as might legally be declared to constitute a dollar at that particular time.

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  • The weight of this ideal gold dollar would be adjusted at intervals in accordance with its power to purchase commodities as shown by the " index number " of prices.

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  • it is capable of raising nearly a pound weight attached to the other end of the string, through the same height, and thus can do nearly io foot-pounds of work.

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  • The smoother we make the pulley the more nearly does the amount of useful work which the weight is capable of doing approach ro foot-pounds, and if we take into account the work done against the friction of the pulley, we may say that the work done by the descending weight is ro foot-pounds, and hence when the weight is in its elevated position we have at disposal r o foot-pounds more energy than when it is in the lower position.

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  • Rumford then turned up a hollow cylinder which was cast in one piece with a brass six-pounder, and having reduced the connexion between the cylinder and cannon to a narrow neck of metal, he caused a blunt borer to press against the hollow of the cylinder with a force equal to the weight of about ro,000 lb, while the casting was made to rotate in a lathe.

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  • In the first, the pressure is applied by a handle or treadle, and is removed by a spring or weight; this is called " braking on."

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  • In the second, or " braking off " method, the brake is automatically applied by a spring or weight, and is released either mechanically or, in the case of electric cranes, by the pull of a solenoid or magnet which is energized by the current passing through the motor.

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  • Where the rail-gauge is narrow and great weight is not desired, blocking girders are provided across the under side of the truck; these are arranged so that, by means of wedges or screws, they can be made to increase the base.

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  • In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight.

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  • 5-7), as usually manufactured, consists of a core a in the centre of which is a strand of copper wires varying in weight for different cables between 70 and 650 lb to the nautical mile.

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  • The central conductor is covered with several continuous coatings of guttapercha, the total weight of which varies between 70 and 650 lb to the mile.

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  • The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.

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  • Whilst it is being paid out the portion between the surface of the water and the bottom of the sea lies along a straight line, the component of the weight at right angles to its length being supported by the frictional resistance to sinking in the water.

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  • From the continuous records of slack and strain combined with the weight of the cable it is a simple matter to calculate and plot the depths along the whole route of the cable as actually laid.

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  • After the " final splice," as it is termed, between these ends has been made, the bight, made fast to a slip rope, is lowered overboard, the slip rope cut, and the cable allowed to sink by its own weight to its resting-place on the sea bed.

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  • In the undulator apparatus, which is similar in general principle to the " siphon recorder " used in submarine telegraphy, a spring or falling weight moves a paper strip beneath one end of a fine silver tube, the other end of which dips into a vessel containing ink.

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  • Either a weight or a motor is used for making the movements of the mechanism required to effect the printing of the signals.

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  • a and b would be in themselves too slight to prove an earlier date, but they have perhaps some weight as confirming the evidence of the language.

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  • CADMIUM (symbol Cd, atomic weight I12.4 (0=16)), a metallic element, showing a close relationship to zinc, with which it is very frequently associated.

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  • The atomic weight of cadmium was found by 0.

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  • The atomic weight of cadmium has been revised by G.

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  • When the sounding board was spoken to or subjected to sound-waves, the mechanical resistance of the loose electrode, due to its weight, or the spring, or both, served to vary the pressure at the contact, and this gave to the current a form corresponding to the sound-waves, and it was therefore capable of being used as a speaking-telephone transmitter.'

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  • These vary in weight from soo to 1000 lb, according to the variety of camel employed, for of the Arabian camel there are almost as many breeds as there are of the horse.

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  • In Sicily the so-called Modica race is of note; and in Sardinia there is a distinct stock which seldom exceeds the weight of 700 lb.

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  • The regulations provide that if there is a greater weight of correspondence (including bookpackets) than 13/4 lb for any individual by any one delivery, notice shall be given him that it is lying at the post office, he being then obliged to arrange for fetching it.

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  • Tobacco slightly diminished in weight at a little over I lb per head, while the gross receipts are considerably increasedby over 23/4 millions sterling since 1884-1885---showing that the quality consumed is much better.

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  • Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.

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  • Still the main weight of intuitionalist theism rests upon the conception of God as First Cause.

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  • Edmund Burke says "Magna Carta, if it did not give us originally the House of Commons, gave us at least a House of Commons of weight and consequence."

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  • The weight of Malpighi's observations therefore fell into the scale of that doctrine which Harvey terms metamorphosis, in contradistinction to epigenesis.

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  • in weight and ornamented with figures of deities; but the first-rate importance of the station was only revealed by careful excavations undertaken in 1907 seq.

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  • MOLYBDENUM [[[symbol]], Mo; atomic weight, 96 (0=16)] a metallic chemical element.

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  • The molecular weight determinations of W.

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  • Many varying values have been given for the atomic weight of molybdenum.

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  • These forces however fail to furnish a complete explanation of the ascent of the current, and others have been thought to supplement them, which have more or less weight.

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  • The sensitive cells must clearly be influenced in some way by weightnot the weight of external organs but of some weight within them.

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  • Or more probably it may be the weight of definite particulate structures in their vacuoles.

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  • On stimulation these cells part with their water, the lower side of the organ becomes flaccid and the weight of the leaf causes it to fall.

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  • It attains to a weight of 15 lb.

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  • As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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  • Fifteen grains constitute an exceedingly dangerous dose for an adult male of average weight.

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  • Borelli (De motu animalium, Rome, 1680), explained that birds are enabled to grasp the twig on which they rest whilst sleeping, without having to make any muscular exertion, because the weight of the body bends the knee and ankle-joints, over both of which pass the tendons of this compound muscle.

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  • His eldest son Charles (1536-1624), lord admiral of England in 1585, sailed as commander in chief against the Spanish Armada, and, although giving due weight to the counsel of Drake and his other officers, showed himself a leader as prudent as courageous.

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  • GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead.

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  • SULPHUR [[[symbol]] S, atomic weight 32.07 (0 = 16)], a non-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable nature, as the principle of combustion; it is also known as brimstone.

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  • The atomic weight was determined by Berzelius, Erdmann and Marchand, Dumas and Stas.

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  • In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.

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  • Having obtained these important concessions the tsar imagined for a moment that in any further territorial changes he would be consulted and his advice allowed due weight, and he seems even to have indulged in the hope that the affairs of Europe might be directed by himself and his new ally.

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  • The fare was is., and each passenger was allowed to take baggage not exceeding 14 lb weight.

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  • For each of these classes a rate-sheet gives the actual ratecharge per unit of weight between the various stations covered by the tariff.

    0
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  • As embankments have to support the weight of heavy trains, they must be uniformly firm and well drained, and before the line is fully opened for traffic they must be allowed time to consolidate, a process which is helped by running construction or mineral trains over them.

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  • The theoretical limit is about i in 16; between I in 20 and 1 in 16 a steam locomotive depending on the adhesion between its wheels and the rails can only haul about its own weight.

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  • Racks of this type usually become impracticable for gradients steeper than 1 in 4, partly because of the excessive weight of the engine required and partly because of the tendency of the cog-wheel to mount the rack.

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  • Of these there are two main systems: (1) a continuous cable is carried over two main drums at each end of the line, and the motion is derived either (a) from the weight of the descending load or (b) from a motor acting on one of the main drums; (2) each end of the cable is attached to wagons, one set of which accordingly ascends as the other descends.

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  • The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.

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  • The amount of superelevation required to prevent derailment at a curve can be calculated under perfect running conditions, given the radius of curvature, the weight of the vehicle, the height of the centre of gravity, the distance between the rails, and the speed; but great experience 1 See The Times Engineering Supplement (August 22, 1906), p. 265.

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  • The gauge may be regarded as reduced to its narrowest possible dimensions in mono-rail lines, where the weight of the trains is carried on a single rail.

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  • The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.

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  • The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.

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  • On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.

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  • 13), varying in length (from 20 to 48 in.), in weight and in the number of bolts, which may be four or six.

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  • In whatever form energy is produced and distributed to the train it ultimately appears as mechanical energy applied to turn one or more axles against the resistance to their rotation imposed by the weight on the wheels and the motion of the train.

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  • The weight W 1 carried by the part of the frame supported by the wheel (whose diameter is D) is transmitted first to the pins P 1, P2, which are fixed to the frame, and then to the spring links L 1, L2, which are jointed at their respective ends to the spring S, the centre of which rests on the axle-box.

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  • The maximum weight which one pair of wheels are usually allowed to carry on a first-class track is from 18 to 20 tons.

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  • Every axle of an electric locomotive may thus be subjected to a torque, and the large weight which must be put on one pair of wheels in order to secure sufficient adhesion when all the driving is done from one axle may be distributed through as many pairs of wheels as desired.

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  • This corrected pull is then divided by the weight of the vehicles hauled, in which must be included the weight of the dynamometer car, and the quotient gives the resistance per ton of load hauled at a certain uniform speed on a straight and level road.

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  • p. 1275), by Barbier, for some experiments made on the Northern railway of France with a train of 157 tons mean weight; they are valid between 37 and 77 m.

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  • If W I is the weight of the train in pounds, the rate of working against the gradient expressed in horse-power units is H.P.=W,V/550 G.

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  • - If W 1 is the weight of the train in pounds and a the acceleration in feet per second, the force required to produce the acceleration is f = Wi a / g (19) And if V is the average speed during the change of velocity implied by the uniform acceleration a, the rate at which work is done by this force is fV= W1Va /g (20) or in horse-power units Time occupied in the change - 13 - 0 113.

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  • The weight of the engine may be assumed in advance to be 80 tons.

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  • To obtain the tractive force the weight on the coupled wheels must be about five times this amount - that is..

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  • The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.

    0
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  • As the indicated horse-power of the engine increases, the weight of steam discharged increases, and the smoke-Lox vacuum is increased, thereby causing more air to flow through the furnace and increasing the rate of combustion.

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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.

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  • Hence, if p is the maximum value of the mean effective pressure corresponding to about 85% of the boiler pressure,, uW = pd 2 le /D (26) is an expression giving a relation between the total weight on the coupled wheels, their diameters and the size of the cylinder.

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  • Assuming that the frictional resistance at the rails is given by the weight on the wheels, the total weight on the driving-wheels necessary to secure sufficient adhesion to prevent slipping must be at least 8.3 X5 =41.5 tons.

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  • This would be distributed between three coupled axles giving an average of 1.38 tons per axle, though the distribution might not in practice be uniform, a larger proportion of the weight falling on the driving-axle.

    0
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  • per hour, the tractive force falls to 7400 lb, and this cannot be increased except by increasing the rate of combustion (neglecting any small changes due to a change in the efficiency 7 Knowing the magnitude of R, the draw-bar pull, and hence the weight of vehicle the engine can haul at this speed, can be estimated if the resistances are known.

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  • It will be seen at once that with a tractive force of 7400 lb a weight of 37,000 lb (=16.5 tons) would be enough to secure sufficient adhesion, and this could be easily carried on one axle.

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  • It is also the custom to balance a proportion of the reciprocating masses by balance weights placed between the spokes of the wheels, and the actual balance weight seen in a driving-wheel is the resultant of the separate weights required for the balancing of the revolving parts and the reciprocating parts.

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  • It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.

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  • It is a safe, steady-running and trustworthy engine, with excellent distribution of weight, and it is susceptible of a wide range of adaptability in power requirements.

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  • Used to some extent in France and Germany and considerably in England for passenger traffic of moderate weight.

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  • The advantages claimed for it are: short coupling-rods, large and unlimited fire-box carried by a trailing axle, compactness, and great power for a given weight.

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  • (7) " Six-coupled " total-adhesion type (all the weight carried on the drivers), o-6-o.

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  • In the United States it is the standard heavy slow-speed freight engine, and has been built of enormous size and weight.

    0
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  • Their boilers are of relatively large proportions for the train weight and average speed, and the driving wheels of small diameter, a large proportion of their total weight being " adhesive."

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  • There is a general increase in cylinder power, boiler pressure and weight, and in consequence in the number of coupled axles.

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  • Their weight was in the neighbourhood of 10 tons.

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  • This arrangement involves a further increase of length and weight.

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  • It will be seen from these particulars - which are typical of what has happened not only on other British railways, but also on those of other countries - that much more space has to be provided and more weight hauled for each passenger than was formerly the case.

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  • of lineal length, and his proportion of the total weight was 5.7 cwt.

    0
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  • Less than 20 years later the lineal length allowed each had increased to nearly 1.4 ft., and the weight to nearly 14 cwt.

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  • of the length and requires over 31 tons of dead weight to be hauled.

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  • In all countries passenger trains must vary in weight according to the different services they have to perform; suburban Weight trains, for example, meant to hold as many pas ah d sengers as possible, and travelling at low speeds, do not weigh so much as long-distance expresses, which include dining and sleeping cars, and on which, from considerations of comfort, more space must be allowed each occupant.

    0
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  • The speed at which the journey has to be completed is obviously another important factor, though the increased power of modern locomotives permits trains to be heavier and at the same time to run as fast, and often faster, than was formerly possible, and in consequence the general tendency is towards increased weight as well as increased speed.

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  • An ordinary British 10-ton wagon often weighs about 6 tons empty, and rarely much less than 5 tons; that is, the ratio of its possible paying load to its tare weight is at the best about 2 to 1.

    0
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  • But an American car with a capacity of 10o,000 lb may weigh only 40,000 lb, and thus the ratio of its capacity to its tare weight is only about 5 to 2.

    0
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  • Hence less dead weight has to behauled for each ton of paying load.

    0
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  • in numerous wagons, each of which goes right through to its destination, with the consequence that, so far as general merchandise is concerned, the weight carried in each is a quarter - or less of its capacity.

    0
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  • The weight and speed of goods trains vary enormously according to local conditions, but the following figures, which refer to traffic on the London & North-Western railway between London and Rugby, may be taken as representative of good English practice.

    0
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  • Such trains, therefore, range in weight from 600 to 1800 tons or even more, and the journey speeds from terminus to terminus, including stops, vary from 15 to 30 m.

    0
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  • In British practice the chains consist of three links, and are of such a length that when fully extended there is a space of a few inches between opposing buffers; this slack facilitates the starting of a heavy train, since the engine is able to start the wagons one by one and the weight of the train is not thrown on it all at once.

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  • Electricity is applied through a separate locomotive attached to the head of the train, or through motor carriages attached either at one end or at both ends of the train, or by putting a motor on every axle and so utilizing the whole weight of the train for traction, all the motors being under a single control at the head of the train, or at any point of the train for emergency.

    0
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  • Since high average speed on a line with frequent stops depends largely on rapidity of acceleration, the tendency in modern equipment is to secure as great an output of power as possible during the accelerating period, with corresponding increase in weight available for adhesion.

    0
    0
  • With a steam locomotive all the power is concentrated in one machine, and therefore the weight on the drivers available for adhesion is limited.

    0
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  • With electricity, power can be applied to as many axles in the train as desired, and so the whole weight of the train, with its load, may be utilized if necessary.

    0
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  • ( 34d.) respectively, when the trains are run at grande vitesse, the fares including 30 kilogrammes weight of personal baggage.

    0
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  • The chief difference between the first three types lies in the weight of rails and rolling stock and in the radius of the curves.

    0
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  • 0.5 in.); weight of rails, 12 (26.45 lb) to 20 (44 lb) kilos; mean load per axle, 6 tons; minimum curve, 70 m.

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  • 4.85 in.); locomotives, maximum weight per axle 6 tons, rigid wheel base 1 .

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  • Yet, if there is not a mass of scientific evidence, there are a number of witnesses - among them distinguished men of science and others of undoubted intelligence --who have convinced themselves by observation that phenomena occur which cannot be explained by known causes; and this fact must carry weight, even without careful records, when the witnesses are otherwise known to be competent and trustworthy observers.

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  • It was a further and perhaps much later development of the same idea that the good works of those who had previously enjoyed the favour of God were invoked to give additional weight to the prayer of the offerer.

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  • This soil is spongy, and, undergoing alternate contraction and expansion from being alternately comparatively dry and saturated with moisture, allows the heavy blocks to slip down by their own weight into the valley, where they become piled up, the valley stream afterwards removing the soil from among and over them.

    0
    0
  • It has been found to lose about 8% of its weight by drying.

    0
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  • " quicksand," loose water-logged sand, readily yielding to weight or pressure, and "quicksilver," the common name of the metal mercury.

    0
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  • The others were all said to have "confessed in a manner" on the scaffold, but much weight cannot be placed on these general confessions, which were, according to the custom of the time, a declaration of submission to the king's will and of general repentance rather than acknowledgment of the special crime.

    0
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  • A shilling is token money merely, it is nominally in value the one-twentieth of a pound, but one troy pound of silver is coined into sixty-six shillings, the standard weight of each shilling being 87.27 grains.

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    0
  • AS, the Roman unit of weight and measure, divided into 12 unciae (whence both "ounce" and "inch"); its fractions being deunx i 2, dextans, dodrans 4 i bes 3, septunx T7-2-, semis z, quincunx A, triens 3 i quadrans 4, sextans s, sescuncia $, uncia r i g.

    0
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  • The unit or as of weight was the Libra (pound: =about I15 oz.

    0
    0
  • In the Second Punic War it was again reduced to half this weight, viz.

    0
    0
  • And lastly, by the Papirian law (89 B.C.) it was further reduced to the diminutive weight of half an ounce.

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    0
  • It is one of the largest species of the Cyprinid family, attaining to a length of 3 to 5 ft., and sometimes exceeding a weight of 701h.

    0
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  • Greater weight must be laid upon the independent evidence of the prophetical writings, and the objection that Palestine could not have produced the religious fervency of Haggai or Zechariah without an initial impulse from Babylonia begs the question.

    0
    0
  • Tench if kept in suitable waters are extremely prolific, and as they grow within a few years to a weight of 3 or 4 lb, and are then fit for the table, they may be profitably introduced into ponds which are already stocked with other fishes, such as carp and pike.

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  • He is allowed, however, " on account of its weight," to substitute for the pretiosa the auriphrygiata during part of the services, i.e.

    0
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  • To him belongs the merit of carrying out some of the earliest determinations of the quantities by weight in which acids saturate bases and bases acids, and of arriving at the conception that those amounts of different bases which can saturate the same quantity of a particular acid are equivalent to each other.

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  • The Cyprinidae, or carp, are largely represented in southern Asia, and there grow to a size unknown in Europe; a Barbus in the Tigris has been taken of the weight of 300 Th.

    0
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  • He guided it through the controversies as to Robertson Smith's heresies, as to the use of hymns and instrumental music, and as to the Declaratory Act, brought to a successful issue the union of the Free and United Presbyterian Churches, and threw the weight of the united church on the side of freedom of Biblical criticism.

    0
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  • Hitherto weight has been laid on the practical side of Mirabeau's political genius; his ideas with regard to the Revolution after the 5th and 6th of October must now be examined, and this can be done at length, thanks to the publication of Mirabeau's correspondence with the Comte de la Marck, a study of which is indispensable for any correct knowledge of the history of the Revolution between 1789 and 1791.

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  • The general average yields of the corn crops are not fairly comparable one with the other, because they are given by measure and not by weight, whereas the weight per bushel varies considerably.

    0
    0
  • The home-grown is the estimated dead weight of sheep and lambs slaughtered, which is taken at 40% of the total number of sheep and lambs returned each year in the United Kingdom.

    0
    0
  • imported column is given the weight of fresh (frozen) mutton and lamb imported, plus the estimated dead weight of the sheep imported on the hoof for slaughter.

    0
    0
  • Sale of Cattle by Live Weight.

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  • old-fashioned system of guessing at the weight of an animal by the sounder method of obtaining the exact weight by means of the weighbridge.

    0
    0
  • The grazier buys and sells cattle much less frequently than the butcher buys them, so that the latter is naturally more skilled in estimating the weight of a beast through the use of the eye and the hand.

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  • In the feeding experiments which have been carried on at Rothamsted it has been shown that the amount consumed both for a given live weight of animal within a given time, and for the production of a given amount of increase, is, as current food-stuffs go, measurable more by the amounts they contain of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents than by the amounts of the digestible and available nitrogenous constituents they supply.

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  • The non-nitrogenous substance (the fat) in the increase in live weight of an animal is, at any rate in great part, if not entirely, derived from the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food.

    0
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  • Hence it is that the amount of food consumed to produce a given amount of increase in live weight, as well as that required for the sustentation of a given live weight for a given time, should - provided the food be not abnormally deficient in nitrogenous substance - be characteristically dependent on its supplies of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents.

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  • As, however, the manure of the animals of the farm is valuable largely in proportion to the nitrogen it contains, there is, so far, an advantage in giving a food somewhat rich in nitrogen, provided it is in other respects a good one, and, weight for weight, not much more costly.

    0
    0
  • It has been proved at the Christmas fat stock shows that the older a bullock gets the less will he gain in weight per day as a result of the feeding.

    0
    0
  • In the cattle classes, aged beasts of huge size and of considerably over a ton in weight used to be common, but in recent years the tendency has been to reduce the upper limit of age, and thus to bring out animals ripe for the butcher in a shorter time than was formerly the case.

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    0
  • In the 1895 show, out of 356 entries of cattle, there were seven beasts of more than a ton in weight.

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  • They were all three to four years old, and comprised four Shorthorns (top weight 21 cwt.

    0
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  • 7 lb), and two cross-breds (top weight 20 cwt.

    0
    0
  • In the 1899 show, with 311 entries of cattle, and the age limited to three years, no beast reached the weight of a ton, the heaviest animal being a crossbred(Aberdeen-Angus and Shorthorn)which,at three years old, turned the scale at 19 cwt.

    0
    0
  • Out of 301 entries in 1905 the top weight was 19 cwt.

    0
    0
  • Useful figures for purposes of comparison are obtained by dividing the weight of a fat beast by the number of days in its age, the weight at birth being thrown in.

    0
    0
  • The average daily gain in live weight is thus arrived at, and as the animal increases in age this average gradually diminishes, until the daily gain reaches a stage at which it does not afford any profitable return upon the food consumed.

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  • At the centenary show of the Smithfield Club in 1898 the highest average daily gains in weight amongst prize-winning cattle were provided by a Shorthorn-Aberdeen cross-bred steer (age, one year seven months; daily gain 2.4 7 lb); a Shorthorn steer (age, one year seven months; daily gain, 2.44 lb); and an Aberdeen-Shorthorn cross-bred steer (age, one year ten months; daily gain, 2� 33 lb).

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  • Amongst prize steers of two and a half to three years old, on the same occasion, the three highest daily average gains in live weight were 2.07 lb for an Aberdeen-Angus, 1.99 lb for a Shorthorn-Aberdeen cross-bred and 1.97 lb for a Sussex.

    0
    0
  • Tables are constructed showing the fasted live weight, the carcase weight, and the weight of the various parts that are separated from and not included with the carcase.

    0
    0
  • A familiar practical method of estimating carcase weight from live weight is to reckon one Smithfield stone (8 lb) of carcase for each imperial stone (14 lb) of live weight.

    0
    0
  • How shall we determine the relative weight and importance of different kinds of relevant evidence?

    0
    0
  • burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side.

    0
    0
  • These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods.

    0
    0
  • His convictions gained weight from the simplicity, uprightness and diligence of his character; but they need a more effective justification than he was able to give them.

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    0
  • Its most striking feature and the one from which it derives its name barytes, barite (from the Greek Oapis, heavy) or heavy spar, is its weight.

    0
    0
  • The mass is then covered with two-thirds of its weight of alcohol, and saturated with hydrochloric acid gas.

    0
    0
  • At the apex of the pyramid came the doge and his council, the point of highest honour and least weight in the constitution.

    0
    0
  • In the trap-door species of Lycosidae, like, for instance, Lycosa opifex of the Russian steppes, the hinge is weak and the lid of the burrow is kept normally shut by being very much thicker and heavier at its free margin opposite the hinge so that it readily falls by its own weight.

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    0
  • Meanwhile the English naturalist, John Ray, was studying the classification of animals; he published, in 1705, his Methodus insectorum, in which the nature of the metamorphosis received due weight.

    0
    0
  • When this has been accomplished the weight of the crop is reduced to about one-third, each 100 lb of seed cotton as picked yielding after ginning some 33 lb of lint and 66 lb of cotton seed.

    0
    0
  • Bales from different countries vary greatly in size, weight and appearance.

    0
    0
  • Cotton seed hulls constitute about half the weight of the ginned seed.

    0
    0
  • It is soluble in 4ths of its weight of cold, and in half its weight of boiling water, and dissolves in alcohol, but not in ether.

    0
    0
  • Oldenbarneveldt, supported by the states of Holland, came forward as the champion of provincial sovereignty against that of the states-general; Maurice threw the weight of his sword on the side of the union.

    0
    0
  • The indigo plant is grown in large quantities in the plain country to the north of Mukden, and is transported thence to the coast in carts, each of which carries rather more than a ton weight of the dye.

    0
    0
  • Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.

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  • That it results from the weight of the overlying strata.

    0
    0
  • The headache-post is a vertical wooden beam placed on the main sill directly below the walking-beam, to receive the weight of the latter in case of breakage of connexions.

    0
    0
  • The sucker carries a series of three or four leather cups, which are pressed against the inner surface of the working barrel by the weight of the column of oil.

    0
    0
  • To explode the charge an iron weight, known as a go-devil, was dropped into the well, and striking the disk exploded the cap and fired the torpedo.

    0
    0
  • The squib is lowered after the torpedo, and, when exploded by the descent of the weight, fires the charge.

    0
    0
  • But Adhemar had died in August 1098 (whence, in large part, the confusion and bickerings which followed in the end of 1098 and the beginning of 1099) nor were there any churchmen left of sufficient dignity or weight to secure the triumph of the ecclesiastical cause.

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  • It refused to throw its weight into the scale, and to strengthen the hands of the king against an over-mighty nobility.

    0
    0
  • Continually recruited from the West, they retained the vigour which the native Franks of Palestine gradually lost; and their corporate strength gave a weight to their arms which made them indispensable.

    0
    0
  • against itself, and deprived of allies, the arm of Bibars soon fell with crushing weight.

    0
    0
  • Poggio's History of Florence, written in avowed imitation of Livy's manner, requires separate mention, since it exemplifies by its defects the weakness of that merely stylistic treatment which deprived so much of Bruni's, Carlo Aretino's and Bembo's work of historical weight.

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    0
  • He was said to be the inventor of a kind of flying-machine, a wooden pigeon balanced by a weight suspended from a pulley, and set in motion by compressed air escaping from a valve.'

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    0
  • This tendency is resisted by the weight of a mass of metal, which can be caused to slide along a tray attached to the movable coils.

    0
    0
  • When a current is passed through the instrument it causes one end of the movable system to tilt downwards, and the other end upwards; the sliding weight is then moved along the tray by means of a silk cord until equilibrium is again established.

    0
    0
  • obtained approximately by observing the position of the weight on the scale, or it may be obtained more accurately in the follow FIG.

    0
    0
  • 8) is graduated into equal divisions, and the weight is provided with a sharp tongue of metal in order that its position on the shelf may be accurately determined.

    0
    0
  • Since the current passing through the balance when equilibrium is obtained with a given weight is proportional to the square root of the couple due to this weight, it follows that the current strength when equilibrium is obtained is proportional to the product of the square root of the weight used and the square root of the displacement distance of this weight from its zero position.

    0
    0
  • Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of weights and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.

    0
    0
  • Kelvin ampere balances are made in two types - (i) a variable weight type suitable for obtaining the ampere value of any current within their range; and (2) a fixed weight type intended to indicate when a current which can be varied at pleasure has a certain fixed value.

    0
    0
  • A fixed weight is placed on one coil and the current is varied gradually until the balance is just in equilibrium.

    0
    0
  • In these circumstances the current is known to have a fixed value in amperes determined by the weight attached to the instrument.

    0
    0
  • In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.

    0
    0
  • If it fails to form a hard cake on cooling, a known weight of wax may be added and the product re-heated.

    0
    0
  • The water in a soap is rarely directly determined; when it is, the soap, in the form of shavings, is heated to 105° C. until the weight is constant, the loss giving the amount of ' " Soap powders " and " soap extracts " are powdered mixtures of soaps, soda ash or ordinary sodium carbonate.

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  • The middle toe was the largest, and the weight of the body was mainly supported on this and the two adjoining digits, which appear to have been encased in hoofs, thus foreshadowing the tridactyle type common in perissodactyle and certain extinct groups of ungulates.

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  • In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.

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  • But even in such questions he allowed some weight to political considerations and the wishes of his sovereign.

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  • Peppe calculates its weight, lid included, at 1537 Ib.

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  • RUTHENIUM [[[symbol]] Ru, atomic weight To' 7 (O = 0)1, in chemistry, a metallic element, found associated with platinum, in platinum ore and in osmiridium.

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  • The atomic weight of ruthenium was determined by A.

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  • His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.

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  • Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes it has not; sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire combined with the earthy element; sometimes it passes through the pores of vessels, sometimes these are impervious to it; it explains both causticity and non-causticity, transparency and opacity, colours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus changing in form at each instant."

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  • He established as fundamental that combustion and calcination were attended by an increase of weight, and concluded, as did Jean Rey and John Mayow in the 17th century, that the increase was due to the combination of the metal with the air.

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  • He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.

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  • He also showed that on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary air; moreover, the weight of the " air " set free from a given weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern carbon dioxide, was formed.

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  • the amount of an element which can combine with or replace unit weight of hydrogen, came into favour, being adopted by L.

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  • Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.

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  • the weight contained in a molecule of hydrochloric acid, thus differing from Avogadro who chose the weight of a hydrogen molecule.

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  • From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the temperature.

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  • And from the study of compounds he showed that each element occurred in a definite weight or in some multiple of this weight.

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  • This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.

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  • From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent weights.

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  • Silver chloride, for example, in whatever manner it may be prepared, invariably consists of chlorine and silver in the proportions by weight of 35'45 parts of the former and 107.93 of the latter.

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  • Thus, i part by weight of hydrogen unites with 8 parts by weight of oxygen, forming water, and with 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide.

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  • Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.

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  • The distribution of weight in chemical change is readily expressed in the form of equations by the aid of these symbols; the equation 2HC1+Zn =ZnCl2+H2, for example, is to be read as meaning that from 73 parts of hydrochloric acid and 65 parts of zinc, 136 parts of zinc chloride and 2 parts of hydrogen are produced.

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  • Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.

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  • One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.

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  • of these three substances yielded the same weight of carbon dioxide on combustion.

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  • This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.

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  • He realized that the composition by weight of chemical compounds was of the greatest moment if chemistry were to advance.

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  • a filter paper which has been previously heated to the temperature at which the substance is to be dried until its weight is constant.

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  • In the case of a tared filter it is weighed repeatedly until the weight suffers no change; then knowing the weight of the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is obtained by subtraction.

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  • Knowing the weight of the crucible and of the ash of the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is determined.

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  • In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.

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  • (2) The preparation of the solution of the substance consists in dissolving an accurately determined weight, and making up the volume in a graduated cylinder or flask to a known volume.

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  • A known weight of the test substance is dissolved and a portion of the solution is placed in a tube similar to those containing the standard solutions.

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  • The increase in weight of the calcium chloride tube gives the weight of water formed, and of the potash bulbs the carbon dioxide.

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  • The increase in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube gives the weight of carbon dioxide evolved.

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  • The first set provides evidence as to the molecular weight of a substance: these are termed " colligative properties."

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  • Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.

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  • In practice it is generally more convenient to determine the density, the molecular volume being then obtained by dividing the molecular weight of the substance by the density.

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  • In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.

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  • Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing between specific heats and the atomic weight.

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  • This states that " the atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific heat) of all elements is a constant quantity."

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  • This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.

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  • We now proceed to discuss molecular heats of compounds, that is, the product of the molecular weight into the specific heat.

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  • - Denoting the atomic weight by W and the specific heat by s, Dulong and Petit's law states that 6.4 = Ws.

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  • In the determination of the atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: (I) its equivalent weight, i.e.

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  • The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready determination, but the settlement of the second factor is somewhat more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats is of service.

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  • C. Winkler decided the atomic weight of germanium by similar reasoning.

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  • Mag., 18 93 [5), 35, p. 45 8) has shown that, while an increase in molecular weight is generally associated with a rise in the boiling-point, yet the symmetry of the resulting molecule may exert such a lowering effect that the final result is a diminution in the boiling-point.

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  • The series H 2 S = - 61°, CH 3 SH = 21 °, (C 11 3) 2 S=41 ° is an example; in the first case, the molecular weight is increased and the symmetry diminished, the increase of boiling-point being 82°; in the second case the molecular weight is again increased but the molecule assumes a more symmetrical configuration, hence the comparatively slight increase of 20°.

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  • He introduced the idea of comparing the refractivity of equimolecular quantities of different substances by multiplying the function (n-1)/d by the molecular weight (M) of the substance, and investigated the relations of chemical grouping to refractivity.

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  • We may here notice an empirical rule formulated by Nietzski in 1879: - the simplest colouring substances are in the greenish-yellow and yellow, and with increasing molecular weight the colour passes into orange, red, violet, blue and green.

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  • It may be generally inferred that an increase in molecular weight is accompanied by a change in colour in the direction of the violet.

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  • Mendeleeff endeavoured to obtain a connexion between surface energy and constitution; more successful were the investigations of Schiff, who found that the " molecular surface tension," which he defined as the surface tension divided by the weight.

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  • molecular weight, is constant for isomers, and that two atoms of hydrogen were equal to one of carbon, three to one of oxygen, and seven to one of chlorine; but these ratios were by no means constant, and afforded practically no criteria as to the molecular weight of any substance.

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  • Obviously equimolecular surfaces are given by (Mv) 3, where M is the molecular weight of the substance, for equimolecular volumes are Mv, and corresponding surfaces the two-thirds power of this.

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  • Now the value of K, -y being measured in dynes and M being the molecular weight of the substance as a gas, is in general 2.121; this value is never exceeded, but in many cases it is less.

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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.

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  • If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.

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  • The influence of Schleiermacher, whose pupil Leonhard Usteri in his Entwickelung der paulinischen Lehrbegriffs (1824) expressed strong doubts as to Ephesians, carried weight.

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  • Internal evidence again comes to our aid to lend its weight to the latter theory.

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  • Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been Philip's.

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  • 12), a proportion inconsistent with any degree of mobility; once more indeed the phalanx of the 2nd century seems to have become a body effective by sheer weight only and disordered by unevenness of ground.

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  • The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.

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  • The weight of the rabbit is from 22 to 3 lb, although wild individuals have been recorded up to more than 5 lb.

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  • For not only has the weight been more than quadrupled in some of the larger breeds, and the structure of the skull and other parts of the skeleton greatly altered, but the proportionate size of the brain has been reduced and the colour and texture of the fur altered in a remarkable manner.

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  • account of their cost, bulk and weight, but their great use in teaching geography is undeniable.

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  • Owing to the great weight of stones, their cost and their liability of being fractured in the press, zinc plates, and more recently aluminium plates, have largely taken the place of stone.

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  • He made his appeal to the conscience in the clearest language, with the most cogent argument, and with all the weight of personal conviction.

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  • The Taeniotica, named apparently from the place of its manufacture, a tongue of land (racvial near Alexandria, was sold by weight, and was of uncertain width, perhaps from 4s to 5 in.

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  • A flat sheet of lead or some other suitable weight should be laid upon the top of the pile of specimens, so as to keep up a continuous pressure.

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  • For attaching it to the paper a strong mucilage of gum tragacanth, containing an eighth of its weight of spirit of wine, answers best.

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  • The hammer-head attains a weight at times of 600 lb.

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  • Plantations have increased greatly in size (and also diminished in number), greater capital is involved, bagasse furnaces have been introduced, double grinding mills have increased by more than a half the yield of juice from a given weight of cane, and extractive operations instead of being carried on on all plantations have been (since 1880) concentrated in comparatively few " centrals " (168 in Feb.

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  • In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.

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  • NITROGEN [[[symbol]] N., atomic weight 14.

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  • Nitrogen forms approximately 79% by volume (or 77% by weight) of the atmosphere; actual values are:% by volume-79.07 (Regnault), 79.20 (Dumas);% by weight76.87 (Regnault), 77.00 (Dumas), 77.002 (Lewy), 76.900 (Stas), 77.010 (Marignac).

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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nitrogen have been made by different observers, the values obtained varying somewhat according to the methods used.

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  • Guye has given a critical discussion of the relative accuracy of the gravimetric and physico-chemical methods, and favours the latter, giving for the atomic weight a value less than 14.01.

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  • This vicious system, grafted as it was upon an inefficient administration, and added to the weight of a continually depreciated currenc y, debased both by ill-advised fiscal measures and by public cupidity, formed one of the principal causes of the financial embarrassments which assailed the treasury with ever increasing force in the latter part of the 16th and during the 17th and 18th centuries.

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  • The gold coins issued were 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 piastres in value, the weight of the loo-piastre piece (Turkish pound), 7 .

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  • weight on the Turkish budget, the country through which it passeswith the exception of the sections passing from Adana to Osmanieh, through the Killis-Aleppo-Euphrates district (that is, the first point at which the line crosses the Euphrates some 600 m.

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  • 2d.) was equivalent to 100 piastres; the gold pieces struck were £T5, £T1, £T2 and £ T 4; the standard is 0.916* fine, and the weight 7.216 grammes.

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  • The silver coinage consisted of the mejidie (weight 24.055 grammes, 0.830 fine), equivalent to 20 piastres, and its subdivisions 10, 5, 2, I, and 2 piastre pieces.

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  • Specimens may be sent to Europe for expert examination up to an aggregate weight of 2000 tons, on paying the requisite duties.

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  • had shown - of being thrown with decisive weight into the balance of European rivalries.

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  • The tide of success now turned again in favour of the Turks, who recaptured Karansebes and Lippa, and at Lugos exterminated by the weight of overwhelming numbers an Austrian force under Field-marshal Count Friedrich von Veterani (1630-1695), the hero of many victories over the Turks, who was killed in the battle.

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  • The authority of the cardinals, who were the only persons judicially invested with the right of electing the pope, emerged from the crisis through which the church had just passed in far too feeble and contested a condition to carry by its own weight the general assent.

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  • In cavalry they were weak, for the Russian does not take kindly to equitation and the horses were not equal to the accepted European standard of weight, while the Cossack was only formidable to stragglers and wounded.

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  • The allies, however, continued to retreat, but unfortunately Vandamme, with his single corps and unsupported, issued out of the mountains on their flank, threw himself across their line of retreat near Kulm, and was completely overwhelmed by sheer weight of numbers (29th).

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  • ERBIUM (symbol, Er; atomic weight, 165-166), one of the metals of the rare earths.

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  • On the whole, greater weight is due to the evidence from botanical sources than to that derived from philology, particularly since the discovery both of the wild almond and of a form like a wild peach in Afghanistan.

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  • draught and 5000 tons weight), which was built in Glasgow and was sent out to Callao in 1863.

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  • It appeared that the quantity of oil contained in the liver of a cod (per unit of weight) increases with the age of the fish.

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  • 18.14%, S=0.96%, O = 22.66%, which points to the formula C720H1134N218S50241, corresponding to the molecular weight 16,954.

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  • A high molecular weight characterizes these substances, but so far no definite value has been determined by either physical or chemical means; A.

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  • I, 3), and would naturally increase the weight of the ark, which, according to 2 Sam.

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  • The prophets themselves lay no weight upon the ark as the central point of Jerusalem's holiness.

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  • The dried fruit used for dessert in European countries contains more than half its weight of sugar, about 6% of albumen, and 12% of gummy matter.

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  • Now this ratio is the same as that which gives the relative chemical equivalents of hydrogen and copper, for r gramme of hydrogen and 31.8 grammes of copper unite chemically with the same weight of any acid radicle such as chlorine or the sulphuric group, SO 4.

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  • We may sum up the chief results of Faraday's work in the statements known as Faraday's laws: The mass of substance liberated from an electrolyte by the passage of a current is proportional (I) to the total quantity of electricity which passes through the electrolyte, and (2) to the chemical equivalent weight of the substance liberated.

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  • Taking the chemical equivalent weight of silver, as determined by chemical experiments, to be 107.92, the result described gives as the electrochemical equivalent of an ion of unit chemical equivalent the value 1 036 X 5.

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  • If, as is now usual, we take the equivalent weight of oxygen as our standard and call it 16, the equivalent weight of hydrogen is I o08, and its electrochemical equivalent is I 044 X 5.

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  • These seeds have been examined at the Imperial Institute, and the kernels have been found to contain nearly half their weight (48%) of an oil resembling linseed oil and applicable for the same purposes.

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  • If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.

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  • Most of the rubber now manufactured is not combined with sulphur when in the form of sheets, but is mechanically incorporated with about one-tenth of its weight of that substance by means of the mixing rollers - any required pigment or other matter, such as whiting or barium sulphate, being added.

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  • While determining its atomic weight, he thought it desirable, for the sake of accuracy, to weigh it in a vacuum, and even in these circumstances he found that the balance behaved in an anomalous manner, the metal appearing to be heavier when cold than when hot.

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  • The resultant being a product of mn root differences, is of degree mn in the roots, and hence is of weight mn in the coefficients of the forms; i.e.

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  • It is the resultant of k polynomials each of degree m-I, and thus contains the coefficients of each form to the degree (m-I)'-1; hence the total degrees in the coefficients of the k forms is, by addition, k (m - 1) k - 1; it may further be shown that the weight of each term of the resultant is constant and equal to m(m-I) - (Salmon, l.c. p. loo).

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  • The function Zap 1 a 2 P2 ...an n being as above denoted by a partition of the weight, viz.

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  • It is convenient to write the distinct partitions or separates in descending order as regards weight.

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  • be enclosed in a bracket we obtain a partition of the weight w which appertains to the separated partition.

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  • The weight of the function is the sum of the numbers in the bracket, and the degree the highest of those numbers.

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  • The sum of the monomial functions of a given weight is called the homogeneous-product-sum or complete symmetric function of that weight; it is denoted by h.; it is connected with the elementary functions by the formula 1 7r1l7r2!7r3!

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  • The weight of the function is bipartite and consists of the two numbers Ep and Eq; the symbolic expression of the symmetric function is a partition into biparts (multiparts) of the bipartite (multipartite) number Ep, Eq.

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  • and the weight' of the coefficient of the leading term xi +Q+T+.�� is equal to i+j+k+....

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  • the orders of the quantic and covariant, and the degree and weight of the leading coefficient; calling these 'n, e,' 0, w respectively we can see that they are not independent integers, but that they are invariably connected by a certain relation n9 -2w = e.

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  • 2 (ac)(bc)anx xibn-i -1 x = (bc)2anbn-2Cn-2 + (ac)2an x x x The weight of a term ao°a l l ...an n is defined as being k,+2k2+...

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  • Then if j, J be the original and transformed forms of an invariant J= (a1)wj, w being the weight of the invariant.

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  • Let a covariant of degree e in the variables, and of degree 8 in the coefficients (the weight of the leading coefficient being w and n8-2w = �), be Coxl -}- ec l l 1 x 2 -{-...

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  • Observe that, if we subject any symmetric function the diminishing process, it becomes ao 1 - P2 (p2p3...)� Next consider the solutions of 0=o o which are of degree 0 and weight w.

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  • In order to obtain the seminvari ants we would write down the (w; 0, n) terms each associated with a literal coefficient; if we now operate with 52 we obtain a linear function of (w - I; 8, n) products, for the vanishing of which the literal coefficients must satisfy (w-I; 0, n) linear equations; hence (w; 8, n)-(w-I; 0, n) of these coefficients may be assumed arbitrarily, and the number of linearly independent solutions of 52=o, of the given degree and weight, is precisely (w; 8, n) - (w - I; 0, n).

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  • Putting n equal to co, in a generating function obtained above, we find that the function, which enumerates the asyzvgetic seminvariants of degree 0, is 1 1-z2.1-z3.1-z4....1-z0 that is to say, of the weight w, we have one form corresponding to each non-unitary partition of w into the parts 2, 3, 4,...0.

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  • Ex, gr., of degree 3 weight 8, we have the two forms (322), a(24).

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  • symbolically, to be the fundamental form of seminvariant of degree 0 and weight w; he observes that every form of this degree and weight is a linear lic expressions.

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  • a irl a� 2 a a3 ...Ev 1 02 2 ?3 3 ...; and, if we express Ea l v2 2 0-3 3 in terms of A2, A3 i ..., and arrange the whole as a linear function of products of A2, A3,..., each coefficient will be a seminvariant, and the aggregate of the coefficients will give us the complete asyzygetic system of the given degree and weight.

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  • Therefore every form of degree 2, except of course that one whose weight is zero, is a perpetuant.

    0
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  • -1-Q 4)) =0; and we can determine the lowest weight of a perpetuant; the degree in the quantities a is 20+(2)+(1)+...+() =2 2 ° -1 -1 =2e-1-1.

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  • Again, if 0 is uneven =20+I, the condition is a 1 a 2 ...cr 241 II(a 1 +a 2)II(cr 1 +a 2 +(73)...II(a 1 +a 2 +...+ac) =0; and the degree, in the quantities a, is 20+1 + (42+1) +(21) �...-F(254)�1) =22°-1= 2e-1-1 Hence the lowest weight of a perpetuant is 2 0 - 1 -1, when 0 is >2.

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  • The General Term Of A Seminvariant Of Degree 0, 0 And Weight W Will Be A A A Appb°Ob°1B°2...B°4 _ 0 1 2 P 0 1 2 Q P Q P Q Where Ep S =0, Eas=0 And Esp, A Es,=W.

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  • In General It Is A Seminvariant Of Degrees 0, 0', And Weight 0 0' S; To This There Is An Exception, Viz., When 0=O, Or When 0'=O, The Corresponding Partial Degrees Are 1 And 1.

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  • For The Case In Hand, From The Simplest Perpetuant Of Degrees I, 2, We Derive The Perpetuants Of Weight W, Ao(21W 2)B A1(21"R 3) I A2(21" 4)B ..� Man 2(2)B, Ao(221W 4(B Al(221W 5)B A2 (221 " S)B ...

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  • Their Number For Any Weight W Is The Number Of Ways Of Composing W 3 With The Parts I, 2, And Thus The Generating Function Is Verified.

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  • We Cannot, By This Method, Easily Discuss The Perpetuants Of Degrees 2, 2, Because A Syzygy Presents Itself As Early As Weight 2.

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  • the condition is a1Ti=A1B1=0, which since A i =o, is really a condition of weight unity.

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  • To represent the simplest perpetuant, of weight 7, we may take as base either A2B 1 B 2 or A l A 2 B2, and since Ai+Bi =o the former is equivalent to A 2 ArB 2 and the latter to A 2 B i B2; so that we have, (1 -f-aix) (1 + a2x).

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  • By the rules adopted we take A?B 2 B 3, which gives (12)a(32)b - (1)a(321)b+ao(3212)b, the simplest perpetuant of weight 7; and thence the general form enumerated by the generating function 1 -z.1-z2.1 - z3 ?

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  • By the rules we select the product A2B 3 B 2 Bi, giving the simplest perpetuant of weight 15, viz: (24) a (3212) b - (241)a(321)b+(2412)a(32)b; and thence the general form (2A2+4)a(3�3+12�2+11�1+ 2)b -...

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  • which carries no more intrinsic weight than the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature only (8-ii); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter agricultural adversity (17-19).

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  • plumbum), and atomic weight 207.10 (o=16).

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  • In practice this oxidation process is continued until the whole of the oxygen is as nearly as possible equal in weight to the sulphur present as sulphide or as sulphate, i.e.

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  • of the furnace must be so% greater than that of the kettle into which the softened lead is tapped, as the dross and skimmings formed amount to about so% of the weight of the lead charged.

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  • Another oxychloride, PbC1 2.7PbO, known as "Cassel yellow," was prepared by Vauquelin by fusing pure oxide, PbO, with one-tenth of its weight of sal ammoniac. "Turner's yellow" or "patent yellow" is another artificially prepared oxychloride, used as a pigment.

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  • The atomic weight, determined by G.

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  • He failed, because Charles could not even then consent to abandon the bishops, and because no Scottish party of any weight could be formed unless Presbyterianism were established ecclesiastically.

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  • Thus it is found that the action of the heart is accelerated by pleasant, and retarded by unpleasant, stimuli; again, changes of weight and volume are found to accompany modifications of affection - and so on.

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  • If P is the weight of the magnet, l the length of each of the two threads, 2a the distance between their upper points of attachment, and 2b that between the lower points, then, approximately, MH = P(ab/l) sin 0.

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  • Below is given a selection from Bidwell's tables, showing corresponding values of magnetizing force, weight supported, magnetization, induction, susceptibility and permeability: - A few months later R.

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  • The greatest weight supported in the experiments was 14,600 grammes per square cm., and the corresponding induction 18, Soo units.

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  • W is a weight capable of sliding from end to end of the yoke along a graduated scale.

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  • The weight W is moved along the scale until the yoke just tilts over upon the stop S; the distance of W from its zero position is then, as can easily be shown, proportional to F, and therefore to B 2, and approximately to I 2.

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  • The rod touches this pole at a single point, and is pulled away from it by the action of a lever, the long arm of which is graduated and carries a sliding weight.

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  • The position of the weight at the moment when contact is broken indicates the induction in the rod.

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  • Bidwell 2 accordingly found upon trial that the Wiedemann twist of an iron wire vanished when the magnetizing force reached a certain high value, and was reversed when that value was exceeded; he also found that the vanishing point was reached with lower values of the magnetizing force when the wire was stretched by a weight.

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  • If W is the weight of iron present per c.c. at about io° C., then for ferric salts Io 6 K =266W-0'77 and for ferrous salts 10 6 K =206W - 077, the quantity - 0.77 arising from the diamagnetism of the water of solution.

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  • Annexed are values of Io 6 K for the different salts examined, w being the weight of the salt per c.c. of the solution.

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  • Thus a relation between susceptibility and atomic weight is clearly indicated.

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  • This arrangement has not hitherto been detected in any other class than the Arachnida, and if it should ultimately prove to be peculiar to that group, would have considerable weight as a proof of the close genetic affinity of Limulus and Scorpio.

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  • As regards the Philistines, it is impossible to lay much weight on the statement of Chronicles, unsupported as it is by the older history, and in Joel the Philistines plainly stand in one category with the Phoenicians, as slave dealers, not as armed foes.

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  • to lay weight on the four names of locusts, or to take ch.

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  • and put together without any mortar, but sustained by their own weight, are built all the massive walls and other structures on the east side of the island.

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