The wood is very heavy and hard, weighing 70 lb the cubic foot; the colour is dark brown; it is used in Spain and Italy for furniture, and in the former country for firewood and charcoal.
Between London and Birmingham a paper cable 116 m long and consisting of 72 copper conductors, each weighing 150 lb per statute mile, was laid in 1900.
We shall suppose they did it upon great consideration and weighing of the matter, and it would be very strange and very ill if we should disturb and set aside what has been the course for a long series of times and ages."
After the testing is over, the hard part begins; weighing and recording my compilations and comparing them to past exposure levels.
The cake on weighing gives the free acid.
38 in., weighing 102 lb; while a second, of which the length is 7 ft.
Gutta-percha-covered copper wires were formerly largely used for the purpose of underground lines, the copper conductor weighing 40 lb per statute mile, and the gutta-percha covering 50 lb (90 lb total).
In the towns a deeper rail is used, weighing about 60 lb per yard.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
The whole thing didn't take more than an hour, and she delivered a baby weighing close to seventy-five pounds.
In connexion with the internal live stock trade of Great Britain attention must be directed to the Markets and Fairs (Weighing of Cattle) Act 1891.
As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.
The conductors used for subscribers' circuits are of copper weighing from 10 to 20 lb per mile.
Wire weighing between 150 and 400 lb per mile is generally used.
8 Birmingham), weighing 435 lb per mile and having a resistance of 2.05 ohms per mile.
Writers on biological subjects no longer have to waste space in weighing evolution against this or that philosophical theory or religious tradition; philosophical writers have frankly accepted it, and the supporters of religious tradition have made broad their phylacteries to write on them the new words.
The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
There is no Uruguayan gold coin in circulation, but the theoretical monetary unit is the gold peso national, weighing 1.697 grammes, .917 fine.
The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought into the shape of truncated cones weighing 110 to 130 lb each.
long and weighed 35 lb to the yard, and they were fastened by iron wedges to chairs weighing 15 or 17 lb each.
The fishbellied rails, however, were found to break near the chairs, and from 1834 they began to be replaced with parallel rails weighing 50 lb to the yard.
A train weighing 92 tons could be drawn by one engine at the rate of 5 m.
The standard specification adopted by the Pennsylvania railway in 1908 provided that in rails weighing Ioo lb to the yard 41% of the metal should be in the head, 18-6% in the web, and 40-4% in the base, while for 85 lb rails 42.2% was to be in the head, 17-8% in the web and 40.0% in the base.
For example, suppose it is required to start a train weighing 200 tons from rest and bring it to a speed of 30 m.
long, holding seventy persons in seven compartments and weighing nearly 18 tons, and sixwheeled bogie composite carriages, 54 ft.
long and weighing 23 tons, which included 3 first-class and .4 third-class compartments, with a cupboard for luggage, and held 58 passengers.
an hour; ordinary goods or merchandise trains, weighing 430 tons, travel at from 25 to 30 m.
gauge, and laid with rails weighing from 50 to 70 lb per yard; a flat-footed 60 lb rail, with the axle load limited to 14 tons, has the advantage for such lines that it permits the employment of a proportion of the locomotives used on main lines.
The line is of m metre gauge, with steel rails weighing 212 kilos (42 lb) per yard.
It is circular internally and decagonal externally, in two storeys, built of marble blocks, and surmounted by an enormous monolith, brought from the quarries of Istria and weighing more than 300 tons.
high, has a bell weighing 64 tons.
The semi-centennial of this debate was celebrated in 1908, when the Illini Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, caused a suitably inscribed boulder weighing 23 tons to be set up in Washington Park as a memorial.
For example, suppose it is required to start a train weighing 200 tons from rest and bring it to a speed of 30 m.
It is circular internally and decagonal externally, in two storeys, built of marble blocks, and surmounted by an enormous monolith, brought from the quarries of Istria and weighing more than 300 tons.
In the same year was passed the Markets and Fairs (Weighing of Cattle) Act.
They were all steers of three to four years old, one being a Hereford weighing 20 cwt.
4 lb, and the others Shorthorns weighing respectively 20 cwt.
The duty of collecting and weighing evidence for himself was at every turn impressed upon the boy; he was taught to accept no opinion on authority.
by 3, could be manufactured, weighing only goo grains, its value being b40.
and weighing nearly 3 lb; these are the largest mackerel on record.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals.
(I) Accurate weighing is all-important; for details of the various appliances and methods see Weighing Machines.
Standard solutions are prepared by weighing out the exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting it for any divergence.
(7) Electrolytic. - This method consists in decomposing a solution of a salt of the metal by the electric current and weighing the metal deposited at the cathode.
The silver coins were of 20, 10, 5, 2, I and 2 piastre in value, the 20-piastre piece weighing 24.055 grammes, .830 fine.
in diameter, and weighing up to nearly 5 tons.
As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a provedor, and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account of all discoveries and produce.
Though several large nuggets have been found (the largest weighing 215 oz.), the total production is not great, the highest output obtained by washing being worth about £300,000 in one year.
On the 27th of January 1905, the largest diamond in the world, weighing 30254 carats, over 12 lb avoirdupois, was found in the mine and named the Cullinan.
The veinstuff is broken small either by hand or in rock-breakers, and stamped to fine powder in stamp mills, which are practically large mechanically-worked pestles and mortars, the stamp proper weighing from 500 to moo lb.
If the cooling is very gradual - occupying several weeks - it sometimes happens that the entire contents of a large crucible, weighing perhaps 1000 lb, are found intact as a single mass of glass, but more frequently the mass is found broken up into a number of fragments of various sizes.
The Guanches embalmed their dead; many mummies have been found in an extreme state of desiccation, each weighing not more than 6 or 7 lb.
These latter pass to automatic weighing machines, which drop them, in quantities of 1 cwt., into wooden boxes of uniform measurement, made to contain that weight; and the boxes are then conveyed to the storehouse, ready for sale.
The broad worm, Dibothriocephalus latus, is similarly estimated to discharge 15 to 20 metres of proglottides, weighing 140 grammes.
Jalap has been cultivated for many years in India, chiefly at Ootacamund, and grows there as easily as a yam, often producing clusters of tubers weighing over 9 lb; but these, as they differ in appearance from the commercial article, have not as yet obtained a place in the English market.
The first thing done at his instance was to relieve the starving populace within and without the walls; shops were opened to give work to the unemployed; all taxes, especially those weighing on the lower classes, were reduced; the strictest administration of justice was enforced, and all men were exhorted to place their trust in the Lord.
Weighing Machines >>
In the scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating from the New-kingdom onwards, Anubis attends to the balance while Thoth registers the result.
The value of the work consists not in any power of critical investigation or weighing of historical evidence but in the intense sympathy of the writer with the national ideal, and the vivid imagination with which under the influence of this sympathy he gives life to the events and personages, the wars and political struggles, of times remote from his own.
In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.
In 1919 he exhibited a head of Lincoln cut from a block weighing six tons.
But though his work is thus, like that of many historians, coloured by his opinions, this was not the outcome of a conscious purpose, and he was scrupulously conscientious in collecting and weighing his materials.
(16.6 C.); a reason for this is that the gallon of water is defined by statute as weighing Io lb at 62° F., and hence the densities so expressed admit of the ready conversion of volumes to weights.
The method of weighing equal volumes is particularly applicable to the determination of the relative densities of liquids.
It consists in weighing a glass vessel (I) empty, (2) filled with the liquid, (3) filled with the standard substance.
The method involves three operations: - (1) weighing the solid in air (W), (2) weighing the specific gravity bottle full of liquid (W 1), (3) weighing the bottle containing the solid and filled up with liquid (W2).
The volume of the flask is determined by weighing empty and filled with water.
In 1826 Dumas devised a method suitable for substances of high boiling-point; this consisted in its essential point in vaporizing the substance in a flask made of suitable material, sealing it when full of vapour, and weighing.
Solids may be directly admitted to the tube from a weighing bottle, while liquids are conveniently introduced by means of small stoppered bottles, or, in the case of exceptionally volatile liquids, by means of a bulb blown on a piece of thin capillary tube, the tube being sealed during the weighing operation, and the capillary broken just before transference to the apparatus.
by weighing in mercury; below this mark it was calibrated in the ordinary way so that a scale reading gave the volume at once.
The method of "hydrostatic weighing" is one of the most important.
The weighing is conducted in the usual way by vibrations, except when the weight be small; it is then advisable to bring the pointer to zero, an operation rendered necessary by the damping due to the adhesion of water to the fibre.
It may be assumed that the weighing is made with brass weights in air at 1° and p mm.
Similarly in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the buoyancy of the weights, and also, if absolute densities be required, of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment.
Modern surveying ships no longer make use of hempen lines with enormously heavy sinkers, such as were employed on the " Challenger," but they sound instead with steel piano wire not more than 310 to 215 of an inch in diameter and a detachable lead seldom weighing more than 70 lb.
The determination of salinity was formerly carried out by evaporating a weighed quantity of sea-water to dryness and weighing the residue.
In the laboratory the specific gravity is determined in a pyknometer by actual weighing, and on board ship by the use of an areometer or hydrometer.
before weighing and pure water at 39.2° taken as unity the expression is (o°/4°).
This replaced the propeller of the ship whose engines were to be tested, and the outer casing was held from turning by a suitable arrangement of levers carried to weighing apparatus conveniently disposed on the wharf.
In the Farcot form the guide pulleys are attached to separate weighing levers placed horizontally below the apparatus.
In a belt dynamometer built for the Franklin Institute from the designs of Tatham, the weighing levers are separate and arranged horizontally at the top of the apparatus.
The elaborately carved choir is also enclosed by tumbago railings made in Macao, weighing 26 tons.
In building the fortress of Sacsahuaman, heights had to be scaled; in Tiahuanaco stones weighing 4 00 tons were carried seventeen miles; in the edifices of 011antaytambo not only were large stones hauled up an ascent, but were fitted perfectly.
No standards of weighing or measuring were known, but the parts of the body were the units, and money consisted in rare and durable vegetable and animal substances, which scarcely reached the dignity of a mechanism of exchange.
Here was discovered in January 1905 a diamond - the largest on record - weighing 30254 carats.
This method is unconsciously adopted by the teacher who illustrates the equality of area of two geometrical figures by cutting them out of cardboard of uniform thickness and weighing them.
The ingots are valued by weighing and assaying, and a calculation is made as to the amount of copper required for melting with them to produce the standard alloy.
(8) Weighing each coin.
Among the incidental operations are (a) the valuation of the bullion by weighing and assaying it; (b) " rating" the bullion, or calculating the amount of copper to be added to make up the standard alloy; (c) recovering the values from ground-up crucibles, ashes and floor sweepings (the Mint " sweep "); (d) assaying the melted bars; (e) " pyxing " the finished coin or selecting specimens to be weighed and assayed; (f) " telling " or counting the coin.
The first automatic balance for weighing single coins was introduced at the Bank of England in 1843, and was designed by William Cotton, the deputy governor of the Bank.
They fired a shell weighing 485 lb, with a bursting charge of 17 lb.
The girders weighing 2000 tons carry a double track for trains between the girders and on each side on cantilevers a trolley track, roadway and footway.
The mooring chains, weighing 22 lb per ft., are taken from the upstream end of each pontoon to a downstream screw pile mooring and from the downstream end to an upstream screw pile.
run), and for the heaviest a locomotive and tender weighing 144.5 tons, 52 ft.
- Let a uniform train weighing w per ft.
The opal was mined here Boo years ago, and the largest piece hitherto found, weighing 2940 carats and estimated to have a value of £175,000, is preserved in the Court Museum at Vienna.
Owing to the cost and trouble of weighing a large number of zinc plates, this type of meter fell into disuse.
For the weighing of gold, gems, opium, &c., the fuang, equal to s tical, and the salung, equal to 4 tical, are used.
in length, and often weighing 1600 lb.
Stories were told of its attacking the bison, and it has been reported to carry off the carcase of a wapiti, weighing nearly 1000 lb, for a considerable distance to its den, there to devour it at leisure.
The church of St Francis de Sales (in Walnut Hills), built in 1888, has a bell, cast in Cincinnati, weighing fifteen tons, and said to be the largest swinging bell in the world.
We first determine the time t in seconds required for the velocity of a shot, d inches in diameter and weighing w lb, to fall from any initial velocity V(f/s) to any final velocity v(f/s).
shot weighing ioolb, taking n =0.96, (b) of a rifle bullet, o.
calibre, weighing half an ounce, taking n=o 8.
gun being employed on each side, firing a shot weighing 850 lb with velocity 2150 f/s.
gun to a shot weighing 380 lb fired with velocity 2375 f/s at elevation 40°; the range was about 12 m., with a time for flight of about 64 sec., shown in fig.
The monetary unit is the gold colon weighing 778 gramme, 900 fine, and thus worth about 23d.
of distilled water of the temperature of 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0° C. at sea-level and latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.
Chisholm, Weighing and Measuring (1877) (history of English measures);
An inspector is required to hold a certificate of qualification, and for his guidance general regulations are made by his local authority as to modes of testing weights, measures and weighing instruments.
For instance, in weighing live cattle, owners of markets are now required to provide adequate accommodation.
(Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878.) Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops.
The coins minted under this law are Gold: 10 pesos, .900 fine, weighing 8.3331 grammes.
high and weighing 32 tons, can be fully opened in seven minutes by two men raising each door from the arched double foot-bridge (figs.
The above example illustrates how Nicholson's or Fahrenheit's hydrometer may be employed as a weighing machine for small weights.
Weighing the dangers of delay, of retreat, and of an attack with his single division of 4500 men, supported only by 5000 native levies of doubtful quality, Wellesley convinced himself that an immediate attack, though against greatly superior forces (30,000 horse, io,000 European-drilled infantry and loo well-served guns) in a strong position, was the wisest course.
of Spain; and a green brilliant weighing 40 carats.
Masses of terrestrial bodies are generally compared by weighing; this is found by experiment to give a correct result, but it is applicable only in the neighbourhood of the earth.
and weighing about 12 lb.
The quality of these coins (weighing about 81 grains troy) was low, and at last deteriorated so much that the Tibetans deserted the Nepal mints.
and weighing 60 lb or more are on record.
There are several weak points in this reasoning, and a more accurate way of determining the best proportions is to try different mixtures of cement, stones and sand, filling them into different pails of the same size, and then ascertaining, by weighing the pails, which mixture is the densest.
Provided it be rigid, the bed-plate of an engine is no better for weighing 30 cwt.
than for weighing 10 cwt.
Nowadays, however, quite large trees, chiefly of an ornamental character, and perhaps weighing several tons, are lifted with a large ball of soil attached to the roots, by means of a special tree-lifting machine, and are readily transferred from one part of the garden to another, or even for a distance of several miles, without serious injury.
Such aggregations of hyphae frequently become knotted up into dense masses of interwoven and closely packed hyphae, varying in size from that of a pin's head or a pea (Peziza, Coprinus) to that of a man's fist or head, and weighing io to 25 lb or more (Polyporus Mylittae, P. tumulosus, Lentinus Woermanni, P. Sapurema, &c.).
Thus ornamental iron castings were made in Sussex in the 14th century, and in the 16th cannons weighing three tons each were cast.
But, on the other hand, when only a relatively small quantity of a special kind of steel is needed, very much smaller charges, in some cases weighing even less than half a ton, have been treated with technical success.
The steel is cast in lots, weighing in some cases as much as 75 tons, in enduring cast iron moulds into very large ingots, which with their initial heat are immediately rolled down by a series of powerful roll trains into their final shape with but slight wear and tear of the moulds and the machinery.
The majority of heads, gills or throats, sides or flanks, paws and pieces of skins cut up in the fur workshops of Great Britain, America and France, weighing many tons, are chiefly exported to Leipzig, and made up in neighbouring countries and Greece, where labour can be obtained at an alarmingly low rate.
iroXb, many) was chosen for compounds like butylene, C 4 H 8, and ethylene, C 2 H 4, corresponding to the same composition in weight but differing in molecular formula, and having different densities in gas or vapour, a litre of butylene and isobutylene weighing, for instance, under ordinary temperature and pressure, about 2.5 gr., ethylene only one-half as much, since density is proportional to molecular weight.
In 1869 a stone weighing 83* carats was found near the Orange river; this was purchased by the earl of Dudley for £25,000 and became famous as the " Star of South Africa."
At Mount Werong a stone weighing 29 carats was found in 1905.
A crystal weighing 23* carats was found in Virginia in 1855, and one of 214 carats in Wisconsin in 1886.
The Mogul Baber in his memoirs (1526) relates how in his conquest of India he captured at Agra the great stone weighing 8 mishkals, or 320 ratis, which may be equivalent to about 187 carats.
The Great Table, a rectangular stone seen by Tavernier in 1642 at Golconda, was found by him to weigh 242 1 - 3 6 - carats; Maskelyne regards it as identical with the Darya-i-nur, which is also a rectangular stone weighing about 186 carats in the possession of the shah of Persia.
Other famous Indian diamonds are the following: - The Sancy, weighing 53 carats, which is said to have been successively the property of Charles the Bold, de Sancy, Queen Elizabeth, Henrietta Maria, Cardinal Mazarin, Louis XIV.; to have been stolen with the Pitt during the French Revolution; and subsequently to have been the property of the king of Spain, Prince Demidoff and an Indian prince.
Coloured Indian diamonds of large size are rare; the most famous are: - a beautiful blue brilliant, 67126 carats, cut from a stone weighing 112 i carats brought to Europe by Tavernier.
Two other blue diamonds are known, weighing 13* and 14 carats, which may also be portions of the French diamond.
The Victoria, 180 carats, was cut from an octahedron weighing 4572 carats, and was sold to the nizam of Hyderabad for £400,000.
It weighed 971 carats, and was ultimately cut into ten stones weighing from 68 to 13 carats.
The mean section of the inner column was carefully determined by weighing, and found to be 1.403 sq.
The calorimeter tube was calibrated by a thread of mercury weighing 19 milligrams, which occupied eighty-five divisions.
Switzerland In receptacles weighing less than 5 kilos.
His mental qualities were - a quick analytic perception, strong logical powers, a tenacious memory, a liberal estimate and tolerance of the opinions of others, ready intuition of human nature; and perhaps his most valuable faculty was rare ability to divest himself of all feeling or passion in weighing motives of persons or problems of state.
The sow is a prolific breeder and good mother, weighing, when mature but not fat, 450 lb - the boar averaging 600 lb, and barrows at six to eight months 350 lb.
in height and weighing 4 tons, was brought to England, and is now in the British Museum.
It was by weighing that in 1770 he proved that water is not converted into earth by distillation, for he showed that the total weight of a sealed glass vessel and the water it contained remained constant, however long the water was boiled, but that the glass vessel lost weight to an extent equal to the weight of earth produced, his inference being that the earth came from the glass, not from the water.
In weighing these probabilities he proceeded upon a particular theory which in its leading features he had derived from J.
Thoth presided over writing, measuring and calculation, and is prominent in the scene of the weighing of the soul.
One has been caught weighing 60 lb, which gave play for more than seven hours.
So late as 1818 a stone is said to have been found there weighing 84 grains and valued at £500.
In diamond weighing the grain = ± of the carat, = 7925 of the troy grain.
silver-on-glass mirror (weighing about one ton) rests at the lower end of the tube on a support-system consisting of a large number of weighted levers which press against the back of the glass and distribute the load.
In the latter case two steady currents of water at different temperatures, say o° and too° are passed through an equalizer, and the resulting temperature measured without mixing the currents, which are then separately determined by weighing.
This can be determined by a direct calibration, by inserting a known quantity of water at a known temperature and observing the contraction, or weighing the mercury drawn into the apparatus.
The method requires very delicate weighing, as one calorie corresponds to less than two milligrammes of steam condensed; but the successful application of the method to the very difficult problem of measuring the specific heat of a gas at constant volume, shows that these and other difficulties have been very skilfully overcome.
He asks his readers, after weighing the evidence advanced, to determine "whether he (Erigena) used his philosophy to explain away his theology, or to bring out what he conceived to be the fullest meaning of it."
Thus the declaration of Paris, 1856 (to which, however, the United States, Venezuela and Bolivia have not yet formally acceded), prohibits the use of privateers and protects the commerce of neutrals; the Geneva conventions, 1864 and 1906, give protection to the wounded and to those in attendance upon them; the St Petersburg declaration, 1868, prohibits the employment of explosive bullets weighing less than 400 grammes; and the three Hague declarations of 1899 prohibit respectively (I) the launching of projectiles from balloons, (2) the use of projectiles for spreading harmful gases, and (3) the use of expanding bullets.
Eschenhagen 2 first designed a set of magnetographs in which this idea of small moment of inertia was carried to its useful limit, the magnets only weighing 1 .
A good average quality of seed weighing about 392 It) per quarter has been found in practice to give out 109 lb of oil.
The paper is fed from reels placed at the two ends in decks, one above the other, each reel containing about five miles of paper, and weighing about fourteen hundredweight.
So in the famous scene of the weighing of the soul, which first appears pictorially under the New Empire, she introduces the deceased before the forty-two assessors of the heavenly judge, Osiris, and presides over the scale in which his actions and life are weighed.
" Japan " copper is purple-red in colour, and is formed by casting into ingots, weighing from six ounces to a pound, and rapidly cooling by immersion in water.
The jute is carefully sorted into different qualities, and then each lot is subjected to an enormous hydraulic pressure from which it emerges in the shape of the well-known bales, each weighing 400 lb.
high and weighing 300 lb.
in diameter, and weighing more than 4 lb); the scales end in long hooked points curving upwards; the leaves are long, rigid, and glaucous in hue.
Coinage, Weights and Measures.The monetary unit is the kran, a silver coin, formerly weighing 28 nakhods (88 grains), then reduced to 26 nakhods (77 grains), and now weighing only 24 nakhods (71 grains) or somewhat less.
~6od In 1899 from 80 to 83 copper shahis (weighing about # Ib) were being given for one silver kran.
in length and weighing a pound each have been found in large numbers at Borax Lake in Lake county, and at Borax Lake in San Bernardino county, both in California.
The interior consists of a souterrain, and of a first floor, entered from the portico through bronze doors, after designs by Stiller, weighing 7-1 tons, and executed at a cost of 3600.
Malatia opium is in pieces of irregular size usually of a broadly conical shape, weighing from 1-2 lb.
It is produced in the districts of Kustendil,, Lowtscha and Halitz, and is made into lumps weighing about 4 oz., of a light-brown colour internally and containing a few seeds; it is covered with leaves which have not been identified.
Various portions, each weighing 10 seers (of 23 5 lb), are selected by test assay so as to ensure the mass being of standard consistence (70% of the pure dry drug and 30% of water), and are thrown into shallow drawers and kneaded together.
These occur wrapped separately in paper, and weighing 1 lb each; of these 140-160 are packed in a case.
Ispahan opium also occurs in the form of parallelopipeds weighing about 16-20 oz.; sometimes flat circular pieces weighing about 20 oz.
lancella, a little balance), a balance formerly used in England; now, in dialectical use, a term for the weighing of meat by hand instead of by scales.
The best crystallized specimens have been obtained from Kongsberg in Norway, large masses, weighing as much as 5 cwts., having been found.
The "laborious task" of which he speaks is that of consulting all possible evidence, and weighing conflicting accounts.
There were four boilers made of thin hammered copper and weighing a little more than 7 lb each; these occupied the middle portion of the fish.
Galileo attempted the evaluation by weighing the curve against the generating circle; this rough method gave only an approximate value, viz., a little less than thrice the generating circle.
While similar as to their general arrangement to the human brain, those of the higher apes, such as the chimpanzee, are much less complex in their convolutions, as well as much less in both absolute and relative weight - the weight of a gorilla's brain hardly exceeding 20 oz., and a man's brain hardly weighing less than 32 oz., although the gorilla is considerably the larger animal of the two.
In elephant-hunting iron bullets weighing a quarter of a pound are used; throwing-clubs are employed for small game, and lions are hunted with the spear.
Such a defect is a ground for consideration in weighing a particular tax against others, but it is only one inconvenience among many incidental to all taxes.
high, bearing the great clock which chimes the quarters on four bells, and strikes the hours on a bell weighing over 13 tons, named Big Ben after Sir Benjamin Hall, First Commissioner of Works at the time when the clock was erected.
In size they vary between wide limits, from minute sparkling points encrusting rock surfaces and often so thickly clustered together as to produce a drusy effect, to large single crystals measuring a yard in length and diameter and weighing half a ton.
Among European freshwater fishing-grounds, the Danube is only surpassed by the Volga; the most valuable fish being sturgeon and sterlet, mostly netted in the St George mouth; carp, often weighing 50 lb; pike, perch, tench and eels.
One of the best game-birds of the forest is the "crested curassow" (Crax alector), sometimes weighing 12 lb, which feeds on arboreal fruits and rarely comes to the ground.
It is one of the most fruitful of palms, its clusters weighing from 120 to 200 lb each.
Both are of large size, the baba weighing as much as 70 lb.
in depth, and weighing about 20,000 tons, shown in elevation in fig.
It attains a length of 6 ft., weighing then perhaps 30 lb, and is of a greenish colour, occasionally mixed with brown, while the tail is surrounded with alternate rings of those colours.
Therefore with equal weights a balance vibrates more slowly the more sensitive it is, and therefore weighing by a sensitive balance is a slower process than with a less sensitive one.
The conditions which must be fulfilled by a scale-beam in proper adjustment are: - (I) The beam must take up a horizontal position when the weights in the two scale-pans are equal, from nothing to the full weighing capacity of the machine.
To keep the beam truly in its place, which is very necessary, as all the bearings are flat,the re From Airy, " On Weighing Machines," Institution of Civil Engineers, 1892.
For the weighing of very small quantities with balances of great delicacy, the following method is adopted: - If the balance be in perfect adjustment, and 1 be the length of each arm, and w a very minute difference of the weights in the two scale-pans, by which the beam is deflected from the horizontal by a very small angle (/), it can easily be shown that tan 0, or 4), varies as w XI.
In the comparison of standard weights, or in any weighing opera - tions where great accuracy is required, it is necessary to use many precautions.
And the weight of air displaced depends upon the density of the air at the time of weighing, and therefore the barometer reading must be taken.
In this way an exact comparison of the weights in vacuo can be computed, but of course the simplest way of arriving at the result would be by the construction of a strong air-tight case which can be completely exhausted of air by an air-pump, and in which the weighing can then be effected in vacuo.
The difficulty about weighing in vacuo is that it is found almost impossible to exhaust the case entirely, or even to maintain a constant degree of exhaustion, by reason of the leakage connected with the weighing operations, and in consequence weighing in vacuo is not much in favour.
Whatever method is adopted, very exact weighing is a difficult and troublesome work.
is well adapted for weighing out parcels of goods of a definite weight, though not for ascertaining the correct weight of a given article.
Steelyards are simple, trustworthy and durable, but unless special contrivances are introduced for ascertaining the position of the travelling poise with very great accuracy, there will be a little uncertainty as to the reading, and therefore steelyards are not in general so accurate as scale-beams. When carefully nicked they are well-adapted for weighing out definite quantities of goods, such as i lb, 2 lb, &c., as in such cases there is no question of estimation.
Steelyards, like other weighing machines, will be " accelerating," or " vibrating " according to the arrangement of the knife-edges.
Steelyards are largely used in machines for the automatic weighing out of granular substances.
The principle is as follows: The weighing is effected by a steelyard with a sliding poise which is set to weigh a definite weight of the material, say I lb.
The automatic personal weighing machine found at most railway stations operates by means of a steelyard carrying a fixed weight on its long arm, the load on the platform being inferred from the position of the steelyard.
The lever, J, regains its zero position, and all is ready for another weighing.
With accelerating machines a small amount of tilt in any direction considerably affects the accuracy of the weighing, and when the amount of tilt is considerable the action may be changed, so that a machine which was intended to act as an accelerating machine acts like a vibrating one.
There are many kinds of weighing machines depending for their action on combinations of levers, and arranged to meet special requirements.
Such are coal platform machines for weighing out [[[Unequalarm Ed]] coal in sacks, the levers of which are arranged as in the ordinary platform machines, but for the sake of compactness the steelyard is returned back over the long body, and when loaded with the proper weight indicates the correct weight of the coal in the sack by its end Elevation.
A crane machine of peculiar construction, well adapted for weigh - ing heavy loads, and extremely simple and compact, which does not properly come under any of the heads under which the machines have been classified, is the hydrostatic weighing machine.
For many purposes spring balances are the most convenient of all weighing machines.
Automatic Weighing Machines.
During the last few years great efforts have been made to expedite the operation of weighing machines by the introduction of machinery, more or less complicated, which renders the machines to a great extent self-acting.
Sometimes the object is to weigh many loads in succession, the loads being of varying weight, and to prevent the total weight at the end of a day's work; this is the case with machines for weighing coal and other minerals.
Of course the introduction of automatic mechanism introduces friction and other complications, and it is difficult to construct automatic machines that shall be as accurate in their weighing as the simpler weighing machines, but in many weighing operations a moderate degree of accuracy will suffice, and speed is of great importance.
At each end of the drum casing is attached a vertical spiral spring, and by the extension of these springs the weighing of the goods is effected.
- Price-computing Spring Weighing Machine.
The weights and money values are arranged on a vertical chart, the sides of which converge towards the pivoting centre of an index arm which is actuated by the weighing mechanism.
In weighing, the goods are placed in the pan of an ordinary lever machine (see fig.
In order to deaden the vibrations of the index arm when weighing goods a vertical rod is attached to the lever from the lever machine near its left-hand end, and this rod carries on its lower end a plunger which works in a closed cylindrical dash-pot containing oil or glycerin.
Up to 2 lb the weight of the load is registered automatically on the chart in much the same manner as in the case of the automatic computing weighing machine already described.
Thus, for weighing up to the full load of 14 lb, six 2-lb weights are required and no others.
Automatic Tea Weighing Machine (fig.
- Price-computing Weighing Machine.
- Price-computing Weighing Machine - even Balance and Pendulum.
Automatic Sugar Weighing Machine (fig.
I* - This machine is adapted for weighing out granulated white sugar in parcels of I-lb, 2-lb and 4-lb weight.
- Automatic Tea Weighing Machine.
Automatic Coal Weighing Machine (fig.
Sugar Weighing M the frame of the ma chine, and transmit the weight of the hopper by means of an intermediate lever and a vertical rod to the indicator lever.
- Automatic Coal Weighing Machine.
- Automatic Coal Weighing Machi revolve, and as it revolves it carries the large poise along the steel - yard.
- Automatic Luggage Weighing Machine.
Automatic Luggage Weighing Machine (fig 20).
- This machine is intended for the weighing of personal luggage at railway stations.
By means of suitable and simple mechanism this vertical movement of the cylinders works plunger pistons in a pair of cylinders which contain glycerin, and these deaden the vibrations of the machinery while weighing is going on.
Chaney, Our Weights and Measures (London, 1897); Airy on " Weighing Machines," Proc. Inst.
Brothers on " Weighing Machinery," Trans.
In weighing an object with ounce-weights the fact that it weighs more than 1 lb 3 oz.
1, hard spring wheat, sound, bright and well cleaned, composed mainly of hard ` Scotch-Fife,' weighing not less than 58Th to the measured Inspecting and grading.
The kima, a great mussel weighing (without shell) 20 to 30 Ib, and other shellfish, are eaten, as are also dogs, flying foxes, lizards, beetles and all kinds of insects.
In size and plumage the two sexes offer a striking contrast, the male weighing about 4 lb, its plumage for the most part of a rich glossy black shot with blue and purple, the lateral tail feathers curved outwards so as to form, when raised, a fan-like crescent, and the eyebrows destitute of feathers and of a bright vermilion red.
He acquired thus early his characteristic habit of forming his opinions by the process of patiently examining and weighing the positions of all thinkers and parties.
The electrum coins of Lydia were of two kinds, one weighing 168.4 grains for the inland trade, and another of 224 grains for the trade with Ionia.
in height, to represent Justice, Industry, Art and Commerce, and on the same level with these is a clock weighing 7670 lb - one of the largest in the world.
Second only to the compass in its value to the sailor is Thomson's sounding apparatus, whereby soundings can be taken in 100 fathoms by a ship steaming at 16 knots; and by the employment of piano-wire of a breaking strength of 140 tons per square inch and an iron sinker weighing only 34 lb, with a selfregistering pressure gauge, soundings can be rapidly taken in deep ocean.
Their amount can be determined in a direct manner by exhausting the saponified mass, after dilution with water, with ether, evaporating the latter and weighing the amount of mineral oil left behind.
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