That familiar cold feeling washed over her again with a wave that was staggering.
He pressed his face against the window and managed a forlorn goodbye wave.
"No, you go ahead," Sarah interrupted with another wave of the hand.
He indicated the space behind him with a wave of a hand.
A wave of loneliness washed over her.
He turned to one of the men standing around the stage office and indicated Darcie with a wave of his hand.
A wave of warmth rushed up her neck and broke over her cheeks.
Cynthia dropped to the couch and held the cool rag to her face as a new wave of nausea clutched her stomach.
In spite of the disaster of her revelation, a wave of relief passed over me.
"Never saw him before," I got out before a wave of nausea flooded in and I erupted again.
He gave an abbreviated wave.
I turned my head but he simply gave a wave of his hand.
A wave of guilt passed over me like fog on a beach party; guilt like a pants-down lover when the husband comes home.
"I've got them!" a woman answered excitedly and we moved in a wave to a different monitor.
Again the wave moved as one when the three were sighted.
She jumped toward the child, apparently crying out and evoking a threatening wave of the knife by Grasso.
Until that point, eminent success lay just around the corner; now, absent any leads, a wave of despair descended over me like a blanket of morning fog.
They both lost their footing at the top of one wave and tumbled into a valley, bouncing against the rubbery trough.
Bianca moved away from Talon towards the violent waves and then sat with her back to a wave as high as her waist.
When she opened them, she lay on her side with her back to her protective wave.
"Thanks, Sean," she replied with a wave.
Damian's home videos played, intertwined with those of others, until a wave of power washed over her.
Dean cautioned Pumpkin to keep his hand on his wallet, but the young hiker dismissed the advice with a wave of his hand.
Then, a wave to the dust of the retreating vehicle.
With a wave, he left to meet with Jake Weller.
He was off with a jog and a wave, leaving the Deans in front of Bird Song.
Both jumped to their feet and started around the cluster of boulders where Joseph had parked only to see the tail of Joseph Dawkins' Jeep as it bumped across the blanketing wave of wild flowers.
Fred answered with a wave of his hand.
They told him no, and with a wave, he was off to commiserate with his protégés.
He gave a wave but no further comment as he hurried to his Jeep and left.
As he started his Jeep, Ginger Dawkins, light blue sweater slung over her arm, came up the street and gave Dean an innocent wave.
There was no verbal reply—only a returning wave of her light.
Lydia simply gave a dismissive wave of her hand and went inside, leaving Dean to follow.
Jennifer gave her a ta-ta wave before they entered the Dean's office.
After greeting the group with a hearty wave, he proudly handed a surprised Cynthia Dean a wad of bills.
Dean asked, with a wave of his hands.
In the future, if you don't recognize someone, don't wave at them.
I didn't wave today, which means you saw him at the strip mall.
She indicated her face with a wave of the hand and then changed the subject.
All trailed by Gabriel, who paused to look up and wave at her.
He leaned his elbows on the wall with a wave at Rhyn.
She gave an excited wave and quickened her step.
Pain rippled through him and another wave of power radiated off him, turning the boulders nearby into powder.
She opened the only door in the dead-end hallway with a wave of her armband.
She gave a nervous wave, watching for his reaction and relieved when he offered a warm smile.
She looked back and with a finger wave of two chubby digits and called, "Nighty-night. Time to visit the planet Draghow!"
Before she could protest, Fred was off with a wave good night.
She had loosened her hair and her long tresses fell in a wave, over her shoulder and across her small breasts.
Dean answered affirmatively and smiled up at Edith Shipton, giving an all-is-well wave.
He offered Dean coffee with a wave of his hand as he continued to eat.
They saw others on the trail only once when an elderly couple steamed by them with a wave.
This didn't faze Martha in the least as she alighted from the jeep, with a wave and a thanks.
Fred O'Conner, dressed for the slopes, gave a grumpy wave.
Then she added, with a dismissive wave of her hand, "That retarded child probably stole it."
Fred left with a wave and Cynthia returned to Annie Quincy's notebook.
He turned with a wave, "I'll see you later, honey bunch!"
Ryland made a beeline for his room, and the Quincy sisters tromped up the stairs, Effie giving a three-finger wave and Claire looking as if she'd punch out the lights of anyone who got in her way.
The local vehicles that passed him invariable gave him a wave and a wide berth.
Janet gave a wave of her hand.
Dean climbed from her car and she was off with a wave.
He couldn't bring himself to look down before a wave of dizziness overtook him.
There was a sense of cold and the ooze of blood filling his boot, and a reeling wave of lightheadedness, but little pain.
A wave of unimaginable pleasure coursed through her entire body.
Jackson felt an intense wave of emotion.
A wave of grief engulfed him and ripped through to his core, knocking the breath from him.
Jackson drank deeply and enjoyed his venom coursing through Elisabeth, eliciting wave after wave of euphoria.
Fighting down a wave of nausea, she kneeled at the tail of the goat.
Carmen poured grain into the feeders and the smell of oats and honey brought a tidal wave of goats into the barn.
Another wave of dizziness washed over her.
"Yep. She's somewhere out west over there," Elise said with a wave of her hand towards the forest.
She stepped down the stairs slowly and turned to wave at Mrs. Watson.
With a return wave, Lana set her gaze on the door to her own apartment up the stairs.
A few had been converted to apartments, but a recent wave of historical consciousness had temporarily halted the decay.
Fred dismissed the news with a wave of his hand.
Dean dismissed the comment with a wave of his hand, sorry he'd opened his mouth.
Dean smiled, gave a wave goodnight and climbed the stairs.
He gave a wave to Dean.
Fred dismissed the problem with a wave of his hand.
Fred dismissed Dean's comments with a wave of his hand.
One minute he'd be drinking in the beauty of the countryside and the next feeling a wave of anxiety, realizing what had begun as a mild suspicion was close to culminating in a face-to-face confrontation with Jeffrey Byrne.
When the road straightened once more, he heard a noise behind him and a dozen daredevils in the tuck position sped on by him with a wave and a rush of air.
He felt a wave of apprehension and accelerated heart beat as the door opened.
She paused and smiled up at him, one eye almost covered by a wave of gray hair.
Anger washed over her in a bold wave.
She returned his wave without slowing down.
She battled a wave of panic and felt drained as the feeling abated.
She'd given it to Talia before she left then reclaimed it after the first wave of the Schism ripped through the Immortal world.
Then the first wave of the Schism hit.
Rather than reply, he released a wave of power that knocked over guardsmen and trees alike.
He was swallowed by the dark forest before she could return the wave.
A wave of anger came out of nowhere, surging through her veins and washing the resentment to the surface of her consciousness.
Engulfed by a wave of homesickness, she turned away, shrugging off the unexpected emotion.
A wave of homesickness engulfed her, and she struggled back to the firm ground of reality.
She glanced down at her wrinkled nightclothes and felt a scarlet wave surge up her neck.
"I've been waiting –" She rose on her tiptoes to wave at Xander even as another woman shoved her back.
If the particles were away, the wave would pass on unbroken and no light would be emitted laterally.
The element of area being 22rr 2 sin 04,, we have f:2 l 2x r2 si n 2 d ?=gam, r so that the energy emitted from T is represented by 87r3 (D, - D) 2 T2 (9) D2 x4' on such a scale that the energy of the primary wave is unity per unit of wave-front area.
Since there is no waste of energy upon the whole, this represents the loss of energy in the primary wave.
Thus he approximates to the wave theory of light, though he supposed that the transmission of light was instantaneous.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
These striking successes caused a wave of revolt to spread through Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Utrecht and Friesland.
The tidal wave of the Southern Ocean, which sweeps uninterruptedly round the globe from east to west, generates a secondary wave between Africa and South America, which travels north at a rate dependent only on the depth of the ocean.
With this " free " wave is combined a " forced " wave, generated, by the direct action of the sun and moon, within the Atlantic area itself.
In depths beyond the reach of wave motion, and apart from suspension across a submarine gully, which will sooner or later result in a rupture of the cable, the most frequent cause of interruption is seismic or other shifting of the ocean bed, while in shallower waters and near the shore the dragging of anchors or 40 fishing trawls has been mostly responsible.
of a condenser produces an electric spark which under proper conditions creates an effect propagated out into space as an electric wave.
He employed as a detector of this wave a simple, nearly closed circuit of wire called a Hertz resonator, but it was subsequently discovered that the metallic microphone of D.
On creating an electric spark or wave in the neighbourhood of the tube the resistance suddenly falls to a few ohms and the cell sends a current through it.
But, as Branly showed, it is not universally true that the action of an electric wave is to reduce the resistance of a tube of powdered metal or cause the particles to cohere.
This form of electric wave detector proved itself to be far more certain in operation and sensitive than anything previously invented.
The magnetic and electric forces are directed alternately in one direction and the other, and at distances which are called multiples of a wave length the force is in the same direction at the same time, but in the case of damped waves h.as not quite the same intensity.
Fleming's Electric Wave Telegraphy, by permission of Longmans, Green & Co.
' For a more complete account of the nature of an electric wave the reader is referred to Hertz's Electric Waves, and to the article Electric Wave.
See also The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy, by J.
- Marconi Sensitive Metallic Filings Tube or Electric Wave Detector.
This periodic distribution in time and space constitutes an electric wave proceeding outwards in all directions from the sending antenna.
He thus produced in 1896 for the first time an operative apparatus of electric wave telegraphy.
Marconi's successes and the demonstrations he had given of the thoroughly practical character of this system of electric wave telegraphy stimulated other inventors to enter the same field of labour, whilst theorists began to study carefully the nature of the physical operations involved.
We now consider the more recent appliances for electric wave telegraphy under the two divisions of transmitting and receiving apparatus.
This creates rapid variations in electric and magnetic force round the antenna and detaches energy from it in the form of an electric wave.
The whole process is exactly analogous to the operation by which a violin string or organ pipe creates an air or sound wave.
In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.
When electric oscillations are set up in an open or closed electric circuit having capacity and inductance, and left to themselves, they die away in amplitude, either because they dissipate their energy as heat in overcoming the resistance of the circuit, or because they radiate it by imparting wave motion to the surrounding ether.
It was then found that when electric waves fell on the antenna a sound was heard in the telephone as each wave train passed over it, so that if the wave trains endured for a longer or shorter time the sound in the telephone was of corresponding duration.
This device was converted into an electric wave detector as follows :-The mercury-steel junction was acted upon by the electromotive force of a shunted single cell and a siphon recorder was inserted in series.
An innumerable number of forms of coherer or wave detector depending upon the change in resistance produced at a loose or imperfect contact have been devised.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy and Telephony, p. 416, 2nd ed.
The next class of wave or oscillation detector is the magnetic detector depending upon the power of electric oscillations to affect the magnetic state of iron.
Rutherford used this detector to make evident the passage of an electric or Hertzian wave for half a mile across Cambridge, England.
Wilson constructed various forms of electric wave detector depending on this same principle.
In 1902 Marconi invented two forms of magnetic detector, one of which he developed into an electric wave detector of extraordinary delicacy and utility.
A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.
A fourth class of electric wave detector comprises the thermal detectors which operate in virtue of the fact that electric oscillations create heat in a fine wire through which they pass.
Such a bolometer receiver has been used by C. Tissot (Comptes rendus, 1904, 137, p. 846) and others as a receiver in electric wave telegraphy.
When electric oscillations are set up in these two classes of electric radiators, the first class send out a highly damped wave train and the second a feeble damped wave train provided that they have sufficient capacity or energy storage and low resistance.
Slaby in Berlin shortly afterwards made a similar exhibition of syntonic electric wave telegraphy' O.
Lodge had previously described in 1897 a syntonic system of electric wave telegraphy, but it had not been publicly seen in operation prior to the exhibitions of Marconi and Slaby.'
wave trains; but, although other patentees have suggested the same plan, the author is not aware that any success has attended its use in practice.
Very briefly stated, his method consists in sending out a group of wave trains at certain irregular but assigned intervals of time to constitute the simplest signal equivalent to a dot in the Morse code, and a sequence of such trains, say three following one another, to constitute the dash on the Morse code.
At this stage it may be convenient to outline the progress of electric wave telegraphy since 1899.
Braun showed that oscillations suitable for the purposes of electric wave creation in wireless telegraphy could be set up in a circuit consisting of a Leyden jar or jars, a spark gap and an inductive circuit, and communicated to an antenna either by inductive or direct coupling (Brit.
All of them couple the transmitting antenna directly or inductively to a capacity-inductive circuit serving as a storage of energy, and all of them create thereby electric waves of the same type moving over the earth's surface with the magnetic force of the wave parallel to it.
From and after that time the British Admiralty and the navies of other countries began to give great attention to the development of electric wave telegraphy.
200 m., and he considered that the time had come for a serious attempt to be made to communicate across the Atlantic. A site for a first Transatlantic electric wave power station was secured at Poldhu, near Mullion in south Cornwall, by the Marconi Company, and plans arranged for an installation.
The special electrical engineering arrangements employed at the outset for this first electric wave power station required to create the oscillations of the desired power were designed for Marconi by J.
long upheld by a box kite, and, employing a sensitive coherer and telephone as a receiver, he was able, on December 12, 1901, to hear " S " signals on the Morse code, consisting of three dots, which he had arranged should be sent out from Poldhu at stated hours, according to a preconcerted programme, so as to leave no doubt they were electric wave signals sent across the Atlantic and not accidental atmospheric electric disturbances.
This result created a great sensation, and proved that Transatlantic electric wave telegraphy was quite feasible and not inhibited by distance, or by the earth's curvature even over an arc of a great circle 3000 m.
In 1904 a regular system of communication of press news and private messages from the Poldhu and Cape Breton stations to Atlantic liners in mid-Atlantic was inaugurated, and daily newspapers were thenceforth printed on board these vessels, news being supplied to them daily by electric wave telegraphy.
A problem of great importance in connexion with electric wave telegraphy is that of limiting the radiation to certain directions.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy (London, 1906), chap. vii.; also Cantor Lectures on Hertzian wave telegraphy, Lecture iv., Journ.
The process of reflection in the case of a wave motion involves the condition that the wave-length shall be small compared with the dimensions of the mirror, and hence the attempt to reflect and converge electric waves loon ft.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy, 1906, p. 73.
The scientific study of electric wave telegraphy has necessitated the introduction of many new processes and methods of electrical measurement.
In all cases of wave motion the wave-length is connected with the velocity of propagation of the radiation by the relation v=nX, where n is the frequency of the oscillations and X is the wave-length.
Instruments for doing this are called wave meters and are of two kinds, open circuit and closed circuit.
2 In Donitz's wave meter a condenser of variable capacity is associated with inductance coils of various sizes, and the wave meter is placed near the antenna so that its inductance coils have induced currents created in them.
An immense mass of information has been gathered on the scientific processes which are involved in electric wave telegraphy.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
It is now generally recognized that Hertzian wave telegraphy, or radio-telegraphy, as it is sometimes called, has a special field of operations of its own, and that the anticipations which were at one time excited by uninformed persons that it would speedily annihilate all telegraphy conducted with wires have been dispersed by experience.
Fleming, Hertzian Wave Telegraphy (1905); id., The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy and Telephony (2nd ed., 1910); J.
Pupin showed that by placing inductance coils in circuit, at distances apart of less than half the length of the shortest component wave to be transmitted, a non-uniform conductor could be made approximately equal to a uniform conductor.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
In the case of Messina the horror of the situation was heightened by a tidal wave.
Before this wave of thought, H.
The colouring of the steppe changes as if by magic, and only the silvery plumes of the steppe-grass (Stipa pennata) wave in the wind, tinting the steppe a bright yellow.
Byron's description, "[The] immemorial wood Rooted where once the Adrian wave flowed o'er," is probably true; but there is no evidence that it was in historic time that this change took place.
These ancient states began to decline in the 7th century B.e., and on their ruins rose the Persian empire, which with various political metamorphoses continued to be an important power till the 7th century A.D., after which all western Asia was overwhelmed by the Moslem wave, and old landmarks and kingdoms were obliterated.
Napcleon was now able by degrees to dispense with all republican forms (the last to go was the Republican Calendar, which ceased on the 1st of January 1806), and the scene at the coronation in Notre Dame on the 2nd of December 1804 was frankly imperial in splendour and in the egotism which led Napoleon to wave aside the pope, Pius VII., at the supreme moment and crown himself.
Akhenaton at Tell el-Amarna; while in the Aegean area itself we have abundant evidence of a great wave of Egyptian influence beginning with this same Dynasty.
To this wave were owed in all probability the Nilotic scenes depicted on the Mycenae daggers, on frescoes of Hagia Triada and Cnossus, on pottery of Zakro, on the shell-relief of Phaestus, &c.; and also many forms and fabrics, e.g.
Many of these tribes have retained their pristine paganism, but many others it is certain have adopted the Mahommedan religion and have been assimilated by the subsequent and stronger wave of Sumatran immigrants.
of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.
For the subjects of this general heading see the articles Mechanics; Dynamics, Analytical; Gyroscope; Harmonic Analysis; Wave; HYDROMechanics; Elasticity; Motion, Laws Of; Energy; Energetics; Astronomy (Celestial Mechanics); Tide.
"On the morrow of the Sabbath" a wave offering of a sheaf of barley was to be made.
On the morrow after the sabbath a wave offering and also a burnt offering of the he-lamb (with the corresponding meal and drink offering).
The original church of St Mary's, at the mouth of the river, was swept away by a tidal wave in 1607: Wordsworth took this as a subject for a sonnet.
The present city is half a mile north of the site of the old town, which was destroyed by an earthquake and tidal wave in 1746.
In spring the traveller crosses a sea of grass above which the flowers of the paeony, aconite, Orobus, Carallic, Saussurea and the like wave 4 or 5 ft.
This resolution of the original wave is the well-known "Principle of Huygens," and by its means he was enabled to prove the fundamental laws of optics, and to assign the correct construction for the direction of the extraordinary ray in uniaxial crystals.
The wave of morphological speculation, with its outcome of new systems and new theories of classification.
The wave motion due to any element of the surface is called a secondary wave, and in estimating the total effect regard must be paid to the phases as well as the amplitudes of the components.
It is usually convenient to choose as the surface of resolution a wave front, i.e.
We have seen that the problem before us is independent of the law of the secondary wave as regards obliquity; but the result of the integration necessarily involves the law of the intensity and phase of a secondary wave as a function of r, the distance from the origin.
Journ., 18 43, 3, p. 46), determine the law of the secondary wave, by comparing the result of the integration with that obtained by supposing the primary wave to pass on to P without resolution.
Now as to the phase of the secondary wave, it might appear natural to suppose that it starts from any point Q with the phase of the primary wave, so that on arrival at P, it is retarded by the amount corresponding to QP. But a little consideration will prove that in that case the series of secondary waves could not reconstitute the primary wave.
It is accordingly necessary to suppose that the secondary waves start with a phase one-quarter of a period in advance of that of the primary wave at the surface of resolution.
It may be well therefore to remember that precisely these laws apply to a secondary wave of sound, which can be investigated upon the strictest mechanical principles.
If the primary wave at 0 be cos kat, the effect of the secondary wave proceeding from the element dS at Q is dS 1 dS - p cos k(at - p+ 4 A) = - -- sin k(at - p).
In order to obtain the effect of the primary wave, as, retarded by traversing the distance r, viz.
According to the assumed law of the secondary wave, the result must actually depend upon the precise radius of the outer boundary of the region of integration, supposed to be exactly circular.
When the primary wave is plane, the area of the first Fresnel zone is 7rXr, and, since the secondary waves vary as r 1, the intensity is independent of r, as of course it should be.
If, however, the primary wave be spherical, and of radius a at the wave-front of resolution, then we kno* that at a distance r further on the amplitude of the primary wave will be diminished in the ratio a:(r+a).
when the secondary wave of least retardation is unobstructed, or when a ray passes through the point under consideration.
a secondary wave suitable when the primary wave is undisturbed, with mere limitation of the integration to the transparent parts of the screen.
Taking co-ordinates in the plane of the screen with the centre of the wave as origin, let us represent M by, n, and P (where dS is situated) by x, y, z.
15, p. 315) to determine the absolute intensity of a secondary wave, may be at once effected by means of the known formula isin 2 u f sin u du = du =7-.
This indefiniteness of images is sometimes said to be due to diffraction by the edge of the aperture, and proposals have even been made for curing it by causing the transition between the interrupted and transmitted parts of the primary wave to be less abrupt.
The phase of the resultant amplitude is the same as that due to the central secondary wave, and the discrepancies of phase among the components reduce the amplitude in the proportion l ` dri): 3?
The aberration is here unsymmetrical, the wave being in advance of its proper place in one half of the aperture, but behind in the other half.
The formula expressing the optical power of prismatic spectroscopes may readily be investigated upon the principles of the wave theory.
The dark lines which separate the bands are the places at which the phases of the secondary wave range over an integral number of periods.
We have hitherto supposed that the light is incident perpen 1 The last sentence is repeated from the writer's article " Wave Theory " in the 9th edition of this work, but A.
whether it was the cutting edge or the back of a razor - made no material difference, and was thus led to the conclusion that the explanation of these phenomena requires nothing more than the application of Huygens's principle to the unobstructed parts of the wave.
When, in order to apply Huygens's principle, the wave is supposed to be broken up, the phase is the same at every element of the surface of resolution which lies upon a line perpendicular to the plane of reference, and thus the effect of the whole line, or rather infinitesimal strip, is related in a constant manner to that of the element which lies O in the plane of reference, and may be considered to be represented thereby.
Taking as the standard phase that of the secondary wave from A, we may represent the effect of PQ by cos 27r (_) .ds, where, l = BP - AP is the retardation at B of the wave from P relatively to that from A.
To assume a cylindrical form of primary wave would be justifiable only when there is synchronism among the secondary waves issuing from the various centres.
For a point Q outside the shadow the integration extends over more than half the primary wave.
The latter is the intensity due to the uninterrupted wave.
18) the centre of the curve 0 is to be considered to correspond to that point C of the primary wave-front which lies nearest to P. The operative part, or parts, of the curve are of course those which represent the unobstructed portions of the primary wave.
At the point 0 the intensity is one-quarter of that of the entire wave, and after this point is passed, that is, when we have entered the geometrical shadow, the intensity falls off gradually to zero, without fluctuations.
But, without entering upon matters of this kind, we may inquire in what manner a primary wave may be resolved into elementary secondary waves, and in particular as to the law of intensity and polarization in a secondary wave as dependent upon its direction of propagation, and upon the character as regards polarization of the primary wave.
It is then verified that, after integration with respect to dS, (6) gives the same disturbance as if the primary wave had been supposed to pass on unbroken.
The factor (I -cos 0) shows in what manner the secondary disturbance depends upon the direction in which it is propagated with respect to the front of the primary wave.
If, as suffices for all practical purposes, we limit the application of the formulae to points in advance of the plane at which the wave is supposed to be broken up, we may use simpler methods of resolution than that above considered.
The conception of the lamina leads immediately to two schemes, according to which a primary wave may be supposed to be broken up. In the first of these the element dS, the effect of which is to be estimated, is supposed to execute its actual motion, while every other element of the plane lamina is maintained at rest.
When the secondary disturbance thus obtained is integrated with respect to dS over the entire plane of the lamina, the result is necessarily the same as would have been obtained had the primary wave been supposed to pass on without resolution, for this is precisely the motion generated when every element of the lamina vibrates with a common motion, equal to that attributed to dS.
If, instead of supposing the motion at dS to be that of the primary wave, and to be zero elsewhere, we suppose the force operative over the element dS of the lamina to be that corresponding to the primary wave, and to vanish elsewhere, we obtain a secondary wave following quite a different law.
In this case the motion in different directions varies as cos°, vanishing at right angles to the direction of propagation of the primary wave.
In order to apply these ideas to the investigation of the secondary wave of light, we require the solution of a problem, first treated by Stokes, viz.
The intensity of light is, however, more usually expressed in terms of the actual displacement in the plane of the wave.
We will now apply (18) to the investigation of a law of secondary disturbance, when a primary wave = sin (nt - kx) (19) is supposed to be broken up in passing the plane x = o.
The occurrence of factors such as sin 4), or 2 (1cos 0), in the expression of the secondary wave has no influence upon the result of the integration, the effects of all the elements for which the factors differ appreciably from unity being destroyed by mutual interference.
A wave of military enthusiasm arose throughout the empire, and as the formation of a seventh division practically drained the mother-country of trained men, a scheme for the employment of amateur soldiers was formulated, resulting in the despatch of Imperial Yeomanry and Volunteer contingents, which proved one of the most striking features of the South African campaign.
The geometrical theory can afford no explanation of these coloured bands, and it has been shown that the complete phenomenon of the rainbow is to be sought for in the conceptions of the wave theory of light.
In 1868 the town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, in 1875 by fire, and again in 1877 by earthquakes, a fire and a tidal wave.
The explosive wave from the dry guncotton primer is in fact better responded to by the wet compressed material than the dry, and its detonation is somewhat sharper than that of the dry.
It is not necessary for the blocks of wet guncotton to be actually in contact if they be under water, and the peculiar explosive wave can also be conveyed a little distance by a piece of metal such as a railway rail.
It is strange that so little interest has been taken in a craft in which for some thirty years England surpassed all competitors, creating a wave of fashion which influenced the glass industry throughout the whole of Europe.
Nanak seems to have been produced by the same cyclic wave of reformation as fourteen years later gave Martin Luther to Europe.
The branch of hydrodynamics which discusses wave motion in a liquid or gas is given now in the articles Sound and Wave; while the influence of viscosity is considered under Hydraulics.
The estuary or bay is funnel-shaped, and its configuration produces at spring tides a " bore " or tidal wave, which at its maximum reaches a height of 15 to 20 ft.
Great damage was done by a seismic wave following the shock.
The town was overwhelmed by a vast wave, which rose 80 ft.; and the shocks continued until the following February.
It is situated on the right bank of the Seine, the tidal wave of which (mascaret) can be well seen at this point.
(2) Tidal wave killed thousands of people.
The development of Japanese painting may be divided into the following six periods, each signalized by a wave of progress.
The native artist who crested the first great wave of Japanese painting was a court noble named Kos no Kanaoka, living under the patronage of the emperor Seiwa ~ mi (850859) and his successors down to about the end of J~~d the 9th century, in the midst of a period of peace and culture.
The manifold plate is then heavily punched from one side, so that the opposite face protrudes in broken blisters, which are then hammered down until each becomes a centre of wave propagation.
The earthquake occurred early in the morning of December 28, and so far as Messina was concerned the damage was done chiefly by the shock and by the fires which broke out afterwards; the seismic wave which followed was comparatively innocuous.
In mechanics, the amplitude of a wave is the maximum ordinate.
He was in the act of issuing his orders when a psychological wave swept through the fighting-line, and the men rose and rushed the village at the point of the bayonet.
This was stopped almost entirely by the Prussian artillery fire; but the news of its coming spread through the stragglers in the ravine south of the great road, and a wave of panic again swept through the mass, many thousands bolting right upon the front of their own batteries, thus masking their fire at the most critical moment, and something like a crisis in the battle arose.
If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.
But as things are the watersurface is broken by land, and the mean density of the substance of the land is 2 6 times as great as that of sea-water, so that the gravitational attraction of the land must necessarily cause a heaping up of the sea around the coasts, forming what has been called the continental wave, and leaving the sea-level lower in mid-ocean.
Pure calcareous sand and calcareous mud are formed by wave action on the shores of coral islands where the only material available is coral and the accompanying calcareous algae, crustacea, molluscs and other organisms secreting carbonate of lime.
We are still ignorant of the depth to.which the annual temperature wave penetrates in the open ocean, but observations in the Mediterranean enable us to form some opinion on the matter.
blue lines (of wave length 4555 and 4593) in their flame spectrum, but these are not present in the spark spectrum.
The observation that acetylene can be resolved into its constituents by detonation is due to Berthelot, who started an explosive wave in it by firing a charge of oï¿½i gram of mercury fulminate.
It has since been shown, however, that unless the gas is at a pressure of more than two atmospheres this wave soon dies out, and the decomposition is only propagated a few inches from the detonator.
This wave of enthusiasm spread from Northampton, Mass., till it swept New England.
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