The ox-wagons with their solid wheels, and the curious water-wheels of brushwood with earthenware pots tied on to them and turned by a blindfolded donkey, are picturesque.
The live oak is one of the most valuable timber trees of the genus, the wood being extremely durable, both exposed to air and under water; heavy and closegrained, it is perhaps the best of the American oaks for shipbuilding, and is invaluable for water-wheels and mill-work.
In 1826, in his Memoire sur les roues hydrauliques a aubes courbes, he brought forward improvements in the construction of water-wheels, which more than doubled their efficiency.
The methods of cultivation are primitive: the curious water-wheels, made of brushwood with pots tied on to them, and turned by a blindfolded donkey, may be noted.
Amasia has extensive orchards and fruit gardens still, as in Ibn Batuta's time, irrigated by water wheels turned by the current of the river; and there are steam flourmills.
Weirs are essential for raising the head of water for water-wheels at mills, and for diverting some of the flow of a river into irrigation canals; but they have received their greatest and most varied extension in the canalization of rivers for navigation.
High land near the banks of the Nile which cannot be reached by canals is irrigated by raising water from the Nile by steam-pumps, water-wheels (sakias) worked by buffalo s, or water-lifts (skadufs) worked by hand.
In the paintings we see gardens irrigated by handbuckets and shad ufs; the latter (buckets hung on a lever-pole) were probably the usual means of raising water for the fields in ancient times, and still are common in Egypt and Nubia, although water-wheels have been known.
For watering the land by the river banks sakias (water-wheels) are used, oxen being employed to turn them There are also a few irrigation canals.
bellows driven by the water wheels.
Today there are three water wheels driving large tilt hammers and grindstones.
At first these were called mills, as they were built beside streams and had water wheels to drive the machinery.
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