On the 21st of June Warsaw was retaken by the Poles, and four days later Charles was obliged to purchase the assistance of Frederick William by the treaty of Marienburg.
CHRISTIAN DAVID GINSBURG (1831-), Hebrew scholar, was born at Warsaw on the 25th of December 1831.
He took part in the desperate defence of Warsaw against Prince Paskievich (September 6-7,1831).
The addition of large territories to the grand duchy of Warsaw after the war of 1809 aroused the fears of the tsar respecting the Poles; and he regarded all Napoleon's actions as inspired by hostility to Russia.
I think I'll postpone any further subdivision of Germany for now, and instead create a Category:Russian Poland to take the rest of the articles in Category:Poland, Silesia and Prussia, as well as articles that have failed to be categorized (like Warsaw and Lodz).
During the closing years of the 19th century great numbers of Germans flocked into the industrial governments of Poland, namely, Piotrkow, Warsaw and Kalisz.
Tanneries exist in nearly every government, but it is especially at Warsaw and St Petersburg, and after these at Moscow, that the largest and best modern tanneries and shoe and glove factories are established.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
looked coldly on the project, and from this time forth the old familiar relations between the republic and the French monarchy were strained to breaking point, though the final rupture did not come till 1682 on the arrival of the Austrian minister, Zerowski, at Warsaw.
He was about to write a treatise on the steam-engine, when the Polish War of Independence summoned him back to Warsaw in November 1830.
On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.
He died at Warsaw on the 28th of February 1812.
He also distinguished himself at the battle of Ostrolenka and at the taking of Warsaw.
In 1846 he was nominated military governor of Warsaw.
He died at Warsaw on the 30th of May 1861, and was buried, in accordance with his own wish, at Sevastopol.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
In 1906 there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kiev, Moscow and Riga.
A good many factories have sprung up also in Warsaw and at Sosnowice and Bendzin in the extreme S.
' In his speech at the opening of the first Polish parliament at Warsaw in 1818, Alexander I.
Fragments of his poems have been collected by Wilke, De graecorum syllis (Warsaw, 1820), Paul, Dissertatio de syllis (Berlin, 1821), and Wachsmuth, Sillographorum graec. reliquiae (Leipzig, 1885).
Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.
Saxony was in that year attacked by the Prussians, and with so much success that not only was the Saxon army forced to capitulate at Pirna in October, but the elector, who fled to Warsaw, made no attempt to recover Saxony, which remained under the dominion of Frederick.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
The duchy of Warsaw and the fortress of Danzig formed new outworks of his power and enabled him to overawe Russia.
The House of Habsburg now ceded Salzburg and the Inn-Viertel to Napoleon (for his ally, the king of Bavaria); a great portion of the spoils which Austria had torn from Poland in 1795 went to the grand duchy of Warsaw, or Russia; and the cession of her provinces Carinthia, Carniola and Istria to the French empire cut her off from all access to the sea.
First, however, Charles cleared Livonia of the invader (July 1701), subsequently occupying the duchy of Courland and converting it into a Swedish governor-generalship. In January 1702 Charles established himself at Bielowice in Lithuania, and, after issuing a proclamation declaring that "the elector of Saxony" had forfeited the Polish crown, set out for Warsaw, which he reached on the 14th of May.
A fortnight later Charles quitted Warsaw, to seek the elector; on the 2nd of July routed the combined Poles and Saxons at Klissow; and three weeks later, captured the fortress of Cracow by an act of almost fabulous audacity.
On the 2nd of July 1704, with the assistance of a bribing fund, Charles's ambassador at Warsaw, Count Arvid Bernard Horn, succeeded in forcing through the election of Charles's candidate to the Polish throne, Stanislaus Leszczynski, who could not be crowned however till the 24th of September 1705, by which time the Saxons had again been defeated at Punitz.
He was at Warsaw when his master died in 1733, and he secured a hold on the confidence of the electoral prince, Frederick Augustus, who was at Dresden, by laying hands on the papers and jewels of the late ruler and bringing them promptly to his successor.
From the committee of patriots at Warsaw complaints and warnings were carried to Constantinople; and the cession of Podolia was offered as the price of a Turkish attack on Russia.
Scarcely leaving his troops time to restore their worn-out footgear, or for the cavalry to replace their jaded horses from captured Prussian resources, he set Davout in motion towards Warsaw on the 2nd of November, and the remainder of the army followed in successive echelons as rapidly as they could be despatched.
Davout entered Warsaw on the 30th of November, being followed by the V., IV.
The Russians meanwhile had been moving slowly forward in two bodies, one under Bennigsen (50,000), the other under Buxhowden (25,000), and the French being at this time in Warsaw, they took up threatening positions about Pultusk, Plock and Prassnitz.
Hitherto he had been based on the entrenched camp of Warsaw, but he had already taken steps to organize a new line of supply and retreat via Thorn, and this was now completed.
Next, centring about Warsaw, a group of three corps (19,000 men) under the chief command of Napoleon's brother Jerome.
CONFEDERATION OF BAR, a famous confederation of the Polish nobles and gentry formed at the little fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nicholas Repnin.
See Alexander Kraushar, Prince Repnin in Poland (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1900); F.
Sniadecki (Warsaw, 1803-1818); of J.
ALEKSANDER WIELOPOLSKI, Marquis of Gonzaga-Mysz kowski (1803-1877), Polish statesman, was educated in Vienna, Warsaw, Paris and GÃ¶ttingen.
At the beginning of the Insurrection of 1831 he was sent to London to obtain the assistance, or at least the mediation, of England; but the only result of his mission was the publication of the pamphlet Menzoire presente a Lord Palmerston (Warsaw, 1831).
Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.
WARSAW, a city and the county-seat of Kosciusko county, Indiana, U.S.A., on the Tippecanoe river, about 110 m.
Warsaw is served by the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania system) and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, and by interurban electric lines.
Warsaw was first platted in 1836, and became a city in 1875.
from Warsaw, at the confluence of the Wieprz with the Vistula.
It is defended by nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Georgievsk and BrestLitovsk, forms the Polish "quadrilateral."
He then retired to his estate in the Posen province, and occupied himself in writing pamphlets, memoirs, &c. When his estates passed into the grand duchy of Warsaw, he chose to remain a Prussian subject, and on the outbreak of the war of liberation he asked in vain for a post on the Prussian staff.
At the Warsaw Diet of 1818, the liberal-minded Alexander I.
Kochanowski, Casimir the Great (Pol.), (Warsaw, 1900); Kazimierz J.
The same year he was chosen to design a monument for Warsaw, commemorating the rebirth of Poland.
Thereupon the Swedes entered Warsaw without opposition and occupied the whole of Great Poland.
His retreat from Jaroslau to Warsaw, with the fragments of his host, amidst three converging armies, in a marshy forest region, intersected in every direction by well-guarded rivers, was one of his most brilliant achievements.
On July 18-20 the combined Swedes and Brandenburgers, 18,000 strong, after a three days' battle, defeated John Casimir's army of ioo,000 at Warsaw and reoccupied the Polish capital; but this brilliant feat of arms was altogether useless, and when the suspicious attitude of Frederick William compelled the Swedish king at last to open negotiations with the Poles, they refused the terms offered, the war was resumed, and Charles concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with the elector of Brandenburg (treaty of Labiau, Nov.
About the same time a war was fought in northern Europe (1655-60), celebrated chiefly for the three days' battle of Warsaw (28th, 29th, 30th July 1656), and the successful invasion of Denmark by the Swedes, carried out from island to island over the frozen sea (February 1658), and culminating in a long siege of Copenhagen (1658-59).
Nassonov (Warsaw, 1893), and G.
In this latter capacity he was the author of the historic saying "Order reigns at Warsaw."
Fichte accepted a post as private tutor in Warsaw, and proceeded on foot to that town.
He was educated at Warsaw and studied law at the university in St Petersburg before he entered the bureaucracy in the department of justice, in which he rose rapidly to be assistant solicitorgeneral in Warsaw, then solicitor-general in St Petersburg, and in 1881 director of the state police.
It was against his advice that the great battle of Warsaw was fought, and his subsequent strategy neutralized the ill effects of that national disaster.
On the retirement of the Swedes from Cracow and Warsaw, and the conclusion of the treaty of Copenhagen with the Danes, he commanded the army corps sent to drive the troops of Charles X.
See Ludwik Jenike, Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1891); Michal Dymitr Krajewski, History of Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.), (Cracow, 1859).
The locality where aurochs survived in Herberstein's time was the forest of Jaktozowka, situated about 55 kilometres west-south-west of Warsaw, in the provinces of Bolemow and Sochaczew.
This treaty, which constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Warsaw, registers the nadir of Prussia's humiliation under Napoleon.
In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.
On the 16th of September his disapproval of the popular excesses at Warsaw caused him to quit the government after sacrificing half his fortune to the national cause; but it must be admitted that throughout the insurrection he did not act up to his great reputation.
Aerial posts are established with Paris, Warsaw, Berlin, Vienna and Budapest, in addition to which there exist also cross-country services.
But, at the last moment, the dread of another Muscovite invasion made them more pliable and, at a Polish diet held at Warsaw from November 1563 to June 1564, which the Lithuanians attended, the question of an absolute union was hotly debated.
Civil war was happily averted at the last moment, and a national convention, composed of senators and deputies from all parts of the country, assembled at Warsaw, in April 1573, for the purpose of electing a new king.
The religious difficulty, meanwhile, had been adjusted to the satisfaction of all parties by the compact of Warsaw (Jan.
Finally, early in April 1573, the election diet assembled at Warsaw, and on the 11th of May, in the midst of intrigue, corruption, violence and confusion, Henry of Valois was elected king of Poland.
This champion of freedom was very eloquent as to the wrongs of the szlachta, and proposed that the assembly should proceed in a body to Warsaw and there formally renounce their allegiance.
Despite their promises, Zebrzydowski and his colleagues a few months later were again in arms. In the beginning of 1607 they summoned another rokosz to Jendrzejow, at the very time when the diet was assembling at Warsaw.
But at the beginning of 1766 Prince Nicholas Repnin was sent as Russian minister to Warsaw with instructions which can only be described as a carefully elaborated plan for destroying the Republic. The first weapon employed was the dissident question.
Petersburg, petitioning Catherine to guarantee the liberties of the Republic, and allow the form of the Polish constitution to be settled by the Russian ambassador at Warsaw.
The constitution of the 3rd of May had scarce been signed when Felix Potocki, Severin Rzewuski and Xavier Branicki, three of the chief dignitaries of Poland, hastened to St Petersburg, and there entered into a secret convention with the empress, whereby she undertook to restore the old constitution by force of arms, but at the same time promised to respect the territorial integrity of the Republic. On the 14th of May 1792 the conspirators formed a confederation, consisting, in the first instance, of only ten other persons, at the little town of Targowica in the Ukraine, protesting against the constitution of the 3rd of May as tyrannous and revolutionary, and at the same time the new Russian minister at Warsaw presented a formal declaration of war to the king and the diet.
The focus of Polish nationality was now transferred from Warsaw, where the Targowicians and their Russian patrons reigned supreme, to Leipzig, whither the Polish patriots, Kosciuszko, Kollontaj and Ignaty Potocki among the number, assembled from all quarters.
The next blunder of the Polish refugees was to allow themselves to be drawn into a premature rising by certain Polish officers in Poland who, to prevent the incorporation of their regiments in the Russian army, openly revolted and led their troops from Warsaw to Cracow.
The Russians were defeated in more than one pitched battle; three-quarters of the ancient territory was recovered, and Warsaw and Vilna, the capitals of Poland and Lithuania respectively, were liberated.
The first serious reverse, at Szczekociny (June 5), was more than made up for by the successful defence of Warsaw against the Russians and Prussians (July 9 to Sept.
Prussia took Podlachia, and the rest of Masovia, with Warsaw; and Russia all the rest.
Even when, after the peace of Tilsit, the independent grand-duchy of Warsaw was constructed out of the central provinces of Prussian Poland, his distrust of Napoleon proved to be invincible.
The grand-duchy of Warsaw originally consisted of about 1850 sq.
- The Grand Duchy of Warsaw perished with the Grand Army in the retreat from Moscow in 1812.
The Russians occupied Warsaw on the 18th of February 1813 and overran the grand duchy, which thus came into their possession by conquest.
Alexander, who had a sentimental regard for freedom, so long as it was obedient to himself, had promised the Poles a The New constitution in April 1815 in a letter to Ostrov- Polish Con- skiy, the president of the senate at Warsaw.
His stitution, promise was publicly proclaimed on the 25th of 1815' May, and was reaffirmed in the Zamok or palace at Warsaw and the cathedral of St John on the 10th of June.
on the 29th of November 1830, a military revolt took place in Warsaw accompanied by the murder of the minister of war, Hauke, himself a Pole, and other loyal officers.
of discipline, intrigue and violence, as shown by the abominable massacre which took place in Warsaw when the defeat of the army was known.
The Polish universities of Warsaw and Vilna were suppressed, and the students compelled to go to St Petersburg and Kiev.
was crowned king in the Roman Catholic cathedral of Warsaw, and addressed a flattering speech to his Polish subjects in French, for he too could not speak their language.
They began in 1860 at the funeral of the widow of General Sobinski, killed in 1830, and on the 27th of February 1861 they led to the so-called Warsaw massacres, when the troops fired on a crowd which refused to disperse.
A good guide to the history of the Jagiellonic period, 1386-1572, is also Adolf Pawinski's Poland in the 15th Century (Pol., Warsaw, 1883-1886).
(4) The extremely valuable Prince Repnin in Poland by Aleksander Kraushar (Warsaw, 1900), one of the most thorough of contemporary Polish historians.
It was acted on the marriage of the chancellor Jan Zamoyski with Christine Radziwill, in the presence of King Stephen and his wife, at Ujazdowo near Warsaw in 1578.
Szarzynski, who died young in 1581, deserves notice as having introduced the 1 His collected works were printed in 1584; they were many times reprinted, the best edition being that of Warsaw (4 vols., 1884).
A later period, that of the miserable epoch of Augustus III., is described very graphically in the memoirs of Matuszewicz, first edited by Pawinski at Warsaw in 1876.
A notable man was Joseph Andrew Zaluski, bishop of Kiev, a Pole who had become thoroughly frenchified - so much so, that he preached in French to the fashionable congregations of Warsaw.
A national theatre was founded at Warsaw in 1765 under the influence of the court, but it was not till long afterwards that anything really national connected with the drama appeared in Poland.
Interesting memoirs have been published by Kilinski, a Warsaw shoemaker, and Kosmian, state referendary, who lived about this time and saw much of the War of Independence and other political affairs.
John Paul Woronicz (1757-1829) born in Volhynia, and at the close of his life bishop of Warsaw and primate of Poland, was a very eloquent divine, and has been called the modern Skarga.
His first production was Pan Geldhab, written in 1819 and produced at Warsaw in 1821.
An active co-operator with Kollataj was Salesius Jezierski, who founded clubs for the discussion of political questions, and Stanislaus Staszic, who did much for education and improved the condition of the university of Warsaw.
In 1820 he was sent to the university of Warsaw, where he had Goszczynski as a fellow student.
Perhaps the most celebrated Polish authoress was Klementina Hoffmann, whose maiden name was Tanska, born at Warsaw in 1798.
The four centres of Polish literature, which, in spite of the attempts which have been made to denationalize the country, is fairly active, are Cracow, Posen, Lemberg and Warsaw.
At Warsaw, since the last insurrection, the university has become entirly Russianized, and its Transactions are published in Russian; but Polish works of merit still issue from the press - among others the leading Polish literary journal, Biblioteka warszawska.
Many of her tales - as, for instance, Argonauci (" The Argonauts") - have appeared in the Tygodnik, or weekly illustrated journal of Warsaw.
Chodkiewicz as indicated by his Letters (Pol.; Warsaw, 1 854).
Weiss (Vienna, 1862), and with the commentary of Shimshon (Samson) of Siens (Warsaw, 1866); see Jew.
JOACHIM LELEWEL (1786-1861), Polish historian, geographer and numismatist, was born at Warsaw on the 22nd of March 1786.
Joachim was educated at the university of Vilna, and became in 1807 a teacher in a school at Krzemieniec in Volhynia, in 1814 teacher of history at Vilna, and in 1818 professor and librarian at the university of Warsaw.
Lelewel was removed from his professorship in 1824, and returned to Warsaw, where he was elected a deputy to the diet in 1829.
His method is shown in the little history of Poland, first published at Warsaw in Polish in 1823, under the title Dzieje Polski, and afterwards almost rewritten in the Histoire de Pologne (2 vols., Paris, 1844).
While employed in the university library of Warsaw he studied bibliography, and the fruits of his labours may be seen in his Bibliograficznych Ksiag dwoje (A Couple of Books on Bibliography) (2 vols., Vilna, 1823-1826).
(1587-1632) to Warsaw.
On the third partition of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of Cracow; but in 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the rule of the king of Saxony.
In the campaign of 1812 the emperor Alexander made himself master of this and the other territory which formed the duchy of Warsaw.
Shortly afterwards he was besieged by Augustus in Warsaw and compelled to surrender.
of Warsaw for 1863; Stanislaw Przylenski, Memorials of the Koniecpolskis (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1842).
Augustus was then deposed in Poland, and after holding Warsaw for a short time he fled to Saxony.
Augustus died at Warsaw on the 1st of February 1733, leaving a son Frederick Augustus, who succeeded him in Poland and Saxony, and many illegitimate children, among whom was the famous general, Maurice of Saxony, known as Marshal Saxe.
Although he had previously published meritorious researches on piezoelectricity, the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures, and other topics, he was chiefly known for his work on radium carried out jointly with his wife, Marie Sklodowska, who was born at Warsaw on the 7th of November 1867.
Aleksandrenko, Russian Diplomatic Agents in London in the 18th Century (Rus.) (Warsaw, 1897-1898; German ed., Guben, 1898); S.
At the end of 1810 he became French resident at Warsaw and was for a couple of years supreme in the affairs of the grand duchy.
There is more than one meaning of Warsaw discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
(Vienna, 1904); Zygmunt Celichowski, Materials for the history of the reign of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Posen, 1900); Adolf Pawinski, The youthful years of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1893); Adam Darowski, Bona Sforza (1904).
above Warsaw, rises in the south-western corner of Poland, and flows for zoo m.
are not uncommon, and the rivers are generally icebound for two and a half to three months - the Warta being under ice for 70 to 80 days, the Vistula at Warsaw for 80 days and (exceptionally) even for 116, and the Memel for 100 (exceptionally for 140).
Of the towns of Poland 32 have a population each exceeding 10,000, the largest being Warsaw the capital, with 638,208 inhabitants in 1897 and 756,426 in 1901; Lodz, with 315,209 in 1897 and 35 1, 57 0 in 1900; Czenstochowa, with 45,130 in 1897 and 53,650 in 1900; and Lublin, with 50,152 in 1897.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.
The cultivation of tobacco is successfully carried on, especially in the governments of Warsaw, Plock and Lublin.
The principal industrial centres are Lodz (textiles), Warsaw (sugar, leather and miscellaneous) and Bendzin - Sosnowice - Dombrowa, in Piotrkow (mining).
The sugar factories and refineries, situated chiefly in the governments of Warsaw, Lublin and Plock, turn out approximately one million tons of sugar in the year, the Polish sugar industry being exceeded in Russia only by that of Kiev.
Warsaw) boots and shoes have a great reputation throughout the Russian empire.
A line of great importance, connecting Vienna with St Petersburg, crosses the country from south-west to north-east, passing through the mining district and through Warsaw, and sending a short branch to Lodz.
A branch line, parallel to this last, connects Skierniewice with Thorn and Bromberg; while a military railway connects the fortresses of Warsaw and Ivangorod with Brest-Litovsk, via.
The principal fairs are held at Warsaw (wool, hemp, hops), Lcczyca in Kalisz, Skaryszew in Radom, Ciechanoviec in Lomza, and Lowicz in Warsaw.
The entire administration of Poland is under the governor-general residing at Warsaw.
He is at the same time the commander of the military forces of the " Warsaw military district."
Justice is represented by the gmina tribunals, which correspond to those of the mir in Russia; the justices of the peace (nominated by government); the syezd, or " court " of the justices of the peace; the district tribunals (assizes) in each government; and the Warsaw courts of appeal and cassation.
The new municipal law of 1870, first introduced at Warsaw, reduced the functions of the municipal council almost to nothing.
The centre of these latter is Warsaw, with Novogeorgievsk, formerly Modlin, in the north, at the mouth of the Bug, and Ivangorod, formerly Demblin, in the south, at the mouth of the Wieprz.
Poland is now divided into four dioceses - Warsaw, Sgdomierz, Lublin and Plock.
The educational institutions of Poland are represented by a university at Warsaw, with 1500 students.
At Warsaw there is a good musical conservatory.
During a temporary flight from Warsaw the child was lost, and eventually discovered in a stable; on another occasion she was for safety's sake hidden in an oven.
After his marriage he went to Vienna to press the restitution of his wife's rights, and spent some time in Warsaw.
He had, it is true, been unable to prevent the retention of the grand-duchy of Warsaw by Alexander of Russia; but with the aid of Great Britain and France (secret treaty of January 3, 1815) he had frustrated the efforts of Prussia to absorb the whole of Saxony, Bavaria was forced to disgorge the territories gained for her by Napoleon at Austria's expense, Illyria and Dalmatia were regained, and Lombardy was added to Venetia to constitute a kingdom under the Habsburg crown; while in the whole Italian peninsula French was replaced by Austrian influence.
1 The treaty of Vienna, which added largely to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, he complained had " ill requited him for his loyalty," and he was only mollified for the time by Napoleon's public declaration that he had no intention of restoring Poland, and by a convention, signed on the 4th of January 1810 but not ratified, abolishing the Polish name and orders of chivalry.
Peru is served by the Chicago Cincinnati & Louisville, the Lake Erie & Western and the Wabash railways (each of which maintains shops here), and by electric lines to Indianapolis, Warsaw and other cities.
from the railway from Moscow to Warsaw, on the high craggy banks of the Shchara.
PIOTR SKARGA (1532-1612), Polish writer and reformer, was born at Grojec near Warsaw in 1532.
The same year Catherine transferred him to Warsaw as minister plenipotentiary, with especial instructions to form a Russian party in Poland from among the dissidents, who were to receive equal rights with the Catholics.
Kraushar, Prince Repnin in Poland, 1764-8 (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1900); "Correspondence with Frederick the Great and others" (Rus.
The town is also the centre of the tallow trade with Warsaw; considerable quantities of timber are floated down to this place.
JACKSON, ANDREW (1767-1845), 41 president of the United States, was born on the 15th of March 1767, at the Waxhaw or Warsaw settlement, in Union county, North Carolina, or in Lancaster county, South Carolina, whither his parents had immigrated from Carrickfergus, Ireland, in 1765.
Passionately enamoured of the princess of Conde, he set out reluctantly to Warsaw, but, on the death of his brother Charles IX.
It affected also Transylvania and part of Hungary, and still more severely Poland, but was confined to Podolia, Volhynia, the Ukraine and east Galicia (5° E.), not even penetrating as far as Warsaw.
During the eight years following he was' T heard at all the principal centres - including London, Leipzig, Berlin, Copenhagen, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Constantinople, Lisbon and Madrid.
Szelagowski, The Fight for the Baltic (Pol.; Warsaw, 1904); K.
IVAN FEDOROVICH PASKEVICH (1782-1856), count of Erivan, prince of Warsaw, Russian field marshal, descended from an old and wealthy family, was born at Poltava on the 19th (8th) of May 1782.
In 1831 he was entrusted with the command of the army sent to suppress the revolt of Poland, and after the fall of Warsaw, which gave the death-blow to Polish independence, he was raised to the dignity of prince of Warsaw, and created viceroy of the kingdom of Poland.
He died on the 13th (1st) of February 1856 at Warsaw, where in 1869 a memorial was erected to him.
Warsaw, Poland (Government) >>
Since that time the Russians have made many additions to the works, and the place now forms, with Warsaw, Ivangorod and Brest-Litovsk, the so-called Polish Quadrilateral.
The importance of the fortress lies in the fact that it prevents Warsaw from being turned by a force on the lower Vistula and commands the railway between Danzig and Warsaw.
At Warsaw he met Anne Poniatowski, Countess Potocka, with whom he rapidly became intimate.
long., at the junction of the navigable river Mukhovets with the Bug, and at the intersection of railways from Warsaw, Kiev, Moscow and East Prussia.
From 1864 to 1866 he taught geography at the military school at Warsaw, and in 1867 he was admitted to the general staff and sent to Irkutsk, where he started to explore the highlands on the banks of the Usuri, the great southern tributary of the Amur.
Temperatures as high as 100° to 105° and as low as - 20° or - 30° are recorded locally almost every year, and the maximum range of extremes shown by the records is from 116° at Marble Hill, Bollinger county, in July 1901, to - 40° at Warsaw, Benton county, in February 1905.
Failing to get redress nearer home, he determined to seek for justice at Warsaw, whither he had been summoned with other Cossack delegates to assist Wladislaus IV.
The Siddur was published in Warsaw in two parts (1865).
In 1807, after the peace of Tilsit, Posen was incorporated with the grand duchy of Warsaw, but in 1815 it reverted to Prussia under the style of the grand duchy of Posen.
In 1868 she married Count Bozenta Chlapowski, a Polish politician and critic, and almost immediately afterwards received an invitation to act at Warsaw.
ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, ranking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw.
By the treaty of Tilsit it was transferred to the duchy of Warsaw; in 1813 it was occupied by the Russians, and in 1815 was restored to Prussia.
ALEXANDRE FLORIAN JOSEPH COLONNA, WALEWSKI Comte (1810-1868), French politician and diplomatist, was born at Walewice near Warsaw on the 4th of May 1810, the son of Napoleon I.
After the fall of Warsaw he took out letters of naturalization in France and entered the French army, seeing some service in Algeria.
For a time he thought of responding to the appeal of some of the Polish revolutionaries, but Warsaw succumbed (September 1831) before he could set out.
On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.
Their violence prevented "the pasha," as they called him, from attending the convention summoned to Warsaw on the death of Bathory; but at the subsequent election diet, which met at Warsaw on the 9th of July 1587, he appeared at the head of 6000 veterans and intrenched himself with his partisans in what was called "the Black Camp" in contradistinction to "the General Camp" of the Zborowski.
Goshen is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways, and is connected by electric railway with Warsaw and South Bend.
Constantine was at Warsaw; Nicholas, who on the 3rd of May of the same year had become chief of the 2nd division of the infantry of the Guard, was too conscious of his unpopularity in the army - the fruit of his drastic discipline - to dare to assume the crown without a public abdication on the part of the legitimate heir.
" 4 Nicholas himself ascribed his hatred of Poles and Jews to the stories told him by his English nurse, Miss Lyon, of her sufferings during the siege of Warsaw in 1794.
In October 1850 he had a meeting with Francis Joseph at Warsaw, at which Count Brandenburg and Prince Schwarzenberg were present.
In October 1853 Nicholas met his brother monarchs of the triple alliance at Warsaw for the last time.
On September 1, 1939, as the war broke out, Warsaw suffered the first German air raids on a major city.
The Warsaw Uprising was a valiant attempt in 1944 by the Home army of Warsaw to defeat the German army in their city.
The German Army used 600mm siege guns on Warsaw and the Luftwaffe bom bed the city around-the-clock.
Again a high-level Soviet delegation arrives in Warsaw (Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Molotov ), demanding talks with the leaders of the PZPR.
doctorate in physics from Warsaw University in 1938.
high-level Soviet delegation arrives in Warsaw (Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Molotov ), demanding talks with the leaders of the PZPR.
But the protest in Warsaw was totally ignored by the local media.
inch of snow on the roofs of Warsaw.
Tickets £ 4. Tuesday 8th February − the utterly mind-blowing Warsaw Village Band are at Pocklington Arts Center (01759 301547 ).
The Warsaw Voice weekly newspaper is a favorite for the city's English-speaking community.
The latter two will almost certainly establish a Caucasian partnership, with the Warsaw Pact the most likely long-term gravitational center.
Thereafter, he continues at Warsaw University, graduating with an MA in romance philology.
phoenix from the ashes of WWII, Warsaw is essentially a postwar city.
The Soviet Republic replied by swelling the ranks of the Red Army to five million and launching the contentious march on Warsaw.
After brutally ending the uprising, the Germans systematically razed Warsaw to the ground.
razed to ground by the German forces along with the rest of Warsaw in 1944.
The brigade was not part of WGF, but had been directly subordinate to the Warsaw Pact, i.e. the Russians, and Moscow.
For two months, the people of Warsaw fought the Germans in an uprising that should have received the support of the Allies.
Warsaw Drinking culture The Poles have always liked a tipple.
warsaw pact countries had their tanks moving.
Of his numerous works the most notable are: Political Speeches as Vice-Chancellor (Pol.) (in 6 vols., Warsaw, 1791); On the Erection and Fall of the Constitution of May (Pol.) (Leipzig, 1793; Paris, 1868); Correspondence with T.
The summer isotherms cross the winter isotherms nearly at right angles, so that Kiev and Ufa, Warsaw and Tobolsk, Riga and the upper Kama have the same average summer temperatures of 64Ã‚°, 622Ã‚° and 61Ã‚° respectively.
Apricots and walnuts flourish at Warsaw, but in Russia they do not thrive beyond 50Ã‚°.
He studied music chiefly at Warsaw, Berlin and Vienna, where he was a pupil of Theodor Leschetizky (b.
The Austrian demands, first presented to him on the 16th of May, shortly after his victory of Liitzen, were (1) the dissolution of the grand duchy of Warsaw, (2) the withdrawal of France from the lands of north-west Germany annexed in 1810 and (3) the cession to Austria of the Illyrian provinces wrested from her in 1809.
He remained, however, in complete ignorance of the degree of preparation attained on the Russian side, and since the seizure of Warsaw together with the control of the resources of Poland in men and material its occupation would afford, was the chief factor in his calculation, he turned at once to the eastward as soon as all further organized resistance in Prussia was ended by the surrender of Prenzlau and Lubeck.
ALEKSANDER WIELOPOLSKI, Marquis of Gonzaga-Mysz kowski (1803-1877), Polish statesman, was educated in Vienna, Warsaw, Paris and GÃƒ¶ttingen.
In 1526 the male line of the ancient dynasty became extinct, and on the 26th of August Sigismund received the homage of the Masovians at Warsaw, the capital of the duchy and ere long of the whole kingdom.
Unfortunately, Venice, for her own safety's sake, insisted on the publication of Wladislaus's antiTurkish alliance; the Porte, well informed of the course of Polish affairs, remained strictly neutral despite the most outrageous provocations; and Wladislaus, bound by his coronation oath not to undertake an offensive war, found himself at the mercy of the diet which, full of consternation and rage, assembled at Warsaw on the 2nd of May 1647.
But there were many malcontents, principally among the Lithuanians, who solicited the intervention of Russia in favour of the elector of Saxony, son of the late king, and in October 1733 a Russian army appeared before Warsaw and compelled a phantom diet (it consisted of but 15 senators and Augustus 500 of the szlachta) to proclaim Augustus III.
He evacuated Warsaw and finally left the country, dying at Vitebsk on the 27th of June 1831 (see Constantine Pavlovich).
(1) Lelewel's History of the Reign of Stanislaus Augustus (Pol., Warsaw, 1831; Fr.
Tanning is centred in Warsaw and Radom; Polish (i.e.
It affected also Transylvania and part of Hungary, and still more severely Poland, but was confined to Podolia, Volhynia, the Ukraine and east Galicia (5Ã‚° E.), not even penetrating as far as Warsaw.
In three days he had succeeded in per suading the Swedish estates of the lucrative expediency of his unnecessary and immoral attack on Poland (see Poland: History); but when he quitted Stockholm for Warsaw, on the 10th of July 1654, he little imagined that he had embarked on an adventure which was to contribute far more to his glory than to the advantage of his country.
Temperatures as high as 100Ã‚° to 105Ã‚° and as low as - 20Ã‚° or - 30Ã‚° are recorded locally almost every year, and the maximum range of extremes shown by the records is from 116Ã‚° at Marble Hill, Bollinger county, in July 1901, to - 40Ã‚° at Warsaw, Benton county, in February 1905.
See Vincent'Laureo, 1574-78, et ses depeches inedites (Ital.) (Warsaw, 1877); Augu s tin Theiner, Vetera monuments Poloniae et Lituaniae vol.
Suddenly expelled from Mittau in 1801 by the capricious Paul I., Louis made his way, in the depth of winter, to Warsaw, where he stayed for three years.
At Kamenka a relay of horses was to wait which would take them to the Warsaw highroad, and from there they would hasten abroad with post horses.
We took Vienna, Berlin, Madrid, Naples, Rome, Warsaw, all the world's capitals....
"The path to Warsaw, perhaps," Prince Hippolyte remarked loudly and unexpectedly.
It was razed to ground by the German forces along with the rest of Warsaw in 1944.
Warsaw has shaken the dust from its hair and has slicked it to impress.
Alberr Aug 12 2004, 11:34 AM... just sickened at what they are doing in Najaf... reminds me of Warsaw...
NATO actually had a policy of attacking first, if the warsaw pact countries had their tanks moving.
Krupa was born on April 23, 1979 in Warsaw, Poland, where she lived until she was five years old.
In the film, Paquin portrays a Catholic social worker in the Warsaw Ghetto who saves many Jewish children.
Ian Curtis formed Warsaw with Bernard Summer, Terry Mason and Peter Hook after witnessing one of the legendary Sex Pistols gigs at the Lesser Free Trade Hall in the summer of 1976.
As Warsaw, the boys played their first gig on the 29th May 1977 at the Electric Circus.
They changed their name to Joy Division in January 1978 after discovering that there was already a London based band called Warsaw Pakt.
Coming to England shortly after the completion of his education in the Rabbinic College at Warsaw, Dr Ginsburg continued his study of the Hebrew Scriptures, with special attention to the Megilloth.
JOSEF BEM (1795-1850), Polish soldier, was born at Tarnow in Galicia, and was educated at the military school at Warsaw, where he especially distinguished himself in mathematics.
Warsaw (1898); Zool.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
The chief first-class fortresses of Russia are Warsaw and Novogeorgievsk in Poland, and Brest-Litovsk and Kovno in Lithuania.
Dvina ice prevents navigation for 125 days, and even the Vistula at Warsaw remains frozen for 77 days.
The summer isotherms cross the winter isotherms nearly at right angles, so that Kiev and Ufa, Warsaw and Tobolsk, Riga and the upper Kama have the same average summer temperatures of 64°, 622° and 61° respectively.
Apricots and walnuts flourish at Warsaw, but in Russia they do not thrive beyond 50°.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.