How to use Warfare in a sentence
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Commercial warfare was to be avoided because of the cost.
Spain is a classic country of " guerilla warfare.
But there is also an economic side to it by reason of the conditions of modern warfare.
The important results obtained showed that a weapon of great power had been provided for assisting naval warfare.Advertisement
According to the terms of this treaty, the communes were confirmed in their right of self-government by con6uls, and their right of warfare.
He drew from the writers of the old political comedy of Athens, as well as from the new comedy of manners, and he attempted to make the stage at Rome, as it had been at Athens, an arena of political and personal warfare.
He carried on a successful warfare against the old combination laws that hampered workmen and favoured masters; he brought about the repeal of the laws prohibiting the export of machinery and of the act preventing workmen from going abroad.
The total losses suffered by private citizens and corporate societies until the advent of Bolshevism is valued at 1,930,000,000 gold rubles; Soviet Russia inflicted losses to the amount of 953,000,000 gold rubles; German occupation and warfare to that of 481,000,000 marks.
Otto was succeeded by his son Albert, called the Proud, who was engaged in warfare with his brother Dietrich until his death in 1195.Advertisement
Occasional political outbreaks occurred, but none of very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul, where a long guerrilla warfare was carried on against the imperial authority.
One of the most heroic exploits in the annals of warfare is associated with the cathedral.
This remark, when it was spoken, passed unnoticed, being indeed nothing more than one of the commonplaces of party warfare.
An influential association, called " The Society for Supporting the Bill of Rights," was founded, mainly through the exertions of Horne, in 1769, but the members were soon divided into two opposite camps, and in 1771 Home and Wilkes, their respective leaders, broke out into open warfare, to the damage of their cause.
It argued no ordinary foresight thus to recognize that Hungary's strategy in her contest with the Turks must be strictly defensive, and the wisdom of Sigismund was justified by the disasters which almost invariably overcame the later Magyar kings whenever they ventured upon aggressive warfare with the sultans.Advertisement
The continued presence of American warships on the Dalmatian coast alone prevented a series of brawls between Italian sailors and the Croat population from developing into open warfare.
Small armies moving freely within a large theatre of war, the occupation of hostile territory as a primary object of operations, the absence of a decision-compelling spirit on either side, the hostile political "view" over-riding the hostile "feeling" - all these conditions remind the student of those of 17th and 18th century warfare.
The living organism may be regarded as constantly engaged in a warfare with these silent and apparently insignificant messengers of destruction and death, with the result that too often the battle ends in favour of the attacking enemy.
It suffered much in1865-1866from the savage struggle between Imperialists and Republicans, and in subsequent partisan warfare.
Up to this time the history of the province is little else than a record of savage warfare with the Apaches, Seris, Yaquis and other tribes.Advertisement
The development of rich gold and silver mines brought in more Spanish settlers, and then the record changes to one of partisan warfare, which continued down to the administration of President Porfirio Diaz.
Yet all that we read of Syracusan military and naval action during the former part of the Athenian siege shows how Syracuse had lagged behind the cities of old Greece, constantly practised as they were in warfare both by land and sea.
Syracusan and Selinuntine ships under Hermocrates now play a distinguished part in the warfare between Sparta and Athens on the coast of Asia.
Besides the triremes, or vessels with three banks of oars, we hear of quadriremes and quinqueremes with four and five banks of oars - larger and taller and more massive ships than had yet been used in Greek sea warfare.
But trench warfare was the order of the day, and the British and French were trying to carry this on without that ample artillery support which is almost indispensable when earthworks have to be stormed under modern tactical conditions.Advertisement
Guru Arjan, who was in charge of the great Sikh temple at Amritsar, received copious offerings and became a man of wealth and influence, while the sixth guru became a military leader, and was frequently at warfare with the Mogul authorities.
Pulpit warfare was waged between Savdnarola and his opponents, and the matter ended in his being forbidden to preach and in a proposed ordeal by fire, which, however, never came off.
While the Martello tower owes its reputation and its widespread adoption in Great Britain to a single incident of modern warfare, the round masonry structure entered by a door raised high above the base is to be found in many lands, and is one of the earliest types of masonry fortification.
They were entirely devoted to warfare and served not only in the Roman armies, but also in those of all the surrounding nations.
Eighty years of warfare followed, but in the end the Moslems prevailed.
Six years later he was associated with his father in the wardenship of the eastern march of Scotland,, and his zeal in border warfare won the name of Hotspur for him from his opponents.
In 1462 there was warfare between two rival archbishops, Diether or Dietrich II.
This culminated in open warfare, and from 1584 to 1622 BadenBaden was in the possession of one of the princes of BadenDurlach.
For years he was engaged in subduing the native princes, and in carrying on warfare with the Christians.
In 1746 he was made commissary of the province for Indian affairs, and was influential in enlisting and equipping the Six Nations for participation in the warfare with French Canada, two years later (1748) being placed in command of a line of outposts on the New York frontier.
His Son, SIR John Johnson (1742-1830), Who was knighted in 1765 and succeeded to the baronetcy on his father's death, took part in the French and Indian War and in the border warfare during the War of Independence, organizing a loyalist regiment known as the "Queen's Royal Greens," which he led at the battle of Oriskany and in the raids (1778 and 1780) on Cherry Valley and in the Mohawk Valley.
His authority, save in Saxony, was merely nominal; but by negotiation rather than by warfare he secured a recognition of his sovereignty from the Bavarians and the Swabians.
It is strongly coloured with his enthusiasm for ancient Rome; and specially upon the topic of artillery it displays a want of insight into the actualities of modern warfare.
If he had not become sovereign of the Low Countries, as heir of Mary of Burgundy through his father, Philip would in all probability have devoted himself to warfare with the Turks in the Mediterranean, and to the conquest of northern Africa.
The deposition and death of the empress foiled this plan; and after a desultory warfare in Italy between the two empires, negotiations were recommenced which in 810 led to an arrangement between Charles and the eastern emperor, Nicephorus I.
In 799 the Balearic Islands had been handed over to Charles, and a long warfare was carried on both by sea and land between Frank and Saracen until 810, when peace was made between the emperor and El-Hakem, the emir of Cordova.
The church fell back on carnal weapons in her warfare and invoked the secular powers to uphold the ecclesiastical.
With the Mexicans war was a passion, but warfare was little above the raid (Bandelier; Farrand).
The peace decrees of these various synods differed considerably in detail, but in general they were intended fully to protect non-combatants; they forbade, under pain of excommunication, every act of private warfare or violence against ecclesiastical buildings and their environs, and against certain persons, such as clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women and peasants, and against cattle and agricultural implements.
The treuga or treva Dei, the prohibition of every act of private warfare during certain days, goes back at least to the Synod of Elne, held in the Pyrenees in 1027, which suspended all warfare from noon on Saturday till prime on Monday.
In England, where the Truce of God does not seem to have acquired a firm footing, state law against private warfare obtained practically from the time of the Norman conquest.
His only experience of warfare seems to have been at the siege of Fort Erie (Canada) in 1814.
Out of this warfare arose an organized movement for a government in which the colonists should have a voice.
Their style of warfare, too, caused them to throw away the immense advantages which the broken bush-clad island offered to clever guerrilla partisans.
Politics, cleared of the cross-issues of provincialism and Maori warfare, took the usual shape of a struggle between wealth and radicalism.
In October 1877 the Nez Perces under Chief Joseph after a masterly retreat from Idaho of over loon m., probably unequalled in Indian warfare, were hemmed in by greatly superior forces and captured in the Bear Paw Mountains in Chouteau county.
His position in the Blaine campaign, his attitude in tariff discussions and legislation, his relations with United States senators, congressional representatives, and other party leaders, his methods in making official appointments, were entirely consistent with his constantly reiterated conviction that in politics permanent good is achieved not by guerilla warfare, but by working through and within the party.
This struggle was renewed by Charlemagne in 772, and a warfare of thirty-two years' duration was marked by the readiness of the Saxons to take advantage of the difficulties of Charles in other parts of Europe, and by the missionary character which the Frankish king imparted to the war.
Liudolf, who is sometimes called " duke of the East Saxons," carried on a vigorous warfare against the Sla y s and extended his influence over other parts of Saxony.
During the century which followed the death of Hermann Billung, there had been constant warfare with the Slays, but although the emperors had often taken the field, the Saxons had been driven back to the Elbe, which was at this time their eastern boundary.
Neither side met with much success in the desultory warfare that ensued, and Frederick made peace between the combatants at Wurzburg in June 1168.
The Mycenaeans, who had temporarily regained their independence with the help of Sparta, fought on the Greek side at Plataea in 479 B.C. The long warfare between the two cities lasted till 468 B.C., when Mycenae was dismantled and its inhabitants dispersed.
In warfare carried on in such a country as Greece, sea-girt and with a coast deeply indented, inland without roads and intersected with rugged mountains, victory - as Wellington was quick to observe - must rest with the side that has command of the sea.
On land the presence of a few educated Phanariots, such as Demetrios Ypsilanti or Alexander Mavrocordato, was powerless to inspire the rude hordes with any sense of order or of humanity in warfare; while every lull in the fighting, due to a temporary check to the Turks, was the signal for internecine conflicts due to the rivalry of leaders who, with rare exceptions, thought more of their personal power and profit than of the cause of Greece.
He possessed, to an extraordinary degree, a power of getting into intimate association with the Arabs of the desert, such as has belonged to but one or two of his predecessors in Arabian travel, and he combined with this gift the soldier's instinct and a capacity for leadership which raised him at once to the first rank of commanders in desert warfare.
In fact, the Persian religion throughout all its multitude of purifications, observances and expiations was a constant warfare against impurity, death and the devil.
In consideration of their efforts to achieve independence, Great Britain regards the Czechoslovaks as an Allied nation and recognizes the unity of the three Czechoslovak armies as an Allied and belligerent army waging a regular warfare against Austria-Hungary and Germany...
He was primarily a warrior, whose reign, an almost uninterrupted warfare, resulted in the formation of a vast kingdom extending from the Baltic to the Carpathians, and from the Elbe to the Bug.
The pick of the feudal chivalry composed their ranks; with all Europe to draw upon, their resources seemed inexhaustible, and centuries of political experience made them as formidable in diplomacy as they were valiant in warfare.
The miserable collapse of the Polish chivalry during the Bukovinian campaign of 1497 had convinced every one that the ruszenie pospolite was useless for serious military purposes, and that Poland, in order to hold her own, must in future follow the example of the West, and wage her warfare with trained mercenaries.
In time of peace his power was little more than that of the responsible minister of a constitutional republic; but in time of warfare he was a dictator, and disobedience to his orders in the field was punishable by death.
Another firstclass work, relating to the same period and dealing specifically with the mode of warfare of heroic Poland, is Jozef Tretiak's History of the War of Chocim (Pol., Lemberg, 1893).
Some there were who hoped that so great an opportunity would not be lost, but that the statesmen would initiate such measures of international disarmament as would perpetuate the blessings of that peace which Europe was again enjoying after twenty years of warfare.
Regular warfare was now at an end, although Turreau and his "infernal columns" still continued to scour the disaffected districts.
That he enjoyed warfare there can be no doubt; and his splendid physique and early training had well fitted him for martial exercises.
Though wooden ships were still largely employed, the ironclad even then had begun to take a commanding place, and the sailing ship at last disappeared from naval warfare.
There were occasional native risings, as in Samoa (where, however, the fighting was rather in the nature of civil warfare), the French possessions in eastern Polynesia, and the New Hebrides, apart from attacks on individual settlers or visitors, which have occurred here and there from the earliest period of exploration.
Among his avowed antagonists in literary warfare the most distinguished were Malone and Steevens, the Shakespeare editors; Mathias, the author of the Pursuits of Literature; Dr Jamieson, the Scottish lexicographer; Pinkerton, the historian; Dr Irving, the biographer of the Scottish poets; and Dr Currie of Liverpool.
At the Antietam his corps bore the brunt of the battle, which was one of the most stubborn of modern warfare.
Refusing to entangle himself in the abortive and equivocal schemes of Lepidus to subvert the Sullan constitution, Caesar took up the only instrument of political warfare left to the opposition by prosecuting two senatorial governors, Cn.
Thenceforward, till the second election of Porfirio Diaz to the presidency in 1884, the history of Mexico is one of almost continuous warfare, in which Maximilian's empire is a mere episode.
Taking the title margrave of Brandenburg, he pressed the warfare against the Wends, extended the area of his mark, did much for the spread of Christianity and civilization therein, and so became the founder of the margraviate of Brandenburg.
Meanwhile an active and bitter partisan warfare opened.
Alexander, son of Donald, resumed the hereditary warfare against the Scottish crown; and in 1462 a treaty was concluded between Alexander's son and successor John and Edward IV.
But for the most part the fatal parsimony of his country compelled Koniecpolski to confine himself to the harassing guerrilla warfare in which he was an expert.
The elder Muraqqish was the great-uncle of Tarafa of Bakr, the author of the Mu'allaqa, and took part in the long warfare between the sister tribes of Bakr and Taghlib, called the war of Basus, which began about the end of the 5th century A.D.
Frontenac planned attacks upon New England and encouraged a ruthless border warfare that involved many horrors.
In the meantime, however, his Indian career seemed likely to be sacrificed to the calls of warfare in another quarter.
He saw active service in savage warfare, and in 1887 served as a field-cornet.
His capacity was again demonstrated in the action of Belfast-Dalmanutha (August 23-28, 1900), and after the fall of Pretoria he reorganized the Boer resistance with a view to prolonged guerrilla warfare.
Thus, so long as she refrains from adopting conscription, she can only carry on defensive warfare.
We have been dealing hitherto with the elimination of the causes of war; neutralization is a curtailment of the areas of war and of the factors in warfare, of territory on the one hand and states on the other.
Realizing the superiority of European methods of warfare, he availed himself of the services of a Savoyard soldier of fortune, Benoit de Boigne, whose genius for military organization and command in the field was mainly instrumental in establishing the Mahratta power.
We need not doubt that the first invasion was followed by a long period of warfare between the natives and the invaders, in which the latter gradually strengthened their hold on the conquered territories.
Bows and arrows were certainly in use for sporting purposes, but there is no reason for believing that they were much used in warfare before the Danish invasions.
The failure of legitimate male issue of the later Carolingians gave Arnulf a more important position than otherwise he would have occupied; but he did homage to the emperor Charles the Fat in 882, and spent the next few years in constant warfare with the Sla y s and the Northmen.
It is probable, however, that the latter, like the liti or lati of later times, consisted not only of manumitted slaves but also of whole communities which had forfeited their liberty through unsuccessful warfare or other causes.
Naval warfare is seldom mentioned.
He kept to the far north of Mesopotamia to avoid his brother Ferhan; but finally half-sedentary tribes on the Khabur and the Belikh became tributary to him, and a more or less active warfare sprang up between the brothers, which ended in a partition of Mesopotamia.
Having succeeded his father as "bishop" of Halberstadt in 1616, he obtained some experience of warfare under Maurice, prince of Orange, in the Netherlands.
The use of reflecting mirrors for the purpose of observing from cover is no novelty, and during the trench warfare of the Crimean War 1854-5 a device was patented which scarcely differs from the simple mirror periscope of the World War.
But in order to obtain an adequate field of view, the mirrors, and therefore the box, had to be made somewhat large, and in the close-quarters conditions of trench warfare even the few inches by which they projected over the parapet or ether cover made them sufficiently obvious to draw fire.
This action was opposed by the church of New York City, and partly through this difference and partly because of quarrels over the denominational control of King's College (now Columbia), five members of the Coetus seceded, and as the president of the Coetus was one of them they took the records with them; they were called the Conferentie; they organized independently in 1764 and carried on a bitter warfare with the Coetus (now more properly called the American Classis), which in 1766 (and again in 1770) obtained a charter for Queen's (now Rutgers) College at New Brunswick.
Regarded as a method of military organization, the feudal system of tenures was always far better adapted to the purposes of defensive than of offensive warfare.
In warfare it was customary for knights who were thus allied to appear similarly accoutred and bearing the same badges or cognisances, to the end that their enemies might not know with which of them they were in conflict, and that their friends might be unable to accord more applause to one than to the other for his prowess in the field.
But, although these eminent warriors were subsequently elected as vacancies occurred, their admission was postponed to that of several very young and in actual warfare comparatively unknown knights, whose claims to the honour may be most rationally explained on the assumption that they had excelled in the particular feats of arms which preceded the institution of the order.
But when the Hundred Years' War brought a real national conflict between England and France, when archery became of supreme importance, and a large proportion even of the cavalry were mercenary soldiers, then the exigencies of serious warfare swept away much of that outward display and those class-conventions on which chivalry had always rested.
Their success was due as much to their readiness in adopting their enemy's methods of warfare as to their bravery.
Both brothers were then engaged in warfare with the other branches of the family and with the citizens of Munich.
The descriptions of their bodily appearance, tribal divisions, manner of life and methods of warfare are such as are applied to either race.
The sharp dissensions which existed among the princes over the question of reform culminated in open warfare in 1460, when Albert was confronted with a league under the leadership of the elector palatine, Frederick I., and Louis IX.
The war in Achin did not materially retard the development of Sumatra, and although the titular sultan of Achin continued a desultory guerrilla warfare against the Dutch in the mountainous woodlands of the interior, the almost inaccessible Pasei country, really active warfare has long ceased.
We notice, however, that the continual warfare in which the Roman state was engaged led to the decadence of the free population of Latium, and that the extension of the empire of Rome was fatal to the prosperity of the territory which immediately surrounded the city.'
A state of chronic warfare ensued, until the Ashanti sustained a signal defeat at Dodowah on the 7th of August 1826.
During the Civil War he rendered invaluable services to the Federal cause in the south-west as chief scout in charge of the various bodies of irregular scouts and rangers participating in the constant border warfare that characterized the conflict in that part of the Union.
He resigned the office of guardian, and betook himself again to a wandering life and a desultory and predatory warfare against the English.
He was well skilled in the modes of warfare that suited the country and the times.
He was engaged in warfare with the Bohemians and their Polish allies, when on the 18th of March 1438 he was chosen German king at Frankfort, an honour which he does not appear to have sought.
In spite of its dismembered condition, and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered greatly and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress.
Of his successors Ceol and Ceolwulf we know little though the latter is said to have been engaged in constant warfare.
During this warfare every male Paraguayan capable of bearing arms was forced to fight, whole regiments being formed of boys of from 12 to 15 years of age.
From Campania the rebels marched into Lucania, a country better suited for guerrilla warfare.
They begin in the thirteenth year of his reign, and tell us that in the ninth year he had invaded Kalinga, and had been so deeply impressed by the horrors involved in warfare that he had then given up the desire for conquest, and devoted himself to conquest by "religion."
These, like the Bedouin Arabs, are practically independent, waging constant warfare among themselves and paying an uncertain tribute to the Turkish government.
The foot artillery is intended for siege and fortress warfare, and to furnish the heavy artillery of the field army.
The engineers are a technical body, not concerned with field warfare or with the command of troops.
Otto then left Italy hurriedly, but he was quickly followed by his young rival, who in the warfare which had already broken out proved himself a formidable opponent.
The citizens, who were called upon to fight their battles, were usually unable to contend successfully with men whose whole lives had been passed in warfare; the isolation of the cities was not favorable to the creation or mobilization of an active and homogeneous force; and, moreover, at this time many of them were disturbed by internal troubles.
During this reign the conditions of warfare began to change.
The Hanoverian government, backed by the Frankfort diet, was still more successful in its warfare with the moderate reformers whom it was pleased to treat as revolutionists; and in Austria the feudalists so completely gained the upper hand that on the 18th of August 1855 the government signed a concordat, by which the state virtually submitted itself to the control of the church.
It was, however, in South-West Africa that the Germans had their chief and most bitter experience in colonial warfare.
As it progressed the Germans adopted many of the methods employed by the British in their colonial wars, and they learned to appreciate more accurately the immensity of the task which Lord Kitchener accomplished in overcoming the guerrilla warfare in the Boer republics.
These were followed by similar treaties with Rumania and Servia, and in 1894, after a period of sharp customs warfare, with Russia.
The main lines of Austrian policy under the Babenbergs were warfare with the Hungarians and other eastern neighbours, and a general attitude of loyalty towards the emperors.
With him in truth begins that wider range of Greek warfare, policy and dominion which the Macedonian kingdoms carry on.
Dionysius, now free from Phoenician warfare, gave his mind to enterprises which raised his power to its greatest height.
He also gave help to Sparta against Thebes, sending Gaulish and Iberian mercenaries to take part in Greek warfare.
For more than three years (310-307) each side carried on warfare in the land of the other.
Besides the struggle with the Christians in the island, there was often direct warfare between the empire and the Saracens; but such warfare was more active in Italy than in Sicily.
The Eastern warfare of the Good is stained by the frightful sack of Thessalonica; it is marked also by the formation of an Eastern state under Sicilian supremacy (1186).
The emperor Michael Palaeologus and Peter of Aragon became allies against Charles; the famous John of Procida acted as an agent between them; the costs of Charles's eastern warfare caused great discontent, especially in an island where some might still look to the Greek emperor as a natural deliverer.
This decree, though in accordance with the rigorous customs of ancient warfare as exemplified by the treatment which Sparta shortly afterwards meted out to the Plataeans,.
It does not appear whether he was with the Roman armies in the later stages of the Gothic War, when Belisarius and afterwards Narses fought against Totila in Italy; his narrative of these years is much less full and minute than that of the earlier warfare.
But fired by enthusiasm for the Greek revolution and by Byron's example, he was no sooner qualified and admitted to practice than he abandoned these prospects and took ship for Greece, where he joined the army and spent six years of hardship amid scenes of warfare.
The efforts of the administration to better the condition of the natives without undue interference with customary law met with encouraging results, and the submission of the Aros to the government in 1902 brought to an end the system of tribal warfare for the purpose of making slaves, while the enforcement of a proclamation of 1901 prohibiting the buying, pawning or selling of slaves had a salutary effect.
At first all seemed to go badly, as the British officers despised the enemy, and the sepoys were unaccustomed to mountain warfare, and thus alternate extremes of rashness and despondency were exhibited.
Slings are first heard of in Egyptian warfare in the 8th century B.C. The chariot was dOubtless introduced with the horse in the Hyksos period; several examples have been discovered in the tombs of the New Kingdom.
The GodsThe end of the pre-dynastic period, in which we dimly descry a number of independent tribes in constant warfare with one another, was marked by the rise of a united Egyptian state with a single Pharaonic ruler at its head.
In Arabia he encountered serious obstacles from the nature of the country and the harassing mode of warfare adopted by his adversaries.
Charles's short reign was an uninterrupted warfare.
A revolt of the janissaries induced him to return to power, and he spent the remaining six years of his life in warfare in Europe, defeating Hunyadi at Kossovo (October 17-19, 1448).
Their new stronghold, screened by mountains and forests, was unassailable by cavalry or artillery, but admirably suited to the light-armed Uskoks, whose excellence lay in guerilla warfare.
So in his warfare, though he kept strict discipline and allowed no wanton violence, he treated severely all who had in his opinion transgressed.
After the occupation of Pretoria in June 1900 by Lord Roberts the Boer forces had been reduced to guerilla warfare, and Lord Kitchener, learning that the Transvaal commandants were despondent, invited General Botha to enter into negotiations, on the basis of the recognition of British sovereignty.
The English under Prince Henry gained ground steadily, and the recovery of Aberystwith, after a long siege, in the autumn of 1408 marked the end of serious warfare.
In the third century, the period of Aurelianus and Gallienus, with its wild warfare of Romans and Persians, and of Roman pretenders one with another, seems especially to have aroused the spirit of prophecy.
His energetic and at the same time systematic tactics inaugurated a new era of mountain warfare.
The right of private warfare was abolished; the bishops were obliged to give up most of their temporal jurisdiction, the scope of their courts was limited, and appeals to Rome were curtailed.
His first care was to revenge his brother's death, and though it seems that Sasanka escaped destruction for a while (he was still ruling in 619), Harsha's experience of warfare encouraged him to make preparations for bringing all India under his sway.
For the first seven years of his reign Akbar was perpetually engaged in warfare.
War had just been declared between the British and French in Europe, and Clive, following the traditions of his early warfare in the Carnatic, attacked and captured Chandernagore.
But as soon as regular warfare commenced Mir Kasim met with no more successes.
With the help of some of the barons he drove Joanna and her second husband, Louis of Taranto, from the kingdom, and murdered Charles of Durazzo; but as Pope Clement refused to recognize his claims he went back to Hungary in 1348, and the fickle barons recalled Joanna, who returned and carried on desultory warfare with the partisans of Louis of Hungary.
At an early age he distinguished himself in constant warfare with the Germans, Swedes and Lithuanians, who tried to wrest Novgorod and Pskov from Russia while she was still suffering from the effects of the terrible Tatar invasion.
By the end of the 1st century the prestige of the Cherusci had declined through unsuccessful warfare with the Chatti.
Thenceforward he came to be regarded more and more as the most formidable leader of the Boers in their guerrilla warfare.
One of the reforms immediately undertaken was the disbanding of the Korean standing army, which led to an insurrection and an intermittent guerrilla warfare which, owing to the nature of the country, was not easy to subdue.
The fifteenth legislature (April 1864 to April 1865) ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, and passed laws against " bush-whacking," a term used in the Civil War for guerilla warfare, especially as carried on by pretended neutrals.
Quasi-legislation by treaty has been directed mainly to encouraging the settlement of international disputes by peaceful methods, and to regulating the conduct of warfare.
The second Hague conference, of 1907, besides revising the convention made by the first conference, of 18 99, as to the laws of war on land, produced new conventions, dealing respectively with the opening of hostilities; neutral rights and duties in land warfare; the status of enemy merchant ships at the outbreak of war; the conversion of merchant ships into ships of war; submarine mines; bombardment by naval forces; the application of the Geneva principles to naval warfare; the rights of maritime capture; the establishment of an international prize court; and neutral rights and duties in maritime warfare.
Mahommedans who do not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Ottoman sultan, such as the Persians and Moors, look to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Moslems on unbelievers since the early days of Mahommedanism.
After that, however, their political part was played out, mainly because they proved unable to keep up with modern conditions of warfare.
The warfare waged by these Filipinos against the United States, while having for the most part a desultory and guerilla character, was of a very protracted and troublesome nature.
As a proof of Pratt's moderation in a period of passionate party warfare and frequent state trials, it is noted that this was the only official prosecution for libel which he set on foot.
In spite of his chance victories, he was too shrewd an observer not to recognize the superiority of European methods of warfare; and as the first step towards the empire of which he dreamed he determined to create an army and a fleet on the European model.
At Bellingham it receives the Rede, whose wild valley, Redesdale, was one of the chief localities of border warfare, and contains the site of the battle of Otterburn (1388).
The quarrel with the papacy was continued with the new pope Urban III., and open warfare was begun.
That attempt to extinguish honest thought prepared the Reformation; and humanism after 1518 was absorbed in politico-religious warfare.
He waged continual warfare against the English in Maine until the advent of Joan of Arc. He fought at Jargeau, at Meung-sur-Loire and at Patay (1429).
Repeatedly damaged in Border warfare, it was ruined in 1544-45 during the English invasion led by Sir Ralph Evers (or Eure).
In 1660, after five years of incessant warfare, Sweden had at length obtained peace and with it the opportunity of organizing and developing her newly won empire.
This was the beginning of nearly a century of continuous warfare.
As there was no gold in the country the number of settlers was small, the loose tribal organization of the natives made it impossible to inflict a vital defeat on them, and the mountainous and thickly wooded country lent itself admirably to a warfare of surprises and ambuscades.
It was this constant warfare with the Indians and the necessity for hard continuous work, owing to the lack of precious metals in Chile, that no doubt helped to produce in the settlers the strength and hardihood of character that distinguishes the Chileans among South American races.
The Indian warfare occupied nearly the whole attention of the governors and much of the time of the settlers.
So matters continued - the Chileans administering on the seaboard and in the principal towns, the Peruvians maintaining a guerilla warfare in the mountainous districts of the interior.
President Montt next turned his attention towards the question of how best to repair the damage occasioned to the country by eight months of civil warfare.
But circumetances rendered impossible his immediate renewal of the Khorasan warfare.
In the sequel a kind of desultory warfare appears to have been prosecuted on the Persian side of Kurdistan, and the shah himself came down with an army to Hamadan.
He was a successful leader in guerilla warfare, alert and quick, yet cautious - a man, moreover, whose personal bravery was unquestioned.
There was the usual frontier warfare with the Saracens in Asia Minor.
Twenty years of bloody and purposeless warfare with the armies of the empire and with their fellow-barbarians, the Goths and the Suevi, followed.
At that time all the chief towns in both of the late republics were held by the British, and the Boers still in the field were reduced to guerilla warfare.
The Chouans then waged a guerrilla warfare against therepublicans and, sustained by the royalists and from abroad, carried on their assassinations and brigandage with success.
But after the decisive defeats at Le Mans and Savenay, Cottereau retired again to his old haunts in the wood of Misdon, and resumed his old course of guerrilla warfare.
This was the most distressing episode in all the turbulence of territorial days and border warfare in Kansas.
An almost uninterrupted warfare followed, from July 1809 till August 1825, with alternate successes on the side of the Spanish or royalist and the South American or patriot forces, - the scene of action lying chiefly between the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy and the shores of Lake Titicaca.
Four years of warfare, in which victory was alternately with the Spaniards and the patriots, was terminated in 1815 by the total rout of the latter in a battle which took place between Potosi and Oruro.
During this time and in the six succeeding years a guerrilla warfare was maintained by the patriots of Upper Peru, who had taken refuge in the mountains, chiefly of the province of Yungas, and who frequently harassed the royalist troops.
In 1862 a treaty of peace and commerce with the United States was ratified, and in the following year a similar treaty was concluded with Belgium; but new causes of disagreement with Chile had arisen in the discovery of rich beds of guano on the eastern coast-land of the desert of Atacama, which threatened warfare, and were only set at rest by the treaty of August 1866, in which the 24th parallel of latitude was adopted as the boundary between the two republics.
According to very ancient traditions accepted by the modern historians of Bohemia, the Boii, whose capital was called Boiohemum, were weakened by continual warfare with neighbouring tribes, and finally subdued by the Teutonic tribe of the Marcomanni (about 12 B.C.).
Desultory warfare broke out between the two parties, in which George was at first successful; but fortune changed when the king of Hungary invaded Moravia and obtained possession of Briinn, the capital of the country.
Prolonged desultory warfare continued up to 1478, when a treaty concluded at Olmi tz secured Bohemia to Vladislav; Matthias was to retain the so-called " lands of the Bohemian crown " - Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia - during his lifetime, and they were to be restored to Bohemia after his death.
The new officials thus incurred the displeasure of King Louis, who was at that moment seeking the aid of the pope in his warfare with Turkey.
Like most princes of the Habsburg dynasty, he was constantly confronted at this period by the difficulty of raising funds for warfare against the Turks.
Warfare with Austria continued during this year-1619.
Kenton was named in honour of Simon Kenton (1755-1836) a famous scout and Indian fighter, who took part in the border warfare, particularly in Kentucky and Ohio, during the War of American Independence and afterwards.
In the long tale of intrigue and warfare between the Goths and the two imperial courts which fills up this whole time, cessions of territory are offered to the Goths, provinces are occupied by them, but as yet they do not take root anywhere; no Western land as yet becomes Gothia.
In the field, armies lived as a rule in camp (q.v.), and when the provision of canvas shelter was impossible in bivouac. At the present time, however, it is unusual, in Europe at any rate, for troops on active service to hamper themselves with the enormous trains of tent wagons that would be required, and cantonments or bivouacs, or a combination of the two have therefore taken the place, in modern warfare, of the old long rectilinear lines of tents that marked the restingplace and generally, too, the order of battle of an 18th-century army.
A full account of the battle of' Beachy Head, written with ample quotation of documents, and for the purpose of vindicating Herbert, will be found in Admiral Colomb's Naval Warfare (London, 1 899).
The natives, however, maintained themselves in the interior, inaccessible to the Dutch troops, and carried on a guerilla warfare.
The circumstances out of which the battle of Marignan arose, almost inconceivable to the modern mind, were not abnormal in the conditions of Italian warfare and politics then prevailing.
Thus the mitre over an English bishop's coat-of-arms is a survival which indicates him as the successor of bishops who actually wore mitres, while armorial bearings themselves, and the whole craft of heraldry, are survivals bearing record of a state of warfare and social order whence our present state was by vast modification evolved.
The absence of large towns in Abyssinia proper is due to the provinces into which the country is divided having been for centuries in a state of almost continual warfare, and to the frequent change of the royal residences on the exhaustion of fuel supplies.
His choice of subject in this instance was certainly not made from any love of warfare or indifference to its horrors.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to warfare.
Tyrconnel, the district named after the Cinel Connell, where the O'Donnells held sway, comprised the greater part of the modern county of Donegal except the peninsula of Inishowen; and since it lay conterminous with the territory ruled by the O'Neills of Tyrone, who were continually attempting to assert their supremacy over it, the history of the O'Donnells is for the most part a record of tribal warfare with their powerful neighbours, and of their own efforts to make good their claims to the overlordship of northern Connaught.
In the spring of the following year Maria Theresa arrived at Prague and was crowned there, but in 1744 the city was again the scene of warfare.
Though numerous ancient monuments at Prague have been destroyed in consequence of intestine strife and foreign warfare, the city still contains many of great value and may be considered one of the most interesting cities of central Europe.
Besides those who died in warfare, whole tribes of Hottentots were destroyed by epidemics of smallpox in 1713 and in 1755.
The Basutos, who dwelt in the upper valleys of the Orange river, had subsisted under a semi-protectorate of the British government from 1843 to 1854; but having been left to their own resources on the abandonment of the Orange sovereignty, they fell into a long exhaustive warfare with the Boers of the Free State.
To the Declaration of Paris of 1856, prescribing certain rules of naval warfare, Marcy on behalf of his government refused to subscribe, because Great Britain had rejected his proposed amendment exempting from seizure in time of war all private property not contraband.
Owing to its situation Hawick was often imperilled by Border warfare and marauding freebooters.
Although a Quaker, he had a polemical spirit; men seeing Whittier only in his saintly age knew little of the fire wherewith, setting aside ambition and even love, he maintained his warfare against the " national crime," employing action, argument and lyric scorn.
The decade following the close of the war was one of ceaseless Indian warfare.
Military operations within her own borders were largely confined to a guerrilla warfare, carrying on the bitter neighbourhood strife between Kansas and Missouri.
Wallace, who had returned from France, kept up a guerilla warfare in the hills for a year more, but was captured in July 1305, and sent to London to be executed as a traitor.
These terms so irritated the Scots, who had shown signs of submission up to this moment, that they refused to accept the pretender, and kept up a long guerilla warfare which ended in his final expulsion..
The king marched against him in person in 1400 and 1401, but Glendower showed himself a master of guerrilla warfare; he refused battle, and defied pursuit in his mountains, till the stores of the English army were exhausted and Henry was forced to retire.
From this time onwards the Welsh rebellion gradually died down, till Owen relapsed into the position from which he had started, that of a guerrilla chief maintaining a predatory warfare in the mountains.
Meanwhile, in this period of warfare, another struggle was being fought out on a still greater scale in North America.
Troops were of course sent from England to maintain the British cause; and Sir George Colley, who enjoyed a high reputation and had experience in South African warfare, was made governor of Natal, and entrusted with the military command.
The same circumstances which had emboldened the Boers to declare war in the autumn of 1899, induced them to renew a guerilla warfare in the autumn of 1900the approach of an African summer supplying the Boers with the grass on which they were dependent for feeding their hardy horses.
Under such conditions of warfare between the ocean and the river, it is not surprising that the former is rapidly eating away the coast and that the vast volume of silt carried by the Amazon finds it impossible to build up a delta.
But the Girondins gained no tangible result from this wordy warfare.
As the country was favourable to guerilla warfare, and the government could not spare regular troops from the frontiers, the rebels were usually successful, and by the end of May had almost expelled the Republicans from La Vendee.
No satisfied with these outlets for his mental energy, Filelfo went on translating from the Greek, and prosecuted a paper warfare with his enemies in Florence.
The government was not strong enough to resist the clamour of their numerous partisans for participation in the spoils of party warfare.
Springfield was somewhat out of the track of operations of the warfare between the French and English in America, as it was later in the War of Independence; but men from Springfield served in all these conflicts.
Warfare was carried on with many courteous formalities, and considerable skill was shown in the fortifications.
His tenure of office was very short, for on the 4th of May 1664 he allowed himself to be entrapped into an ambush by the Moors, who carried on incessant irregular warfare against the English garrison, and was killed, together with nineteen officers and nearly five hundred men of his garrison.
The annals contain nothing save a record of intertribal warfare, which the high-king was rarely powerful enough to stay.
The first-named waged constant warfare against the foreigners and was the most formidable opponent the Scandinavians had yet met.
After a period of guerrilla warfare in the woods of Thomond, Mathgamain concluded a truce with the foreigners, in which Brian refused to join.
The old warfare between the Up Country and the Low Country has been renewed in a modified form in the conflict between Reformers and Conservatives.
He appears to have been a man of strong character, and owing to his skill in warfare, and especially to his marriage in 1016 with Gisela, widow of Ernest I., duke of Swabia, won position and influence in Germany.
Eventually, after the death of the Dictator (1916) he became one of the Cantonese group of politicians which waged continual warfare against the party in power at Peking.
Early man, living in a state of endless warfare, naturally believes that his gods also have their battles.
The lack of funds which would have proved fatal to Spartan naval warfare was remedied by the intervention of Persia, which supplied large subsidies, and Spartan good fortune culminated in the possession at this time of an admiral of boundless vigour and considerable military ability, Lysander, to whom much of Sparta's success is attributable.
Another kind of warfare was about to absorb their whole attention; the barbarians were attacking the frontiers of the Empire on every side, and their advent once again modified Gallo-Roman civilization.
The Merovingian kings, mere war-chiefs before the advent of Clovis, had after the conquest of Gaul become absolute hereditary causes of nionarchs, thanks to the disappearance of the popular the failof assemblies and to the perpetual state of warfare.
Anxious as he was to preserve Charlemagnes traditions of government, he was not always strong enough to do so, and warfare within his own dominions was often forced on him.
For thirty-four years of increasing warfare this active the Fat and energetic king, this brave and persevering soldier, (1108 never spared himself, energetically policing the royal 1137).
More inclined to the subtleties of diplomacy than to the risks of battle, he had recognized and speedily grasped the disadvantages of warfare.
The unpopularity of Spain, patriotism, the greater predominance of national questions in public opinion, and weariness of both religious disputation and indecisive warfare, all these sentiments were expressed in the wise and clever pamphlet entitled the Satire Mlnippe.
The nobles who had hoped to set up the League again, half counting upon the king of Spain, were held in The check by Mazarin with the golden dowries of his adminisnumerous nieces, and were now employed by him in tration of warfare and in decorative court functions; while Mzasin.
By a twofold coup detat, parliamentary and military, he culled the fruits of the Directorys systematic aggression and unpopularity, and realized the universal desires of the rich bourgeoisie, tired of warfare; of the wretched populace; of landholders, afraid of a return to the old order of things; of royalists, who looked upon Bonaparte as a future Monk; of priests and their people, who hoped for an indulgent treatment of Catholicism; and finally of the immense majority of the French, who love to be ruled and for long had had no efficient government.
In the course of the, 4th century the country was in a state of anarchy; petty lordships sprang into existence, the interests of the common weal were forgotten or disregarded, and the people began to be split up into factions, and these were continually carrying on petty warfare with one another.
The Indians, however, were not yet subdued, and for two years a petty warfare was maintained.
A vigorous but ineffectual warfare had already been waged against the blind traditions of the schools by Ramus and Telesius, by Patricius and Campanella, and the revolution which Galileo completed had been prepared by his predecessors.
Madrid was easily taken, but the Spaniards showed great capacity for the guerrilla warfare in the provinces.
While Omdurman grew to a huge size the population of the country generally dwindled enormously from constant warfare and the ravages of disease, small-pox being endemic. The Europeans in the country were kept prisoners at Omdurman.
Without being a great soldier, Frederick was not unskilful in warfare, but was better acquainted with the arts of diplomacy.
Gradually, however, the expenses of warfare, liberal donations to the clergy, and the maintenance of numerous and expensive households, compelled them to pledge these dues for sums of ready money.
An attempt, however, to secure the duchy of Pomerania-Stettin failed, and the concluding years of this reign were troubled by warfare with the Pomeranians.
I'm an urban warfare tactics trainer specializing in tracking.
The roles of electronic warfare is an essential element of fire support.
Subjects include aeronautics, astronautics, military vehicle and weapon technology, and electronic and information warfare.
We suspect that these refurbished trainer aircraft have been modified for delivery of chemical or, more likely, biological warfare agents.
Further advances in warfare were to see Carbide collaborate in the Manhattan project to produce the first atomic bomb 25 years later.
The Company's portfolio includes avionics, airborne radars, electronic warfare, mission systems, UAV systems and in-flight entertainment.
The North America business group is a major supplier of airborne avionics and electronic warfare systems.
Key technologies include airborne radar systems avionics and mission systems, electronic warfare systems, electro optical systems, military...
The only area in which Rise & Fall actually succeeds in being truly awe inspiring is, unexpectedly, in the naval warfare.
Contrary, alas, to popular belief, the looting of personal property is illegal under the Hague Rules of Land Warfare.
Therefore since our warfare is not over, let us prepare for the worst brunt, and the last efforts of Satan.
It is likely that Iraq is continuing to develop its offensive chemical warfare.
The mushroom cloud represented the logical culmination of industrial warfare.
No DoD corps, regardless of how broadly constituted, has cognizance of more than perhaps half the territory of information warfare.
Traditionally, the main victims of warfare and armed conflict have been soldiers and other armed combatants.
Given the disastrous consequences of warfare today, any reduction in conflict between states is positive.
It's much more like George Orwell's " Animal Farm " class warfare, and nobody comes off too cuddly.
It had also made warfare far more destructive, potentially strengthening deterrence.
Enough for us to know that their warfare prevented any pursuit of the young fugitives.
In the Autumn of 1914, the Wilhelm Institute began the search to find the perfect toxic gas for use in land warfare.
Equally, a prime opportunity for information warfare was missed during the 1994 Rwandan genocide.
If we find some really good bacteria then we can use germ warfare to help prevent these diseases.
Just one Merlin engine would pump out several pounds of lead halides on a sortie to Berlin; almost chemical warfare!
Fairly recently, strategy was snatched from such ignominy by 2D PC warfare fare such as Command and Conquer and Age of Empires.
Or does the same, blind inattention to the concrete presence of our fellows underlie both the gospel and the warfare?
The cause for the dramatic increase seems to be the changed nature of warfare in Iraq.
Never before in the history of warfare had destruction been so indiscriminate and so universal.
It is not that these processes are not also intimately interconnected with warfare.
I'd say we are not actually blind, just fighting against massive psychological warfare, too subtle, too methodical to perceive.
Central to the construction of the myth of new militarist " warfare " is the demonisation of the enemy leader.
The internal family strife in this book is quite monstrous, with brother against brother in a kind of personal one-on-one warfare.
December 2001 Notes 1 First generation warfare was the era of massed lines and columns of troops, and the muzzle-loading musket.
Siege warfare, waged to win a castle or a walled town or city, was a frequent occurrence during the Middle Ages.
Use of such large pavises is not unknown in other parts of Europe, tho they were normally restricted to siege warfare.
Animal rights extremists used psychological warfare, verbal abuse, criminal acts and very offensive propaganda in their quest to close our business.
First, throughout the history of organized warfare, rules have existed to lessen its cruelty by imposing regulations on its execution.
The logic of biological disarmament requires an absolute renunciation of biological warfare.
Recent anthrax scares in the US have shown the dangers of covert chemical warfare.
Tho some men were experienced in trench warfare, they lacked the self-discipline that would have been found in the Western Front.
He persisted in sending shrapnel - a useless weapon in trench warfare.
Rather than paving a smooth path to the court, it was causing an escalating spiral of partisan warfare and personal attack.
The difference between information and knowledge may seem very subtle at first, but in warfare it is truly critical.
Third Worldan deterring warfare with another nuclear power, however, they suggest these weapons could be used in conventional conflicts with third-world nations.
Tommy confirming officers made minimal allowance for the strain that trench warfare imposed on the Tommies in the trenches.
The potentialities of aerial warfare and the extreme vulnerability of non-combatants to its attacks tend to emphasize the urgency of agreements of this nature.
He will go on to wage unrestricted warfare against all who oppose him.
Potential adversaries, however, do not need high-technology systems to conduct effective information warfare.
Some have begun to map such processes as they swept through mass mediated populations of the age of asymmetric warfare.
Nor can I see an end to the internecine warfare that exists within and between British UFO groups.
To know about anti-submarine warfare, crews had to know how submarines worked.
In modern naval warfare, surface ships do not operate independently.
Susan Lambert's film tells us above all about the science behind biological warfare.
He wrote a book on the guerrilla warfare, which had big impact on Latin America.
In trench warfare the loss of a trench most likely meant the loss of the weapons in it.
There's some big plan afoot involving some sort of germ warfare.
The Training Team Brunei run jungle warfare courses for all members of the British Army.
Towns are rife with gang warfare and the weapons of choice are all manner of armored vehicles, fully equipped with various lethal weaponry.
The purely military aspect of Alexander's campaigns is treated in general histories of warfare (Rustow-Kochly, Bauer, Delbriick, Verdy du Vernois), and in special monographs by Hogarth, Journ.
Meanwhile Durazzo, with Berat and Central Albania, had passed into the hands of the Sicilian kings of the house of Anjou, who ruled these regions, which they styled the "Kingdom of Albania," from 1271 to 1368, maintaining a constant warfare with the Byzantine emperors.
In consequence of the insurrection in Spain, Cartagena was in 1844 again the scene of warfare.
We cannot linger over the details of this warfare.
So great was Bismarcks distrust of Italian parliamentary instability, his doubts of Italian capacity for offensive warfare and his fear of the Francophil tendencies of Depretis, that fof many weeks the Italian ambassador at Berlin was unable te obtain audience of the chancellor.
So far was he from desiring a rupture with France, that he had subordinated acceptance of the portfolio of the interior in the Depretis cabinet to an assurance that the triple alliance contained no provision for offensive warfare.
The Socialist party, which had grown powerful under a series of weak-kneed administrations, now began to show signs of division; on the one hand there was the revolutionary wing, led by Signor Enrico Fern, the Mantuan deputy, which advocated a policy of uncompromising class warfare, and on the other the riformisti, or moderate Socialists, led by Signor Filippo Turati, deputy for Milan, who adopted a more conciliatory attitude and were ready to ally themselves with other parliamentary parties.
Stories of successful warfare and of temporary leaders (see Abimelech; Ehud; Gideon; Jephthah) form an introduction to the institution of the Israelite monarchy, an epoch of supreme importance in biblical history.
Two campaigns, the first under General Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in 17 9 0, and the second under General St Clair in 17 9 1, failed on account of bad management and ignorance of Indian methods of warfare, and in 1793 General Anthony Wayne was sent out in command of a large force of regulars and volunteers.
But he thoroughly grasped its conditions, and in his great work on naval warfare (first published in 1891) he enunciated its principles with great cogency and with keen historic insight.
The fraternal and democratic spirit of the first communities, and their humble origin; the identification of the object of adoration with light and the Sun; the legends of the shepherds with their gifts and adoration, the flood, and the ark; the representation in art of the fiery chariot, the drawing of water from the rock; the use of bell and candle, holy water and the communion; the sanctification of Sunday and of the 25th of December; the insistence on moral conduct, the emphasis placed upon abstinence and self-control; the doctrine of heaven and hell, of primitive revelation, of the mediation of the Logos emanating from the divine, the atoning sacrifice, the constant warfare between good and evil and the final triumph of the former, the immortality of the soul, the last judgment, the resurrection of the flesh and the fiery destruction of the universe - are some of the resemblances which, whether real or only apparent, enabled Mithraism to prolong its resistance to Christianity.
On July 4 he came out and sank the French transport " Carthage " off Helles; later after a cruise in the Aegean he tried to reenter the Straits, but finding the British mine defences too formidable, he sailed to Cattaro to take part in the general commerce-destroying warfare in the Mediterranean.
Timby (1819-1909), who in 1843 had filed a caveat for revolving towers for offensive or defensive warfare whether placed on land or water, and to whom the company building the "Monitor" paid $5000 royalty for each turret.
Though the battle between the two vessels was indecisive, its effect was to "neutralize" the "Merrimac," which had caused great alarm in Washington, and to prevent the breaking of the Federal blockade at Hampton Roads; in the history of naval warfare it may be regarded as marking the opening of a new era - the era of the armoured warship. On the 3rd of February 1865 near Fortress Monroe on board a steamer occurred the meeting of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward with Confederate commissioners which is known as the Hampton Roads Conference (see Lincoln, Abraham).
On its occupation by the British in1824-1825it was found to be almost depopulated - the result of border warfare and of the cruelties exercised by the Burmese conquerors.
By the 12th century, however, the ecclesiastical measures had proved ineffectual in coping with private warfare, and secular rulers sought independently to diminish the number and atrocity of private wars within their own domains.