Walsingham's Historia Anglicana (Rolls Series), Adam of Usk's Chronicle and the various Chronicles of London.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
The church of St Nicholas (Perpendicular with Early English portions, but much restored) has a tomb of the Walsingham family, who had a lease of the manor from Elizabeth; Sir Francis Walsingham, the statesman, being born here in 1536.
Walsingham's most important work is his Historia Anglicana, a valuable piece of work covering the period between 1272 and 1422.
Some authorities hold that Walsingham himself only wrote the section between 1377 and 1392, but this view is controverted by James Gairdner in his Early chroniclers of Europe (1879).
Covering some of the same ground Walsingham wrote a Chronicon Angliae; this deals with English history from 1328 to 1388 and has been edited by Sir E.
The original work of Walsingham is the period between 1308 and 1381, the earlier part being merely a compilation; it has been edited for the " Rolls " series by H.
Another history of England by Walsingham dealing with the period between 1272 and 1393 is in manuscript in the British Museum.
Walsingham is the main authority for the history of England during the reigns of Richard II., Henry IV.
See also Thomas Walsingham, Chronicon Angliae (Rolls series, 1814); Froissart, Chronicles (edited by G.
Douglas was slain in the battle, though not, as is stated by Walsingham, by Percy's hand: Henry Percy was captured by Sir John Montgomery, and his brother Ralph by Sir John Maxwell.
Sometimes the badges took the shape of small ampullae, or vases, as in the case of the badges of the shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham, which were marked with a W and crown.
Sir Francis Walsingham was born at Chislehurst, where his family had long flourished; Hever Castle was the seat of the Boleyns and the scene of the courtship of Anne Boleyn by Henry VIII.
The loneliness of a queen who had no husband or children and no relatives to mention must at all times have been oppressive; it grew desolating in old age after the deaths of Leicester, Walsingham, Burghley and Essex, and Elizabeth died, the last of her race, on the 24th of March 1603.
The family is assumed to have sprung from Walsingham in Norfolk, but the earliest authentic traces of it are found in London in the first half of the 15th century; and it was one of the numerous families which, having accumulated wealth in the city, planted themselves out as landed gentry and provided the Tudor monarchy with its justices of the peace and main support.
In that year Walsingham married a second time, his first wife having died in 1564; his second was also a widow, Ursula, daughter of Henry St Barbe and widow of Sir Richard Worsley of Appuldurcombe, captain of the Isle of Wight.
Her sister Edith married Robert Beale, afterwards the chief of Walsingham's henchmen.
By his second wife Walsingham had a daughter who married firstly Sir Philip Sidney, secondly Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, and thirdly Richard de Burgh, earl of Clanricarde.
Walsingham's earliest extant communications with the government date from 1567; and in that and the following two yea.rs he was supplying Cecil with information about the movements of foreign spies in London.
Walsingham as to his intentions; but there is inadequate evidence for the statement (Diet.
Biog.) that Walsingham was already organizing the secret police of London.
Cecil had in 1569 triumphed over the conservative and aristocratic party in the council; and Walsingham was the ablest of the new men whom he brought to the front to give play to the new forces which were to carve out England's career.
An essential element in the new policy was the substitution of an alliance with France for the old Burgundian friendship. The affair of San Juan de Ulua and the seizure of the Spanish treasure-ships in 1568 had been omens of the inevitable conflict with Spain; Ridolfi's plot and Philip II.'s approaches to Mary Stuart indicated the lines upon which the struggle would be fought; and it was Walsingham's business to reconcile the Huguenots with the French government, and upon this reconciliation to base an Anglo-French alliance which might lead to a grand attack on Spain, to the liberation of the] Netherlands, to the destruction of Spain's monopoly in the New World, and to making Protestantism the dominant force in Europe.
Walsingham threw himself heart and soul into the movement.
His clear-cut, strenuous policy of open hostilities has always had its admirers; but it is difficult to see how England could have secured from it more than she 294 Walsingham, Sir Francis actually did from Elizabeth's more Fabian tactics.
Walsingham, however, was an accomplished diplomatist, and he reserved these truculent opinions for the ears of his own government, incurring frequent rebukes from Elizabeth.
After Davison's disgrace in February 1587 Walsingham remained sole secretary, though Wolley assisted him as Latin secretary from 1588 to 1590.
As secretary, Walsingham could pursue no independent policy; he was rather in the position of permanent under-secretary of the combined home and foreign departments, and he had to work under the direction of the council, and particularly of Burghley and the queen.
The French government would not yield, and Walsingham came back, to be followed by Anjou who sought in personal interviews to overcome Elizabeth's objections to matrimony.
Elizabeth and Burghley were inclined to try an alliance with the Scottish king, and the event justified their policy, which Walsingham did his best to frustrate, although deserted on this occasion by his chief regular supporter, Leicester.
For the rest of his life Walsingham was mainly occupied in detecting and frustrating the various plots formed against Elizabeth's life; and herein he achieved a success denied him in his foreign policy.
Some of them were double spies, sold to both parties, whose real sentiments are still conjectural; but Walsingham was more successful in seducing Catholic spies than his antagonists were in seducing Protestant spies, and most of his information came from Catholics who betrayed one another.
The most famous of the plots frustrated by Walsingham was Anthony Babington's, which he detected in 1586.
Walsingham had long been convinced, like parliament and the majority of Englishmen, of the necessity of removing Mary; bitt it was only the discovery of Babington's plot that enabled him to bring pressure enough to bear upon Elizabeth to ensure Mary's execution.
Considering the part he played in this transaction, Walsingham was fortunate to escape the fate which the queen with calculated indignation inflicted upon Davison.
Walsingham died deeply in debt on April 6, 1590.
i., 1908) supersedes all previous accounts of Walsingham so far as it goes (1573); Dr Stahlin has also dealt with the early history of the family in his Die Walsingham bis zur Mitte des 16.
Vast masses of Walsingham's correspondence are preserved in the Record Office and the British Museum; some have been epitomized in the Foreign Calendar (as far as 1582); and his correspondence during his two embassies to France was published in extenso by Sir Dudley Digges in 1655 under the title The Compleat Ambassador, possibly, as has been suggested by Dr Stahlin, to give a fillip to the similar policy then being pursued by Oliver Cromwell.
The ascription to Sir Francis of Arcana Aulica: or Walsingham's Manual of Prudential Maxims for the Statesman and the Courtier is erroneous; the book is really the translation of a French treatise by one Edward Walsingham who flourished c. 1643-1659.
Thomas Walsingham >>
A treaty projected on the news of the massacre of St Bartholomew, by which Mary should be sent back to Scotland for immediate execution, was broken off by the death of the earl of Mar, who had succeeded Lennox as regent; nor was it found possible to come to acceptable terms on a like understanding with his successor Morton, who in 1577 sent a proposal to Mary for her restoration, which she declined, in suspicion of a plot laid to entrap her by the policy of Sir Francis Walsingham, the most unscrupulously patriotic of her English enemies, who four years afterwards sent word to Scotland that the execution of Morton, so long the ally of England, would be answered by the execution of Mary.
Her correspondence in cipher from thence with her English agents abroad, intercepted by Walsingham and deciphered by his secretary, gave eager encouragement to the design for a Spanish invasion of England Under the prince of Parma, - an enterprise in which she would do her utmost to make her son take part, and in case of his refusal would induce the Catholic nobles of Scotland to betray him into the hands of Philip, from whose tutelage he should be released only on her demand, or if after her death he should wish to return, nor then unless he had become a Catholic. But even these patriotic and maternal schemes to consign her child and re-consign the kingdom to the keeping of the Inquisition, incarnate in the widower of Mary Tudor, were superseded by the attraction of a conspiracy against the throne and life of Elizabeth.
The conspiracy was regarded by Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, one of its chief instigators, and also by Walsingham, as the most dangerous of recent years; it included, in its general purpose of destroying the government, a large number of Roman Catholics, and had ramifications all over the country.
Desirous of some token of appreciation from Mary for his services, he entered into a long correspondence with her, which was intercepted by the spies of Walsingham.
The passport being delayed, he offered to reveal to Walsingham a dangerous conspiracy, but the latter sent no reply, and meanwhile the ports were closed and none allowed to leave the kingdom for some days.
He was still allowed his liberty, but one night while supping with Walsingham's servant he observed a memorandum of the minister's concerning himself, fled to St John's Wood, where he was joined by some of his companions, and after disguising himself succeeded in reaching Harrow, where he was sheltered by a recent convert to Romanism.
If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers, like Walsingham, that Henry on becoming king was changed suddenly into a new man.
Other authorities are the Chronicles of Walsingham and Otterbourne, the English Chronicle or Brut, and the various London Chronicles.
In addition, Walsingham, Peterborough, St Davids, Holywell, and St Andrews in Scotland were much frequented.
Brought up in the Carmelite monastery of Blakeney, near Walsingham, he studied at Oxford and Paris, where he was known as "Princeps" of the Averroists.
The chronicler Thomas Walsingham, says that James's imprisonment began in 1406, while the future king himself places it in 1404; February 1406 is probably the correct date.
In addition to these works Camden compiled a Greek grammar, Institutio Graecae Grammatices Compendiaria, which became very popular, and he published an edition of the writings of Asser, Giraldus Cambrensis, Thomas Walsingham and others, under the title, Anglica, Hibernica, Normannica, Cambrica, a veteribus scripta, published at Frankfort in 1602, and again in 1603.
Walsingham, which continue into the reign of Henry V.
Maunde Thompson (London, 1874); Historia Anglicana of Thomas Walsingham, ed.
Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed.
To promote devotion to Our Lady and pilgrimage to Walsingham.
On Good Friday there will be a solemn liturgy at St Philip Howard Church and at the Church of Our Lady of Walsingham.
Application for membership of The living rosary of the Shrine of our Lady Walsingham.
THOMAS WALSINGHAM (d.
SIR FRANCIS WALSINGHAM (c. 1530-1590), English statesman, was the only son of William Walsingham, common sergeant of London (d.
The result was Catherine's attempt on Coligny's life and then the massacre of St Bartholomew, which placed Walsingham's person in jeopardy and ruined for the time all hopes of the realization of his policy of active French and English co-operation.
He held this office jointly or solely until his death; in 1577 when Smith died, Dr Thomas Wilson was associated with Walsingham; after Wilson's death in 1581 Walsingham was sole secretary until July 1586, when Davison began his brief and ill-fated seven months' tenure of the office.
Dr Karl Stahlin's elaborate and scholarly Sir Francis Walsingham and seine Zeit (Heidelberg, vol.
1909), relating to Mary's trial, was in 1910 engaged on an elaborate life of Walsingham, part of which the present writer was able to see in MS. (A.
Application for membership of The Living Rosary of the Shrine of our Lady Walsingham.
This statue was itself based on the Great Seal of the Abbey of Walsingham from the original Shrine destroyed in 1538.
Autumnal Snowdrops Octobrensis - Lord Walsingham, when travelling in Albania about the year 1875, collected some bulbs on one of the mountains and sent them to the late Rev.