Several of the earlier exploits of William Wallace were achieved in the neighbourhood.
On the right bank, near this bridge, is the cave in which Wallace concealed himself after killing Hezelrig and which still bears his name.
It has been usually supposed that John Napier was buried in St Giles's church, Edinburgh, which was certainly the burialplace of some of the family, but Mark Napier (Memoirs, p. 426) quotes Professor William Wallace, who, writing in 1832, gives strong reasons for believing that he was buried in the old church of St Cuthbert.
Professor Wallace's words are "My authority for this belief is unquestionable.
If their ancestors had been carried out to sea once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as the Galapagos Islands" (Wallace), "they must have been numerous on the continent" (Rothschild and Hartert).
Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals (New York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in Geographical Journal, vi.
Wallace, this author is of opinion that marsupials did not effect an entrance into Australia till about the middle of the Tertiary period, their ancestors being probably opossums of the American type.
The zoological boundary passing through the Bali Strait is called " Wallace's line," after the eminent naturalist who was its discoverer.
Wallace is of the opinion that the Australians " are really of Caucasian type and are more nearly allied to ourselves than to the civilized Japanese or the brave and intelligent Zulus."
Wallace, Australasia (1880, new ed., 2 vols., 1893-1895); Rev. Lorimer Fison and Dr A.
Wallace's Gifford Lecture, 6 chap. i., may also be consulted; but Wallace does not distinguish the unusual sense which the term bears as applied to Raymond's book.
2 See Wallace's Gifford Lecture.
[Wallace's Gifford Lecture may be consulted upon this phrase also.
Wallace (Lectures and Essays, incorporating Glasgow lectures) gives some useful historical references.
Wallace published their Theory of Natural Selection.
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
Rep. 1899; Wallace, Darwinism; Weismann, The Germ-Plasm.
In 1138 David of Scotland made it a centre of military operations, and it was ravaged by Wallace in 1296, by Bruce in 1312, and by David II.
Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals and Island Life; A.
Wallace 5 in his epoch-making work - are excellent, taken separately.
But these six divisions of Sclater and Wallace are not all equivalent, only some are of primary importance; they require coand sub-ordination.
The influence of the Australian realm is indicated by a Megapode in Celebes, another in Borneo and Labuan, and a third in the Nicobar islands (which, however, like the Andamans, belong to the Indian province), but there are no cockatoos, these keeping strictly to the other side of Wallace's line, whence we started on this survey of the world's avifauna.
Wallace succeeded in displacing the naïf conception of special creation by belief in the origin of species out of other species through a process of natural law.
Wallace, Australasia (Stanford's Compendium, 1894); G.
Wallace as representing the so-called Wallace's Line, whereby he demarcated the Asiatic from the Australian fauna.
Mackenzie Wallace, Russia (2 vols., new ed., 1905, London); A.
Hare, Experimental Investigations of the Spirit Manifestations (New York, 1856); Allan Kardec, Livre des esprits (1st ed., 1853); Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863), with preface by Professor De Morgan; Alfred Russel Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1876); W.
A "campaign" biography was published by Lew Wallace (Philadelphia, 1888), and a sketch of his life may be found in Presidents of the United States (New York, 1894), edited by James Grant Wilson.
Macbeth is said to have slain Duncan in the first structure that gave its name to Castlehill, which was probably the building demolished in 1297 by the adherents of Wallace.
Alfred Russel Wallace >>
To this boundary has been given the name of Wallace's line, after the eminent naturalist, A.
Wallace, who first indicated its existence.
Celebes, Papua, and the other islands east of Java beyond Wallace's line, fall within the Australian region.
The occurrence of mammals of the Marsupial order in the Molucca Islands and Celebes, while none have been found in the adjacent islands of Java and Borneo, lying on the west of Wallace's line, or in the Indian region, shows that the margin of the Australian region has here been reached.
Part of the present structure is believed to date from 1220 and once sheltered William Wallace.
at Carlisle, the younger Robert joined Sir William Wallace, who raised the standard of Scottish independence in the name of Baliol after that king had surrendered his kingdom to Edward in 1296.
About 1299 a regency was appointed in Scotland in the name of Baliol, and a letter of Baliol mentions Robert Bruce, lord of Carrick, as regent, along with William of Lamberton, bishop of St Andrews, and John Comyn the younger, a strange combination - Lamberton the friend of Wallace, Comyn the enemy of Bruce, and Bruce a regent in name of Baliol.
The fall of Stirling was followed by the capture and execution of Wallace in London in August 1305.
The details of the day, memorable in the history of war as well as of Scotland, have been singularly well preserved, and redound to the credit of Bruce, who had studied in the school of Wallace as well as in that of Edward I.
" Wallace's line " dividing the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan sub-regions is frequently transgressed in the range of Malayan insects.
Wallace (both at one time active entomological collectors) contain much evidence drawn from insects in favour of descent with modification.
Wallace notes the resemblance which he traced between the Malays and the Mongolians, and others have recorded similar observations as to the physical appearance of the two races.
To-day, however, fuller data are available than when Wallace wrote, and the more generally accepted theory is that the Malayan race is distinct, and came from the south, until it was stayed by the Mongolian races living on the mainland of southern Asia.
Wallace says, be regarded as " an intermediate position between serfage and freedom."
Mackenzie Wallace, Russia (1877).
Wallace (1848-1852), H.
The caverns in the sides of the precipice are said to have afforded Wallace and other heroes (or outlaws) refuge in time of trouble, but the old house is most memorable as the home of the poet William Drummond, who here welcomed Ben Jonson; the tree beneath which the two poets sat still stands.
Edinburgh maintains few newspapers, but the Scotsman, which may be said to reign alone, has enjoyed a career of almost uninterrupted prosperity, largely in consequence of a succession of able editors, like Charles Maclaren, Alexander Russel, Robert Wallace and Charles Cooper.
1470-1492), author of the Scots historical poem The Actis and Deidis of the Illustere and Vailzeand Campioun Schir William Wallace, Knicht of Ellerslie, flourished in the latter half of the 15th century.
John Major in his Latin History speaks of "one Henry, blind from his birth, who, in the time of my childhood, fashioned a whole book about William Wallace, and therein wrote down in our popular verse - and this was a kind of composition in which he had much skill - all that passed current among the people in his day.
This attitude of the Wallace may perhaps be accepted as corroborative evidence of the humble milieu and popular sentiment of its author.
Brown's The Wallace and the Bruce Restudied (Bonner, Beitrcige zur Anglistik.
Craigie's article in The Scottish Review (July 1903), a comparative estimate of the Brus and Wallace, in favour of the latter.
and Spence, Wallace and Darwin.
At the present time excellent reproductions of Rowland's speculum gratings are on the market (Thorp, Ives, Wallace), prepared, after a suggestion of Sir David Brewster, by coating the original with a varnish, e.g.
The Wallace Art Collection, Hertford House, Manchester Square, was bequeathed by Sir Richard Wallace to the nation on the death of his wife in 1897.
The Museum also housed the Wallace collection until the opening of Hertford House, and the pictures now in the National Portrait Gallery.
The Wallace collection of paintings and objects of art, in Hertford House, Manchester Square, was bequeathed to the nation by the widow of Sir Richard Wallace in 1897.
But on the other side the disorder became greater and greater, many regiments were used up, and Johnston himself killed in vainly attacking on a point of Wallace's line called the Hornet's Nest.
During the night Grant's detached division (Lew Wallace's) and Buell's army came up, totalling 25,000 fresh troops, and at 5 A.M.
The Gothic Wallace Tower in High Street stands on the site of an old building of the same name taken down in 1835, from which were transferred the clock and bells of the Dungeon steeple.
There are statues of Burns, the 13th earl of Eglinton, General Smith Neill and Sir William Wallace.
In 1873 the municipal boundary was extended northwards beyond the river so as to include Newton-upon-Ayr and Wallace Town, formerly separate.
During the wars of Scottish independence the possession of Ayr and its castle was an object of importance to both the contending parties, and the town was the scene of many of Wallace's exploits.
Wallace's translation (Oxford, 1894).
Wallace found recent beaches 16 feet above the existing level.
Local tradition connects the name with that of Wallis or Wallace, a Scottish buccaneer, who, in 1638, settled, with a party of logwood cutters, on St George's Cay, a small island off the town.
Wallace (1856-1863), Odoardo Beccari (1871, 1875 and 1876), and Maria d'Albertis (1871-1878).
Wallace, Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel (1894), and Hegel's Philosophy of Mind (1894); A.
Wallace, who has studied those birds in their native haunts, that they assume the perfect plumage of their sex, which, however, they retain permanently afterwards, and not during the breeding season only as was formerly supposed.
loo, 177, 301); and Wallace Craig, " North Dakota Life: Plant, Animal and Human," in Nos.
Wallace and others.
Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests.
and the Asiatic mainland, all rest on a great submerged bank, nowhere more than ioo fathoms below sea-level, which may be considered a continuation of the continent; while to the east the depth of the sea has been found at various places to be from 1000 to 2500 fathoms. As the value of this fact was particularly emphasized by Wallace, the limit of the shallow water, which is found in the narrow but deep channel between Bali and Lombok, and strikes north to the east of Borneo, has received the name of "Wallace's Line."
Wallace, Island Life).
Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological distribution) and Island Life (London, 1880, notably for ornithology).
Wallace has well remarked that the portion of the earth's surface which contains the largest number of parrots, in proportion to its area, is undoubtedly that covered by the islands extending from Celebes to the Solomon group. "The area of these islands is probably not one-fifteenth of that of the four tropical regions, yet they contain from one-fifth to onefourth of all the known parrots" (Geogr.
Smith, Lew Wallace and McClernand, effected a lodgment in the works.
Crossing the Potomac, he marched eastward, and, defeating a motley force which General Lew Wallace had collected to oppose him, appeared before the lines of Washington.
The principal places of interest on the banks of the Earn are Dunira, the favourite seat of Henry Dundas, ist Viscount Melville, who took the title of his barony from the estate and to whose memory .an obelisk was raised on the adjoining hill of Dunmore; the village of Comrie; the town of Crieff; the ruined castle of Innerpeffray, founded in 1610 by the ist Lord Maderty, close to which is the library founded in 1691 by the 3rd Lord Maderty, containing some rare black-letter books and the Bible that belonged to the marquess of Montrose; Gascon Hall, now in ruins, but with traditions reaching back to the days of Wallace; Dupplin Castle, a fine Tudor mansion, seat of the earl of Kinnoull, who derives from it the title of his viscounty; Aberdalgie, Forgandenny and Bridge of Earn, a health resort situated amidst picturesque surroundings.
Sclater, Alfred Russel Wallace and others, largely upon the present distribution of animal life, is now encountering through palaeontology a new and fascinating series of problems. In brief, it must connect living distribution with distribution in past time, and develop a system which will be in harmony with the main facts of zoology and palaeontology.
A dungeon bears the nickname of "Wallace's Beef Barrel."
Wallace (1863f 874)and published under the title of the United States Reports after 1874.
Vigfusson, translated by Sir George Dasent (1887-1894), and the edition of Dr Joseph Anderson (1873); James Wallace, Account of the Islands of Orkney (1700; new ed., 1884); George Low, Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Shetland in 1774 (1879); G.
The parish church stands near the spire of the ancient church where, according to tradition, the treaty was made in 1297 with Edward I., by which Sir John Menteith undertook to betray Wallace to the English.
Wallace translated and annotated the De Anima; B.
Wallace's Prostatic Enlargement.
Wallace's Prostatic Enlargement by permission of the managers of The Oxford Medical Publications.
Wallace's Prostatie Enlargement.
See Cornelius Walford, "On the Famines of the World, Past and Present" (Journal of the Statistical Society, 1878-1879); Romesh C. Dutt, Famines in India (1900); Robert Wallace, Famine in India (1900); George Campbell, Famines in India (1769-1788); Chronological List of Famines for all India (Madras Administration Report, 1885); J.
James Stewart, the elder son of Alexander, fourth steward, succeeded his father in 1283, and, after distinguishing himself in the wars of Wallace and of Bruce, died in 1309.
In this building General Lew Wallace (governor 1878-1881) wrote the concluding chapters to Ben Hur.
There are some fine species of birds, and the native avifauna is so distinctive that Wallace argued from it that the Hawaiian Archipelago had long been separated from any other land.
It is said to have been in the hands of the English for a time, from whom it was delivered by Wallace.
Wallace, the translator of most of Hegel's Encyklopadie, who had previously learnt Hegelianism from Ferrier; W.
Between these dates Houdon had not been idle; busts of Catharine II., Diderot and Prince Galitzin were remarked at the Salon of 1773, and at that of 1775 he produced, not only his Morpheus in marble, but busts of Turgot, Gluck (in which the marks of small-pox in the face were reproduced with striking effect) and Sophie Arnould as Iphigeneia (now in the Wallace Collection, London), together with his well-known marble relief, "Grive suspendue par les pattes."
Despite a number of errors of fact, notably the confusion of the three Bruces in the person of the hero, the poem is historically trustworthy as compared with contemporary verse-chronicle, and especially with the Wallace of the next century.
Brown, The Wallace and The Bruce restudied.
Wallace; Canaries and Cage Birds, by W.
By observation and experiment it was discovered independently by Messrs Bates, Wallace and Bell that they are not attacked by birds nor by many other enemies that prey upon unprotected Lepidoptera.
Apparently the only instances of mimicry known amongst reptiles occur amongst snakes; and in all the cases quoted by Wallace harmless snakes mimic venomous species.
Wallace, Proc. Zool.
SIR WILLIAM WALLACE (c. 1270-1305), the popular national hero of Scotland, is believed to have been the second son of Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie and Auchinbothie, in Renfrewshire.
He lived about two centuries later than Wallace, during which a considerable body of legend had probably gathered round the name, and these popular "gestis" he incorporates in his narrative.
At the same time he professes to follow as his "autour" an account that had been written in Latin by John Blair, the personal friend and chaplain of Wallace himself.
Only for a period of less than two years in his life - from the beginning of the insurrection in 1297 to the battle of Falkirk - does Wallace come before us in the clearest historical light.
Dissensions broke out among the Scottish leaders, and all Wallace's titled friends left him and made submission to Edward, except the ever faithful Sir Andrew Moray.
It is dated the 9th of July 1297, and is the first public document in which the name of Sir William Wallace occurs.
Wallace retired to the north, and although deserted by the barons was soon at the head of a large army.
After an unsuccessful attempt to bring Wallace to terms, the English commander, on the morning of the 11th of September 1297, began to cross the bridge.
When about one half of his army had crossed, and while they were still in disorder, they were attacked with such fury by Wallace, that almost all - Cressingham among the number - were slain, or driven into the river and drowned.
To increase the alarm of the English, as well as to relieve the famine which then prevailed, Wallace organized a great raid into the north of England, in the course of which he devastated the country to the gates of Newcastle.
Wallace was obliged to adopt the only plan of campaign which could give any hope of success.
of Wallace's position and intentions.
The army, then at Kirkliston, was immediately set in motion, and next morning (July 22, 1298) Wallace was brought to battle in the vicinity of Falkirk.
Among the slain was Sir John de Graham, the bosom friend of Wallace, whose death, as Blind Harry tells, threw the hero into a frenzy of rage and grief.
With the remains of his army Wallace found refuge for the night in the Torwood - known to him from his boyish life at Dunipace.
When in the winter of1303-1304Edward received the submission of the Scottish nobles, Wallace was expressly excepted from all terms. And after the capture of Stirling Castle and Sir William Oliphant, and the submission of Sir Simon Fraser, he was left alone, but resolute as ever in refusing allegiance to the English king.
To the accusation Wallace made the simple reply that he could not be a traitor to the king of England, for he never was his subject, and never swore fealty to him.
The cause of national independence was not lost with the life of Wallace.
William Wallace (Mathematician) >>
He himself tells us that when, after the publication of the original essay, the main argument of which he had deduced from David Hume, Robert Wallace, Adam Smith and Richard Price, he began to inquire more closely into the subject, he found that "much more had been done" upon it "than he had been aware of."
Johnston thought that the place was unimportant, and withdrew when (15th June) the Federal forces under General Robert Patterson and Colonel Lew Wallace approached, and Harper's Ferry was again occupied by a Federal garrison.
Wallace, Epicureanism (London, 1880), and Epicurus; A Lecture (London, 1896); G.
Wallace, Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (4th ed., 1907); Douglas Encyclopaedia (1906); C. S.
Wallace remarks that "it is difficult to understand what can be the use of these horn-like teeth.
White (7 Wallace, 700), 1869, in which he asserted that the Constitution provided for an "indestructible union composed of indestructible states," Veazie Bank v.
Fenno (8 Wallace, 533), 1869, in defence of that part of the banking legislation of the Civil War which imposed a tax of io% on state bank-notes, and Hepburn v.
Griswold (8 Wallace, 603), 1869, which declared certain parts of the legal tender acts to be unconstitutional.
When the legal tender decision was reversed after the appointment of new judges,1871-1872(Legal Tender Cases, 12 Wallace, 457), Chase prepared a very able dissenting opinion.
Wallace, Egypt and the Egyptian Question (London, 1883); W.
Wallace in a report on Northern Nigeria ("Colonial Office" series, No.
Of modern places of worship, the most noteworthy is Wallace Green United Presbyterian church (1859).
Now Sir William Wallace came to the front, a younger son of Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie, near Paisley.
The English chroniclers call Wallace latro, " a brigand," and he probably was a leader of broken men, discontented with English rule.
Sir Thomas Gray, son of an English gentleman wounded in a rising at Lanark in May 1297, says that Wallace was chosen leader " by the commune of Scotland," and began operations by slaying Heselrig, sheriff of Clydesdale, at Lanark.
Wallace, in fact, was a gentleman of good education.
Percy and Clifford led the English forces to suppress him, and (7th July) made terms with the bishop, the Steward and Robert Bruce, who submitted; but Wallace held out in Ettrick Forest.
The nobles who had submitted made delays in providing hostages, and Warenne marched from Berwick against Wallace, who, by September 1297, was north of Tay.
On hearing of Warenne's advance, Wallace occupied the Abbey Craig at Stirling, commanding the narrow bridge over the Forth; the Steward and Lennox attempted pacific negotiations; a brawl occurred; and next day (11th of September) the English crossed Stirling bridge, marched back again, recrossed, and were attacked in deploying from the bridge.
By the 29th of March 1298 Wallace appears, in a charter granted by himself, as guardian of the kingdom, and, with Andrew Murray, as army leader in the name of King John - that is, the captive Baliol.
Wallace had made the error of risking a general engagement in place of retiring into the hills; to do this had, it is said, been his purpose, but Edward surprised him, and Wallace disappears from the leadership, while the wavering Robert Bruce appears in command, with the new bishop of St Andrews, Lamberton; Lord Soulis; and the younger Comyn, " the Red Comyn " of Badenoch.
There is certain evidence of fierce dissensions in some way connected with Wallace, among the Scottish leaders (August 1299).
Wallace was going to France; the Scottish leaders were reconciled to each other, and took the castle of Stirling, which they entrusted to Sir William Oliphant.
On the 9th of February 1304 Comyn with his companions submitted; they hunted Wallace, who had returned from the continent, and on the 24th of July the brave Oliphant surrendered Stirling on terms of a degrading nature.
The noblest names of Scotland now took part in the pursuit of Wallace, who, as great in diplomacy as in war, had visited Rome (he had a safe-conduct of Philip of France to that end), and had at least secured a respite for his country.
It seems probable that Wallace remained consistently loyal to Baliol, and hostile to the party of the wavering Bruce.
Menteith certainly received the blood-money, boo yearly in land, and Wallace, like Montrose, was hanged, disembowelled and quartered (at London, August 1305).
Tradition attributes to Wallace strength equal to his courage.
The martyr of an impossible loyalty, Wallace shares the illustrious immortality of the great Montrose, and is by far the most popular hero of his country's history.
Edward had not yet alienated the country by cruelty, save in the case of Wallace and the massacre of Berwick.
He then took the old royal castle of Dunstaffnage and drove the chief, John of Lorne, into England; Menteith, the captor of Wallace, changed sides, and Edward, after a feeble invasion in 1310, retreated from a land laid desolate by the Scots.
In face of obstacles apparently insurmountable he had made a nation, consolidating all the forces which Wallace had stirred into life.
Some took part with Sir Andrew Murray, son of a companion of Wallace, and with the Steward, who contrived to occupy the castle of Dunbarton, the key of western Scotland.
Later political fervour has grouped him with the author of the Wallace, and treated the unequal pair as the singers of a militant patriotism.
The " Scottish prejudice " which Burns tells us was " poured " into his veins from the Wallace is not obvious to the dispassionate reader of the Brus.
The non-Chaucerian verse of this period is represented by (a) alliterative romance-poems and (b) verse of a rustic, domestic and " popular " character Of the historical romance-poem there is little or nothing beyond Henry the Minstrel's Wallace (supra).
Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the Darwinian principles, had sent to Darwin early in 1858 an outline of a theory of the origin of species.
When Wallace found how much more fully Darwin was equipped for expounding the new views, he exhibited an unselfish modesty that fully repaid Darwin's generosity, henceforth described himself as a follower of Darwin, entitled his most important publication on the theory of evolution Darwinism, and did not issue it until 1889, long after the world had given full credit to Darwin.
Wallace, however, brought into his scheme a factor excluded by Darwin.
and Wallace, does not depend upon their theory of the relation of natural selection to variation.
Wallace, whilst insisting that the range of observed and measured variation was much larger in proportion to the size of the organisms or parts of organism affected than was generally believed, leaned to the Darwinian view in excluding from the normal factors in the origin of species variations of the extremer ranges of magnitude.
When Darwin and Wallace framed their theories it was practically assumed that acquired characters were inherited, and the continuous slow action of the environment, moulding each generation to a slight extent in the same direction, was readily accepted by a generation inspired by Sir C. Lyell's doctrine of uniformi tarianism in geological change, as a potent force.
Although knowledge of variation has become much wider and more definite, the estimation in which natural selection is held has changed very little since Darwin and Wallace first expounded their theories.
Russel Wallace, Darwinism (1889); A.
Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions).
The famous "Wallace's Line" runs immediately west of Lombok, which therefore has an important part in the work.
Wallace (Oxford, 1874).
Wallace also translated the third part of the Encyklopadie in Hegel's Philosophy of Mind (1894); R.
Wallace, Descriptive Guide to the Adirondacks (Syracuse, 1894).
of England and those of the Scottish national party under Sir William Wallace.
trans., Wallace (2nd ed., 1892).
Wallace's prolegomena and notes to his Logic of Hegel (1874, revised and augmented 1892-1894) are of use for the history and terminology, as well as the theory.
Early advanced against it with 12,000 veterans, defeated General Lew Wallace with about 3500 men at Monocacy Bridge on the 6th, and on the 11th appeared before the fortifications, which were at the time defended by only a few thousand raw troops; the city was saved by the timely arrival of some of Grant's veterans.
Wallace, 1883, 13 Q.B.D.
SIMON NEWCOMB (1835-1909), American astronomer, was born in Wallace, Nova Scotia, on the 12th of March 1835.
Wallace has recorded cases of simultaneous variation among insects, apparently due to climate or other strictly local causes.
Wallace, Notes of a Botanist, 1908).
There is more than one meaning of William Wallace discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Wallace, The Malay Archipelago).
During the governorship of Sir John Menteith, William Wallace was in 1305 imprisoned within its walls before he was removed to London.
The higher of the two peaks is known as Wallace's, seat, a tower, perhaps the one in which he was incarcerated, being named after him.
seen rudely carved heads of Wallace and his betrayer, the latter with his finger in his mouth.
There were thirtythree incorporated cities, towns and villages, but only five had a population exceeding 2000; these were Boise (5957), Pocatello (4046), Lewiston (2425), Moscow (2484) and Wallace (2265).
There are Catholic academies at Boise and Coeur d'Alene and a convent, Our Lady of Lourdes, at Wallace, Shoshone county, opened in 1905; Mormon schools at Paris (Bear Lake county), Preston (Oneida county), Rexburg (Fremont county), and Oakley (Cassia county); a Methodist Episcopal school (1906) at Weiser (Washington county); and a Protestant Episcopal school at Boise (1892).
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE (1823-), British naturalist, was born at Usk, in Monmouthshire, on the 8th of January 1823.
Wallace's Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro was published in 1853, a year in which he went for a fortnight's walking tour in Switzerland with an old school-fellow.
The Oriental Borneo and Bali are respectively divided from Celebes and Lombok by a narrow belt of sea known as "Wallace's Line," on the opposite sides of which the indigenous mammalia are as widely divergent as in any two parts of the world.
Wallace became convinced of the truth of evolution, and originated the theory of natural selection during these travels.
"I never saw a more striking coincidence," he wrote to Lyell on the very day, on the 18th of June, when he received the paper: "if Wallace had my MS. sketch written out in 1842, he could not have made a better short abstract!
The title of Wallace's section was "On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type."
Wallace also alluded to the resemblance of animals, and more especially of insects, to their surroundings, and points out that "those races having colours best adapted to concealment from their enemies would inevitably survive the longest."
In 1871 Wallace's two essays, written at Sarawak and Ternate, were published with others as a volume, Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection.
In this work, and in many of his subsequent publications, Wallace differs from Darwin on certain points.
Darwin died some years before the controversy upon the possibility of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters arose over the writings of Weismann, but Wallace has freely accepted the general results of the German zoologist's teaching, and in Darwinism has presented a complete theory of the causes of evolution unmixed with any trace of Lamarck's use or disuse of inheritance, or Buffon's hereditary effect of the direct influence of surroundings.
Turning to his other writings, Wallace published Miracles and Modern Spiritualism in 1881.
Wallace also published an account of what he held to be the greatest discoveries as well as the failures of the 19th century, The Wonderful Century (1899).
Wallace was married in 1866 to the eldest daughter of the botanist, Mr William Mitten, of Hurstpierpoint, Sussex.
After his return to England in 1862 Wallace visited the continent, especially Switzerland, for rest and change (1866, 1896) and the study of botany and glacial phenomena (August 1895).
Wallace in 1890, and he had received the Royal medal in 1868.
Apart from Wallace's own Autobiography, a good deal of useful information is given in the biographical introduction to Wallace's Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro by the editor, Mr G.
Lewis Wallace >>
In the 19th century, however, Lamarck's theory of the development of new species by habit and circumstance led through Wallace and Darwin to the doctrines of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters, the survival of the fittest, and natural selection.
Wallace (Natural Selection), " when the first skin was used as a covering, when the first rude spear was formed to assist in the chase, when fire was first used to cook his food, when the first seed was sown or shoot planted, a grand revolution was effected in nature, a revolution which in all the previous ages of the earth's history had had no parallel; for a being had arisen who was no longer necessarily subject to change with the changing universe, - a being who was in some degree superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control and regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony with her, not by a change in body, but by an advance of mind."
By the Wallace Act of the state legislature in 1874 a form of government was provided for cities of three classes, and Pittsburg became a city of the second class (population between 10o,000 and 300,000); under the act of 1895 a new classification was made, under which Pittsburg remains in the second class.
An act of 1887 had amended the provisions of the Wallace Act in regard to second class cities by changing the terms of select councilmen from two to four years and of common councilmen from one to two years.
above the level of the Blue river, whose original name, the Wyandotte, was transferred to the cave by Governor David Wallace; it having previously been styled the Mammoth Cave of Indiana, the Epsom Salts Cave, and the Indiana Saltpetre Cave.
LEWIS WALLACE [LEw] (1827-1905), American soldier and author, was born at Brookville, Indiana, on the 10th of April 1827, and received an academic education.
General Wallace served as president of the court of inquiry (November 1862) which investigated the conduct of General D.
Sir Richard Wallace >>
The castle where Wallace surprised the English garrison and threw their corpses into the dungeon, grimly styled "Wallace's Larder," was finally destroyed by Cromwell, who is said to have used part of its masonry for the construction of the fort at Ayr; but its ruins still exist.
Wallace, Farming Industries of Cape Colony (London, 1896); A.
John Whiteaker, Dem..1859-1862Addison Crandall Gibbs, Rep.1862-1866George Lemuel Woods, Rep.1866-1870La Fayette Grover, Dem.1870-1877Stephen Fowler Chadwick (acting)1877-1878William Wallace Thayer, Dem..1878-1882Zenas Ferry Moody, Rep..1882-1887Sylvester Pennoyer, Dem..1887-1895William Paine Lord, Rep..1895-1899Theodore Thurston Geer, Rep..1899-1903George Earle Chamberlain, Dem.1903-1909Frank W.
In Union Terrace Gardens stands a colossal statue in bronze of Sir William Wallace, by W.
From a photo in Professor Robert Wallace's Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (4th edition).
Wallace, Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (1907); J.
Bock treats him as an antitrinitarian, on grounds which Wallace rightly deems inconclusive.
(1776), ii.; Wallace, Antitrin.
Ray Noah Noble David Wallace Samuel Bigger James Whitcomb .
great importance was attached at first, had broken Wallace.
Its first leader was none of the great barons, but a Renfrewshire knight, Sir William Wallace; but ere long more important persons, including Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick (grandson of Robert Bruce of Annandale, one of the competitors for the crown of Scotland), and the bishop of Glasgow, were found to be in communication with the rebels.
Earl Warenne, the kings lieutenant in Scotland, mustered his forces to put down the rising On the 11th of September 1297 he attempted to force the passage of the Forth at Stirling Bridge, and was completel~ beaten by Wallace, who allowed half the English army to pass the river and then descended upon it and annihilated it, while Warenne looked on helplessly from the other bank.
zeal than the commons, owing to their jealousy of Wallace.
In July he invaded Scotland at the head of a formidable army of55,000 men, and on the 22nd of that month brought Wallace to action on the moors above Falkirk.
Wallace went to France to seek aid from King Philip, and his place was taken by John Comyn, lord of Badenoch, a nephew of Baliol, who was a more acceptable leader to the Scottish nobles than the vanquished knight of Falkirk.
Wallace, who had returned from France, kept up a guerilla warfare in the hills for a year more, but was captured in July 1305, and sent to London to be executed as a traitor.
The important buildings include: the high school; the trades hall, founded by Robert Spittal, James IV.'s tailor, in the Back Walk; the burgh buildings, with a statue of Sir William Wallace over the porch; the National Bank, occupying the site of the Dominican monastery, founded in 1223 by Alexander II.
high), on the top of which stands the Wallace monument (1869), a baronial tower, 220 ft.
west is a rock called Wallace's Chair, from the tradition that he held a council there prior to the battle of Biggar in 1297.
The defenders, Hugh de Bradfute and his son, were slain, and his daughter Marion - the betrothed, or, as some say, the wife of William Wallace - was conveyed to Lanark, where she was barbarously executed because she refused to reveal the whereabouts of her lover.
Wallace exacted swift vengeance.
Wallace's Antitrinitarian Biog.
Wallace, Natural Theology and Ethics (1898); F.
Alfred Russel Wallace pronounced against this hypothesis in an appendix to his Malay Archipelago (1883 ed., p. 602), where he observes that "the black, woolly-haired races of the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula ...
State of Maryland, 12 Wallace's Reports, 418).
Accordingly it was held that a grant of exclusive right or privilege of maintaining slaughter-houses for twenty-one years, imposing at the same time the duty of providing ample con veniences, was not unconstitutional, as it was only a police regulation for the health of the people (The Slaughter-House Cases, 16 Wallace, 36).
The State, 16 Wallace, 130), of a state law confining the rights of suffrage to males (Minor v.
Happersett, 21 Wallace, 162), and.
Iowa, 18 Wallace, 12 9).
Wallace, The Civil Government of South Carolina (Dallas, 1906); E.
Wallace, Constitutional History of South Carolina from 1725 to 1775 (Abbeville, S.
Wallace in his Geographical Distribution of Animals (vol.
Wallace, Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (1885, 4th ed., 1907); Sydney Galvayne, The Twentieth Century Book of the Horse (1905); C. Bruce Low, Breeding Racehorses by the Figure System (1895); J.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.